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A/E or E/A
acceptance test

active earth pressure




Adjacent Piles
admixture, addition


adsorbed water

Advance Splicer

Aeolian soil



Aft Batter

air entrainment

air hose

Air Port(s)

Air/Steam Hammer



allowable bearing value

Allowable Load



anchor head

Anchor Pile

anchor wall

anchorage, anchoring, anchor


anchored bulkhead
Angle Iron Guides

Angle of Internal Friction

angle of repose



apparent tendon free length

applied stress



Artesian Head

artesian pressure

Artesian Water

at rest pressure
Atomization, Impact

Atomization, Injection

Atterberg limits


auger boring

auger flights

Auger Refusal

Augercast, Augercast Pile

Augered Cast-in-Place (ACIP)

augered pile

Automated Monitoring







Basal Heave

base failure


battered pile
bearing capacity

bearing pile

bearing pressure

Bearing Pressure, Allowable

Bearing Pressure, Design

Bearing Surface

Bearing Wall


belled anchor

belled caisson

bending moment

Bevel Weld

blast, to



Bleeding Creosote


blow count
blow counter

Blow Out of Pile




boiling of sand

Bond Length

bond strength



bore, boring

bored pile

borehole diameter


borrow material
Bottom Brace

bottom heave


boulder clay

Bounce Chamber Pressure

Box Lead

Box Pile


Brace Pile

braced excavation


Bracket Pile

breaking stress
breast wall


Bruns Pile


building code, building-by-law

Building Settlement Point -

see Settlement Point
building site

bulb of stress

bulk filing



Bulls Liver


buoyant unit weight


Button-Bottom Pile

buttress, to



Caisson Hammer

Caisson Pile
Caisson Weights


Calling the Pile

Can Lead

Cant Hook


cantilever sheet piles

Cap and Plumb Post

Cap Block

Cap Material


Capacity Modification Factor

Capacity, Bearing or
Geotechnical Capacity

Capacity, Geotechnical
Capacity, Lateral

Capacity, Structural
Capacity, Tension



case history

Case Method

cased borehole


Casing Blows

Casing Twister

casing, casing pipe

cast in situ concrete

diaphragm wall

cast-in-place pile, cast-in-situ

Cat Head

Cathodic Protection

Caudill Drive Point Pile

cellular cofferdam

Cement Bentonite

cement grout



Champion Splicer
characteristic internal anchor

charges (explosives)

chemical grouting

chemical properties

Chicago Caisson
Chill Ring


chopping bit

Chuck Lead

Churn Drill

Circular-Type Cellular


Clamshell Bucket


Clay Cutter
Cleaning bucket


clients technical
Closed Specification

closely graded soil

coarse grained
Coarse-Grained Soil

Cobi Mandrel

coefficient of earth pressure

Coefficient of Restitution (e)



Cohesionless Soil

cohesionless, non-cohesive

Cold Joint



Combustion Delay

compact, to

Compacted Concrete Pile


compaction grouting

compaction pile
composite pile

Compound Batter Pile

Compound Inclination Pile

compressed air


Compression Leads

compression pile

Compression Stroke

compression wave

Computer Wave Equation

concentrated load

concrete (reinforced)

Concrete Batching

Concrete Cover

concrete pile

concrete placing

concreting pipe

cone penetrometer

Cone Penetrometer Test

confined compression test
Consecutive Panel

constant loading rate

constant rate of penetration


contact grouting

contact pressure

Contact Sheeting

Contiguous bored pile walls

Continuous flight auger pile

(CFA pile)

Contraction Joint

controlled blasting

Convertible Diesel Pile



cored pile

Corner Panel

cover (concrete)


Cradle, Hammer

creep limit

creosoted wood piles

Crew, Pile


crib wall

critical creep load

Cross Head

Crosshole Sonic Logging


Cruciform Barrette

crushed stone, crushed rock

Cuneiform Pile

curtain (watertight lateral)

Curtain Wall


Cushion Blocks

Cushion, Pile



Cut Off

Cut-Off Elevation
cut-off wall

cutting ring

Cutting Shoe


Cylinder Lift


Damping Factor


datum load


decay time

decomposed rock


deep foundation

Deep Soil Mixing



degree of compaction

degree of saturation


Density Index

density, unit weight

Depth of Fixity

depth of foundation

depth of penetration


Desanding Plant


Design Drawing

Design Engineering Firm

design load





Diaphragm Wall

Diaphragm-Type Cellular

Diesel Hammer

Diesel Hammer, Closed-End

Diesel Hammer, Open-End

Diesel I Program


differential settlement

Differential-Acting Hammer

dip (geol.)

Direct Circulation

Direct Circulation Drill


Displacement Amplitude (So)

displacement grouting

displacement pile

distributed load

disturbed sample


DJMM - Dry Jet Mixing


DMM -Deep Mixing Method or

DSMM -Deep Soil Mixing

Dock Builder

Dog-Leg Pile



Doodle or Dummy Hole

Double Sheets

double wall cofferdam

Double-Acting Diesel Hammer

Double-Acting Hammer


Down Hole Hammer





Drainage Chase





Drift Bolt

Drift Pit

drill hole
Drilled Pier

Drilled Pile
Drilled Shaft



Driller's Stroke

Drilling Bucket

drilling fliud/mud

drilling fluid

drilling mud

drilling rig

Drive Cap
Drive Cap Insert
drive shoe

drive tube

Drive-Fit Sleeve

driven pile

Driving Capacity(Fd)

Driving Criteria

Driving Formula
Driving Frequency (ƒd)

Driving Head
Driving Log

Driving Point
driving record

driving resistance

driving test

drop hammer

dry density, dry unit weight

Dry Sampling

dry weight

Dry-processed Method


Duplex Drilling

Dutch Block

Dutch Cone

Dutch Leaders

Dynamic Compaction

Dynamic Force

Dynamic Formula

dynamic load test

dynamic loading

Dynamic Mass (mdyn)

Dynamic method of analysis

Dynamic Pile Monitoring

Dynamic Pile Test

dynamic sounding, - driving

dynamic test

Earth Anchors

Earth Auger

earth pressure

eccentric loading

Eccentric Moment (Me)

effective pressure

Elastic Deformation

elastic strain

elasticity modulus


embed, to




End Bearing
End Closure
End Resistance

End Stop (Pipe)

End Stop Extractor

end-bearing pile

energy loss

Energy, Impact

Energy, Rated

Energy, Transferred

Engineering Geologist

engineering geology

Engineering News Formula

def. 1
Engineering News Formula
def. 2
Enlarged Base

enlarged base

entrapped air

Epoxy Grout


European Lead

excavated material

excess hydrostatic pressure

Exhaust Ports

Expanded Base
Expanded Pile

Expansive Soil

Explosive Force

Extension, Helical

external anchor resistance



factor of safety

Factored Bearing Capacity (of

a foundation unit)

Factored load

Factored resistance

Factored Soil-strength
failure load

Failure of a Pile Foundation

failure surface

False Pile

false set


fault, faulting

Faying Surface


Fender Cap

Fender Pile

Fender System

fill, filling



Filter Cake

Filter Press

Filtrate Loss

Final Blow Count

Final Set

finite element method

firm bottom

Fish Plates
Fish Tail Bit

Fish Tails

fissure grouting

fixed anchor length

fixed end moment

flexible foundation

flexural strength

Floating Pile Driver

floating pile foundation





flow net

Flowable Fill

Fluid Power

Fluidifier (and/or Grout


fly ash

Flying Hammer


Follow Block or Cap


Foot of a Pile

Foot-Pound Blow

Fore Batter

Foreman, Pile


Foundation (Lifting) Bracket

Foundation Pile
Foundation Unit

Foundation Unit, Deep

Franki Pile

free anchor length

Free-Hanging Hammer
French Drain


fresh water
friable rock

friction pile

Friction/End-Bearing Pile

Frost Line

Frost Action

frost heave

Frost-susceptible Soil

gauge, gage



geophysical exploration

Geotechnical Engineer


Gins or Gin Pole




glacial deposit

glacial outwash

Glacial Till


Go Devil

Go-For / Gopher

Gow Caisson

gpm or gph or gpd




grain shape

grain size


gravity grouting

gravity hammer


grillage footing



Groin, Groyne

Ground Freezing

ground level
Ground Modification

ground surface

Ground Vibration


Groundwater Table

Groundwater, Artesian

group action

grout curtain

Grout Factor

Grout Head
Grout Return

grout, to

Grouted Piles


grouting pressure

Grouting, Foundation

Guard Pile




Guy Derrick


Hairpin Lead


Hammer Cage

Hammer Cushion
Hammer Efficiency

Hammer Energy

Hammer Grab

Hammer Line

Hammer Speed

Hammer Uplift

Hand Spike
Hanging Leads


hauling equipment



H-Beam Lead


Head Block


heat of hydration

Helical Anchor

Helical Anchorage

helical auger

Helical Binders

Helical Foundation

Helical Foundation System

Helical Pile

Helical Pulldown™ Micropile

Helical Screw Anchor

Helical Shell



Helix Screw Pile


High Strain Dynamic Testing

Hiley Formula

Hoisting Engine

Hollow-Stem Auger

Home, Pile


horizontal earth pressure

Hospital Side


Hydraulic Collapse

Hydraulic Conductivity

hydraulic fill

hydraulic fracturing (hydraulic

fracture, claquage grouting)

Hydraulic Grab

Hydraulic Hammer

Hydromill Excavator

Hydrostatic Pore Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

ice and snow
Ice Segregation

Impact Atomization

Impact Block

Impact Blow

Impact Force

Impact Velocity




impervious blanket

Impulse Response Test

Impulse-Echo Test

Inclined Pile



Indicator Pile


inelastic deformation


Inflecture Point
Influence line

initial set
Injection Atomization


Inlet Port

Inlet Pressure

inorganic soil


Insitu Pile

in-situ strength

in-situ test

Inspector, Pile


Instrumented pile load test

intact rock
integrity test


interlocks of steel sheet piling

internal friction

Internal Hammer

Internal Waler


investigation test

Jack Test

jacked piles


jacking equipment


Jet Grouting

jetted pile




joint pattern


Kelly Bar



King Pile

King Post

Koden Drilling Monitor



Lagged Pile






Large Diameter Pile

lateral forces

Lateral Load
lateral pressure

Lateral Pressure (load),

lateral support

Lead Column

Lead Rails

Lead, Cardonic

Lead, Helical

Leading Edge


Leads, Extended

Leads, Fixed
Leads, Free-Hanging

Leads, Semifixed

Leads, Swinging

Leads, Three-Way
Leads, Underhung

Leads, Vertical-Travel


Lean Concrete

lever arm
Lifting Sling

lightweight aggregate

Lightweight Fill

lime, limestone


limit analysis

Line Oiler


Liner Wall



liquefaction failure

liquid limit
liquidity index
live load

load bearing element

load carrying capacity, -

bearing capacity
load factor

load gauge

load increment
load loss limit

Load Modification Factor

load test, loading test

Load, Allowable

Load, Applied
Load, Service


loading and unloading

loading frame

Loading Test

Load-movement curve

load-settlement curve


lock off load

Lock Seam






Low Displacement Pile

Low heat concrete

Low Mobility Grouting (LMG)

Low Strain Integrity Test




made ground

maintained load test



Man-made Obstruction

mantel, sleeve
Marine Borer

marine deposit
mark, bench mark

Marsh Funnel

mass concrete

Mast Lead
mat foundation/footing, raft


McDermid Plate

Mean Low Water


Michigan Tests

micro pile
micropile joint

Milan Method


Mixing Plant

mobile equipment

modulus of elasticity

modulus of subgrade reaction

moisture content
moment of inertia


Monkey Stick


Montee Caisson


Mooring Pile


Motive Fluid



Muck Bucket
Mud Balance

Mud Line
Mud Mat

Mud Wall

mud, muck



multibench blasting

Multi-Hhelix Anchor

multi-row blasting

multi-stage grouting
multistory building

N Value, SPT Value

natural water content,

moisture content


Needle Beam

Needle Gauge

Needle Piles

Negative Batter

Negative Inclination

negative pore water pressure

Negative shaft resistance

negative skin friction

Net Settlement

Neutral Plane

New Construction Bracket

Nominal Axial Load
nondestructive tests

non-displacement grouting

Non-Displacement Piles

normally consolidated

observation well

Offshore Lead


Omega Piles

One Bag Mix

open caisson
open cut

Orange Peel Bucket

Order Lengths

organic matter

Oriented Core

Oslo Point

Osterberg cell test

outcrop (geol.)

outwash plain

over excavation


Over-cast length


Overconsolidation Ratio

Overhead Leads




Pants, Hammer

Parallel Seismic Test

Parallelogram Brace

particle size

Particle Velocity

passive earth pressure


pea gravel

peak shear strength




Pedestal Pile


Pendulum Leads
penetration grouting
penetration record

penetration resistance

penetration test

Penetration, Gross

Penetration, Minimum

Penetration, Net


percentage by weight

perched water table


Percussion boring/drilling

Performance Factor


permanent anchor

permeation (impregnation)


phreatic line, - surface


pier footing


piezometric head

piezometric surface



pile (driving) frame

pile bearing capacity

Pile Bent

Pile Buck
Pile Bulkhead
Pile Butt
pile cap

Pile Clamps

Pile Cluster

Pile Cushion

Pile Cut-Off

Pile Driver

pile driving

Pile Driving Analyzer

Pile Driving Cap
pile driving formula

pile driving resistance

Pile Encasement

pile extraction

Pile Extractor

Pile Fall
Pile Formula

pile foundation
Pile Frame
Pile Gate

pile group
pile hammer

Pile Hammer, Automatic

Pile Hammer, Semi-Automatic

Pile Head
Pile Heave
Pile Impedance

Pile Installation Recorder

Pile Joint

Pile Line

pile loading test

Pile Log
Pile Master
Pile Monkey

Pile Penetration

Pile Point
Pile Refusal
Pile Rig
Pile Shaft
Pile Shoe

Pile Splicer

Pile Sweep
Pile Take Up
Pile Template

Pile Toe

Pile toe grouting

Pile Top Rig
Pile, Cast-In-Place Concrete

Pile, Timber

Pile-raft Foundation

Piling Contractor

Pin Pile

Pipe Extractor
Pipe Pile
Pipe Sleeve




piston sampler


PIT (Pile Integrity Tester)

pit run materials

Pitch Opening

Pitching the Pile

plane of weakness

plane strain

plastic concrete

plastic concrete wall

plastic deformation

plastic limit

plastic soil

plasticity index

plate bearing test, plate

loading test

Plumb Pile
pneumatic caisson

Pogo Stick
point bearing pile

point load

Point of Fixity
point resistance

Poisson's ratio

Polymer Slurry
polymer-based slurry

Pony Beam

Pony Leads
poorly graded, - sorted

Porcupine Plate

Pore Pressure

pore pressure dissipation

Pore Pressure Elevation,

Pore Pressure, Artesian

Pore Pressure, Hydrostatic

pore water pressure

Positive Batter
Post-tensioned Panel


power augers

Power Pack

Practical Refusal
Preaugering, Preboring or

precast concrete

precast concrete diaphragm


Precast Pile

Precast Segmental Pile

Precast Slurry Wall

preconsolidation pressure




preliminary investigation

preliminary micropile

preliminary pile


prepacked pile


pressure at rest

pressure bulb

pressure gauge

Pressure Grouting
Pressure Head

Pressure Injected Footing

Pressure Meter

Pressure -Treated Pile


Prestressed Pile


Pretensioned Spun Concrete



primary consolidation

Primary Drive Cap

Primary Panel
Probe pile
Production Pile
Production, Piles


proof load

protective coatings

Pruyn Point
psi, psf

Pull Out Resistance

pulling test

pumped concrete

pumping test


qualification test

quality control

quay wall
quick condition
quick lime
Quick Test


Racking Hammer

raft foundation

Rail Pile

Railroad Pile Driver


Raker Point
Raking Pile

Ram point


Range Pile

rapid drawdown

Rat Hole
rate indicator

rate of loading

Rated Speed
Raymond Step-Tapered Pile

Reaction Pile


Rebar Cage

rebound curve




Rectangular Cofferdam

rectangular footing

reference point


Regrout Tube

reinforced concrete pile

reinforced earth
reinforced slurry wall


relative density
relief well

repetitive loading

Residual Soil

residual stress


Resistance Factor

Resistance Modification
Resistance, Shaft

Resistance, Toe

Resistance, Ultimate

resisting moment

resonant frequency

Re-strike a Pile

retaining wall

retarding agent
Reverse Circulation

Reverse Circulation Drill

Reverse Head

Rider Cap
rigid foundation

rigid wall



rock anchor

rock bolts

Rock Point

Rock Quality Designation


Rock Shoe
Rock Socket


Rope Suspended Lead
Rotary Boring

Rotary Drill

Rotary Drill Rig

rotary drilling

rotary-percussive drilling

row of piles


safe load

safety factor

Safety Margin

Salt Hay


sampling disturbance

sampling spoon

sampling tube


Sand Brace
Sand Cone

Sand Content

Sand Drains

sand drains

sand pile
saturated soil


Scope of Work

scour, subsurface erosion



Screw Anchor
screw pile

sea level

sea wall


seasonal effect

Secant Pile
Secant Pile Wall

secondary compression

Secondary Panel

sedimentary rock


seepage flow


seismic design

Seismic Exploration

seismic velocity



self hardening slurry

self weight
Self-compacting concrete

Self-consolidating concrete

sensitive clay


sequence of strata


setting (materials)

settlement analysis

settlement curve

settlement measurement

settlement plate

Settlement Point

Settlement, Gross
Settlement, Net


shaft diameter

Shaft grouting

Shaft Resistance

Shaft Resistance, Negative

Shaft Resistance, Positive

shallow cut

shallow foundation

shear force
shear stress

shear test
shearing strength, shear

Sheave Head Assembly

Sheet Pile

sheet pile bulkhead

sheet pile cut-off

sheet pile wall


Shelling Up


Shoe Plates

Shook Out

Shop Drawing



Shoulder Pipe

Side Batter
Side Channels

side friction

Side Guides

sieve analysis

Sight-Feed Lubricator

Silent Sheet Pile



Single-Acting Diesel Hammer

Single-Acting Hammer


Site Conditions

site investigation

Skew Batter
Skid Rig
skin friction

Skin Friction, Negative

Skin Friction, Positive

Skirt, Hammer



Sleeve, Pipe, Inside

Sleeve, Pipe, Outside


Slide Pile

Slinging Hole
Slip Layer

slip surface


slope failure

Slope Indicator Tube

slope protection
Slow Test


Slump, Slump Test


Slurry Displacement Method

Slurry Specialist

Slurry Trench

slurry trench wall

slurry wall

Soak-sensitive Soil


Socketed Pier or Pile

soft soil


Soil Anchor
Soil Boring

Soil Boring Log

soil cement

soil characteristics

Soil Damping
Soil Damping Parameter

Soil Engineer
soil exploration

Soil Fill
Soil Investigation

soil mechanics

Soil Mixing

soil moisture

Soil Nail

Soil Nail Wall

Soil Nailing

soil particle

Soil Plug
soil profile
Soil Resistance to Driving

Soil Resistance to Vibratory

Driving (SRVD)
Soil Sampler

Soil Screw™

soil stabilization

Soldier Beam and Tremie

Concrete Panel
soldier beams

soldier beams and lagging

Soldier Pile

Solid Density
sonic coring

Sonic Driver

Sonic logging
sonic test



specific gravity

Spiral Weld Pipe


Spliced Pile

split spoon


Spoon Blows

spoon sample

spread footing/foundation

Spreader Bars

Spring Fender


Spud Clip

Spud Lead


Spun Pile

Spur Dike
Spur Pile
Stabbing Points, Leads

Stabilizing Fluid
stable suspension

stage construction

Staking Out


Standard Penetration Test



static load test

static loading test

Static pile load test

static pile test

Statnamic Testing


steam hammer

Steam Lead
Steel H-Pile

steel pile
Steel Pipe Pile
Step-Tapered Pile

Stiffeners, Web

stiff-fissured clay

Stone Columns

Stop End Joint



strain gauge, -- gage



stress concentration

stress distribution

Stress, Effective
Stressing Length

stress-stain curve


Striker Plate
String Line

strip foundation

structural damage





submerged unit weight


subsoil exploration


Sub-surface Setttlement Point

suitability test

Sump Pump


supporting fluid


Surcharge Force (Fo)

surface force

Surface Settlement Point

surface wave


Swage Pile

Swinging Leads
Swivel Leads
system test

Tangent Pile Wall

tank (container)
Taper Pile (steel)

TaperTube Piles

Taywood Sheet Pile Driver-

Telescope Lead


temporary anchor
Temporary Wall


tendon bond length

tendon free length


tensile force
tensile strength

tensile stress

Tension Capacity
tension crack

Tension Pile
tension pile
tension steel

Termination Criterion

terrace deposits

Test Borings
test load
Test Loading
test micropile

test pile
Test Pit

test procedure

testing machine

Texas Quick Load Pile Test


Theoretical Power (Pt)

thermal properties

Thin Wall Shell Pile

thin wall tube sampler


Throttle Valve


Tieback Trumpet



Tilt Meter

timber pile

time-settlement curve

tip of the pile

Toe Elevation
toe failure

Toe Grouting

Toe Resistance

Top Block
Top Head
Top Man
Top Plate
top soil
Top-down Method


Torque Correlation

Total Stress Analysis

TPT Pile
Training Wall


Transferred energy

transition zone

tremie concrete

Tremie Pipe
Tremie Plug

Trench Cutter


trial micropile

trial pile
Triangular Lead
triangular load distribution

triaxial apparatus

triaxial cell

triaxial compression test



Truss Leads

TTI Program

Tube Pile

two-way slab

U Lead

ultimate bearing resistance

Ultimate Bearing Value of Pile

Ultimate Bearing Value of Pile


Ultimate Limit States Design

ultimate load

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

Unbalanced Force (Fv)

Uncased Concrete Pile

unconfined compression

unconsolidated-undrained test
(quick test)

Under the Roof method





underreamed pile


Underwater Driving

undisturbed sample

undrained shear strength

uniaxial compression

unified soil classification

uniformity coefficient
uniformly graded soil

unit weight

Updown Method


Uplift Capacity

uplift piles
uplift pressure


vane apparatus

Vane Shear Test

varved clay
Vertical Earth Boring Machine

Vertical Travel Leads

vibrating extensometers

Vibrating wire strain gauge

Vibratory Driver/Extractors

Vibratory Hammer
vibratory pile driving

Vibro-driveability (Vp)


virgin compression curve

visual inspection


void ratio

volume change

Wakefield Pile


wall friction

Wall Thickness
Wash Boring

wash water

water content
Water Jet

Water Table

water table fluctuation

Water to Cementitious
Materials Ratio
water-cement ratio



Watertight Wall

Wave Equation

wave length

Wave Speed

Wave Trace

wave velocity

weak soil




weight loss
well casing

well point

well screen

wet-processed method



wharf structures

Wick Drain

Wide Flange


WMM -Wet Mixing Method or

WSMM -Wet Soil Mixing

wood pile
wood preservates


working level
Working Load
working micropile

working pile


yield point

yield stress

Young's modulus

zero point
zone of capillary saturation

zone of plastic flow of soil

zone of seepage

zone of swelling
Abbreviation for Architect/Engineer or vice versa.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.

American Concrete Institute.

See Augered, Cast-in-Place Pile

Structural steel fabrication or iron casting placed in a pile helmet to adjust to

a different type or size of pile. Also called filler or insert.

The adhesion of soil to a foundation unit resulting from the freezing of soil
water. Also referred to as "frost grip."

The nearest piles to a given pile or location

The International Association of Foundation Drilling - Formerly the

Association of Drilled Shaft Contractors
Water bound to soil particles because of the attraction between electrical
charges existing on soil particle surface and (dipole) water molecules.

Trade name for a tapered steel unit for connecting pipe piles by driven
Soil mainly composed of silt-sized particles of wind blown deposits. See
also Loess, which is aeolian soil.
ASEAN Federation of Engineering Organisations. Engineering Organization
consisted of ten national professional engineering organisation from ten
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries

1. A telescoping structural member used to attach the bottom of the leads to

the crane base and used to position or batter leads in or out, left or right.
Can be mechanically, hydraulically or pneumatically operated; it is used
with either fixed leads or semifixed leads. Also called Bottom Brace, A-
Frame, Spotter, Spreader Bar, Spider, Kicker, Stinger, Strut, Apron. 2. A
structural member used in bracing. See sketches in DFI Glossary of Terms
Appendix B.

Colloquial term for driving a pile at an angle from the vertical where the
bottom of the pile is inclined toward the crane. Same as Negative Batter.
See also Inclined Pile
American General Contractors Association
The ports on a diesel hammer which serve as both air intake and air
exhaust ports.
Impact pile driver powered by compressed air or steam; action of machine
may be single, double, differential or compound.
Device for lifting slurry, suspended solids and drill cuttings from the bottom
of a bentonite or polymer slurry-filled excavation for a trench, coffer dam
cell or drilled shaft. Usually, compressed air is introduced into the slurry at
the bottom of the excavation via a small pipe inside a larger pipe. The
upward airflow inside the larger pipe reduces slurry density. The higher
density of the surrounding slurry causes an upward flow inside the larger
pipe that tends to lift material from the bottom of the excavation.

Device use to control internal pressure of Pneumatic caissons.

The ports on a diesel hammer which serve as air intake and exhaust ports.

The maximum load permitted, considering structural strength, bearing

capacity, horizontal movement, code requirements, or measured settlement
in a load test.
A sedimentary soil deposit that has been transported by water.

Mechanical device used to transfer load (tension or compression) from a

superstructure to supporting soil/rock

1. Piles driven behind retaining walls, and beyond the area where soil may
slip, to which a retaining wall's tie-back rods or cables are attached . See
also Deadman. 2. Piles constructed near test pile to anchor jacking beam
(See also Reaction Pile).
A part fitted to the sides of a pile hammer which engage the rails of a set of
leads to hold the hammer in the leads. Also called Side Guides, Angle Iron
Guides, Grooves, Gibs, Jaws, Ways.
Value used in soil analysis approximately equal to the angle formed by a
naturally occurring pile of cohesionless soil.

An irregular response or unexpected signals detected by non-destructive

1. The part of a pile hammer seated directly under the ram which transmits
the blow of the ram to the pile or to the drive cap (also called Impact Block).
2. Steel plate on top of cushion material in drive cap which impact block
strikes. Also called Anvil Block, Penny, Striker Plate or Top Plate. See
Sketches in Appendix A.
American Petroleum Institute.

A telescoping structural member used to attach the bottom of the leads to

the crane base and used to position or incline leads in or out, left or right.
Can be mechanically, hydraulically or pneumatically operated; it is used
with either fixed leads or semifixed leads. Also called Bottom Brace, A-
Frame, Spotter, Spreader Bar, Spider, Kicker, Stinger, Strut, Apron. 2. A
structural member used in bracing.

A soil layer that carrries water.

The amount by which water pressure in an aquifer that causes water to rise
above the normal groundwater table or the ground surface.

Subsurface water with sufficient pressure (head) to raise the water in a well
or pipe above the normal groundwater table or ground surface.
American Society of Civil Engineers.
American Society of Foundation Engineers.
American Society for Testing and Materials.
A type of fuel atomization used in a diesel hammer in which the raw fuel
injected and trapped between the ram and the anvil is atomized by impact
of the ram on the impact block. The hammer normally will have a time
delay between impact and combustion.
A type of diesel fuel atomization used in a diesel hammer in which the fuel
is atomized by an injector. Combustion will normally occur prior to impact.

The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index for soil. The water content
where the soil behavior changes from the semi-liquid to the plastic state is
the liquid limit and from the plastic to the semi-solid state is the plastic limit.
Plasticity index is the numerical difference between liquid limit and plastic
limit and is the range of water content within which the soil behaves as a
plastic. For test method, see ASTM D4318.

1. A helically shaped corkscrew-like tool with a power driving head on top

and a cutting head on the bottom, designed to bore holes in the earth by
drilling, either with or without the supplementary use of water. 2. A hand
operated soil sampler.

Sections of a continous flight auger "quick-coupled" together to form a

continous auger. See Continous Flight Auger

The point at which auger advance ceases, or slows to a predetermined rate

due to the strength of the soil or rock being drilled.
A proprietary name for an augered, cast-in-place (ACIP) pile
ACIP piles are constructed by rotating a continuous-flight, hollow-stem
auger into the ground to the specified bearing depth, or until the refusal
criteria are reached. Fluid grout is then pumped, under pressure, through
the hollow stem and out of a port on the bit, as the auger is withdrawn in
such a way as to exert a positive grout pressure on the soil surrounding the
drilled hole. ACIP piles may be referred to by several other names, some of
which are proprietary or used by specific contractors. Some common
names are auger cast, Auger Pressure Grouted (APG), continuous flight
auger (CFA), Augerpile, augered grout injected, augered uncased, and
uncased cast-in-place.

Electronic device to automatically record augered, cast-in-place pile

installation data during drilling and grouting.
American Wood Preservers' Association - Primary standards writing body
for pressure treatment of wood, including pressure-treated timber piling.
American Wood Preservers Institute provides technical assistance and use
specifications. American Wood Preservers Bureau is concerned with
quality control of pressure treated wood.
American Welding Society.
Soil material placed into a space that has been excavated, such as against
structures and in pipe trenches, and in foundations.

Steel ring placed on inside of pipe to back-up a butt or bevel weld. Also
called Chill Ring.

Wrapping timber piles with high-tensile steel bands to prevent splitting while
driving. Also called Strapping.
Cast-in-place concrete foundation element that may be reinforced, which is
constructed in various plan configurations (I, H, L, X shapes) and intended
to primarily carry vertical loads. Also called load-bearing element.

See Bottom Heave

Colloquial term for a pile installed on an incline. See Inclined Pile

The maximum load a pile can sustain by soil/rock resistance at the bottom
of the pile. For shallow foundations, it is the capacity of the soil/rock to
carry load without excessive deformation.
A supporting pile for a structure that can be of wood, concrete or steel in
any number of shapes and whose bearing is reached by toe or end
bearing, friction, or friction and compaction, or a combination. See End
Bearing Pile

The maximum pressure that may be safely applied to a soil or rock by the
foundation unit considered in design under expected loading and
subsurface conditions.
The pressure applied to a soil or rock by a foundation unit; it is equal to or
smaller than the allowable bearing pressure.
The contact surface between a foundation unit and the soil or rock upon
which it bears.

A wall that supports vertical load, as floors or roof.

Solid rock as distinguished from boulders or layers.

Enlargement of the lower end of an augered or drilled pile, shaft or caisson

to increase its bearing area. Also called Under-ream.
An area enlarged around a soil anchor for added grout and resistance.

A large-diameter drilled shaft with an enlarged base. See also Caisson

Sodium montmorillonite, a mineral clay. A highly compressible colloidal clay

which, when introduced into certain soils, reduces their permeability. 1.
Introduced in pellet form and tamped into place to restrict water seepage.
2. Suspended in water to form a slurry, Bentonite Slurry, helps to prevent
earth from falling into an augered hole or excavated trench. 3. Provides
viscosity to suspend cuttings and helps seal walls of borings.

Sloping surface of soil providing lateral support to wall.

Butt weld where pieces to be joined have one or both edges beveled,
because material is too thick for electrode to penetrate for a required weld.

One form of segregation in concrete. A process that occurs in plastic-state

concrete after placing - Bleeding involves rising up of excess water in the
concrete mix to the top surface of the concrete. Excessive bleeding can
cause high permeability and hig
The creosote, as on a pile surface, that resembles fresh paint which has
been poured rather than brushed. On hot days creosote will "bleed" out of
the pile.

Device to form a recess or apperture in a poured concrete wall.

1. The observed blows of the pile hammer per increment of pile penetration.
2. Blows on soil sampler in standard penetration test. See also N Value,
and Penetration Resistance.
The person who monitors the number of the hammer blows for each
increment of pile advance.
A method of removal of the soil(s) from the interior of open-ended piles.
See also "Airlift"
Upward movement of soil material in the base of a cofferdam or excavation
because of groundwater pressure; normally associated with insufficient toe
penetration of sheeting. Also called Blowout, Boiling, Piping.

Soft, wet land underlain by decayed moss and vegetable matter and
covered with grass and vegetation.
See Blowing - Upward movement of soil material in the base of a cofferdam
or excavation because of groundwater pressure; normally associated with
insufficient toe penetration of sheeting. Also called Blowout, Blowing,

A post on a dock to take a ship's mooring lines.

Adhesion of concrete to reinforcing steel.

Length of a tieback, tiedown or a minipile that transmits the applied load to
the surrounding soil or rock.

An African hard wood utilized as a hammer cushion. Often used on

offshore hammers.
See Drive Cap

A deep foundation that is constructed by methods other than driving. Also

known as a pile, drilled shaft, caisson, or cast-in-drilled-hole (CIDH) pile.

1. A hole in the earth produced by various methods. 2. The method of

exploring subsurface conditions by drilling or otherwise advancing a cased
or uncased hole into the earth. Frequently, soil or rock samples are
extracted from the boring for classifica
Soil or rock material obtained from off site for use as fill on a construction
1. A telescoping structural member used to attach the bottom of the leads to
the crane base and used to position or incline leads in or out, left or right.
Can be mechanically, hydraulically or pneumatically operated; it is used
with either fixed leads o
Upward movement of soil in the base of a large excavation.

A rock with a diameter that is greater than 200 mm (International Standard)

or 300 mm (ASTM D422)

The pressure in the air compressed by the upward moving piston of a

closed-end double acting diesel pile hammer.
Lead which is configured in the shape of a "U" with guiding rails for hammer
in open portion of the "U." Also called Steam Lead, "U" Lead. See
sketches, Appendix B.
A pile made from two deep-arch sheet piles, channels or other structural
steel shapes, welded along their contact lines. The box pile may be driven
open or closed ended and filled with concrete or left empty.

Former designation for H-pile; now called HP.

1. A telescoping structural member used to attach the bottom of the leads to
the crane's rotating upper housing, and used to position or incline the leads
in or out, left or right. Can be mechanically, hydraulically or pneumatically
operated; it is used
An inclined pile connected to a structure in such a way as to resist lateral

A system of horizontal and/or inclined structural members fastened to the

piles of a bent, group or row to increase stability by resisting or distributing
lateral forces to the structure. Bracing is used extensively in trenches and
sheet-pile cofferdams
A vertical steel pile with a horizontal steel beam welded near the top of the
pile. These piles are typically used in underpinning applications.

A wall built against a bank of earth or rock to prevent it from falling. See
also Rip Rap - Large pieces of hard rock placed on a slope to minimize
wave wash and erosion.
The separation of fibers at the butt or tip of a wood pile caused generally by
excessive or improper driving, or timber of unsuitable quality. Can be
controlled through the use of a pile banding ring, driving cap with cushion
blocks and a metal shoe for
Trade name for a concrete pile precast with short pieces of pipe at ends for
adding lengths with a tapered drive splicer.
Guide and regulations for design and construction of buildings and their
See Settlement Point

A work constucted along a shore line of loose mounds or heaps of rubble,

or masonry walls supplemented with treated timber, steel of reinforced
concrete sheet piling driven int the beach and strengthened by wales and
guide and brace piles. Intended as a

An inorganic silt of slight plasticity; quakes like jelly when subjected to


Trade name for a precast concrete tip about 17 in. diameter driven with a 14
in. heavy wall pipe. For a cased pile a corrugated shell is lowered and
fastened to the base and the pipe withdrawn. For an uncased pile concrete
is forced out the bottom as th

Welding two adjoining corresponding surfaces by setting them in a common

place in exact position to each other while assuring that their common axis
is in a straight line. See also Bevel Butt Weld
1. Reinforcing bars preassembled for quick placing in a pile or excavated
slurry-wall trench. 2. See Hairpin Lead - A structure in which a pile hammer
is mounted to adapt it to box leads with rails spaced wider than the hammer
width.Offshore Leads - A pi
Compressed Air and Gas Institute
Originally a large structural chamber utilized to keep soil and water from
entering into a deep excavation or construction area. Caissons may be
prefabricated and installed by being sunk in place by adding weight and by
systematically excaving below the
A gravity hammer which is mounted on top of a caisson and which contains
a cushioning system and a rudimentary lead. Also called Tapette.

See Caisson
Steel ingots or concrete blocks used to help sink a caisson. Also used as
reaction weights for test loading - load-test weights. See also Kentledge

Indicating that a pile has reached specified penetration and/or blow count -
that the pile is "home."
See Offshore Lead - A pile hammer lead which has an upper section
wherein the hammer is contained and a lower section which closely fits
about and guides the pile. The hammer is supported and aligned by the
pile after engagement. The pile is usually sup
The opposite of its name - a wood handled tool with a hinged hook near the
bottom for turning piles or timbers. See also Peavy.

Used with deteriorated pile bents, usually timber; existing piles are cut off at
good material, a cap placed across them and support built up to the
Steel accessory placed over a pile to prevent damage from driving. It is
suspended beneath a hammer by cables; it contains a well or recess on top
for cushion material and for seating the anvil, if used. The bottom is formed
to accept a specific shape p
Blocks, stack or coils of material such as wood, plastic, compressed paper,
aluminum, rope, etc. which are placed in drive cap under a pile hammer to
receive and absorb a portion of the impact blow. See also Cap Material,
Cushion Blocks, and Dolly.
The maximum or ultimate soil resistance mobilized by a foundation unit.
See resistance, ultimate
A factor used to modify (reduce) the calculated, factored bearing-capacity of
a foundation unit.
The maximum or ultimate soil resistance mobilized by a loaded foundation
unit, e.g., a footing, or a pile. (The structural capacity of a foundation unit is
the ultimate resistance of the unit itself as based on the strength of the
building materials.)
See capacity, bearing
The maximum or ultimate resistance mobilized by a foundation unit
subjected to loading perpendicular to the axis of the shaft.
The maximum or ultimate strength of the foundation unit.
The maximum or ultimate soil resistance mobilized by a foundation unit
subjected to tension (upward) loading.
Obsolete term. See "Hammer cushion."
Movement of groundwater that occurs through very small voids or channels
in soil due to capillary tension.
Title of a computer wave equation program derived from "CAse Pile Wave
Analysis Program." The software utilizes a signal matching technique in
which the measurements from a Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) and theoretical
results generated by the software are

A method that calculates static soil resistance (static ultimate pile capacity)
from data recorded by a Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) and estimated soil
damping properties. See also "CAPWAP"

1. An open-end steel pipe installed by drilling, driving or vibrating to support

the sides of a hole. 2. A pipe temporarily dropped or driven into an
augered hole to prevent caving.
The blows, usually of a 300 pound hammer falling 18 in. onto a soil sampler
casing while making a soil boring.
A device used to slightly twist the casing back and forth around its
longitudinal axis as the casing is being drilled into the ground. A casing
twister is occasionally used in drilled pile applications.
An open-end steel pipe installed by drilling, driving or vibrating to support
the sides of a hole. 2. A pipe temporarily dropped or driven into an
augered hole to prevent caving.

A concrete pile poured (either with or without a metal casing) in its

permanent location in the ground. Also called Insitu Pile, or Caisson.
A rotating power driven spool or winch head. Used to lift a drop-hammer
weight (140 lb or more) to drive a casing or soil sampling tool and for soil
penetration tests. The weight is usually raised by wrapping a rope around
the continuously-rotating cat h
A wooden float with sides, for carrying wood piles to a floating driver.

A means of protecting steel piles from corrosion by providing a consumable

(sacrificial) anode or by applying an external electrical potential.

Trade name for a thin-wall shell pipe driven with a mandrel striking on the

Cubic centimeter. Metric unit of volume.

A structure of interlocking steel sheet piling to make a self-sustaining
cofferdam with separate inside and outside walls. See also Circular-Type
Cellular Cofferdam and Diaphragm-Type Cellular Cofferdam.

Low strength mixture of cement, bentonite and water, which hardens with
High strength mixture of cement and water, which hardens with time.

Devices designed to keep reinforcing steel centralized in a shaft as

concrete is placed. Typically fabricated from steel bars, precast concrete
blocks, or plastic mouldings.
In model pile testing a device to approximate gravity-induced horizontal
stresses to compensate for scale.
Cubic feet per minute.
Canadian Geotechnical Society.

A trade name for a structural connector for splicing H-piles.

A fluid chemical compound injected into soil or rock to improve its load-
carrying capacity or decrease its permeability.

Also called "hand dug caisson." See "Caisson"

Steel ring placed on inside of pipe to back-up a butt or bevel weld. Also
called a Back-Up-Ring
Heavy steel tool used to soften or fracture rock or obstructions

A member, usually of timber, used as a separator between piles or timbers.

A pile hammer lead which has an upper section wherein the hammer is
contained and a lower section which closely fits about and guides the pile.
The hammer is supported and aligned by the pile after engagement. See
also Off-shore Lead
A method of drilling through difficult overburden or rock employing heavy
percussion by a star-shaped cutting bit or chisel.

Construction Industry Manufacturers Association

A structure constructed of interlocking steel-sheet piling consisting of
circular cells joined with connecting arcs. The arcs are installed after the
cells are completed; the cells and arcs are filled with granular soils.. See
Diaphragm-Type Cofferdam
In the direct circulation method, drilling fluid is pumped down a hollow drill
pipe, around the drill bit, and back to the surface in the annular space
around the drill pipe and the cuttings are carried to the surface by the flow.
In the reverse circulat
Excavation bucket operated by cables or hydraulic rams.

A soil material with a cohesive strength that increases or decreases with

changes in moisture. The permiability of clay is very low. It is difficult to
compact when wet, and impossible to drain by ordinary means.

A percussion boring tool used in clay soils.

Also called clean-out bucket. A specially designed drilling bucket to clean
the base of wet-processed bored piles or drilled shafts
A piece of timber nailed to each corner of a timber sheeted pit to hold the
adjoining timber boards.

Specification which describes the end product and how it is to be achieved.

Usually used for permanent walls

Soil types that have particles large enough to be seen without visual
assistance. The coarse-grained materials include the sand and gravel (or
larger) soil particles.
A rock fragment of 3 to 12 inches in size, usually rounded by weathering
and abrasion.
A proprietary, segmented steel mandrel designed to be pneumatically
expanded inside of a thin, round, corrugated metal shell to hold it while

Nondimensional coefficient of cushion materials which accounts for the

energy absorbing characteristics of the material. The value of "e" lies
between 1 and 0.
A structure which is built to exclude earth and water from an area in order
that work may be performed there under reasonably dry conditions. A
cofferdam does not have to be entirely watertight to be successful. It may
be cheaper to permit some flow into
The bonding or attraction between particles of fine-grained soil that
enhances shear strength and is independent of effective pressure.
A soil, sand, that when unconfined has little or no strength when air-dried
and that has little or no cohesion when submerged.

Discontinuity in concrete caused by a disruption or delay in the placement

of the concrete.

A soil that has been formed by movement of soil from its original place by

The time between impact and combustion in an impact atomization diesel

pile hammer.

A cast-in-place pile formed with an enlarged base. Dry concrete in the base
is placed in small batches, which are compacted by heavy blows while
plastic. See Enlarged Base-1. A pile base reamed out or enlarged by
driving out successive charges of dry co
The process of increasing the density or unit weight of a soil by preloading,
rolling, tamping, vibrating, or other mechanical means.
Ground improvement method in which loose soils are densified by the
injection of low-slump grout at high pressure.
A pile made up of two or more types or sizes of piles joined together. The
connection between the components is designed to transmit load and to
prevent separation during and after construction. See also Spliced Pile - A
pile composed of two or more segm
Colloquial term for the preferred "Compound Inclination Pile".
Inclined pile driven at an angle in two directions from the main direction of
the piles. Also "Skew Inclination"

Pile hammer leads designed to withstand compressive forces from pile

extraction operation (i.e., as used in pulling sand drains or mandrels).

pile to resist compression forces

Distance traveled by diesel hammer ram compressing cylinder gas.

Measured from bottom of air intake port to point of impact.

A computer program used to solve the wave equation as applied to pile

driving and specifically to attempt to predict the optimum hammer size and
pile length to acquire a desired ultimate bearing value of a pile. See also
WEAP - Wave Equation Analysis of

Measuring the dry materials for a concrete mix (usually by weight) to control
the quality of the mix.
Distance from closest reinforcing bar face to the surface of the concrete

Panel cast with one end against a previously cast panel.

Densification of soil by mechanical means, involving expulsion of water.

A load test technique that involves applying a load to the pile in such a
manner that the pile top (head) experiences a constant rate of
displacement. The force and displacement are recorded at short intervals,
so that a force/displacement curve may be pl

A proprietary means of attaching horizontal timber lagging to the face of

steel soldier piles as excavation proceeds.

Walls formed by closely-spaced piles installed by augered, cast-in-place

method or bored cast-in-place method. Typically used as earth-retaining
walls. Also called tangent pile walls.
A pneumatic, electric or hydraulic drilling machine to which is connected a
string of helical augers and a cutting head, used to bore holes in the earth,
into which a pile section or a tieback is set or concrete is cast-in-place.

Joint provided in concrete members to control contraction as concrete sets.

A diesel hammer which can be operated either open-end (single-acting) or

closed-end (double-acting).

A pile formed by removing earth prior to pile installation.

Continuation of a soil boring into rock; a core may be recovered for
examination and testing. See also Dry Sampling - A method of sampling
soil by boring a hole in the ground with a sampler or sample spoon attached
to the end of the auger. The object i
Panel, not linear in plan, used to accomplish change in direction of wall.

Cycles per minute - A measure of frequency.

Cone Penetrometer Test; see publications by P.K. Robertson.
Piezocone; Cone Penetrometer Test with pore pressure measurements.

A structure which slides on the rails of pile driver leads and carries the
hammer forward of the lead rails.

A timber pile impregnated with coal tar creosote to minimize deterioration.

The on-site personnel who will physically install piling on a project, including
the crane crew, as applicable. Also call Dockbuilders, Bridgemen or Pile
A structure built of round or square timbers, or reinforced precast concrete
members, laid in courses with the pockets filled with riprap or rubble.

Top section of a fixed, semi-fixed or extended pile driver lead with sheaves
for carrying lines holding pile and hammer over top of leads. See Appendix
B. Also call Head Block, Sheave Head Assembly, or Top Head.

A down-hole quality assurance test in which the ultrasonic pulse velocity

(UPV) through the foundation material is measured at closely spaced
intervals over the full depth of the foundation to assess uniformity. Requires
access tubes or boreholes over the
1. The downward thrust of Kelly bar or auger caused by mechanical
reaction against the weight of the boring rig. It is used when boring
becomes difficult in hard soil formations. 2. Lateral thrust to hold a pile in
position when it tends to drift.
See Constant Rate of Penetration
A barrette having a shape of a cross (Illustration in appendix B). See also

See Crosshole Sonic Logging.

A tapered or step-tapered pile.

A non-load bearing wall constructed underground to impede the flow of

water as: 1. Under stream beds in arid regions to extend to the surface to
form a reservoir; 2. Under earth dams to prevent underscour; 4. Under
earth or concrete levees. May be made o
Cushion placed between drive cap and top of concrete pile to protect pile
from crushing and spalling. Also called Pile Cushion, Pad.
Blocks, stack or coils of material such as wood, plastic, compressed paper,
aluminum, rope, etc. which are placed in drive cap under a pile hammer to
receive and absorb a portion of the impact blow. Same as Cap Material,
The material placed on a pile head to cushion the impact of the driving

The excess portion of a pile above cut-off elevation.

The elevation of the top of the pile as shown on the contract drawing.
A structure constructed, underground, to impede the flow of water as: 1.
Under stream beds in arid regions to extend to the surface to form a
reservoir; 2. Under earth dams to prevent trickles from developing into
dangerous channels; 3. Under concrete dam

Additional metal placed as an inside or outside cast steel ring or welded

plate at the bottom of an open-end pile or caisson to strengthen the tip.

Centrifugal device used to remove fine soil particles suspended in bentonite

1. The point at which the cylinder of a double-acting air or diesel pile
hammer begins to lift or "float." 2. The point at which the force of fluid in the
hammer overcomes the weight of the hammer casing or cylinder.

A structure constructed to obstruct the flow or impound water.

A coefficient that is determined as the ratio of a force to velocity. In dynamic

testing of piles, the damping factors are the following types: (1) Smith
Damping factor (presented by E.A. Smith, 1960) is defined as the ratio of a
force to a velocity. (2)
Incision or notch cut in timber into which the head of a pile or other timber is

1. Piles driven behind retaining walls, and beyond the area where soil may
slip, to which a retaining wall's tie-back rods or cables are attached. 2: Piles
driven near test pile to anchor jacking beam (Also called Reaction Pile or
Anchor Pile).

Removal of a load in steps at completion of test loading.

A foundation unit that provides support for the structure by transferring

loads either by end-bearing to soil or rock at considerable depth below the
structure or by side friction in the soil or rock in which it is placed. Piles are
the most common type
Ground improvement method in which a cement based slurry is injected
and mixed with the weak soils to increase the strength of such soils
The weight or mass per unit of volume. In reference to soil, the term
usually indicates weight per unit volume and is synonymous with unit
The span between the loosest void ratio and the actual void ratio divided by
the span between the loosest and densest void ratios.

Distance from the ground surface to the depth at which a pile is held firmly
by the soil.

Device used to remove sand and silt particles suspended in bentonite slurry

Equipment used to filter and/or remove suspended solids from bentonite

slurry prior to its reuse.
Drying of soils.

Drawing prepared to show intent of the work. Drawing is not sufficiently

detailed to be used for construction.
The professional organization responsible for the design, plans and
specifications to fulfill the scope of work to be performed to successfully
complete the design of a project. The firm may also monitor and observe
the construction of the project. See
The load designed for a pile; also Service load. Must be smaller than the
allowable load.

Variation from the designated plan location or elevation.

1. The procedure utilized to remove water from a construction area such as

pumping from an excavation or location where water covers the planned
working surface. 2. The procedure used to lower the groundwater table in
order to obtain a "dry" area in the
Deep Foundations Institute
A watertight concrete cut-off wall or a combination concrete structural cut-off
wall tremie poured in an excavated and fluid (bentonite slurry) filled trench.
See also Slurry Structural Wall, and Cutoff Wall
A structure made of steel sheet piles with each of the inner and outer walls
consisting of a series of arc segments, which are connected at their
intersections with diaphragms that extend through the cofferdam to form a
series of cells. The cells are fil
A pile hammer, which carries its own diesel fuel to generate power
A diesel pile hammer in which the upward flight of the ram is arrested by
compressing air, above the ram to form an "air spring." Also called Double
Acting Diesel Hammer.
A diesel pile hammer in which the upward flight of the ram is arrested by
gravity. Also called Single-Acting Diesel Hammer.
Title of a proprietary computer program for solving wave equations for
diesel hammers.
Undesirable precombustion of the fuel in a diesel pile hammer (usually due
to overheating or improper fuel). Also called Prefiring, Preignition.

A fluid -powered hammer in which fluid lifts the ram on the up stroke and is
exhausted into and combined with additional fluid entering over the piston
to take advantage of differential piston areas to accelerate the ram and to
act in concert with gravity
An impervious barrier to control movement of water.

Angle of inclination a fault stratum makes with the horizontal plane. See
also Strike -The direction of a geologic boundary exposed at the ground
surface relative to North.
A counter-flow method of circulating drilling fluid and spoil in a drill hole. In
the direct circulation method drilling fluid is pumped down a hollow drill
pipe, around the drill bit, and back to the surface in the annular space. See
also Reverse Circul
Hollow stem chisel with provision for introducing bentonite slurry under
pressure at the head of the drill in order to remove drill cuttings.
Should actually be "Free-hanging (double) displacement amplitude". See
illustration #13.

A solid pile, or hollow pile, driven with the lower end closed, which displaces
an equivalent soil volume by compaction or by lateral or vertical
displacement of the soil, such as timber, closed-end pipe or precast
concrete piles. A Franki Pile.

A sample of soil taken without effectively minimizing disturbance of the soil


A Deep Soil Mixing Method (or DSMM) in which powdered reagent is

pneumatically delivered into the ground by using compressed air in order to
mix it with in situ soils forming thus a soil reagent column. The chemical
reaction of the soil and stabilising re
A soil modification technique in which the soil can be stabilised either by
forming columns of stabilised soils (soil stabilisation) or by stabilising the
entire soil volume (mass stabilisation) by means of a mixture in situ with
cementitious (cement, lim

The on-site personnel who will physically install piling on a project, including
the crane crew, as applicable. Also called Bridgemen, Pile Bucks, or Pile
A pile curved or bent during driving.

Block, stack or coils of material such as wood, plastic, compressed paper,

aluminum, rope, etc. which are placed in drive cap under a pile hammer to
receive and absorb a portion of the impact blow. Also called Cap Material,
Pile Cushion.
1. A cluster of piles driven and bound together at the top to protect bridge
piers and docks from heavy marine traffic. 2. A marine structure founded
on piles used to moor, anchor, breast or turn a vessel. 3. A large diameter
pile or casing to accompl
An empty closed-end tubular section, driven into the ground within
operating radius of a pile rig. Corrugated shell is lowered into the hole to
facilitate inserting a mandrel, thereby allowing the use of shorter leads or
longer lengths of shell. The she
Two sheet piles, interlocked and tack welded then handled together for
installation and pulling.
See Diesel Hammer.

A pile hammer in which fluid lifts the ram on the up stroke and additional
fluid, redirected by valving, acts in concert with gravity on the down stroke.

Reinforcing steel bar projecting from the top or face of the wall intended for
connection of additional reinforcement or concrete at a later time.

A percussion hammer that is lowered down a cased pile hole to break up

rock below the casing tip to form a rock socket.
The transfer of load (dragload) to a deep foundation unit by means of
negative skin friction, when soil settles in relation to the unit.

The load transferred to a deep foundation unit by negative skin friction,

occurring when the soil settles in relation to the foundation unit.
Space provided between wall and interior finish wall for collection of
seepage from a slurry wall or structural support.
The lowering of the level of the groundwater table that occurs as a work
area is dewatered for construction. Also lowering water behind a dam.

Excavating underwater, usually with floating equipment; it may be an

elevator ladder, hydraulic suction, grapple, grab or dipper bucket, scraper,
dragline, clam shell or backhoe.
A deposit of loose detrital materials, fragments of rocks, boulders, sand,
gravel, clay or other soils driven together by ice, wind or water. See also
Glacial Till - Materal deposited by glaciation, usuallly a wide range of
particle sizes, not subjected

1. A metal rod driven into a hole bored in timber, the hole having a smaller
diameter than the rod; usual purpose is to hold two or more timbers
together. 2. In steel erection a tapered "drift pin" is used to align holes at
A sheeted pit excavated laterally from within a main pit.
A larger diameter, up to 10 ft or more, opening excavated to bearing strata
and filled with concrete - either cased or uncased.
See Drilled Shaft
Concrete pile cast-in-place in an augered hole, which may be belled at the
bottom. Suitable where soil is dry and hole will stand open. Also called
Drilled Pier, Drilled Pile, Bored Pile.
An open-end pipe driven to rock, cleaned out and a socket drilled into rock
to receive a steel core (H,WF or bars) then socket and pipe are filled with
concrete. Core, concrete and pipe contribute to high load carrying capacity.

Height of fall of a drop hammer weight (140 lb or more) to drive a casing or

soil sampling tool. The weight is usually raised by wrapping a rope around
a powered continuously rotating spool or "cathead." The weight is raised
by holding the rope taut th

A closed rotary boring tool with its cutting edge at its base. Spoil is
removed from the bucket by swinging it to one side of the bore and
releasing the hinged bottom of the bucket.

Steel accessory placed over a pile to prevent damage from driving.

See illustrations #1, 2, & 3.
A cast or fabricated steel shoe which may be pointed and is fixed to the pile
shaft at the tip for easier driving, improved penetration, protection against
damage in dense material or boulders and improved bearing at the tip.
Also called Driving Point, P
steel tube used to displace the ground during the formation of a driven cast
in place pile. Drive tube is withdrawn

during concreting
A steel collar used for splicing pipe piles. The "drive-fit" simply means that
both pieces of pipe fit inside the collar and after the first blow of the
hammer, the fit is tight due to the taper of the inside of the collar. Does not
normally require wel
pile which is forced into the soil by driving, the soil being displaced by the
pile or drive tube
method to bring the piles into the ground to the required depth, such as
hammering, vibrating, pressing, screwing
or by a combination of these or other methods
The theoretical driving force delivered to the pile. Also known as "rated
driving force". See illustration #10
1. Requirement for resistance of a pile to penetration, stated in blows per
increment of depth. 2. Required tip elevation of pile. See also Refusal-The
condition reached when a pile or soil sampler being driven by a hammer
has negligible penetration pe
See Dynamic Formula.
Driving frequency is usually given in (Hz), is the number of revolutions per
second of the eccentric masses (within the vibratory Driver).See illustration
See Drive Cap
Field Record of each driven pile including location number, hammer model,
pile type, blow count per unit of penetration, final resistance, driven length,
etc. Also called Log or Pile Log.
See Drive Shoe.

A weight configured to slide in pile hammer leads or within a hollow pile

which has a formed bale or swivel at its top by which it can be mechanically
lifted and dropped to drive pile. Also called a Gravity Hammer.

A method of sampling soil by augering a hole in the ground with a sampler

or sample spoon attached to the end of the auger. The object is to obtain a
complete undisturbed sample of the natural soil for analysis. Also call Core

A mixture of sand and cement with just enough water to form a ball with
compressed by hand. This mixture is generally rammed between
foundations and underpinning to form full bearing contact.
Excavation or drilling method for bored piles or drilled shaft construction.
Borehole is drilled under dry conditions without introducing slurry.
Applicable in soil and/or rock where the shaft is to be formed above the
groundwater level, or impervious mat

Method of advancing a borehole whereby the drill rods and casing are
inserted simultaneously by rotary or rotary-percussive technics. The drill
cuttings / slurry return through the annulus between the rods and casing in
order to minimize loss of ground.

Y-type rigging system, to operate diesel hammer with a single hosting cable
of the crane, which supports both the lead and hammer.
A device for measuring resistance to penetration of a point, calibrated to
indicate approximate load-bearing strength of a pile. Often called Dutch
Cone Penetrometer or CPT
Pile hammer leads composed of two holes or pipes which are loosely
coupled at the boom point and the base and the hammer is guided between
the pipes.

Ground improvement method in which loose granular soils are densified at

depth by the dropping of a heavy weight at ground surface in a planned grid
Force applied to a pile by a rotating eccentric weight vibratory pile
A mathematical equation which calculates the static load carrying capacity
of a pile from the energy per blow of the pile hammer and the observed set
of the pile. It includes terms for pile weight to ram-weight ratio, pile rebound,
and cushion properties.

The mass that moves/vibrates during pile installation, i.e. weight of excitor
block, hydraulic clamp and pile. Usually given in (kg). See illustration #11.

The determination of the capacity, impact force, transferred energy, etc. of a

driven pile, using analysis of measured stress waves induced by the driving
of the pile.
The recording of strain and acceleration induced in a pile during driving and
presentation of the data in terms of stress and transferred energy in the
pile, as well as of estimates of capacity, impact force, hammer rise etc.
See Dynamic Pile Monitoring

Rods or cables installed into the adjacent soil mass or rock. Portion beyond
zone of active pressure is pressure grouted to hold a soldier pile or similar
walled excavation. The anchors may be installed horizontally or at a slope.
See Appendix C.
1. A helically shaped corkscrew-like tool with a power driving head on top
and cutting head on the bottom designed to bore holes in the earth by
drilling, either with or without the supplementary use of water. 2. A hand
operated soil sampler.
Normally used in reference to the lateral pressure or force imposed by a soil
mass against an earth-supporting structure such as a retaining wall or
basement wall, or on a fictitious vertical plane located within a soil mass.
The coefficient of earth pre
Load that does not bear axially on the pile, usually due either to the pile
being driven out of plumb or plan location or the actual imposed load
Also called "unbalanced moment" and even "static moment". See
Illustration #7

Engineering Institute of Canada

Engineering Institute of Thailand
Alteration in length of a pile, or structural member due to load (reduction for
compression piles, elongation for tension piles). An important factor in
evaluating apparent pile movements under test load. Also called Elastic
shortening, Elongation.

The vertical location of a point relative to a fixed reference (i.e., sea level
plus or minus x).
1. The length of the pile from the surface of the ground or from the cutoff
below the ground to the tip of the pile. 2. Extent of penetration of the top
into the pile cap.

Protective cover for steel or timber pile. This usually is concrete, added at
the water or ground line, where all types of piles are most vulnerable to
corrosion and insect attack. Also called Pile Encasement.

Support provided by the lower end or toe of a deep foundation.

A plate or point attached to the toe of a pipe or shell pile.
The static soil resistance at the pile end to loading. Also called Toe
Round pipe or shaped device placed at the ends of a panel excavation prior
to placement of concrete and withdrawn from the excavation after the
concrete has set, providing smooth surfaces at the ends of the panel.

Device to withdraw end stop after the concrete has achieved initial set.

A pile that supports the major portion of the load placed upon it by end or
toe bearing on a firm stratum existing at some depth below the ground

The kinetic energy delivered by a hammer ram to the anvil of a pile driving
The nominal energy calculated as the maximum height (stroke) of the
hammer ram times the weight of the ram.
The energy transferred from the hammer to the pile through the helmet and
cushions and measured in dynamic monitoring.

A geologist, who may also have engineering training, specializing in the

application of geology to engineering problems.

One of many dynamic formulae for estimating the static load bearing
capacity of a driven pile.
R = 2E / + 0.1 [Where: E = Energy in ft-lbs; S = Set in inches/blow; R =
Allowable pile capacity in pounds with a presumed factor of safety of 6]
1. A pile base reamed out or enlarged by driving out successive charges of
dry concrete or gravel from the base of an open-ended driving tube to form
a bulb. This has the effect of increasing the bearing area of the pile and
compacting the soil. 2. Pre

A two (or more) part resin that, when mixed, produces a high-strength
bonding material.

A term applied to a lead in which the hammer is mounted in front of the

lead. Also called Mast Lead, Monkey Stick, Truss Lead, Triangular Lead.
See Appendix B

A space created by the removal of soil or rock for the purpose of


1. The outlet fluid path of all powered hammers. 2. The combined air inlet
and exhaust ports of a diesel pile hammer.
See Enlarged Base.
A pile with a mechanical device for expanding the bottom to increase
bearing capacity or resistance to uplift.
This type of soil undergoes volume changes upon wetting and drying,
capable of causing damage to buildings and pavements. Expansive soils
mostly occur in arid and semiarid areas. Found in large areas of Southwest
and Western United States.

The force exerted on a pile by the explosion of the diesel fuel, which is
equal to the gas pressure created by the explosion times the area of the
cylinder bore.
Helical anchorage/foundation component installed immediately following
the helical lead section. Extensions consist of a steel shaft of finite length
without helix plates. It is installed following the installation of the helical
lead section or extensi
Geotechnical Instrument used to measure displacement and strains in soil,
rock, and cast-in-place bored piles.
Pulling to withdraw previously installed pile from the ground. Usually done
with an impact pile extractor or a vibratory pile driver/extractor.
A device for pulling piles out of the ground. It may be an inverted steam or
air hammer with yoke so equipped as to transmit upward blows to the pile
body or a specially built extractor utilizing this principle. Vibratory hammers
are especially effectiv
The ratio of maximum available resistance or of the capacity to the
allowable stress or load.
The capacity of a foundation unit, as determined by geotechnical formula
using factored soil strength parameters, or, when the capacity is determined
in a field-test loading or calculated from penetrometer data, the failure load
multiplied by a performanc
The load applied to a foundation unit, multiplied by an appropriate load
factor (Typically greater than unity, or as specified in the relevant code).

Resistance to loading, multiplied by an appropriate resistance factor

(Typically less than Unity, or as specified in the appropriate local code.)

Shear strength parameter modified (reduced) by resistance factors for

cohesion and friction, as used in ultimate limit states design.

1. Movement of the pile foundation or any part thereof, either as vertical

settlement or laterally, to such an extent that objectionable damage results
to the structure supported by the foundation. 2. Failure of a pile or piles to
pass a load test.

1. Temporary piles used to support falsework in construction of cast-in-

place concrete bridges or for supporting superstructure units until they are
bolted, riveted or welded in place or otherwise self-supporting in the
permanent structure. 2. Piles us

A system of temporary piles, temporary walers and bracing, or a

prefabricated structure to temporarily support elements of a permanent
structure during construction.
1. A long bundle of sticks of wood bound together and used for such
purposes as filling ditches and making parapets. 2. Woven willow mattress
used along river banks and during river pier construction to minimize scour.

A planar fracture in the otherwise continuous rock of the earth's crust.

The face of a metal plate, end of timber, etc., that joins another surface so
closely as to leave no space between them
A protective system built to prevent marine traffic from damaging bridge
piers and docks.
A horizontal member resting on and framed to the top or side of fender
Treated wooden pile and timbers used in a fender system. Note that
untreated piles are often used for ferry slips. Also call Guard Pile
Piles and/or timbers used as guides adjacent to a bridge opening or dock
and along the face of a wharf seawall or other waterfront structures to
absorb shock from vessel impact, and so minimize damage to both
structure and vessel.
Fellow of the Geological Society of London
Federal Highway Administration.
1. Soil or other material placed in an excavation or other area to raise the
surface elevation or to provide a more stable base. Fill materials are
usually selected for low compressibility and good stability, and may include
rock, rubble, slag or other d
Structural fabrication or casting placed in a driving helmet to adjust to a
different type or size of pile. Also called Adaptor or Insert.

A coating of natural soil or bentonite suspension which lines the walls of an

excavation, particularly in permeable ground, where bentonite or soil slurry
has been used as a stabilizing medium during its construction.

Device used to measure the filtration and filter cake development of

bentonite slurry.
Water loss from bentonite slurry applied under pressure against a filter.

The number of blows per inch, foot or other unit length of measure at which
the driving of the pile or soil sampling device was stopped.
The net penetration a pile moves under one blow or a specified series of
blows at the end of driving. (Reciprocal of final blow count)
Refers to silt and clay-sized particles which exist in a soil mixture. See also
Coarse-Grained Soils.
Steel plates or timbers bolted across a joint to make a splice.
1. A device shaped like a fish tail to better utilize jetting water. 2. A reaming
bit used on the end of a flight auger.
Slotted plates fastened to the sides of a pile hammer to engage the heads
of template supported sheet pile, to keep the hammer centered upon and in
vertical alignment with the pile to permit the hammer's operation free-
hanging. See also Hairpin - A gravi

A Barge-mounted pile driver.

Condition where dispersed clay particles form agglomerates or clumps

A graphical method used to study the hypothetical flow of water through a

soil. It is utilized to indicate the paths of travel followed by moving water
and the hydraulic pressures resulting from such water flow.

Cementitious low strength, self-leveling, low viscosity material used to

backfill in areas where it would otherwise be difficult to place and compact
normal soil backfill. Compressive strength of material is generally lower
than 300 psi to allow for futur
The path of travel traced by moving water as it flows through a soil mass.

Steam, air, combustion gases or hydraulic oil used to move the ram of a
hammer to drive a pile. Also called Motive Flluid.
An admixture used in augered, cast-in-place pile grout that promotes
flowability, reduces water requirements, reduces bleeding and segregation,
can increase strength and provides expansion in the plastic state. Is usually
specified by quoting ASTM C 937
A hard, fine, pozzolanic residue from coal combustion often used as an
admixture in concrete.
1. A pile hammer held by a crane line, without leads and used to drive a
supported pile. Also called free-hanging hammer, swinging hammer or wild
hammer. 2. Vibratory hammers operate in this manner. See Sketches,
Appendix B.

Steel accessory placed over a pile to prevent damage from driving. It

contains a well or recess on top for cushion material and for seating the
anvil, if used. The bottom is formed to accept a specific shape pile, along
with its cushion if used. The out
A member interposed between a pile hammer and a pile to transmit blows
when the pile head is below the reach of the hammer. Also called a Dolly.

The lower end of a driven pile, pile tip.

See Footing
Type of foundation typically installed at a shallow depth and constructed to
provide an area of bearing on the supporting soil or rock.

The energy in foot-pounds delivered per blow by the ram of a pile hammer.

Colloquial term for inclination of the pile toe away from the pile driver. Also
called Positive Batter or Forward Batter.
The supervisor of a pile crew.

A system or arrangement of structual members through which the loads

from a building are transferred to supporting soil or rock
A weldment bracket typically used as part of a Helical Foundation System to
stabilize, and sometimes elevate, a structure that has experienced
foundation settlement. The bracket is used to connect the foundation of a
structure to an installed Helix Screw
A relatively long, slender colulmn installed in the ground to generate
support from friction along its periphery and/or end bearing on firm material.
One of the structural members of the foundation of a building such as a
footing, raft, or pile.
A unit that provides support for a structure by transferring load or stress to
the soil at depth considerably larger than the width of the unit. A pile is the
most common type of deep foundation.

A proprietary name for a pile constructed with an expanded base of

compacted concrete.

See Flying Hammer

See set-up.
Stones placed in a trench to form a space for surplus water while it
percolates into the soil.

The number of vibrations or oscillations occurring in one second,

designated Hertz (Hz).

A pile which derives most or all of its resistance to load by the friction
developed between the side surface of the pile and the soils through which
it is driven.
A pile that achieves support from the combination of side friction and toe
(end) bearing.

The depth below the surface to which moisture filled soils may freeze.
Foundations must be carried to below the frost line to minimize danger of
frost heave. Also called Frost Penetration.
The phenomenon occurring when water in soil is subjected to freezing and
thawing. Freezing, because of the water-ice phase change or ice lens
growth, results in a total volume increase and /or the build-up of expansive
forces under confined conditions, an
Frost heave refers to the vertical soil movement which occurs in freezing
temperatures as ice layers or lenses form within the freezing soil and
caused the soil mass to expand. See also Frost Action, and Heave.

Soil in which significant ice-segregation will occur, resulting in frost heave or

heaving pressures, when requisite moisture and freezing conditions exist.
General Contractor
A device at the base of the pile hammer leads which is closed around the
pile to maintain alignment between the pile and leads. See also Pile Gate.

Semi-rigid colloidal suspension of a solid in a liquid.

The generic name for a geosynthetic product from a polymeric (plastic)
material extruded into long, connected, open-ended tubes in a honeycomb
The generic name for a geosynthetic product consisting of numerous,
closed cells created in an expansion or foaming process using a gas called
a blowing agent. Geofoam materials may be polymeric (plastic),
cementitious or glass in composition.

An engineer with specialized training and knowledge of soils and rocks,

employed to do soil investigations, design of structure foundations and
provide field observation.

Geo Institute branch of American Society of Civil Engineers.

1. The guides that attach a diesel hammer and its tripping device to a spud
lead. 2. Parts attached to the sides of a pile hammer which engage the rails
of a set of leads to hold the hammer in the leads. Also called Channel
Guides, Side Guides, Angle Iro
Sometimes applied to a separate mast or boom used to hoist piles or other
heavy objects.
Geotechnical Interpretation Report. A report presenting geotechnical
information and interpretation to derive design parameters based on sub-
surface investigation data. A GIR is typically prepared for very large
infrastructure projects.

A stiffening member passing around the outside of a structure, or part of a

structure, for the purpose of strengthening or protecting it.

Material deposited by glaciation, usually a wide range of particle sizes, not

subjected to the sorting action of flowing water.
A short piece of timber placed between bracing and a pile as a filler.
A two-segment mandrel actuated by a hydraulic cylinder pulling on cables
which pass over sheaves in a manner to force the two segments apart to
hold a corrugated shell for driving.
Plug-like device placed in a tremie pipe prior to placement of concrete in
the pipe. Device is intended to prevent concrete from mixing with bentonite
slurry or water during initial placement of concrete. Typically formed of foam
rubber or polystyrene
The low man or woman on the construction crew who goes for parts,
supplies, or tools, as instructed.
A short cylinder of steel plate large enough for a man to work inside; as
excavation proceeds, smaller cylinders are set inside until bearing stratum
is reached. The telescoped cylinders are withdrawn as concrete is placed.

Gallons per minute, hour or day. A unit of measurement of the flow of

Ground Penetrating Radar.
See Clamshell bucket.

1. The elevation of the natural gound level of any point on the project site.
2. The cut-off elevation of the pile. 3. The average level of finished ground
adjoining a building at all exterior walls

Small stones or fragments of stone generally smaller than 3 in. and larger
than 1/4 in. size.

A weight configured to slide in pile hammer leads or within a hollow pile,

which has a formed bale or swivel at its top by which it can be mechanically
lifted and dropped to drive the pile. Also called Drop Hammer.

A very hard, naturally durable wood sometimes used for piling; native to the
Amazon area. Less durable than pressure treated wood, especially in
resisting marine borers.
See Pile Template
A framework of structural horizontal members crossed in layers and placed
on the tops of piles or pile caps to support a structural load.
Angular, rough, hard particles of sand, gravel or crushed stone in a loose
1. A structure built out from, perpendicular to or making an angle with the
shoreline. Generally built of pressure treated close timber piling, sheet
piling driven between guide wales and piles, or horizontal courses of plank
held between vertical timber
A method of freezing the ground in order to provide temporary excavation
support and prevent groundwater from entering into the excavation. Pore
water in the soil is frozen by cooling the ground by circulating a refrigerant
(usually calcium chloride brin

Variety of methods of improving weak soils. See dynamic compaction,

chemical grouting, jet grouting, compaction grouting, deep soil mixing,

Seismic waves created by transmission of energy through the into the

earth. The resulting ground motion is characterized by four main
parameters; displacement, velocity, acceleration, and frequency.
Water present in saturated soils.

The upper surface of the zone of saturation in the ground.

A confined body of water under a pressure which gives a level of

hydrostatic pore pressure (phreatic elevation) higher than the ground
surface or the normal groundwater table.

A mixture of cement and water or chemicals: for filling voids it is made very
thin for pumping under pressure. Rock flour, clay, or sand may be added to
cement grout for economy. Cement Grout can be used to improve the tips
of piles, and as an adhesive

The ratio of the actual volume of grout placed in an ACIP pile, to the
theoretical volume of the shaft. Usually expressed as a percentage. See
also Overtake.
The pumping pressure maintained when placing grout in an ACIP pile.
The moment at which grout is observed on the auger flights at the ground
surface as the auger is being withdrawn during the placement of grout in an
ACIP pile.

1. Shafts constructed by pumping grout through a hollow-stem auger. Also

called Augered cast-in-place (ACIP) Auger Pressure Grouted (APG) or
Auger pressure grouted displacement (APGD) piles. 2. Drilled shafts that
have had grout pumped in at high-pressure

Grout is pressure-injected into deposits of rock containing fissures, cavities,

seams, etc; to solidify and strengthen the formation; to reduce or eliminate
a flow of water through the formation; to reduce the hydrostatic uplift under
a structure such as
See Fender Pile
That part of the pile hammer leads forming a pathway for the hammer, and
consisting of parallel members, which mate with side channels of a pile
hammer. Also called Lead Rails, Hammer Guides.
Shallow concrete walls placed on either side of the alignment of a slurry
wall to provide vertical and horizontal alignment control for the excavation
and subsequent support of the reinforcing steel cage and/or other elements
to be placed in the trench.
A dark-colored, very sticky, highly plastic clay, occurring abundantly in the
central and southern parts of the U.S.A.
A line that steadies a high piece or structure by pulling against an off-center
A standard steel-erecting derrick, with guyed mast and a hinged boom at its
base, both able to swivel on the base.
A gravity hammer in the shape of an inverted "U" used without leads to
start sheet piles into the ground. Sometimes called pants.
A structure in which a pile hammer is mounted to adapt it to box leads with
rails spaced wider than the hammer width. Also called Pony Leads.

A pile hammer lead which has an upper section wherein the hammer is
contained and a lower section which closely fits about and guides the pile.
The hammer is supported and aligned by the pile after engagement. The
pile is usually supported by a template
Cushion placed between drive cap and top of concrete pile to protect pile
from crushing and spalling. Also called Pile Cushion, Pad.
The ratio of kinetic energy of the ram immediately prior to impact divided by
the rated energy.
The kinetic energy delivered by a pile hammer to the Drive Cap. See
Energy, Impact, and Energy, Rated.
A heavy tool used in breaking and removing obstructions in large diameter
caissons or other excavations.
The crane main hoist drum wire rope line assigned to raising and lowering
and holding the hammer.
The number of complete strokes of a pile hammer achieved by the ram per
1. The point at which the cylinder of a double-acting air or diesel pile
hammer begins to lift or "float." 2. The point at which the force of fluid in the
hammer overcomes the weight of the hammer casing or cylinder. See also
Cylinder Lift
A short slender pole used to position and hold a pile in the leads.
Pile hammer leads topped with a bail and hung from one load line of a
crane. Also called Swinging Leads, Pendulum Leads.
Proprietary cast-steel driving tip with cutting "teeth" for H-piles.
1. Most commonly a very dense heterogeneous mass of clay, sand and
gravel of glacial drift origin. 2. The hard stratum of consolidated earth
underlying surface soil, too hard for roots to penetrate.

A rolled-steel section with web and flanges nearly the same thickness. The
width and depth are approximately equal. See also Steel H-Pile
A steel wide-flange or H-beam used in place of leads. The hammer
engages and slides upon one flange of the beam through the use of spud
clips bolted to the hammer. Also called Monkey Stick, Spud lead.

1. Shortened form of the phrase "pressure head", referring to the pressure

resulting from a column of water or elevated supply of water. 2. The top of
a pile.
Top section of a fixed, semi-fixed or extended pile driver lead with sheaves
for carrying both crane hosting drums lines, holding pile and hammer, over
the top of leads.

1. The uplifting of earth between or near piles, caused by the displacement

of soil by pile driving. 2. The uplift of a previously driven pile caused by
the driving of an adjacent pile. 3. The upward movement of soil and/or
foundations supported on s
An anchor consisting of a bar and one or several helix rings. The anchor is
augered into the ground and capacity is derived by the helix bearing against
the soil.
Helical tieback, helical anchor or screw anchor screwed into bearing strata,
and used to transfer tensile loads to soil. Helical anchorage consists of
small diameter steel shaft, single or multiple helix bearing plates, coatings,
corrosion protection, co

Mild steel bars spirally arranged about the main reinforcement steel to bind
the latter to form a cage.
Also known as Helical screw foundation, screw pile, or helical pier, screwed
to or into bearing strata and used to transfer compression loads to soil. A
helical foundation consists of a small diameter steel shaft, single or multiple
helix bearing plates,
A deep foundation system consisting of a Helix Screw Pile and a bracket for
transferring loads from a structure to the pile.
Low capacity metal (galvanized steel) pile consisting of a center-pole and
successive helices.
Cased or un-cased, small diameter, soil displacement, cast-in-place screw
pile in which gravity-fed grout forms a shaft around the central steel element
above the helix plate(s).
A high-strength steel shaft with one or more helix-shaped circular steel
plates welded to a central steel hub “lead section”. Helix anchors are
installed by screwing the helix plates into the soil through the application of
a rotating force on the centra
Corrugated (usually 12 to 18 gauge) steel rolled into a spiral pipe with the
joint crimped or welded watertight. The shell is installed as a pile with a
Title of computer program developed by Hubbell Power Systems, Inc./A.B.
Chance which calculates the bearing and uplift capacity of helical
anchorages/foundations in soil.
Generally round steel plate formed into a ramped spiral. The helical shape
provides the means to install a helical anchorage, or a helical foundation,
plus the plate transfers load to soil in end-bearing. Helix plates are
available in various grades, di
(See Screw Pile)
Steel accessory placed over a pile to prevent damage from driving. Also
called Anvil Block, Bonnet, Cap, Driving Head, Helmet, Follow Cap, Rider
Cap, Shield. See sketches, Appendix A.
A dynamic testing method for deep foundations using a drop-mass to
impact the top of the shaft. The strain at impact must be at least the same
order, or greater than the ultimate capacity of the pile. In brief, the soil
resistance must be wholly mobilized
A dynamic pile driving formula for estimating the static load bearing capacity
of a pile driven from its penetration resistance. It includes terms for pile
weight to ram-weight ratio, pile rebound, and cushion properties.

A prime mover and a hoist with one or more hoisting wire rope (cable)
drums, mounted on a common sled base.
An earth auger with an end bit on a hollow center shaft. See also Auger.

A point at which a pile has reached specified soil penetration and/or blow

A colloquial expression indicating the side of the pile driver which is the
most dangerous.
See Steel H-Pile. Also called H-Beam.

Can occur when the hydrostatic pressure in the ground (usually below a
clay strata) is sufficient to cause the collapse of thin-wall pile casing.
Term for the physical property that permits water to flow through the voids in
a soil.
Earth fill moved and placed by pumping with water.

Similar to Clamshell Grab. A grab operated by hydraulic action, used for

excavation of diaphragm walls and barrettes
A pile driving hammer that uses a hydraulically-powered ram

Reverse circulation drilling/grinding machine operated by hydraulic drives to

rotate cutter wheels on a horizontal axis. The spoil is removed by a
submersible pump within the machine.
Pore water pressure varying as pressure in a non-moving free standing
column of water.
Water pressure in soil that results in neither upward or downward flow;
having a hydraulic gradient equal to unity
International Building Code.
Institution of Civil Engineers, Great Britain.
The growth of ice in lenses, layers, and veins in the soil, commonly, but not
always, oriented normal to the direction of heat loss.

A type of fuel atomization used in a diesel hammer in which the raw fuel
injected and trapped between the ram and the anvil is atomized by impact
of the ram on the impact block. The hammer normally will have a time
delay between impact and combustion.
Normally used with diesel hammer. 1. The part of a pile hammer seated
directly under the ram which transmits the blow of the ram to the pile or to
the drive cap (also called Impact Block). Also called Anvil. 2. Steel plate on
top of cushion material in d
The transmission of energy during a short interval of time from one moving
body to another.
The peak force delivered by a pile driving hammer to the pile head as
measured by means of dynamic monitoring (the peak force must not be
influenced by soil resistance reflections).
The velocity of the ram of a gravity or single-acting steam/air hammer when
it strikes the anvil. It may be computed from a formula.
A constant that is equal to the pile cross-section area times Young's
modulus, divided by the elastic wave velocity.
Soil in which the spacing of the soil particles is so close as to prevent or
allow only very slow passage of water.

Also known as the Transient Dynamic Response Method, or the Sonic

Mobility Method. An integrity test in which a low-strain stress wave is
generated at the shaft head by an impact from a small hammer that
contains a transducer to measure force input. The r
Also known as Sonic-Echo, and by several proprietary names. An integrity
test in which a low-strain stress wave is generated at the shaft head by an
impact with a small hammer. The time taken for the wave to travel down the
shaft and be reflected back to
Preferred term for a pile installed or constructed on an incline so as to
provide some horizontal support for a structure
Instrument which measures inclination and slope or sweep of a cased
bored hole. Can be used in pipe or other types of pile if the pile is equipped
with tubing to permit travel of the device.
The steps of applying a test load to a pile. Generally, the specifications will
require the steps to be 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 125%, 150%, 175% and
200% of Design Load. Other increments may be specified, dependent on
design considerations.
Piles, often prestressed concrete, driven in advance of major work to
determine needed length before ordering.

The point where reversal of curvature occurs: point of contraflexure

An influence line can be any line in a graph that shows the magnitude of a
condition, such as shears or moments on / along a beam. The influence
line graphically represents the calculated shear or moment at that point
along the beam. A geotechnical exa
stage after mixing concrete when it turns from liquid to solid
A type of fuel atomization used in a diesel hammer in which the fuel is
atomized by an injector. Combustion will normally occur prior to impact.

The base plate under the beam swivel of a guy derrick

The inlet fluid path of fluid-powered hammers.

Pressure of motive fluid at the inlet of an air/steam hammer.

1. Structural fabrication or casting placed in a helmet to adjust to a different

type or size of pile. Also called Adaptor or Filler. 2. Any device intended to
be permanently embedded in a wall.
In original or final place.
A concrete pile poured (either with or without a metal casing) in its
permanent location in the ground. Also called Cast-In-Place Pile, or

The individual who observes pile installation for conformance with contract
Any device intended to measure the performance of a wall or structural
system, or physical parameters such as soil pressure or water head.

Pile load test performed on a shaft in which instrumentation has been

installed to measure parameters such as stress, strain, and displacement.
The load transfer mechanism and stress distribution can be determined
from an instrumented pile load test.

A means of assessing the integrity of a deep foundation nondestructively

and non-invasively - See Impulse Echo Test and Impulse Response Test

The portion of a steel sheet pile or other sheeting which connects adjacent
piles through a thumb and finger or similar configuration to make a
continous wall. Also called a Clutch

A gravity hammer which acts internally on a plug at the base of a pile casing
and is used to advance the casing by driving at the bottom to a given set or
Reinforcing steel embedded in a wall to provide bending resistance
between points of lateral support.
Proprietary name for a type of cast-in-place concrete pile.

A high capacity hydraulic jacking system used to apply loads to a pile under
test. See also Test Pile
pile pressed into soil by means of static force

1. A means of imposing a static driving force on a pile by using hydraulic

jacks. Using extensively to install piles in underpinning of structures. A
jacked pile. 2. The means of precisely transferring load from another source
(either dead weight or a rea

Devices that interface with and are used to clamp a vibratory

driver/extractor to a pile.
A method of ground modification that mixes cement with insitu soil using
high pressure air and/or water jets to form "soilcrete". Jet grouting is
generally used for excavation shoring, underpinning, and as a hydraulic

The use of water or compressed air jet to facilitate the placing or driving of a
pile by means of hydraulic displacement of parts of the soil. In some cases,
a high pressure compressed air jet(s) may be used, either alone or with
water. Also called Water
A work constructed out from a harbor entrance. Mounds or heaps of rubble,
fascine, or mattress work with rubble or stone, or a reinforced concrete wal,
to prevent littoral drift from forming a sand bar across a harbor entrance.
See also Groin, or Groyne.
Discontinuity between panels, usually formed by end stops or embedded
structural shapes.

Side or skin damping value used in wave equation analysis.

Tip or toe damping value used in wave equation analysis.
A geologic term for limestone bedrock in which cavities are developed by
solution in flowing water. Also called Karstic Limestone.
A square or splined shaft which can slide vertically through a square or
splined opening in a rotary driving head to turn an auger or drill bit; for a
drilling rig which drives from top the Kelly bar may be a smooth cylinder.
The kelly bar may also be use
Term used for reaction weights for test loading. Also called caisson weights
or load-test weights.
A recess in the wall intended to receive a wall or floor slab.
A telescoping structural member used to attach the bottom of the leads to
the crane base and used to position or batter leads in or out, left or right.
Can be mechanically, hydraulically or pneumatically operated; it is used
with either fixed leads or se
S.I. (Systeme Internationale) unit of force equal to 0.2248 kips.
1. The center pile in a dolphin or cluster of piles usually with the top higher
than the adjacent piles to hold lines from a ship. 2. Added support for a
precast concrete or steel sheet pile wall.
Steel columns installed in soil or embedded in cast-in-place bored piles or
drilled shafts used as vertical support for temporary working platform or
decking for deep excavation works
A unit of force or load equal to 1,000 lbs.
Also called sonic logger in Asia. Device used to measure a continous profile
of a slurry-filled borehole or excavation by the sonic caliper method - Used
to monitor diameter or width and verticality of bored piles or drilled shafts,
barrettes, and diaphra
1. To raise and slip an interlock of a pile, such as a steel sheet pile, into the
interlock of an adjoining pile. Also called Thread. 2. To raise and slip a pile
hammer into pile hammer leads so that its side channels properly engage
to slide upon the
The act of interlocking sections of sheet pile to form a wall. Also called
A pile to which longitudinal pieces (lags) are fastened to provide mechanical
protection to a pile or increase friction contact area. See Lags.

The horizontal members, usually of timber or concrete, spanning between

soldier piles. See Lags.

1. Plates, blocks or structural sections secured to a pile to increase its

bearing or friction area. Also called Lagging. 2. Thin slats on creosoted
piles in marinas to reduce creosote stains on boats.
A mixture of bleed water, cement and fine sand that may appear at the top
of concrete after placing, especially in high lifts, such as piling. It has no
structural value.
Metal left, as at a bevel on the flange of an H-pile, for back-up of a weld.

A pile with a nominal diameter exceeding 24 in. (600 mm).

Horizontal component of load on a pile.

Normally used in reference to the lateral pressure or force imposed by a soil
mass against an earth-supporting structure such as a retaining wall or
basement wall, or on a fictitious vertical plane located within a soil mass.
The coefficient of earth pre
The maximum pressure (load) that may be safely applied in the horizontal
direction to a soil or rock by a foundation unit.
1. Inclined piles or reinforcement to resist lateral forces on piles or footings.
Also called Bracing, or Shoring. 2. Support provided by soil, which prevents
column failure of a driven pile.
1. A structure of fabricated steel or wood in which or on which a pile
hammer travels up and down and with which the hammer and pile
assembly is aligned in driving position. 2. A complete hammer support
system including lead column, brace and other comp
That part of the pile hammer leads forming a pathway for the hammer, and
consisting of parallel members, which mate with side channels of a pile
hammer. Also called Lead Rails, Hammer Guides.-
A lead which is fixed to a crane boom point normally in an extended
configuration, but has three directions of freedom about the boom point
(i.e., in and out, left and right, and around) rather than just in and out, left
and right movement. Also called Sw
The first helical anchorage/foundation component installed into the soil,
consisting of single or multiple helical plates welded to a steel shaft of finite
See Leads.
The edge of the helix that enters the soil first--may be straight, curved or
sharpened or blunt.
1. A structure of fabricated steel or wood in which or on which a pile
hammer travels up and down and with which the hammer and pile
assembly is aligned in driving position. 2. A complete hammer support
system including lead column, brace and other comp
Pile hammer leads which extend above and attach to the boom point of a
crane. Also called Overhead Leads.
See Leads, Extended.
Pile hammer leads topped with a bail and hung from one load line of a
crane. Also called Hanging Leads, Pendulum Leads, Swinging Leads.

1. A trade name for a type of extended lead. 2. An extended pile hammer

lead which may be raised or lowered independently of the boom by a cable
from the crane. Also called Vertical-Travel Leads.
Pile hammer leads topped with a bail and hung from one load line of a
crane. Also called Hanging Leads, Pendulum Leads.
See Leads, Cardonic. Also called Swivel Leads.
Pile hammer leads which hang from the boom point pin of a crane by straps
or pendant cables.
1. A trade name for a type of extended lead. 2. An extended pile hammer
lead which may be raised or lowered independently of the boom by a cable
from the crane. Also called semi fixed leads.

Low strength concrete usually intended as backfill in situations where the

material will be subsequently removed.
An embankment of earth built up along the sides of a river to prevent its
overflowing its banks.
Cable device used to lift reinforcing steel cages with minimal distortion.

Low density material used as backfill to reduce overburden pressure.

Typically consists of lightweight rotary kiln produced aggregates with a
density about half that of normal granular soil backfill.

A compact, high-calcium limestone originating from coral and other marine


Oil lubricator inserted in compressed air or steam lines to lubricate air or

steam powered hammers. See also Sight Feed Lubricator, or Oiler
1. An open-end steel pipe installed by drilling, driving or vibrating to support
the side of a hole. 2. A pipe dropped or driven into an augered hole to
prevent caving temporarily. See also Casing
Interior finish wall placed in contact with or separated from the slurry wall.

Loss of strength occurring in saturated, fine-grained cohesionless soil when

exposed to shock or vibrations when the soil particles momentarily lose
contact due to pore pressure increase. The material then behaves as a
fluid without shear strength. See
The factor used to modify (usually increase) the factored load or factored
Testing capacity and relation of load to movement by putting a static load on
the bearing element before actually building upon the foundation. May be
performed in axial compression, axial tension, or horizontally (lateral).
ASTM Standard D1143 covers Me
The maximum load that may be safely applied to a foundation unit under
expected loading and soil conditions. Determined as the capacity divided by
the factor of safety.
The load actually applied to a foundation unit.
The load actually applied to a foundation unit, and which is not greater than
the allowable load.

Applying increments of load to a pile and measuring the resulting

movement of the pile. See Load Test
A curve showing the relation between applied load and measured
movement in a static loading test - also called load-displacement curve.

A mixture of sand, silt and clay, generally with a varying amount of organic

Longitudinal or spiral seam in corrugated or other pipe formed by

overlapping or folding the adjacent edges.
A soil transported and deposited by wind action, generally silt, weakly
The act of raising a pile into the leads to place beneath the hammer. Also
called "pitching the pile."
1. The workman who climbs the lead to position pile beneath the hammer.
2. The workman who sits atop a sheet pile wall and threads interlocks. 3.
Trade name for a mechanical device controlled by the crane operator to
accomplish the purpose of 1. above
Field Record of each driven pile including location number, hammer model,
pile type, blow count per unit of penetration, final resistance, driven length,
etc. Also called Driving Log or Pile Log.
Space left between timber lagging boards. Louvers permit backpacking of
voids behind the boards.
Pile with minimal soil displacement, such as H, open-end pipe or sheet
piles. Also called Non-Displacement Pile.
Special concrete mix designed to reduce the peak temperature during
hydration of the concrete mass. Use for mass or thick concrete members
such as mat foundation. Flyash is commonly used as an additive in low
heat concrete.
Pumping of low slump grouts (0" to 3") with a limited ability to travel into the
ground to fill voids or compact soil.
A pile testing method by which the pile integrity is confirmed or anomalies
such as necking, bulging or discontinuities are identified. One of the non-
destructive methods. Unlike the High Strain Test, the soil resistance is not
mobilized as the test is p
Load and Resistance Factor Design.

See Line Oiler. Lubricator or Oiler also refers to the assistant equipment
Maintained Load Test. Load test accomplished by applying an increasing
load in defined increments and holding each level until such time that the
pile top (head) displacement stabilizes or a specified time period is attained.
A force vs displacement cur

An empty closed-end tubular section, driven into the ground within

operating radius of a pile rig. Corrugated shell is lowered into the hole to
facilitate inserting a mandrel, thereby allowing the use of shorter leads or
longer lengths of shell. The she
A core that is inserted into a closed-end thin-shell tubular pile for driving;
after installation the mandrel is contracted and withdrawn; (1) Solid or semi-
solid mandrel - A heavy tubular section that will transmit the hammer energy
to either the casing
Any below ground man-made object, such as concrete, timber, building
rubble, abandoned utilities, which cannot be easily removed by clamshell
bucket or drilling tool.
One of several species of mollusks (Teredo - "Shipworm," Bankia, Pholad)
and crustaceans (Limnoria-tripunctata, quadripunctata, Lignorum) that bore
into untreated wood and concrete. Preservative pressure treatment is
effective in protecting wood from the

Cone shaped funnel used to indirectly measure bentonite slurry viscosity by

measuring the time of passage of a quart of slurry through a specified
opening size.

See European Lead

Also called Mat Foundation. A thick concrete slab used to support one or
more columns. A mat footing may be placed directly on the base soil or may
be supported by piles.
Heavy timbers bolted together for use as support and roadway for pile
driver crane. Essential over soft or wet supporting soil and to protect
A proprietary part of a pile hammer seated directly under the ram which
receives the blow of the ram and transmits it to the pile. Normally used only
with wood piles. See sketches in DFI Glossary of Terms, Appendix A.

The average low elevation to which the surface of a body of water falls.
Mean High Water is average high. In tidal areas Mean Low (High) Tide is
the average daily minimum or maximum water surface elevation.

A comprehensive field test, principally aimed at determining load bearing

criteria for driven pile, conducted in 1961 by the State of Michigan Highway
Department and the United States Bureau of Public Roads.

Relatively small diameter (typically 4" to 10") cast-in-place replacemnent

piles utilizing drilling and grouting procedures along with high strength
materials to obtain high capacity piles, typically 50T to 150T. In addition to
the construction site, trad
See Top Down Method.

See Micro-piles

Combination of mechanical devices used to mix, store, clean and/or

distribute bentonite slurry.

Quotient obtained by dividing the stress per unit area by the change per unit
length in the elastic region of material behaviour. Also called Young's
Modulus (when unconstrained laterally).

See Pile Monkey

A spud lead system in which the lead column passes through a slide box at
the tip of the crane boom. The lead column elevation is controlled by the
crane auxillary hoist drum cable and a brace is not normally used, the lead
base being set on the ground. T
An open top, longitudinally-fluted tapered steel tube, driven without a
mandrel and filled as a cast-in-place concrete pile.
A steel caisson with sawtooth cutting edge, which is rotated to cut its way
through rock. Loosened material is washed out of the caisson. More
powerful motors and pumps, plus high quality cutting steels have brought a
redevelopment of this once popular pr
A principal clay mineral group. A hydrous aluminum silicate characterized
by a crystalline structure of layers or thin sheets. This is the main ingredient
of bentonite clay.
A curved or horizontal beam attached to the end of the brace on pile
hammer leads which allows the lead to be moved sideways and held fixed
during the driving of side inclination piles (right angle to the crane boom).
Usually a treated or greenheart wood pile, driven out from a pier or dock to
steady marine vessels from wind and wave action, or to hold a floating dock
in position. See also Dolphin, King Pile.
Distinct geological feature - mound or ridge - of material deposited by
glaciation, usually containing a wide range of particle sizes. See also
Glacial Till

Steam, air, combustion gases or hydraulic oil used to move the ram of the
hammer to drive the pile. See also Motive Fluid Power.

1. A very soft or watery clay. 2. A term used for material removed from an
excavation, especially in tunneling.
Cylindrical tool used for cleaning drilled shafts of muck and water.
Scale device used to measure unit weight, specific gravity or density of
River bed at interface of water and soil.
A thin cover of crushed stone or concrete placed over a muddy area below
the planned structure to provide a work platform and keep reinforcing clean.

1. An earth diaphragm or impervious cut-off-wall in a dam. 2. The wall

above the beam seats of a bridge abutment, designed to support the
approach slab and retain the earth behind the abutment.

See Filter Cake

The technique of stirring in bentonite powder and /or water to facilitate the
installation of temporary casing or to expedite drilling into an augered or
otherwise drilled hole.

Helical anchor with more than one helix welded to the same shaft or lead.
The number of blows required to drive a 2 in. O.D., 1 3/8 in. I.D., 24 in long,
split soil sampling spoon one foot with a 140 lb. Weight freely falling 30 in.
The count is recorded for each of three six-inch increments. The sum of the
second and third i

Reduction in area of cast-in-place concrete in a pile, either uncased or thin-

cased, due to soil pressure or improper method of installation.
A structural beam inserted through a hole in a wall to support the wall
during underpinning, jacking or excavating operations beneath it. The
beam transfers the wall load to a temporary or a newly installed foundation.

A pressure gauge with a needle stem for measuring air or steam pressure
in pressure hose, by puncturing the wall of the hose with the needle stem.

Very small diameter, slender, driven steel tubular or rail section piles used in
underpinning operations.
Colloquial term for pile driven at an angle towards the crane. See Negative
Driving a pile at an angle from the vertical where the bottom of the pile is
inclined toward the crane.

Soil resistance acting downward along the side of a deep founation unit,
due to an applied uplift load.
1. Side friction along a pile surface directed downward. 2. Effect of settling
soil that grips a pile by friction and adds a downward weight to the structure
load. Also called Downdrag.
Net measured settlement of pile at top after removal of test load. See
The location where equilibrium exists between the sum of downward acting
permanent load applied to the pile and dragload due to negative skin
friction and the sum of upward acting positive shaft resistance and
mobilized toe resistance. The neutral plane
A weldment bracket, typically used as part of a Helical Foundation System,
to provide connection between an installed Helix Screw Pile and the
structure’s surface level foundation components.

Eurocode term for basic estimated load, as defined by code or statistical

analysis, before application of Load Factor.
Piles formed by boring or other methods of excavation. H, open-end pipe
and sheet piles are considered low-displacement piles.

National Ready Mix Concrete Association.

National Sand, Gravel, and Crushed Stone Association.
National Utility Contractors Association.
A perforated pipe installed in the ground for monitoring groundwater level

A pile hammer lead which has an upper section wherein the hammer is
contained and a lower section which closely fits about and guides the pile.
The hammer is supported by a template. Also called Cage, Can Lead,
Chuck Lead, Rope Suspended Lead, Pipe Lead.
1. A device for injecting oil into air or steam lines; also called a lubricator. 2.
Either a man or woman who is responsible on a daily basis, for oiling and
greasing certain pieces of construction and mining equipment.

Proprietary name for a type of augered, cast-in-place displacement pile.

A mixture of one 94 lb. bag of cement and 1 cy of sand, typically used as a

self compacting backfill.

A drop-bottom bucket used for excavation. The drop-bottom is divided into a

number of sections that appear to peel back as the bucket opens.

Lengths of pile expected for the project, ordered by either the owner, A/E or
contractor from the supplier

Rock core sample obtained from a boring on which scribes are made while
in its in-situ location in order to determine the in-situ orientation of the rock
core. Used to determine the orientation of dips and joints in the rock
A three to five-inch shaft of hard steel is set into the lower end of an H-pile
by slitting the shaft or cutting the web of the pile for some distance, and
then welding the shaft to the H-pile. Utilized to secure a toe hold in sloping
rock. Can also be fi

Axial loading test carried out by applying the load with expendable jack and
load cell pre-installed in a cast-in-place bored pile or drilled shaft. Named
after its inventor, Jorj Osterberg.

The difference between the actual amount of concrete placed and the neat
theoretical volume. Usually expressed as a percentage.

Extra length of concrete above design cut-off level of pile, usually formed in
cast-in-place bored piles or drilled shafts, and barrettes. See also Over-

The ratio between the preconsolididation pressure and the effective

overburden stress.
1. Pile driving that exceeds the maximum warranted hammer blow count or
damages the material comprising the pile. 2. Hitting the pile more than the
optimum or required number of blows per increment of advance. 3.
Continuing to drive piling(s) after penetr
See Leads, Extended .

The extra amount of concrete placed in a panel or drilled shaft beyond the
theoretical volume, or above the designed cutoff level.

The difference between the actual volume of grout placed in an ACIP pile,
and the theoretical volume of the shaft. See also Grout Factor
Pounds per square inch pressure shown by gage at pressure boiler, air
compressor, air hose, or steam hose.

See Pile Cushion.

Section of a slurry wall that is concreted as a single unit. The panel may be
linear, T-shaped, L-shaped, or other plan configuration
Slotted plates fastened to the sides of a pile hammer to engage the head of
template supported sheet pile, to keep the hammer centered upon, and in
vertical alignment with, the pile to permit the hammer's operation free-
hanging. Also called Fingers, Fish-
A down-hole test to verify depth and to determine the most likely
construction material of unknown foundations below existing structures.
Requires a borehole close to the unknown foundation, and access to the
structure immediately above the foundation in
Propietary brace to change pile hammer leads from side to side wIthout use
of a hammer

The speed at which the ground particles move or vibrate, measured in

mm/s or in/s. The maximum recorded particle velocity from any one of the
three axes of movement for a recorded vibration event is the Peak Particle

Portland Cement Association.

Power Crane and Shovel Association.
Pile Driving Analyzer - An instrument used to monitor pile installation and
evaluate the pile-soil system. The working principle is: a pile is assumed as
an elastic rod. An impact is applied on the pile top and the produced stress
wave propagates along
Pile Driving Contractors Association

A highly organic soil consisting chiefly of fragmented remains of vegetable

matter which was sequentially deposited. Typically has a spongy
Long handled tool similar to a cant hook but with a steel point at its end and
a hinged hook for turning piles or timbers .

A cast-in-place concrete end-bearing pile, frequently patented, constructed

so that concrete is placed or forced out into a bulb or pedestal at the base
of the pile. See also Compacted Concrete Pile.
A tree trunk from which all of the bark has been removed before treating
and /or driving
See Leads, Swinging
1. The resistance to penetration by driving, expressed in blows per
increment of advance of the pile. 2. The N Value in the Standard
Penetration Test
Term generally applied to subsurface investigation methods for determining
a strength-related property of a soil by measuring the resistance to
penetration of boring and/or sampling equipment. See also N Value.

The total downward movement of the pile caused by the hammer blow
before rebound.
Depth or length of pile specified to theoretically develop the required load
bearing or uplift capacity of the soil, the required lateral strength or reach a
desired bearing strata
1. The gross movement of the pile less the rebound from the hammer blow.
2. Net measured settlement after unload from a test
A device for measuring resistance to penetration of a point, calibrated to
indicate approximate load-bearing strength of the pile. Often called Dutch
Cone Penetrometer
See Anvil

A means of advancing a bore using compressed air- or cable-driven impact

tools, or excavating tools which are repeatedly dropped onto the face or
base of the bore.
A factor used to alter (usually reduce) the capacity of a foundation unit,
determined by means of direct test loading, or by in-situ tests such as
penetrometer testing.
Permanently frozen ground; very difficult to pentrate with piling, and
unstable when disturbed.

Old term; See Hydraulic conductivity

Measure of the alkalinity or acidity of a liquid using a logarithmic numerical
scale of 0 to 14, set with 7.0 as neutral, less than 7.0 indicating acidity and
greater than 7.0 indicating alkalinity. Based on the reciprocal of the
Hydrogen ion concentrati

1. A structure built perpendicular or oblique to the shoreline of a body of

water for mooring ships. 2. A plain, detached mass of masonry,usually
serving as a support: i.e. the pier of a bridge. 3. A deep foundation unit with
a large length to diameter ra

A perforated pipe installed in the ground to measure groundwater pressure /

head in any desired stratum. It is typically sealed along its length, open to
atmosphere at the top and perforated only in the desired stratum to allow
water inflow from that stra

Plug-like device used to clean out a pipeline. Also used in a tremie pipe to
keep concrete separate from water or slurry at the start of placement. See
also Go Devil
A slender deep foundation unit, made of wood, steel, or concrete, or
combinations thereof, which is either pre-manufactured and placed by
driving, jacking, jetting, or screwing, or cast-in-situ in a hole formed by
driving, excavating, or boring. A pile c

Two or more piles driven in a row transverse to the long dimension of a

structure, such as a bridge foundation, and fastened together by capping
and/or bracing.
Colloquial term for a member of a pile crew
See Seawall
Colloquial term for the top of a pile, originally referring to the widest part of
of a timber pile or tree trunk, normally driven with the narrowest part, or tip,
down first. See also Pile Head.
A structural member constructed on the tops of piles to transmit and
distribute the load of the structure down to the head of a pile, a row of piles,
or a pile group.
1.Pairs of timbers bolted to the sides of the piles in a bent, or steel channels
bolted or welded to H-piles, to tie the piles together and so carry and
distribute loads to the piles. 2. A mechanical device with teeth for gripping
piles, used with vibrato
1. A group of piles, standing free as a dolphin or as mooring piles or piles in
contact, forming part of a fender system for the purpose of mooring or
breasting off vessels for better control. See also Dolphin. 2. Group support
for column loads
Cushion placed between drive cap and top of concrete pile to protect pile
from crushing and spalling. Also called Cushion, Pad.
The length of pile extending above the cut-off elevation that must be
1. A rig consisting of leads, hoisting apparatus and a pile hammer. 2. A
member of the pile crew

See Drive Cap

Protective cover for a steel or timber pile. This usually is concrete, added at
the water or ground line, where all typed of piles are most vulnerable to
corrosion and insect attack

A device for pulling piles out of the ground. It may be an inverted steam or
air hammer with yoke equipped to transmit upward blows to the pile body or
a specially built extractor utilizing this principle. Vibratory hammers are
especially effective. All e
See Pile Line.
An equation by which the static resistance or the allowable load of a pile
may be estimated from the driving record of the pile. See Dynamic Formula.

The piles and the structural members designed and installed primarily to
transmit loads directly from a superstructure to the soil or rock stratum
some distance below the ground surface which is capable of supporting the
See Skid Rig.
A device at the base of the pile hammer leads which is closed arund the pile
to maintain alignment between the pile and the leads

General term for a machine which drives piling by impact or vibration.

Power source may be mechanical, air,steam,diesel or hydraulic.
A powered pile hammer in which the fluid valve is automatically thrown at
both ends of the ram stroke to produce a regular cycle.
A powered pile hammer in which the fluid valve is manually thrown at one
end of the ram stroke and automatically thrown at the other end.
The uppermost end of a pile.
See Heave
A material property of a pile. Determined as the product of the Young's
modulus (E) and area (A) of the cross section divided by the wave speed
(c) as Z = EA / c.
See Automated Monitoring Equipment.
Means for joining lengths of piles. 1. H-Pile: full penetration butt weld or
close-fitting mechanical device plus welding across flanges and additions.
2. Pipe-Pile: butt weld or driving into tapered circular sleeve.

A wire rope used to lift a pile and hold it while being placed in the leads; one
of the hoisting lines on a crane, assigned to pile handling. Also called Pile
See Load Test, Test Pile

See Driving Log

See Taywood Sheet Pile Driver/Extractor
1. The workman who climbs the lead to position the pile beneath the
hammer. 2. The workman who sits atop a sheet pile wall and threads
interlocks. 3. Trade name for a mechanical device controlled by the crane
operator to accomplish the purpose of 1 Above.
The depth or subsurface elevation reached by tip of the pile. 2. Embedment
of the pile. 3. The set of the pile
A pointed pile shoe.
See refusal.
See Pile driver.
The portion of the pile between the pile head and the pile toe.
A premanufactured separate reinforcement attached to the bottom end (toe)
of a pile to facilitate driving, to protect the lower end of the pile, and/or to
improve the toe resistance of the pile.
A close-fitted device for quickly aligned an additional length of similar or
compatible sections of a pile to increase length. See Spliced Pile,
Composite Pile
Bending or curving of a pile, generally as a result of encountering
obstructions or hard conditions during driving.
An increase in the observed resistance to penetration during driving
A prefabricated structure or site-erected frame into which a pile is set and
held firmly in position to permit driving with a free-hanging pile hammer.
Usually rectangular in form, to space and position piles so that they will be
specified position relati
The lowermost end of a pile (Use of terms such as pile tip, pile point, or pile
end in the same sense as pile toe is discouraged).
See toe grouting.
Driving rig that is clamped to the top of a caisson pile casing.
See Cast-In-place Pile.

A tree trunk, usually debarked, driven into the ground. It may be pressure
impregnated with creosote, pentachlorophenol, or chromated copper
arsenate or ammoniacal copper arsenate
A thick concrete slab-like foundation supported by piles. Usually used for
tall buildings with high loading
The contractor, frequently a subcontractor, who specializes in installing
A pile used to provide vertical support to bracing members. See Micropiles.

See End Stop Extractor.

See Steel Pipe Pile
Insert in wall intended to permit the passage of a pipe through the wall.

See Blowing

The part of the falling weight in a power pile hammer which is fitted with
piston rings. See Ram

An instrument for a pile integrity testing in the field. The test includes: an
accelerometer and a strain gauge (optional). In general, an accelerometer
is placed on the top of the pile prior to testing. The top of the pile is struck
axially with a hamm

The distance between the leading and trailing edge of the helix on a Helix
Positioning the pile in the leads for driving. See Lofting
1. Concrete consisting of cement, bentonite, aggregates, additives and
water intended to provide minimal strength, a low modulus of elasticity and
high strain prior to failure. 2. Concrete that has not yet set.

Term applicable to fine-grained cohesive soils ( such as clays) with the

ability to flow or be remolded without raveling or breaking apart. See also
Atterberg Limits

The soil inside a pipe pile that is driven open-ended

A vertical pile

See Pipe Lead

Colloquial term for a pile that derives its load-bearing ability from support of
the soil layer at the tip. Preferred term is "end-bearing pile"

See Depth of Fixity

Synthetic additive that increases the viscosity of water.

A mixture of water and polymer forming a viscous drilling fluid that is used
to stabilize boreholes and to remove drill cuttings from the borehole.
See polymer slurry. Also used in parts of Asia to denote a polymer slurry
with bentonite added to reduce loss in granular soils.

Short beam placed across a structural beam or panel joint intended to

support two panels from one point of lateral support. Also, called a waler.

See Hairpin Lead, Telescope Lead, Spud Lead, and Beam Lead.

Steel plate, provided with numerous steel studs, straps or bars welded to
the plate, intended to be embedded in a wall to provide shear or tensile
capacity to a connection to the wall.
Pressure in the water and gas present in the voids between the soil grains,
minus the atmospheric pressure.

The elevation of a groundwater table corresponding to a hydrostatic pore

pressure equal to the actual pore pressure.
Pore pressure in a confined body of water having a level of hydrostatic
pressure higher than the ground surface or above the normal groundwater
Pore pressure distribution as in a freestanding column of water.

Colloquial term. See Fore Batter

Concrete element which derives its primary strength from a longitudinal
compression force provided by high strength steel strands, embedded in
the wall, which are tensioned after the concrete hardens. See post-
A method of prestressing a concrete member in which cables or bars are
placed in ducts through the concrete member. When the concrete reaches
a specified strength, the tendons are tensioned by jacking against the
member and then anchored to it. See also p

A prime mover composed of an engine and generator, hydraulic pump, or

compressor to provide electricity, hydraulic power, or air to portable
construction equipment, such as a vibratory driver/extractor or auger.

See Refusal.
1. Boring through obstructions or materials too dense to penetrate with the
planned pile type. This is commonly done for displacment piles in stiff clays
where heave may occur. 2. Exploratory drilling to elevations below utility
lines to locate and minimi

A concrete pile, either reinforced or prestressed, which is manufactured in a

construction yard or at the site, and, having been properly cured, is handled
and driven like a steel or timber pile.
A precast pile manufactured in lengths which enable the pile to be extended
on site relatively quickly with a mechanical splice. See Bruns Pile, Pile
Wall constructed by insertion and positioning of precast concrete panels
into a self-hardening slurry.

1. Advance excavation of a general site. 2. Removal by augering of soil that

may heave. 3. Removal of soil by driving and cleaning out an open-end

See Dieseling
See Dieseling

pile installed before the commencement of the main piling works or section
of the works for the purpose of
establishing the suitability of the chosen type of pile, driving equipment
and/or for confirming the design,
dimensions and bearing capacity
Application of a predetermined load on a brace or anchor support.
Omnidirectional force per unit area (Compare stress)

See Grouting, Foundation

See Head

See Enlarged Base

A device that can be lowered into a bore hole and expanded to determine
the lateral resistance of the soil
Round or sawn timber used as a pile, which has been pressure
impregnated with a chemical preservative, e.g., creosote,
pentachlorophenol, or ammoniacal copper arsenate or chromated copper
See Preload.

A precast concrete pile which is prestressed or post-tensioned to reduce or

eliminate cracking caused by the tensile stresses to which piles are
subjected during transportation, pile driving, and in service.
Compressing a concrete member with tensioned cables or bars running
through it to achieve higher strength for less weight, and to counteract
handling stresses.
A precast, prestressed concrete pile where the form is spun as the concrete
sets. Spinning results in denser concrete, reduces water cement ratio, and
hence increases the concrete strength and durability of the pile.

A method of prestressing a concrete member in which cables or rods are

tensioned before the concrete is poured. When the concrete member has
cured to specified strength, the tendons are detached from their
anchorages and relieved of their stress. Restrain

A drive cap that requires an adapter for different shapes of piles. It is used
only with an adapter
Slurry Wall panel constructed with end forming devices at both ends.
See Indicator Pile
Pile which is part of a specified pile foundation, as opposed to a preliminary
test pile.
The number of piles which can be installed in a defined period of time, i.e.
piles driven per 8 hour day

A protective end reinforcement for steel sheet piling

Trade name for a protective cast-steel pile point for H-Piles
Pounds per square inch (foot), the English unit of measure of pressure
Post Tensioning Institute.

A technique for achieving an uncontrolled degree of compaction of granular

fill by saturating the soil after it is dumped into the excavation.
See Uplift Capacity

Elastic compression of soil during pile driving. A term utilized in wave

equation analysis.

A wharf which is built parallel to the shore line.

A maintained pile load test with time intervals less than 20 minutes between
adding load increments. (reference ASTM D1143).
A condition rather than a type of soil. Generally, a fine granular soil
temporarily super-saturated with rising water and acting as a fluid under
pressure. See Liquefaction
Symbol for piling capacity in tons. Example; 2R is a term meaning twice
design capacity
See Pile Monkey. Also sometimes used for Tremie Plug or Go-Devil

Severe bouncing of the casing of a power pile hammer during driving


Usually three recycled railroad rails with edges of their bases welded
together and the heads out, driven as a unit

A pile driver mounted on a crane with railroad undercarriage for convenient

transportation on the rails and operation on track.
Sloping brace, which provides lateral support by transferring forces against
a footing or other structural element within the excavation.
See Inclined Pile.
See Inclined Pile.
The moving or driving part of an air, steam, diesel or drop pile hammer
which delivers an impact blow to an anvil and to the pile. Also called Piston
if fitted with piston rings.
The part of the ram that comes closest to the impact surface of the pile.
Sometimes a separate unit of the ram

A pile serving as a guide for locating piles or other structures, or for marine
surveying or dredging.
See Wale

See Doodle Hole

The specified operation speed for a pile hammer in blows per minute
Trade name for a spirally corrugated light gauge shell made in 4 to 16 ft.
sections of increasing diameter to form a step-tapered pile.
Reverse Circulation Drilling
See Anchor Pile

A tool attached to the drilling bucket or auger to cut or enlarge the bell at the
base of a drilled shaft or caisson.
See Cage
1. Amount of upward movement of the head of a pile following a blow from
the hammer, by reason of the elastic properties of the pile as well as of the
soils into which it is driven. Also called Temporary Compression. 2. The
upward movement of the head of

A temporary wood or steel sheet piling, braced, single-walled, rectangular-

shaped enclosure installed to permit construction of a foundation below
ground or water level.

The condition reached when a pile or soil sampler being driven by a

hammer has negligible penetration per blow (as when the point of the pile
reaches an impenetrable bottom such as rock), or when the effective
energy of the hammer blow is no longer suffic
A tube with injection ports installed in a tieback, tiedown or a minipile, and
used for secondary grouting.

Addition of steel to the concrete to provide tensile or bending strength.

1. See density index. 2. See compactness condition.

The characteristic of a pile that shows a decreased static capacity after
driving due to pore water pressure changes, soil remolding, stress
redistributing in the soil, and other factors.
Soil formed in situ by rock decay and left as a residue after the leaching out
of more soluble products.

The sum total of all the forces that oppose the penetration of a pile under a
hammer blow or a static force.
The factor used for decreasing a soil resistance; See Factored resistance.

A factor used to modify (reduce) the calculated factored resistance of a

foundation unit.
The maximum or ultimate soil resistance mobilized in shear along the shaft
of a pile or foundation unit.
The maximum or ultimate soil resistance mobilized at the toe of a pile or
foundation unit.
The maximum or ultimate soil resistance mobilized by a foundation unit;
See Capacity.

Driving (striking) a previously driven pile with the same hammer to observe
increase (setting) or decrease (relaxation) in pile support capacity.

A structure constructed to withstand the lateral pressure of earth behind it

and its own weight imposed on the soil beneath it.

1. A counter-flow method of circulation drilling fluid and spoil in a drill hole.

In the direct circulation method drilling fluid pumped down a hollow drill
pipe, around the drill bit, and back to the surface in the annular space
around the drill pipe and
Hollow stem chisel with provision to draw bentonite slurry and drill cuttings
up the stem during drilling.

A means of stabilizing a bore by maintaining a head of water in the bore

above the level of the surrounding water table
See Drive Cap
See Pile Driver

Large pieces of hard rock placed on a slope to minimize wave wash and

A natural aggregate of minerals that cannot readily be broken by hand. The

ultimate soils material upon which to base a foundation. The compressive
strength of good stone is greatly in excess of that of masonry. Limestones
may be subject to caving as a re
High Tensile bars or cables grouted into holes drilled into rock. See
Appendix C

Pile toe protection point specifically designed to develop a toe hold on rock,
or to improve penetration into boulder infested soils.
A measure of the degree of fracturing in rock cores defined as the ratio of
the accumulated lengths (minimum 100 mm) of sound rock over the total
core length.
A special type of pile shoe.
That portion of the pile bore which penetrates into a hard formation beneath
less competent overburden. See Drilled-in-Caisson

See Offshore Lead

A method of boring using rotary ( as opposed to percussive) means of
Rotary grinding and cutting device primarily used to fracture or soften rock.

1. A drill machine powered hydraulically, pneumatically, electrically, or

mechanically to bore exploratory holes or for installation of piles, caissons,
or insitu piles. The equipment may utilize a continuous flight auger or a
rotary table and Kelly bar w
1. A channel with flanges down attached to the top of a square pile or timber
to serve as a bearing plate for the pile cap and to which one or more angles
may be attached for retaining the pile cap. 2. A frame that locks the hammer
in the leads
A load less than that which would cause objectional settlement, with a factor
of safety as necessary to provide for variations in material, workmanship
and loading. The safe load for a group of friction piles may be less than the
sum of the safe loads for
A factor modifying (reducing) overall capacity or strength as used in working
stress design. (Usually having upper case symbol "F". Lower case symbols,
"f", are used for factors in ultimate limit states design). The safety factor is
defined as a ratio of
The margin (dimensional) between mobilized resistance, applied load, or
actual value, and maximum available resistance or acceptable value, e.g.,
the margin between the mobilized shear stress and the shear strength, or
the margin between calculated settle
A coarse grass growing in salt marsh areas; used for rough caulking of
breast boarding and around cofferdams.

See Spoon Blows

The category of coarse-grained soil whose particles sizes range between

about 0.07 mm and 5mm in diameter
A horizontal member securing the piles in a bent.
Calibrated device used to measure percentage of sand by volume
suspended in a slurry.
Percentage of sand by volume suspended in a slurry or drilling fluid. See
Sand Cone.
Vertical sand columns installed to speed drainage and rapid consolidation
of marshy land. Also called Sand Pile and Sand Wick.

Trade name for a device for remote measuring of the stroke of an open-end
diesel hammer
Southern Building Code.
The specific identification of what, to what standards, and where activity is
to be accomplished to fulfill an agreement to perform a task and be
compensated for said performance to complete a project.
To erode soils such as from a river bank or around and under a pier by the
circular orbits or fast flow of water

(See Helical Screw Anchor)

A pile with spiral blade fixed on a shaft or a shaped precast pile, which is
screwed into ground by a rotating force.

A work constructed along a shore line of loose mounds or heaps of rubble,

or masonry walls supplemented with treated timber, steel or reinforcing
concrete sheet piling driven into the beach and strengthened by wales and
guide and brace piles. Intended as

A pile drilled so as to overlap, or cut into, an adjacent pile.

A wall formed by a series of overlapping concrete piles that are drilled and
grouted in place, and generally reinforced with a steel core beam.

Slurry wall panel cast against previously concreted panels.

Soil particles deposited at the base of wet-processed bored piles or drilled

Small quantity of water percolating through a soil deposit or soil structure
such as an earth dam. The quantity of subsurface water leaking into a
cofferdam or a building's underground ( basement) area.
Undesirable characteristic of concrete. Separation of the constitutents of the
concrete mixture such that their distribution in the concrete is no longer

The method of determining subsurface soil and rock conditions (without

excavation) by inducing a shock wave into the earth and measuring the
velocity of the wave's travel through the earth material. This seismic velocity
indicates the types of material it

Instrument used to measure and record the motion of vibrating earth,

typically consisting of three sensors on mutually perpendicular axes. Used
to establish compliance and evaluate vibration impact. See also
A device for monitoring the direction and intensity of vibration of ground or

Concrete that achieves adequate compaction by its self-weight and the

placement procedure without requiring vibration. This type of concrete is
used for cast-in-place bored piles or drilled shafts, barrettes, and diaphragm
walls where vibration of concret
Concrete that achieves proper consolidation by its self-weight without
requiring vibration. This type of concrete is typically used for flatwork, but is
beginning to be used in deep foundations. The high fluidity of self-
consolidating concrete makes the t

The ratio of a soil’s undisturbed strength to its disturbed strength.

1. The net penetration of a pile into the ground per blow or specific series of
blows of a pile hammer. 2. The final penetration of a pile or final set,
expressed in inches or millimeters per blow.
The downward movement of a foundation unit or soil layer due to rapidly or
slowly occuring compression of the soils located below the foundation unit
or soil layer, when the compression is caused by an increase of effective
stress due to an applied load o

Measuring points installed to monitor movement of ground, buildings,

structures adjacent to deep excavations.
Total downward of a pile or pile group under applied load.
Settlement of a pile, measured at the top, after removal of test load
The increase in resistance of a pile with time after driving.

U-shaped drop-forged cast steel fitting with locking pin for attaching cable
or chain lifting device to a load.

Pressurized injection of cement-based grout along portion of a pile shaft to

improve condition or capacity. Mainly applied to wet-processed bored piles
or drilled shafts constructed under bentonite slurry

The resistance mobilized on the shaft (side) of a deep foundation. Upward

acting resistance is called positive shaft resistance. Downward acting is
called negative shaft resistance (See also negative skin friction).

Soil resistance acting downward along the pile shaft because of an applied
uplift load.
Soil resistance acting upward along the pile shaft because of an applied
compressive load.

A foundation unit that provides support for a building by transferring loads to

soil or rock located close to the lowest part of the building.
The ability of a soil to resist shearing stresses developed within a soil mass
as a result of loading imposed onto the soil
See Head Block
A pile that may form one of a continuous line or row of timber, precast
concrete, or steel piles driven interlocked to provide a tight wall to exclude
or resist the lateral pressure of water, adjacent earth, or other materials.

See Helical Metal Shell.

Act of placing a corrugated shell on the core or mandrel before it is set for
driving into the ground. See Doodle Hole.
See Drive Cap
See Marine Borer

Reinforcing plates added to flanges and possible web of H-section to

reinforce the point to improve penetration into dense materials. See Pile
Running steel sheet piles up and down in the interlocks to insure they are
free sliding before driving
Detailed drawing expanding on information shown on design drawing. Work
can be constructed from this drawing.
1. Support for the sides of any excavation. 2. Support for structure,
especially in underpinning. See Bracing

See End Pipe.

Colloquial term for inclination of a pile left or right from the boom direction
A part of a pile hammer fitted to the sides of the hammer which engage the
rails of a set of leads to hold the mammer in the leads. Also called Angle
Iron Guides, Grooves, Gibs, Jaws Ways, Side Guides.

See Side Channels.

Pan or tray-like equipment having a screen or mesh bottom; used in
laboratory or field work to separate particles of a soil sample into their
various sizes.

A lubricator containing a view of the oil flow, which is installed in the fluid
line to supply oil to lubricate a pile hammer. See Oiler.

Sheet pile installed by pressing (hydraulic action is commonly used) rather

than vibration to avoid damage to adjacent structures.

A fine residual soil or alluvial sediment of mud or fine soil deposited from
running or standing water. Feels velvety, smooth and floury between the
fingers. Silt particles range in size from 0.002 to 0.074 mm.

See Diesel Hammer, Open End.

A pile hammer in which motive fluid lifts the ram on the up stroke and
gravity alone acts on the down stroke.
The metes and bounds of an area of earth designated for a project.

An overall description of the site for a project; ground cover, relative

elevations, surrounding environment, the presence of surface water and the
normal water table, soil borings, known history, as well as the available
access and egress. See Soil Inves
The appraisal of the general subsurface conditions by analysis of
information gained by such methods as geological and geophysical
surveys, in-situ testing, sampling, visual inspection, laboratory testing of
samples of the subsurface materials, and ground
Colloquial term. See Compound Inclination Pile.
1. A pile driving rig consisting of a fluid power supply, hoisting apparatus,
pile hammer and leads, all mounted upon a common sled for movement on
skids or rollers. Also called a Pile Frame. 2. A soil boring rig on skids for
movement by pushing or drag
See Shaft resistance.

Soil resistance acting downward along the pile as a result of movement of

the soil along the pile and inducing compression in the pile.

Soil resistance acting upward along the pile shaft caused by swelling of the
soil that induces tension in the pile.
An extension fastened to the sides of a pile hammer to engage the leads of
template supported timber, pipe, concrete or H-pile to keep the hammer
centered upon, and in vertical alignment with, the pile to permit the
hammer's operation free hanging.

Crumbling and disintegration of earth material when exposed to air and


A metal adaptor used to splice pipe by driving the two pipes on the sleeve.
An inside sleeve decreases the I.D. at the splice while maintaining the pipe
A metal adaptor used to splice pipe by driving the two pipes into a force-fit
sleeve. An outside sleeve increases the O.D.

A pile driven into the earth to consolidate the soil and help to prevent it from
sliding down a slope.
Small hole cut in a pile for attachment of a shackle for handling.

A viscous liquid (normally a bituminous coating) applied to the pile surface.

It is expected to shear under the downward force of settling soil and
minimize additional load from downdrag. See Negative Skin Friction.

Pipe device installed vertically in the wall or adjacent ground used to guide
a slope-measuring device (inclinometer), which measures wall or ground
A maintained pile load test with time intervals greater than 20 minutes. See
Serviceablity Limit States.
Fine sedimental soil material still consolidating in underwater conditions.

A measure of workability (consistency) of fresh concrete - ASTM

C143/C143M-05a Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic Cement
Concrete. It is performed with a truncated cone 12 in. high, 4 in. diameter at
the top and 8 in. diameter at the bottom, fill
A mixture of water and clay (bentonite or mineral clay) or polymer in
colloidal suspension. Used in excavated shafts or walls to suspend particles
for removal while balancing soil pressure against sloughing.
Construction of a bored pile or drilled shaft using slurry or supporting fluid to
stabilize the excavation. Concrete is placed from the bottom up, displacing
the slurry as the concrete surface rises within the excavation. Also referred
to as the Wet-proce
Individual trained and experienced in the mixing, cleaning and use of drilling
slurries as well as all operations necessary to properly construct a slurry
wall or cutoff wall.
An excavation filled with bentonite slurry. Also, a trench backfilled with
blended “impervious” soils or cement bentonite. Also, called a Slurry Wall.

An underground wall constructed by mechanical excavating techniques

using bentonite slurry to maintain trench wall stability. Wall may be used as
an underground water barrier (see Cutoff Wall) by filling with impervious
materials such as concrete or mixt
See Slurry Trench Wall.

Soil which, when saturated, or near saturated, and subjected to a shearing

force, will lose all or part of its strength. The dominant grain size fraction in
this soil is usually medium and coarse silt. Soak-sensitive soil is frost-
susceptible soil and,
Embedment of a wall or foundation into a bearing and/or impervious strata.

See Drilled-in-Caisson.

The portion of the earth's crust which is fragmentory, or such that some
individual particles of a dried sample can be readily separated by agitation
in water; it includes boulders, cobbles, gravel, sand, silt, clay, and organic
A high-strength steel tendon installed in the earth with anchoring provision
in soil that will resist movement and prestressed against a wall by an
anchoring device. See Appendix C.
A small diameter hole drilled into the soil for the purposes of obtaining earth
samples and exploring the subsurface conditions.
The complete record of what was found from drilling one soil exploration

A dynamic soil resistance force that is a direct function of pile velocity.

Often designated by "J" with a unit of measure of second/ft. According to
Smith's definition, soil damping equals J x pile velocity x static soil
See Geotechnical Engineer.

See Fill, Backfill.

A study of the earth in the area of a foundation consisting of sampling,
classification, preparation of logs of borings and a report setting forth
conclusions and recommendations. It is basic to the design of foundations
and is required by most up-to-dat

A ground improvement technique in which soil is mixed in place with augers

while cement is added.

A drilled and grouted steel element advanced into the ground to reinforce
and stabilize a soil mass.
An earth retention system utilizing soil nails and a structural facing, typically
shortcrete, to create a stable soil mass having a vertical or near vertical
exposed face.
A soil stabilization method that involves installing closely spaced Soil Nails
in the soil/rock face to increase its overall shear strength.

Material that rises inside an open-end pile as it is driven.

The resistance of the soil to penetration of a pile varies according to soil

type and density. It is measured in terms of penetration or permanent set
per number of blows, i.e. 20 blows per foot.
Granular soils typically produce less resistance to a pile placed by vibrator,
compared to a pile driven by hammer impact. Typically measured by rate of
penetration (speed) i.e., mm/s. See Vibro-driveability.
The equipment used to extract soil samples from borings or test pits made
in a subsurface investigation.
Soil Screws™ are a type of helical anchorage in which the steel helix plates
are attached to the central steel shaft at regular intervals along the entire
length of the shaft. They are used as closely spaced linear reinforcing
elements in gravity composi
Treatment of soil to improve its properties; includes the mixing of additives
and other means of alteration such as compaction or drainage. Also called
Soil Improvement.
A type of reinforced slurry wall panel with beam sections installed vertically
into the wall. Also, called "SPTC" type of wall panel.
A steel beam or pile section installed vertically into the wall to act as an end
stop device or structural reinforcing for a panel. Also called a Soldier Pile.

A steel H or WF section driven (or placed in drilled hole) normally vertical, at

intervals of several feet to hold horizontal lagging, which is installed to
retain soil as excavation proceeds. Also called Soldier Beam.

The density of the solid particles in a soil.

A machine designed to drive piles using high frequency vibrations in the

lower sonic range that cause the pile to resonate.

See cross-hole sonic logging

A method of examining soil to 20 to 30 ft depth by driving or hydraulically

pushing a cone, steel rod or small diameter pipe (gas pipe) into the ground
with a hammer or maul. With experience, the movement of the rod or pipe
under each hammer blow can giv
Device attached to the face of a reinforcing cage to position the cage in the
excavation, and provide the required concrete cover.

Old term for density of material divided by density of water. See Solid
Project-specific requirements indicating applicable codes, standards, and
guidelines. Normally, Performance Specifications stipulate the end-results
without detailing how to achieve them, whereas Compliance Specifications
detail mandatory methods, materi
See Brace.
A small wooden peg, hence a spile or pile.
Strip steel or plate turned into an open pipe with the longitudinal (spiral)
joint welded into a tight seam.
The joint of two pile segments.

A pile composed of two or more segments of equal or different sections

secured end to end, to form one pile. See Composite Pile.

Earth, rock debris, etc. to be disposed of.

The blows of a 140 lb hammer falling 30 in. onto a 2 in. O.D. x 1 3/8 in. I.D.
split-spoon sampler. See N Value.

See Brace.
An enlarged foundation under a column or load to reduce the total bearing
stress per square foot to carry the load directly upon the soil or rock.

See Brace.

A fender so built that impact is taken up in part by steel springs, plates or

rubber, or by elastic bending of the stucture.
Standard Penetration Test. See N Value.
1. A short, strong member, driven and then removed, to break through a
hard crust of material or to make a hole for inserting a pile which is too long
for placing directly in the driver lead. 2. A moveable vertical pipe or H-
section placed through a stron
Devices bolted to a pile hammer to engage it with and permit it to slide
along a spud lead. Sometimes called gib.
A steel wide-flange or H-beam used in place of leads. The hammer
engages and slides upon one flange of the beam through the use of spud
clips bolted to the hammer. Also called H-beam Lead, Monkey Stick, or
Pony Lead. See Sketches, Appendix B.
The act of opening a hole through dense material by dropping or driving a
Tubular precast reinforced concrete pile, hollow and open-ended.
Commonly installed by driving with diesel hammer
See Groin.
See Inclined Pile.
Fabricated steel points fastened to the very bottom of swinging box(U)
leads, or H-beam leads.

Slurry used to support the sidewalls of a slurry trench excavation.

The surveying act of putting stakes in the ground where the piles are to be
Prefabricated steel or concrete columns pre-installed in bored piles or
drilled shafts to be used as support for Top-Down construction of below-
grade structures.
See N Value.

Testing axial compression capacity of a pile by applying load. Movement of

the pile is measured during testing. ASTM D1143. See also Load Test.

Proprietary name for a method of load testing a pile in which load is applied
to the pile through a pressure chamber by burning solid fuel. Unloading
occurs by controlled venting of pressure. Calibrated to provide equivalent
static load-deflection plot.
Usually two horizontal timbers placed on opposite sides of a row of piles
and drawn together by bolts to pull the piles into line.

See Box Lead.

A rolled-steel section with web and flanges nearly the same thickness. The
width and depth are approximately equal. Also called H-Beam.

Pipe in any wall thickness or diameter; it may be driven closed end or open
end. Also called Tube Pile
A cast-in-place concrete pile formed by installing successively larger
sections of corrugated shell or thin-wall pile; ordinarily installed with a
mandrel that bears on a connector between lengths. A cuneiform pile.
Plates welded between flanges of structural shapes to reinforce against
concentrated loading, as for testing.

See Brace.

Coarse crushed stone or gravel injected into poor bearing soil by jetting and
vibro-displacement to improve carrying capacity. See Vibroflotation.

See End Pipe.

An excavation made into the ground in a series of steps or benches.
Plates fastened between flanges of an H, or other steel pile at right angles
to the vertical axis, for the purpose of increasing the pile's bearing area.
See Lagged Pile.

See Banding.

Unindirectional force per unit area (Compare pressure).

The total stress in a particular direction minus the pore pressure.

The length of a tieback or a tiedown that is not bonded to the surrounding
soil or rock.

The direction of a geologic boundary exposed at the ground surface relative

to the north. See also Dip.
See Anvil.
A cord used as a guide for straightness.
A member at right angles to, and resting on or clamped to pile caps, forming
a support for the superstructure.

The distance traveled up or down by the ram of a pile hammer.

1. A compression member extended horizontally form bent to bent, or pile

to pile in a bent, and serving as a stiffening member. 2. A compression
member extending from waler to support point which may be another waler
or the ground. 3. See Brace.

See Settlement Point

Small excavation or pit provided in a low point of construction to serve as a

collection basin for surface water and near surface underground water.

Usually a self-priming centrifugal type pump capable of handling water with

high mud content.

A surface loading that is additional to the soil load behind a retaining wall.
See illustration #6

See Settlement Point

The professional responsible for determining and locating in the field the
horizontal and vertical coordinates for the project, as defined by the design

A thin wall pipe pile with bottom closed by a slightly tapered precast point.
Driving is done by a mandrel on the point, dragging the pile down-with an
assist from a shoulder on the exact length mandrel. See Caudill Drive Point
Pile. Also called core d
See Leads, Swinging.
See Lead, Cardonic.

See Tube à Manchette.

1. Term used to describe small weld used for temporary purpose. 2.
Phrase used to describe the act of hitting sheet piles down with haripin so
they will have some penetration into the ground to stabilize the wall as used
in "tack the sheets."
A wall formed by a series of contiguous (tangent) concrete piles that are
drilled and grouted in place and generally reinforced with a steel core.

Pile with a taper.

A proprietary name for tapered steel piles, usually having twelve(12) sides
and fitted with a cast steel driving point. The pile is filled with concrete after
installation. This pile is designed to carry heavy loads in friction in poor soils
and is top dr
See Caisson Hammer.
A heavy device with hydraulic rams attached to several individual sheet
piles; rams are operated separately to push or pull a sheet while others
furnish reaction.
A structure which holds a pile hammer in box leads that are wider than the
hammer, and permits extended driving by carrying the hammer beyond the
bottom of the leads. Also called Hairpin, Pony Leads.
Metal rod used to measure vertical movement of test pile at pre-specified
depth in comparison with movement of pile head at different applied
Shoring system used primarily to provide soil and water retention during
construction, and not utilized in the permanent construction.
Part of a tieback or a tiedown consisting of prestressing steel, anchorage,
corrosion protection, sheathing and coating (if required), spacers and

The head of a timber pile after being cut or shouldered to accommodate

splicer or other devices.

See Uplift Capacity.

A pile designed to resist uplift.

See Marine Borer.

The criterion for when to terminate driving a pile. May be determined by

depth of pile penetration, or by blow count per unit of penetration. Not to be
confused with Refusal, the point at which a pile can be driven no further.

See Soil Boring.

See Load Test.

1. A pile driven to ascertain driving conditions and probable required

lengths. 2. A pile on which a static or dynamic load test also may be made
to determine its capacity and the carrying capacity of the soils. 3. A pile
driven as a guide for efficie
A method of examining soil by excavating a pit to permit direct examination
of the materials in place and its degree of compaction, as well as permit test
loads directly on what will be the foundation soils.

See Quick Test. See also ASTM D1143

See illustration #12.

Corrugated shell or thin pipe, concrete filled, driven with aid of mandrel.
See Swage Pile, Helical Shell.

The property exhibited by a slurry that gels when undisturbed and returns to
a viscous fluid when stirred or agitated.
See Lace.
A quick-acting valve mounted in the motive fluid line used to control the flow
of fluid to a steam/air pile hammer.

1) A rod or cable grouted or fixed to an in-ground anchor to resist soil or

other pressure on walls or structures. See Anchor Pile. 2) A system
consisting of a Helical Screw Anchor, screw anchor extension shafts and a
tieback plate used to resist soil o
Device cast into the wall intended to permit the installation of a tieback
through the wall and the transfer of the tieback load to the wall. Also, called
tieback sleeve.
A type of Tieback installed vertically to resist upward forces

Dense heterogeneous mixture of fine-grained and coarse-grained material

of glacial origin and compaction. It often contains significant quantities of
boulders and cobbles. See Glacial Till and Hardpan.
Instrument used to measure inclination of a structure. Typically used to
monitor sensitive structures adjacent to excavation and construction sites.

A cut tree, usually debarked, and pressure treated with creosote or other
preservative, usually driven small end down. Probably the earliest form of

See Pile Toe.

See Pile Penetration.

Also called "base-grouting". Injection of cement-based grout at pile toe to

improve condition or bearing capacity. Commonly applied for wet-processed
bored piles or drilled shafts in Europe and Asia.
Soil resistance acting against the pile toe.
Allowed variation from the design location of a foundation element or pile.

See Anvil.
See Head Block.
See Pile Monkey. Also sometimes used for Tremie Plug or Go-Devil
See Anvil.

Method of constructing a structure from grade downward, constructing the

roof and/or floor slabs of the structure in stages with excavation proceeding
below the slabs. Typically a diaphragm wall or contiguous pile wall earth-
retaining structure and stanch
Rotational energy delivered by rotary type, hydraulic power driven torque
motor used to screw helical anchorages/foundations into soil.
The empirical relationship between rotational energy used to install a helical
anchorage/foundation and its axial load capacity. The higher the installation
torque, the higher the axial capacity of the installed helical

An analysis using undrained soil parameters, and not separating the

influence of pore water pressure.
A proprietary precast concrete-tip pile with thin-shell shaft, driven with the
aid of a mandrel.
A structure constructed along a river of loose mounds or heaps of rubble,
with or without a surmounting masonry wall, timber, close timber piling,
wood sheet piling, steel sheet piling or reinforced concrete to direct the flow
of the river into a more fav

The energy transferred to the pile head and determined as the integral over
time of the product of force, velocity, and pile impedance.

1. Placing concrete below water or slurry level through a pipe, the lower
end of which is kept immersed in fresh concrete so that the rising concrete
from the bottom displaces the water or slurry without washing out cement
content. 2. The hopper and drop
Concrete placed by the tremie method.

Pipe through which concrete is placed in a slurry-filled panel or shaft.

Device placed in a tremie pipe, intended to minimize mixing of the concrete
and slurry or water at the start of the concrete placement operation. See
also Go-Devil, Rabbit

See Hydromill Excavator.

A large heavy tool dropped on a line down a bore hole to advance the
excavation in rock under water.
1. A temporary work bridge to provide access to work site and support
equipment; frequently used in rivers for access to pier construction. 2. A
timber, reinforced concrete or steel structure, which is used to support a pile
rig during driving. 3. A bridg

See European Lead.

A type of drill bit that has three conical rollers equipped with rock-cutting
teeth. Also called a Rock Roller bit
1. A block in the leads of a drop hammer causing the release of the weight
at a predetermined height. 2. Mechanical device used in diesel hammer to
both pick up the hammer and to start the hammer. Also called Trip Block or
Tripping Device.
Pile hammer lead fabricated with four main chords in a generally
rectangular shape with the chords being connected by diagonal bracing.
May have internal diagonals to form a tetrahedral design. The pile hammer
is mounted in front of and rides on two of
Title of computer wave equation program standing for Texas Transportation
Institute, developed at Texas A & M University for the Federal Highway
A steel pipe pile.
Pipe with flexible rubber sleeves that cover pre-drilled holes in a pipe at
specific intervals. Pressurized grouting through a packer forces grout
through the holes past the flexible rubber sleeves into the ground outside
for the purposes of strengthening

See Box Lead; Appendix B.

Universal Building Code.
Ultimate Limit States: A structural engineering design methodology that
defines performance criteria (deflection, strength, settlement, etc.) that must
be met when the structure is subjected to anticipated loading.

1. The maximum load which a single pile will support. 2. The load at which
unacceptable movement of the pile begins to occur.
The maximum load, computed as a total load or as a load per pile, which
the foundation will support without unacceptable movement. See Safe

The velocity of an ultrasonic pulse through concrete or grout is a function of

the modulus and density of the material. UPV is therefore a useful guide to
quality and uniformity, and can be used to identify anomalous zones in a
deep foundation shaft. The
Also called "dynamic force" and "rated driving force". See Illustration #9

A column of concrete placed and left in the ground without encasement.

See Augered Pile.

See Top-down Method.

Piles, piers, walls, sheet piling, or other supports added to or replacing

foundations under an existing structure to preserve the integrity of the
structure or increase its load capacity.
Enlargement of the lower end of an augered or drilled pile, shaft or caisson
to increase its bearing area. Also called a Bell.

Driving a pile underwater by operating the hammer under water. Provisions

must be made for hammer exhaust to the atmosphere for both steam or
compressed air powered pile hammers.

A soil classification system based on grain size distribution, liquid limit and
plasticity index of the soil.
The weight per unit volume of a material such as soil, water, concrete, etc.
Typically expressed as pounds per cubic foot, grams per cubic centimeter,
or kilograms per cubic meter.
Use of the top-down method to excavate the basement while
simultaneously constructing the superstructure.

The resistance of piles to pulling out of the ground. The ability of a pile to
resist uplift and overturn forces due to wind and hydrostatic pressure. See
Anchor Pile.

United States Department of Transportation.

A four-bladed vane is forced into undisturbed soil ahead of sampling tube

and rotated so the soil shears. Peak and remolded shearing resistance is

See Continuous Flight Auger.

See Leads, Semifixed.

Geotechnical instrument used to measure strain in reinforcement or mass

concrete of foundation or structural members such as cast-in-place bored
piles, struts, etc.

A pile driving and extracting machine which is mechanically connected to a

pile and drives or extracts the pile by oscillating it through the soil. Power
source may be either electric or hydraulic. See Illustration #4 & 5.

See Vibratory Driver/Extractors

Ground improvement method in which loose granular soil at depth is

densified by the vibrations generated by a vibratory probe inserted into the
Qualitative term to rate the predicted ease or difficulty of vibrating a pile into
place, considering the soil conditions and vibrator type. Used to differentiate
from "driveability". See illustration #14, Appendix B.
Trade name for a means of densifying non-cohesive soils by deep vibration
coupled with air or waterjetting. A Vibroflot is the instrument used, with an
internal motor driving eccentric weights.

Measure of shear strength of a liquid.

The total volume occupied by a soil mass includes the soil particles plus
void spaces (which in nature always exist between the particles because of
their irregular shape). The void ratio is the ratio of the void space volume to
the volume of soil solids

Timber sheet piles consisting of three planks bolted or spiked together, with
the middle plank offset so as to form a tongue along one edge and a
corresponding groove on the other. See Sheet Pile.
1. A horizontal structural member placed along a line of piles or support
system to accept the load from the piles or sheets and transmit it to struts,
shoring or other bracing. 2. A rubbing strip or fender on the face of docks.

The thickness of the metal of a pile.

1. A method of advancing a boring by means of rotary drilling utilizing water
or a bentonite slurry to stabilize the sides of the opening. 2. A method of
examining soil, usually in soft soil or clay, by driving a pipe into the ground
and then inserting a

The ratio of the quantity (by weight) of water in a given volume of soil mass
to the weight of the soil solids, typically expressed as a percentage.
See Jetting.

The subsurface elevation at which water will usually be present. Also called

The ratio of the weight of mix water to the weight of cementitious elements
(cement and fly ash).

Wall exhibiting a surface free of running water. Patches of moisture or

beads of water, [like beads of sweat] may be evident, but free flowing water
is not present throughout the wall surface.

A mathematical equation that describes the mechanics of force

transmission along an elastic rod (pile) that has been subjected to a mass
having a specific initial velocity from which the energy transmission and
stress at any point along a pile being drive

The speed of propagation of a stress wave in a foundation shaft or pile.

A graphic representation of a force or velocity measurement plotted against


See Side Channels.

Title of computer program standing for Wave Equation Analysis of Piles.

Developed by GRL for the Federal Highway Administration. Also called
The perforated bottom end section of a well pipe which permits the
groundwater to be drawn into the pipe for collection and disposal or use.

Construction of a bored pile or drilled shaft using slurry or supporting fluid.

Prepared slurry such as Bentonite, or polymer or unprepared slurry such as
water is commonly used as supporting fluid during drilling to stabilize the
borehole. Also known as
The World Federation of Engineering Organisations established with the
support of UNESCO. It has eighty national engineering institutions as its
members, who meet together every two years in the General Assembly of
the supreme governing body.
The generic term for a landing place or platform built at the edge or out into
water for the berthing of vessels.

Prefabricated vertical drain installed into the ground for the purpose of
speeding up consolidation of fine-grained soils. The wick drain attached to a
small anchor plate is installed with the assistance of a tubular mandrel. The
mandrel is installed by v
Rolled structural steel section in an H shape but with greater depth than
flange width, and flanges thicker than the web. See Steel H-Pile.
Short length or strips of steel welded near the toe of a steel H-pile to
increase its bearing capacity.
A Deep Soil Mixing Method (or DSMM) in which a slurry of stabilising
reagent is injected to the desired depth of stabilisation through the stem of a
hollow auger shaft either during penetration or withdrawal. This process can
form a single column or group

Flow characteristics of concrete. Important property of concrete for bored

piles or drilled shafts, barrettes and diaphragm walls if concrete placement
is by tremie method or pumping. The slump test is most commonly used to
assess workability.

See Design Load.

See Production Piles.

See Modulus of Elasticity.


essai de réception Abnahmeprüfung test di accettazione

Bohrpfahl palo trivellato

poussée des terres aktiver Erddruck empuje activo de spinta attiva del
tierras terreno
adaptateur Verbindungsstück adaptador adattatore, pezzo di
adjuvant Zusatzmittel aditivo additivo

adhérence Adhäsion adhesión adesione

produit d'addition, Beimischung, Zusatz material adiciónal additivazione,

mélange addizione

eau adsorbée adsorbiertes Wasser agua adsorbida acqua adsorbita

loess Löß loes loess

cadre triangulaire

inclinaison arrière

granulat (agrégat) Zuschlagstoff arido, agregado aggregati, inerti

air Luft aire aria
entraínement d'air Luftporenzusatz aire incluido, aire inglobamento d'aria
manche á air, gaine Druckluftschlauch, manguera de aire tubo dell'aria

extraction/élévateur à
air comprimé

sas à air

force portante limite zulässige carga admisible, valore di carico

Tragfähigkeit carga de seguridad ammissibile
del terreno

force portante limite Pfahltragfähigkeit capacidad carico ammissibile su

des pieux admisible de un palo
alluvions Alluvium aluvión alluvione

tirant d'ancrage Anker ancoraggio

tête d'ancrage Ankerkopf testa di ancoraggio

poids mort Erdanker muerto ancoraggio, corpo


rideau d'ancrage, mur Ankerwand muro de anclaje muro d'ancoraggio

ancrage, plaque Verankerung, anclaje, placa de ancoraggio
de'ancrage Verankern, anclaje
palplanche ancree verankerte tablestaca anclada muro di sostegno
Spundwand ancorato
ferrure angulaire

angle de talus naturel natürlicher ángulo de talud angolo di riposo

Böschungswinkel natural
anode Anode ánodo anodo


longueur libre Rechnerische freie lunghezza libera

équivalente Stahllänge apparente del trefolo

contrainte appliquee auftretende tensión aplicada tensione applicata

ecran, tablier, voile Dichtungsschürze pantalla, cortina

couche imperméable wasserundurchlässig acuicluso aquiclude

e Schicht

effet de voute Gewölbewirkung efecto de arco inacrcamento

pression artésienne artesischer Druck presión artesiana pressione artesiana

pression au repos Erdruhedruck empuje en reposo pressione a riposo

atomisation, par

atomisation, par

limites d'Atterberg Zustandsgrenzen límites de Atterberg limiti di Attreberg,

nach Atterberg limiti di consistenza

méche, tariére Erdbohrer barrena de trivella, punta

gusanillo elicoidale

forage á la tariére Erdbohrung, sondeo con foro trivellato

Aufschlußbohrung barrena
pieu à la tarière Schneckenbohrpfahl palo trivellateo ad
continue creuse (CFA) elica continua

pieu extrudé Bohrpfahl palo trivellato

Equipement de
remblai Hinterfüllung, relleno chiudere, riempire,
Verfüllung riempimento
pelle rétrocaveuse ziehend arbeitender retroexcavadora escavatore a braccio
Löffelbagger rovescio
bague d'appui

tube á sédiment, Schlammbüchse, cuchara de sondeo sessola gottazza

curette Kiespumpe votazza, curetta
structure de bande

barrette Schlitzwandelement barrette

soulèvement Sohlenhebung, sollevamento del

fondamental/de base Sohlauftrieb fondo

rupture profonde Grundbruch corrimiento rottura della base


fondation Keller cimentación, sótano basamento

pieu incliné Schrägpfahl pilote inclinado palo inclinato

poultre Balken viga, vigueta trave
capacité portante, Tragfähigkeit capacidad de capacità portante
portance sustentación

pieu porteur Tragpfahl, Druckpfahl pilote de palo portante


charge/pression sur Bodenpressung, presión unitaria pressione di appoggio

les appuis Auflagedruck ejercida
charge de sécurité,
surface de fatigue/de

cloison portante
fond rocheux, assise Felsuntergrund roca firme roccia di base


aufgeweiteter ancoraggio a
Injektionsanker campana
Bohrpfahl mit cassone a campana
flexion Biegung flexión flessione
moment fléchissant Biegemoment momento flector momento flettente
bentonite Bentonit bentonita bentonite

berme Böschung, Berme berma berma

faire sauter sprengen volar far esplodere

ressuage Absetzma segregazione


garnissage Aussparung, bloqueo bloccaggio,

verkeilen intasamento

Rammschläge pro conto dei colpi

Schlagzähler contacolpi

marais, marécage, Torf pantano palude


sable en boulance hydraulischer fenómeno de ebollizione di sabbia

Grundbruch arenas vivas

boulon Bolzen perno vite, bullone
adhérence du béton
longueur engagée

contrainte d'adhérence Verbundfestigkeit resistencia de resistenza per

adherencia aderenza, adesione

bôme, drome Ausleger, Trägergurt rimbombo braccio

forage, sondage Bohrung, Bohrloch sondeo foro, sondaggio,

pieu foré Bohrpfahl pilote perforado pali trivellati

diamétre de sondage Bohrlochdurchmesse diametro del foro di

r carotaggio
1- Forage 2-

matériaux d'excavation Entnahmefüllmaterial material de materiali di prestito

Sohlenhebung, sollevamento del
Sohlauftrieb fondo
gros bloc Felsblock, bolo trovante, blocco
Geröllstein, Findling
argile de moraine á Geschiebemergel, arcilla glacial con argilla a blocchi,
blocs Mergellehm bolos argilla morenica

cadre, étai, entretoise, aussteifen, Steife riostra sostegno, puntello


fouille étayée ausgesteifte excavación scavo contrastato

Baugrube entibada (con puntelli)
étayage, cadrage, Aussteifung arriostramiento puntellamento

charge de rupture Bruchspannung tensión de rotura tensione di rottura

parapet/mur Brüstung, Stützmauer muro di sostegno

crevage de piliers
flambement Knicken pandeo deformazione,
bâtiment Gebäude, Bauwerk edificio costruzione, edificio

réglement de Bauvorschriften código de la regolamento edilizio

construction construcción

chantier Baustelle ubicación de obra, terreno di costruzione

tajo cantiere
bulbe de constraintes Spannungskonzentra bulbo de tensiones bulbo di distribuzione
tion, "Druckzwiebel" delle tensioni

injection de Hohlraumverfüllung
rideau de palplanches Verbau, Schott, ataguia de pared muratura di sostegno

bulldozer Planiermaschine, bulldozer bulldozer, apripista


sous-pression Auftrieb, subpresión, empuje spinta di

Schwimmkraft galleggiamento
poids volumique Wichte des Bodens peso específico peso di volume
déjaugé unter Auftrieb sumergido immerso

gros bout Pfahlkopf cabeza (de un testa


soutenir, arc-bouter Strebepfeiler, apuntalar sostenere

soudure bord à bord

armature Bewehrungskorb armadura gabbia di armatura

caisson Senkkasten cajón cassone

calibrer, étalonner Eichung, Kalibrierung tarar calibrato


encorbellement Auskragung Kragarm valadizo sbalzo

rideau de palplanches unverankerte tablestacado sin palancolata a

en porte à faux Spundbohlen anclar mensola, a sbalzo

Bloc de garniture

Bloc de garniture
capillarite Kapillarität capilaridad capillarità

analyse d'un cas Präzidenzfall, Vorbild, caso registrado casi precedenti


trou de forage tubé verrohrtes Bohrloch sondeo entibado foro rivestito

tubage Verrohrung camicia/tubolare

tubage, tube de Verrohrung, tubo de entibación rivestimento, tubo di

revetêment Futterrohr rivestimento

paroi moulée en béton Ortbetonschlitzwand muro diaframma in

calcestruzzo gettato
in opera
pieu moulé Ortbetonpfahl pilote "in situ" palo rivestito in opera,
in sito
cathode Kathode cátodo catodo
Protection cathodique

cavité Hohlraum cavidad cavità

centimètre cube
batardeau cellulaire Zellenfangedamm ataguia celular avandiga cellulare

coulis de ciment Zementsuspension, lechada de iniezione cementizia,

Zementmörtel cemento boiacca di cemento

centreur Zentrierer centralizzato

centrifugeuse Zentrifuge centrifugadora centrifuga

chambre Kammer, Kaverne caverna camera

résistance interne Charakteristischer resistenza interna

caractéristique du Innerer caratteristica di
tirant Ankerwiderstand ancoraggio

charges (explosifs) Sprengstoff, cargas explosivas carica (esplosiva)

injection chimique chemische Injektion inyección química iniezione chimica

propriétés chimiques chemische propiedades proprietà chimiche

Zusammensetzung químicas

bague d'appui
fleuret, burin Meißel cincel, puntero scalpello a

trépan à biseau Fallmeißel trépano punta tagliante

Guide de mandrin

foret à
percussion/foreuse à

benne preneuse à Greifer cuchara bivalva benna bivalve

deux coquilles
argile Ton arcilla argilla

coupeuse d'argile


représentant technique Technischer rappresentante

du client Bauherrnvertreter tecnico del cliente

sol à grunulométrie gleichförmiger Boden suelo de ben gradato

uniforme granulometría
à grains grossiers grobkörnig de grano grueso a grana grossa
à grains grossiers grobkörnig de grano grueso a grana grossa
caillou/gallet Feldstein, Rollkiesel canto rodado ciottolo

coefficient de pression Erddruckbeiwert coeficiente de coefficiente di spinta

du sol empuje de tierras del terreno

batardeau Fangedamm ataguia avandiga

cohésion Kohäsion cohesión coesione

non cohérent nicht bindig, no coherente, incoerente, non

kohäsionslos incoherente coesivo, granulare

collëides Kolloid coloides colloidi

poteau Stütze, Pfeiler, Säule columna colonna, pilastro

compacter dichtgelagert; apisonar compatto

compatibilité Verdichtbarkeit compactibilidad compattabilità
pieu en béton


injection solide Verdichtungsinjektion iniezione di

(Kompaktionsinjektio compattazione

pieux battus pour Verdichtungspfahl pilotes de pali di compattazione

compacter le sol compactación
pieux mixtes Verbundpfahl pilotes compuestos pali compositi

air comprimé Druckluft aire comprimido aria compressa

compression Druck compresión compressione

pieu en compression Druckpfahl palo a compressione

onde de compression Druckwelle onda de onda di compressione

compresseur Kompressor compresor compressore

charge concentree konzentrierte Last, carga concentrada carico concentrato

béton (armé) Stahlbeton hormigón armado, calcestruzzo (armato)
concreto armado
dosage du béton

revêtement en béton

pieu en béton Betonpfahl pilote de hormigón palo in calcestruzzo

coulage du béton Betonierung hormigonado getto di calcestruzzo

tube plongeur Betonierrohr palo di calcestruzzo

pénétromètre à cône Kegeldruckmeßgerät penetrómetro de penetrometro a punta

cono conica

essai de compression Druckversuch mit ensayo de prova di

dans une enceinte verhinderter compresión compressione
rigide Querdehnung confinata
conglomérat Konglomerat conglomerado conglomerato

consolider setzen, verdichten consolidar consolidato


vitesse de charge gleichmässige progresión velocità di carico

constante Laststeigerung uniforme de la costante
essai de chargement à weggesteuerte prova penetrometrica
vitesse de' Probebelastung a velocità di
enforcement constante avanzamento

injection de contact Kontaktinjecktion iniezione da contatto

pression de contact Berührungsdruck, presión de contacto pressione di contatto


conteneur, cadre Behälter contenedor container

pieu à la tarière Schneckenbohrpfahl palo trivellateo ad

continue creuse (CFA) elica continua

joint de retrait

entrepreneur Unternehmer contratista impresario

tir contrôlé gerichtete Sprengung voladura controlada esplosione controllata

transporteur Förderband, Förderer transportador trasportatore

carotte de sondage Kern, Bohrkern testigo foro, campione di

trivellazione, carota
pieu de sondage gekernter Pfahl palo carotato
coupleur Koppelelement gancio
couverture Betondeckung recubrimiento copertura

fissure, crevasse Riß fisura fessura, rottura

berceau, marteau

fluer, fluage, creep kriechen reptar scorrimento

vitesse limite de fluage Grenzkriechmaß limite di creep

pieux en bois traités à Holzpfahl mit Creosot pilotes de madera pali in legno
la créosote imprägniert creosotada lubrificato (con
équipe de montage


mur gabionné Krippenwand, Wand muro jaula muro a sacco


traction critique de Kritische Kriechkraft carico limite di creep


faire entrer de force

barrette cruciforme

pierre broyée, roc- Schotter, piedra machacada pietre frantumate

gebrochenes Material

pieu en forme de coin

voile d'étanchéité Dichtungsschürze pantalla cortina

mur suspendu

matelassage, abschirmen, almohadillado antivibrazione,

amortissement abdämpfen ammortizzare
blocs amortisseurs/de

matelassage, abschirmen, almohadillado antivibrazione,

amortissement abdämpfen ammortizzare
tranchée, déblai Einschnitt trinchera taglio


mur parafouille, radier Dichtungswand, rastrillo diaframma

Abschlußwand impermeable

emporte - pièce/bague Schneidering anillo cortante anello di taglio



cylindre Zylinder cilindro cilindro

barrage Talsperre, Staudamm presa diga


traction de référence Vorbelastung carico di riferimento

poids mort Eigengewicht peso propio carico permanente

poids mort Erdanker muerto ancoraggio, corpo

temps de descente Zersetzungszeit, tiempo de atraso tempo di

Abklingzeit decadimento
roche décomposée zersetztes Gestein roca descompuesta roccia decomposta

décompression Druckentlastung descompresión decompressione

décroissement par
foundation profonde Tiefgründung cimentación fondazione profonda

flèche/déviation Durchbiegung flecha, flessione


déformation Verformung deformación deformazione

degré de compactage Verdichtungsgrad grado de apisonado grado di

degré de saturation Sättigungsgrad grado de saturación grado di saturazione

retard Verzögerung atraso ritardo

poids volumétrique Dichte densidad densità, peso di
volume unitario

poids volumétrique Dichte densidad densità, peso di

volume unitario
dépôt Ablagerung depósito deposito
profondeur de stabilité

profondeur de la Gründungstiefe profundidad de profondità di

fondation cimentación fondazione
profondeur de fiche Eindringtiefe profundidad de profondità di
penetración penetrazione

installation de
dessiccation Austrocknung desecación disseccazione
dessiccation Austrocknung desecación disseccazione
conception, projet Bemessung, Entwurf, diseño progetto

charge de projet Belastungsannahme carga de proyecto carico di progetto

détails Einzelheiten, Detaile planos de detalle dettaglio

détérioration Zerfall deterioro deterioramento

détonation Sprengung detonación detonazione

appareil Vorrichtung aparato attrezzatura
épuisement/assèchem Wasserhaltung, agotamiento prosciugamento,
ent Entwässerung aggottamento
écran/diaphragme Scheibe, diafragma, pantalla diaframma
flexible Dichtung
rideau souterrain

marteau diesel

cognement comme un

tassement différentiel Setzungsdifferenz, asiento diferencial cedimento

ungleichmäßiges differenziale


inclinaison einfallen, steichen inclinación inclinazione

désintégration Zerfall, desintegración disintegrazione

déplacement Verschiebung, corrimiento, spostamento
Fördermenge desplazamiento
injection avec Verdrängungsinjektio iniezione dislocante/
déplacement du sol n per spostamento

pieu de déplacement Verdrängungspfahl, pilote de palo infisso

Mantelreibungspfahl desplazamiento

charge répartie Verteilte Last carga repartida carico distribuito

échantillon remanié gestörte Probe muestra alterada campione disturbato

dérivation Umleitung, desvio deviazione


dock Dock muelle molo, bacino

équipe de montage

pieu avec défaut de

tasseau/faux pieux

duc d'Albe Dalbe duque de Alba boa d'ormeggio,

pilone di ormeggio

palplanches doubles

batardeau Doppelwandfangeda ataguia de doble avandiga a doppio

mm pared muro
marteau pilon à double


drague Sog, Schleppe arrastrar draga

pelle-dragline Schleppkübelbagger dragalina gru a cingoli

saignée d'écoulement

affaissement Absenkung descenso del nivel sfruttamento

de agua

draguer Naßbagger dragar dragare


dérive Strömung, Stollen, deriva, galería traiettoria


dérive Strömung, Stollen, deriva, galería traiettoria


boulon de serrage

forer Bohrer, Bohrgerät sondear trapano, perforatrice

trou de forage Bohrloch sondeo pozzo in corso di

perforazione, foro di
pieu foré

pieux forés Bohrpfahl pilotes de pali trivellati


forage Bohren trivellare

fluid deforage/boue de Spulflussigkeit, liquido /fango di

forage Bohrspülung trivellazione
boue de forage Bohrflüssigkeit, fango de sondeos fluido di perforazione
boue de forage Dickspülung, lodo de perforación fango di perforazione
outillage de sondage Bohrgerät equipo de sondeo attrezzatura di
foncer rammen, abteufen hincar battere

pointe de fonçage Rammschuh azuche scarpa d'infissione,

scarpa di battitura

tube de fonçage Vortreibrohr/Rammro camicia d'infissione


casque d'ajustement

pieu battu Rammpfahl pilote hincado palo infisso, palo

fonçage Einbringen/Eintrieben infiggere, battere


rapporte de battage Rammprotokoll parte de hinca rapporto d'infissione

point d'application
rapporte de battage Rammprotokoll parte de hinca rapporto d'infissione

résistance dynamique Rammwiderstand resistencia a la resistenza

au battage penetración all'infissione

essai de battage Rammversuch ensayo de prova d'infissione,

penetración prova di battitura
mouton à déclic Rammfallbär, maza maglio

densité sèche, poids Trockendichte densidad seca densità secca, peso

volumetrique sec di volume secco

poids volumetrique sec Trockengewicht peso seco peso secco

remblayage à sec
méthode par voie

ductile Streckbarkeit, ductilidad duttilità


durabilite Dauerfestigkeit durabilidad durabilità

digue Deich dique argine, diga


force dynamique

essai de chargement dynamische test di carico

dynamique Probeelastung dinamico
charge dynamique dynamische carga dinámica carico dinamico
essai de chargement dynamischer test dinamico sul palo
dynamique de pieu Pfahlversuch

sondage dynamique Echoloten, ensayo dinámico prova di penetrazione

Rammsoudierung de penetración dinamica

essai dynamique dynamische Prüfung ensayo dinámico prova dinamica


poussée des terres Erddruck empuje de tierras spinta del terreno

charge excentrée exzentrische carga excéntrica carico eccentrico


moment excentrique

excentricite Exzentrizitaet excentricidad eccentricita

pression effective wirksame presión efectiva pressione efficace

deformation élastique elastische Dehnung deformación deformazione elastica

module d'élasticité Elastizitätsmodul módulo de modulo elastico
électrode Elektrode electrodo elettrodo
électro-osmose Elektro-Osmose electroosmosis elettro-osmosi

remblai Aufschüttung, Damm terraplen terrapieno, rilevato

enrober einbetten incluir inserire, incorporare,


protection Korrosionsschutzumh incapsulare



palier de bout

pieu résistant à la Spitzendruckpfahl pilote resistente por palo portante di punta

pointe la punta

pertes d'énergie Energieverlust pérdidas perdite di energia


génie civil Ingenieurwesen ingeniería ingegneria

géologie appliquée Ingenieurgeologie geología ingenieril geologia applicata

base élargie

base élargie Fußaufweitung punta allargata

air inclus eingeschlossene Luft aire incluido aria inglobata

résines époxy Kunstharz resinas epoxis epossidi

équilibre Gleichgewicht equilibrio equilibrio

équipement Gerät, Ausrüstung equipo equipaggiamento,

évaporation Verdunstung evaporación evaporazione

déblais Aushubmaterial material excavado materiale escavato
excavation Baugrube, excavación escavazione, scavo
excavateur Trockenbagger excavadora escavatore
surpression hydrostatischer sobrepresión pressione idrostatica
interstitielle Überdruck eccedente

orifices d'échappement

pieu expansé

explosifs Spengstoff explosivos esplosivi

force explosive

extension, spirale

de contrainte
résistance externe du Herausziehwiderstan resistenza esterna di
tirant d des Ankers ancoraggio

extraction, Herausziehen extracción estrazione


coefficient de sécurité Sicherheitsfaktor coeficiente de coefficiente de

seguridad sicurezza
résistance pondérée
de portée

charge pondérée

résistance pondérée

rupture Versagen, Bruch rotura rottura, avaria

charge de rupture Bruchbelastung, carga de rotura carico di rottura

surface de rupture Bruchfläche superficie de rotura superficie di rottura

faux pieu

prise incomplète "falsche" Erstarrung fraguado falsa presa

des Frischbetons incompleto
échafaudage de
fascine Flechtwerk, Buhne fajina fascina

faille Verwerfung falla faglia, fagliamento


remblayage Auffüllboden, relleno riempimento, riporto


filler Füller filler filler, materiale inerte

di additivazione

remplissage gravitaire Verfüllen riempimento

filtre Filter, Filterschicht filtro filtro

tourteau de filtration

perte de produit de

fines Feinsand, Feinstoffe finos fini

métode des éléments Finite-Elemente método de metodo degli elementi
finis Berechnungsmethod elementos finitos finiti
fond solide fester Grund terreno firme base stabile, fondo
trépan/queue de

injection de fissure Kluftinjektion

longueur de Krafteintragungsläng lunghezza d'incastro

scellement du tirant e di ancoraggio

Einspannmoment momento de incastro perfetto

fondation flexible elastiche Gründung cimentación flexible fondazione flessibile

résistance à la flexion Biegefestigkeit resistencia a la forza di flessione,

flexión resistenza a flessione

fondation sur pieux schwimmende pilotaje flotante fondazione sospesa

flottants Pfahlgründung su pali
floculé flockenartig floculado flocculante

sol Decke, Geschoß, piso, planta piano

flottaison Flotation flotación flottazione ,
écoulement Strömung, Abfluß, flujo flusso
réseau de lignes de Stromliniennetz red de filtración rete di flusso
d'écoulement/ligne de
énergie hydraulique

cendres volantes Flugasche ceniza volante ceneri volanti

marteau mobile

foliation Schieferung foliación fogliazione

faux pieu (Ramm) jungfer, seguidor prolungi di battitura


semelle/embase Fundament zapata base d'appoggio,

fondazione, plinto

coup selon système


chef d'équipe
formation Formung, Aufbau, formación formazione
fondation Gründung, cimentación, fondazione
Fundament cimiento
fracture Bruch fractura frattura
treillis Rahmen pórtico telaio

longueur libre du tirant Freie Ankerlänge lunghezza libera di


gel, gelée
fossé couvert/drain à
cailloux/drainage par
rigoles remplies de
matières filtrantes

fréquence Häufigkeit, Frequenz, frecuencia frequenza


eau douce Süßwasser agua dulce acqua dolce

roche friable bröckliges Gestein roca friable roccia friabile
frottement Reibung rozamiento, fricción attrito

pieu flottant Reibungspfahl pilote flotante palo portante per


gel, gelée Frost helada gelo

limite de gel/de

action du gel

gonflement dû au gel Frosthebung entumecimiento por sollevamento per gelo

la helada
vanne Tor compuerta saracinesca

jauge Messuhr aparato de medida indicatore, misuratore

géologie Geologie geología geologia

exploration geophysikalische prospección indagine geofisica
géophysique Untersuchung geofísica

géotechnique Geotechnik geotecnia geotecnica

réglette de
guidage/clavette de


poutre Träger viga trave portante, trave


dépôt glaciaire Eiszeitablagerung depósito glacial deposito glaciale

dépôt des riviéres eiszeitliche aluvión glacial dilavamento glaciale,

glaciaires Flußablagerung deposito morenico

argile à moraines

gradation Abstufung, granulometría gradazione

niveleuse Strassenhobel niveladora classificatore,

maicchina spianatrice

forme des grains Kornform forma de las forma dei grani

diamétre des grains Korngröße diámetro de los granulometria
gravier Geröll, Schotter grava ghiaia

injection gravitaire drucklose Verfüllung iniezione a gravità

mouton sec Freifallhammer maza de gravedad martello a gravità,

maglio a caduta libera

treillis de poutres
poutres croisées
Fundament mit emparrillado piattaforma di
Profileisenraster fondazione reticolo di

broyer/triturer/moudre zermahlen moler macinare

sable grossier

en épi

niveau du sol Geländehöhe nivel del suelo livello del terreno

surface du terrain Geländeoberfläche superficie del superficie del terreno

naturel terreno natural

eau souterraine/nappe Grundwasser agua subterranea acqua di falda


surface de le nappe

effet de groupe Gruppeneffekt efecto de grupo effetto di gruppo

lait de ciment / coulis Verpreßmörtel / lechada (para cemento liquido/
Zementmörtel inyección) iniezione

voile d'injection Dichtungsschleier pantalla de cortina d'iniezione

injecter Zementmörtel inyectar iniettare

injection sous pression Verpressen iniettare

pression d'injection Injektionsdruck pressione di iniezione


murettes-guides Leitwände muro guida


derrick maintenu par

des tirants

mouton/marteau Hammer, Ramme, martillo, martinete martello

trépan benne

pince levier à riper

sol dur impénétrable fester Boden costra cementada, hardpan, livello molto
oberhalb von "hardpan" cementato, crosta
gewachsenem Fels dura
installation de Transportgeräte material de attrezzatura
transporte transporte d'avanzamento
risque Gerfahr riesgo pericolo, rischio

poutre en double
T/poutre en I

coin de serrage

couronnement d'un Stirnwand muro di testa

chaleur d'hydratation Hydrationswäme calor de hidratación calore d'idratazione

se soulever Hebung levantarse sollevamento,

extracteur de carotte

point d'ancrage

tarière, mèche Schneckenbohrer barrena salomónica trivella ad elica

faux pieu/casque de

hétérogène verschiedenartig, heterogeneo eterogeneo

machine d'extraction

homogène gleichartig, homogen homogeneo omogeneo

pression horizontale horizontaler Erddruck empuje de tierras spinta orizzontale del

(poussée) horizontal terreno

pieux à section en H-Profilpfahl pilotes en H palo con putrella a

forme d'H doppio T


remblai hydraulique aufgespülter Boden relleno hidráulico riempimento idraulico

fracturation Hydraulische fratturazione idraulica

hydraulique (injection Rissbildung
de claquage) (Claquage)

Marteau hydraulique

hydrologie Hydrologie hidrología idrologia

pression du
liquide/chute d'eau
glace et neige Eis und Schnee hielo y nieve ghiaccio e neve

impact Aufprall, Stoß impacto impatto


imperméable undurchlässig impermeable impenetrabile

imperméable undurchlässig impermeable impenetrabile

tapis imperméable Dichtungsschicht manto impermeable copertura


pieu incliné

index Inhaltsverzeichnis, índice indice

durci verhärtet endurecido indurito

déformation non nicht-elastische deformación deformazione non

élastique Verformung inelástica elastica

infilration Einsickerung, infiltración infiltrazione


ligne d'influence

prise iniciale Abbindebeginn fraguado inicial inizio di presa

entrée, accès Eingang, Zugang, entrada immissione, entrata

pression d'alimentation

sol inorganique anorganischer Boden suelo inorgánico terreno inorganico

sur le terrain/in situ

pieu coulé sur place

résistance en place Festigkeit an Ort und resistencia in situ resistenza in sito


essai in situ Prüfung an Ortund ensayo in situ test in sito, prova in

Stelle sito
inspection Banüberwachung inspección ispezione
instruments de mesure Meßgerätausrüstung instrumentación strumentazione

instruments de mesure Meßgerätausrüstung instrumentación strumentazione

matrice rocheuse ungestörtes Gestein roca sana roccia intatta

essai d'intégrité Integritätsprüfung test d'integrità

intergranulaire zwischen den intergranular intergranulare

crochets des joints des Spundbohlenschloß enclavamiento de collegamento tra
palplanches las tablestacas palancole
frottement interne innere Reibung rozamiento interno attrito interno

radier Sohle invert arco rovescio

essai préalable Untersuchungsprüfun test d'indagine

cric, vérin Winde, Presse gato, gata martinetto

pieux vérinés hydraulisch pilotes hincados a pali precompressi

eingepresster presión

appareil de levage hydraulische aparato de attrezzatura di

Pressgeräte elevación precompressione

jet, réacteur Düse chorro getto

pieux lancés eingespülter Pfahl pilotes hincados pali iniettati
con lanza de agua


joint Fuge junta giunto

réseau de fractures Fugenanordung patrón de diaclasi


karst Karst karst carsico




pieu central

poinçon de faîte

kilopound/1000 livres


pieu enrobé

retard, déphasage Holzbohlen entrablonado, parete di tavole

tablones de

bouillie de ciment

terre Land tierra terra

glissement de terrain Erdrutschung corrimiento de frana, scivolamento di

tierras terreno

forces latérales seitliche Belastung fuerzas laterales forze laterali

charge latérale
pression latérale Seitendruck presión lateral pressione laterale,
spinta laterale

support latéral seitliche Abstützung sostén lateral supporto laterale,

sostegno laterale

couche Schicht capa strato

délaver auslaugen, lixiviar lisciva
arête avant/bord

perte par Leckstelle, perdida por perdita, percolato

infiltration/fuite/défaut Undichtigkeit filtración
béton faiblement dosé
en ciment
levée Schutzdamm malecón argine, diga
bras de levier Hebelarm brazo de palanca braccio di leva
élingue de levage

aggrégats légers Leichtgewichtzuschla agregados ligeros aggregati leggeri


chaux, pierre calcaire Kalk, Kalkstein cal calce, calcare

calcul limite Grenzlastverfahren análisis del estado analisi limite


gaine, chemise Hülse, Mantelrohr rivestimento,


tubage Auskleidung entibación rivestire, incamiciare


rupture par liquéfaction Versagen durch corrimiento por

rottura per
Bodenverflüssigung liquefacción liquefazione
liquide flüssig, Flüssigkeit líquido liquido
limite de liquidité Fließgrenze límite líquido
limite di liquidità
indice de liquidité Fließkennzahl índice de fluidez
indice di liquidità
surcharge Verkehrslast sobrecarga carico accidentale,
charge Last, Ladung carga carico
élément porteur Tragglied elemento di capacità
capacité portante Bodenpressungstragf capacidad de carga capacità portante
facteur de chargement Belastungsfaktor, factor de carga fattore di carico
appareil mesurant les Belastungsanzeiger testigo de cargas indicatore di carico
accroissement de Laststufe incremento de incremento di carico
charge carga
perte de tension Grenzkraftabfall perdita di carico limite

essai de charge, Belastungsversuch ensayo de carga prova di carico

épreuve de charge

chargeur Ladegerät máquina cargadora caricatore, draga di

chargement et Lastwechsel, Be-und carga y descarga carico e scarico
déchargement Entladen
poutre d'essai Belastungsrahmen aparato de carga attrezzatura di carico
essai statique

courbe de charge Lastsetzungskurve curva de cargas- curva carico-

asientos cedimento

courbe de charge Lastsetzungskurve curva de cargas- curva carico-

asientos cedimento
terre glaise Lehm tierra arcillosa terriccio, argilla da
ligera mattoni
écluse Schleuse, Schloß esclusa serratura , chiusura
traction de blocage Festlegekraft bloccaggio/ carico di

loess Löß loes loess

bûches Tagebuch, Kantholz, troncos, leños registrazione dei dati

Holzklotz di perforazione
meuble locker flojo sciolto

ciment à faible chaleur Zement mit niedriger cemento de bajo cemento a basso
d'hydratation Abbindewärme calor de hidratación calore d'idratazione

graisser schmieren, ölen, engrasar, lubricar lubrificare, ingrassare


remblai aufgeschütteter terreno de relleno terreno di riporto

essai de chargement lastgesteuerte carico di prova
par palier Probebelastung costante


manchon, chemise Mantel, Hülle, manguito manicotto del

Verbindungsmuffe mandrino
taret/tarrède/ver de

dépôt marin Meeresablagerung depósito marino deposito marino

repère Festpunkt, Spur referencia fija, traccia, caposaldo di
marca de referencia livellazione

marne Mergel marga marna

marais Sumpf, Marsch pantano palude, pantano

gros béton Massenbeton hormigón en masa, calcetruzzo massivo

concreto en masa

fondation sur radier Fundamentplatte cimentación flotante fondazione a piastra

(a platea)

mesure Aufmaß medición, medida misura

membrane Membrane membrana membrana
maille Masche malla apertura della maglia,

micropieu Mikropfahl pali radice, micro pali

assemblage, Verbindung giunto del micro palo
connexion de

minéraux Mineral, Gestein minerales minerali

mélangé sur place an Ort und Stelle mezclado "in situ" mescolato in posto,
gemischt miscelato insito
mélangeur Mischer mesclador, agitador miscelatore,
installation de mélange

matériel mobile bewegliches Gerät, equipo móvil attrezzatura mobile

module d'élasticité Elastizitätsmodul módulo de modulo di elasticità

module de réaction Erdwiderstandsmodul coeficiente de modulo di sottofondo

, Bettungszahl balasto
humide feucht húmedo umido
teneur en eau Feuchtigkeitsgehalt humedad umidità
moment d'inertie Trägheitsmoment momento de inercia momento d'inerzia

mouton Rammbär, Fallbär maza maglio (di battipalo)

pieu d'amarrage

moraine Moräne morrena morena

mortier Mörtel mortero malta

marbré geadert veteado screziato, variegato,

boue, vase Schlamm barro fango, fango organico

boue, vase Schlamm barro fango, fango organico

tourteau de filtration

injection d'argile Hohlrauminjektion inyección de arcilla iniezione di miscele a

base di argilla

vague de boue Schlammwelle ola de fango onda di fango

abattage à banquettes Stufensprengung voladura de brillamento su più
multiples banqueo por banchi

abattage à files Reihensprengung voladura de brillamento su più file

multiples banqueo por lineas

injection sous pression Nachverpressen iniezione a più stadi,

repetée riprese
bâtiment mehrstöckiges edificio alto edificio alto, edificio
Gebäude multipiano

teneur en eau natürlicher humedad natural umidità naturale ,

naturelle Wassergehalt, contenuto d'acqua
Feuchtigkeitsgehalt naturale

poutre à aiguille

espacement des

sous-pression de l'eau negativer presión intersticial pressione dei pori

interstitielle Porenwasserdruck negativa negativa

frottement latéral negative resistenza all'attrito

négatif Mantelreibung negativa

ligne de limite

mamelon Nippel nipplo

essais non destructifs zerstörungsfreie ensayos no prove non distruttive
Prüfung destructivos
injection sans Verdrängungsfreie iniezione non
déplacement du sol injektion (Injektion dislocante

consolidé normalkonsolidiert consolidado normalmente

normalement normalmente consolidato

puits d'observation Beobachtungsbrunne pozo de pozzo

n observación d'osservazione,
pozzo spia


pieu oméga

caisson ouvert offener Senkkasten cajon abierto cassone aperto

tranchée ouverte nichtausgesteifte excavación abierta scavo aperto, trincea
benne polype

matèria organica organische Stoffe materia orgánica materiale organico

oscillateur Oszillator oscilador oscillatore

osmose Osmose osmosis osmosi

affleurement (géol.) zutageliegend afloramiento (geol.) affioramento

plaine d'alluvions Kiesfeld, Sandfeld llanura aluvial superficie di

dilavamento, piana
surexcavation Mehraushub sobreexcavación sovrascavo
surabattage Mehrausbruch sobreexcavación sovrascavo

surcharge Überlagerung, montera, terreno di copertura

Deckschicht sobrecarga de

surconsolidé überkonsolidiert apisonado en sovraconsolidato


enfonçage trop avant

surcharge Überlastung sobrecarga sovraccarico

excédent de contrainte Überschreiten der exceso de tensión sovrasollecitazione


manométrique en psi

panneau Schlitzwandelement pannello
dimension des grains Teilchengröße dimensión de los granulometria,
granos dimensione delle
vitesse des grains

pression de butée Erdwiderstand, empuje pasivo de spinta passiva del

passiver Erddruck tierras terreno

graviers roulés erbsengroßer Kies pinoncillo tondo pisello (ghiaino)

résistance maximale Spitzenscherkraftfesti resistencia máxima resistenza al taglio di

au cisaillement gkeit al corte picco
tourbe Torf turba torba

croc à levier/grappin

caillou/pierraille Kieselstein morrillos ciottolo

socle, pédestal Sockel pedestal piedestallo


injection de Eindringinjektion iniezione a

pénétration penetrazione
protocole de Rammprotokoll parte de hinca registrazione
pénétration dell'avanzamento
résistance à la Eindringungswidersta resistencia a la resistenza
pénétration nd penetración all'avanzamento

essai de pénétration Rammsondenversuc ensayo de prova di penetrazione

h penetración

appareil pénétromètre Eindringungsmesser penetrómetro penetrometro

pourcentage en poids Gewichtsprozente tanto por ciento en percentuale in peso

peso, porcentage
en peso

nappe d'eau gespannter nivel de aguas falda idrica sospesa

suspendue Grundwasserspiegel colgadas

filtration Versickerung, fibración percolazione

sondage à percussion Schlagbohrung sondeo de trépano perforazione a

rendement mécanique

gel permanent Dauerfrost terreno helado permafrost, gelo

permanentemente perenne

tirant d'ancrage Daueranker ancoraggio

permanent permanente
perméabilité Durchlässigkeit, permeabilidad permeabilità
injection Poreninjektion iniezione di
d'imprégnation (Imprägntion durch permeazione
Porenverfüllung) (impregnante)
pH (potentiel

ligne phréatique, Sickerlinie, linea freática superficie freatica

niveau -- -oberfläche

fondation ou base Pfeilergründung arranque de un fondazione di pile,

d'une jetée ou d'un espigón fondazione a pozzo
piézomètre Pegel piezometro piezometro

hauteur, charge Pegelhöhe altura piezométrica altezza piezometrica

surface piézométrique Pegelniveau nivel piezométrico superficie

pieu Pfahl palo

sonnette Rammgerüst machina attrezzatura per

l'infissione dei pali
pouvoir portant des Pfahltragfähigkeit carga de capacità portante del
pieux hundimiento de un palo
casque (pieux) Pfahlkopfplatte encepado piastra di
collegamento di pali,

engin de
battage/membre du
personnel de l'équipe
de battage
battage de pieux Pfahlrammen hinca de pilotes infissione di pali,
battitura di pali

formule de battage Rammformel fórmula de hinca formula dinamica per

pali infissi
resistance d'un pieu au Rammwiderstand resistencia resistenza
battage dinámica de un all'infissione dei pali

extraction d'un pieu Pfahlziehen extracción de estrazione dei pali

extracteur de

foundation sur pieux Pfahlgründung cimentación por fondazione su pali

grillage sur pilotis

groupe de pieux Pfahlgruppe grupo de pilotes gruppo di pali

mouton Pfahlrammhammer, maza de hinca de martello battipalo,
Rammbär pilotes maglio da battipalo


essai de chargement Pfahlbelastungsversu ensayo de carga prova di carico su pali

de pieu ch sobre pilotes

mouton Rammbär, Fallbär maza maglio (di battipalo)

tuyau Rohr tubo canale, tubazione

pipeline/canalisation Rohrleitung oleoducto condotto, tubazione

renard (érosion Rohrnetz, Verrohrung sifonamiento sifonamento


sonde à piston Hohlkolbenprobeentn tomamuestras de campionatore a

ehmer pistón pistone
fosse, puits Grube, Baugrube préstamo, foso buca, cava, scavo,

déblais Boden aus der Grube todo uno materiale escavato

surface de moindre schwache plano de debilidad piano di debolezza
résistance Schnittebene
déformation plane ebener deformación plana deformazione piana

béton plastique Tonbeton calcestruzzo plastico

paroi moulée en béton Tonbetonschlitzwand muro di calcestruzzo

plastique plastico

déformation plastique plastische deformación deformazione plastica

Verformung plástica
limite de plasticité Plastizitätsgrenze, límite plástico limite di plasticità
sol plastique plastischer Boden suelo plástico terreno plastico
plasticité Plastizität plasticidad plasticità

indice de plasticité Plastizitätszahl índice de indice di plasticità

essai de charge sur Plattendruckversuch ensayo de carga prova di carico su
plaque con placa piastra
bouchon, tampon, Verschluß, Dübel tapón tappo
pieu à l'aplomb
caisson pneumatique Druckluftsenkkasten cajon de aire cassone pneumatico

pieu-colonne Fußpressungspfahl, pilote resistente por palo portante di punta

Spitzendruckpfahl su punta
effort de pointe Punktlast fuerza concentrada carico di punta
en la punta

résistance à la pointe Spitzenwiderstand resistencia por la resistenza di punta

coefficient de Poisson Poissonsche Zahl módulo de Poisson rapporto di Poisson

polymère Polymer polimero polimero

former une mare Teich embalsar stagno

mal calibré, -- trié schlecht abgestuft, mal graduado mal gradato, assortito
schlecht gekörnt

disparition de la Porenwasserdruckauf disipación de las dissipazione della

pression interstitielle lösung presiónes pressione dei pori

pression de l'eau Porenwasserdruck presión intersticial pressione dell'acqua

interstitielle del agua dei pori
porosité Porosität porosidad porositá

Panneau à


tarières mécaniques Kraftlöffelbohrer barrenas de motor trivelle meccaniche

présondage Vorbohrung sondeo previo preforo

bèton préfabriqué Betonfertigteil hormigón calcestruzzo

prefabricado preconfezionato,
paroi préfabriquée en Fertigteilschiltzwand muro diaframma di
bèton calcestruzzo
pieu préfabriqué Betonfertigpfahl pilotes de hormigón pali in calcestruzo
prefabricado preconfezionato

précompression Vorbelastungdruck precompresión precompressione

préconsolidation Vorkonsolidierung preconsolidación preconsolidazione
pression de Vorkonsolidierungsdr presión de pressione di
préconsolidation uck preconsolidación preconsolidazione

préfabrication Fertigbauweise, prefabricación prefabbricazione


étude préliminaire Voruntersuchung estudio preliminar indagine preliminare

micropieu préliminaire Vorversuchs- micropalo preliminari

(Probepfahl 1)
pieu préliminaire Probepfahl palo preliminare

chargement Vorbelastung carga previa precarico

pieu ballasté injecté Prepacked-Pfahl palo prefabbricato

conservation Konservierung conservación preservazione

prédécoupage Vorspaltung precorte prerottura,
pression Druck, Pressung presión, empuje pressione
pression statique au Ruheerddruck empuje en reposo pressione a riposo
bulbe de pression Druckzwiebel bulbo de presiónes bulbo di pressione

jauge de contrainte Druckanzeiger, piezómetro indicatore di

Manometer pressione,

hauteur de la chute
d'eau/charge d'eau

précontraindre Vorspannung pretensar presollecitazione,

pieu précontraint


pieu béton filé



consolidation primaire Primärkonsolidierung consolidación consolidazione

primaria primaria
projet Projekt proyecto progetto

traction d'épreuve Prüfkraft carico di prova

support, appui Stütze, Steife puntal puntello, sbadacchio,

protection Schutz protección protezione

couches protectrices Schutzbeschichtung capas protectoras rivestimento
protettivo, pittura

corroi d'argile Lehmschlag arcilla de tejar argilla compattata

essai de traction Zugversuch, ensayo de prova di estrazione

Ausziehversuch arranque
pompe Pumpe bomba pompa
béton pompé Pumpbeton hormigón calcestruzzo pompato
concreto bombeado

essai de pompage Pumpversuch ensayo de prova di pompaggio


essai, prealable Eignungsprüfung ensayo previo test di idoneità

contrôle de qualité Qualitätsüberwachun control de calidad controllo di qualità

carriere Steinbruch cantera caua, petraia
quartz Quarz quarzo quarzo
quai Kai muelle molo
mur de quai Kaiwand muro de muelle banchina
boulance Fließerscheinung sifonamiento liquefazione
chaux vive ungelöschter Kalk cal viva limi sciolti mobili
sable boulant Fließsand arena movediza sabbie mobili

mouton Rammbär, Fallbär maza maglio (di battipalo)

foundation sur radier Plattengründung cimentación flotante fondazione a platea

voie ferrée Eisenbahn ferrocarril ferrovia

étançon oblique

pieu incliné
pilon, dame Ramme pisón battipalo,

pilon, dame Ramme pisón battipalo,


vidange rapide/vitesse Schnellabsenkung descenso rápido o abbassamento rapido

de baisse du niveau repentino

tachymètre, compteur Registrierapparat velocímetro indicatore di velocità

de vitesse
vitesse de chargement Belastungsgeschwind velocidad de carga velocità di carico
alésé ausgebohrt, escariado alesato


courbe de gonflement Entlastungskurve curva de curva di rimbalzo,

entumecimiento curva di scarico

recharger Wiederbelasten cargar ricarico

recompression Druckwiederholung, recompresión ricompressione
pourcentage de carotte Wiedergewinnung recuperación recupero


semelle rectangulaire rechteckiges zapata rectangular base di fondazione

Fundament rettangolare
point de référence Bezugspunkt punto de referencia punto di riferimento

pieu en béton armé Stahlbetonpfahl pilote de hormigón palo in calcestruzzo

o concreto armado armato

terre armée bewehrte Erde tierra armada terra armata

paroi moulée en coulis Bewehrte muro bentonitico
armé Einphasenschlitzwan rinforzato

densité relative relative Dichte densidad relativa densità relativa

relaxation Entspannung relajación rilassamento
puits de décharge ou Entlastungsbrunnen pozo de descarga pozzo di
de décompression alleggerimento, pozzo
charge répétée wiederholte carga repetida carichi ripetuti

contrainte résiduelle Restspannung tensión remanente sforzo residuo

résine Harz restina resina


moment resistant widerstehendes momento resistente momento de

Moment resistenza
fréquence de Resonanzfrequenz frecuencia de frequenza di
résonnance resonancia risonanza
re-battre un pieu

mur de soutènement Stützmauer muro de muro di sostegno,

sostenimiento, paratia
muro de contención

retardateur Verzögerungsmittel agente retardante additivo ritardante

injection d'eau en sens

forage avec injection

d'eau en sens inverse
radier de fondation starre solera rígida, fondazione rigida
rigide Gründungsplatte cimentación rígida
mur rigide starre Wand muro rígido muro rigido, paratia
enrochement Steinschüttung, escollera fondazione
Steinwurf subacquea in
pietrame alla rinfusa
roche, roc Fels roca roccia

ancrage Felsanker anclaje en roca ancoraggio per roccia

boulons d'ancrage Felsanker, Felsnagel perno para roca bullone per roccia

remblai rocheux Steinaufschüttung pedraplen inerte gradato per

dighe in terra
tige, tringle, barre Stange, Stab barra asta

forage par rotation

fleuret en losange

forage à rotary Rotationsbohrung sondeo rotativo sin perforazione a

testigo rotazione
perforation par Drehschlagbohrung perforación por perforazione a
rotation-percussion percusión y rotopercussione
rotation Drehung, Rotation rotación rotazione
rangée de pieux Pfahlreihe fila de pilotes linea di pali, fila di pali

écoulement Oberflächenabfluß escorrentia deflusso

rupture Bruch, Platzen rotura rottura
patte de fixation/sabot

charge admissible zulässige Last carga admisible carico ammissibile

coefficient de sécurité Sicherheitsfaktor coeficiente de fattore di sicurezza


marge de sécurité

sels Salze sales sali

échantillon Probe, Muster muestra campione

remaniement lors de la Entnahmestörung alteración de las disturbo del

prise d'echantillon muestras durante la campionamento
cuiller pour prise Entnahmelöffel, cucharilla para cucchiaia
d'echantillon Rohrsonde toma de muestras campionatrice
carottier Entnahmerohr tubo de testigo tubo campionatore,
sable Sand arena sabbia

drains de sable Sandabflußrinne, drenes de arena dreni in sabbia

pieu de sable Sandpfahl pilote de arena palo in sabbia
sol saturé gesättigter Boden suelo saturado terreno saturo
echelle Maßtab escala bilancia
scarificateur Aufreißpflug, escarificador scarificatore
escarpé Steilhang escarpe scarpata
domaine de travail

affouillement auspülen, socavación erosione superficiale,

unterspülen scalzamento

décapeuse, scraper Erdlader, robadera, scraper ruspa

tamis Sieb pantalla crivello, retino, vaglio

pieu à vis Schraubpfahl pilote de rosca pali ad elica

niveau de la mer Meeresspiegel nivel del mar livello del mare

digue Mole muro costero muro a mare, parete

a mare

sceller abdichten sellar sigillatura,

effet saisonnier jahreszeitlicher efecto estacional effetto stagionale
pieu transversal

compression Sekundärdruckbelast consolidación compressione

secondaire ung secundaria secondaria,
cedimento secondario

panneau secondaire

coupe Schnitt sección sezione

roche sédimentaire Sedimentgestein roca sedimentaria roccia sedimentaria

matière en suspension

percolation Durchsickerung, filtración filtrazione

courant de filtration Sickerwasserströmun corriente de flusso di filtrazione
g filtración

étude sismique Seismologische diseño sísmico progetto sismico

recherche par
méthode séismique

célérité sismique seismische velocidad de ondas velocità sismica

Geschwindigkeit sísmicas

sismométre Seismometer sismómetro sismometro

coulis autodurcissant Selbsterhärtende bentonite auto

Suspension indurenete
poids propre Eigengewicht peso propio peso proprio

argile sensible au strukturempfindlicher arcilla susceptible argilla sensitiva

remaniement Ton
capteur Empfangsapparat, captor sensore
suite de couches ou de Aufeinanderfolge der sucesión de los successione di strati,
bancs Schichten estratos sequenza di strati

prise (matériaux) Abbindung fraguado messa a punto

tassement Setzung asiento cedimento

calcul du tassement Setzungsanalyse cálculo de los analisi del cedimento

courbe de tassement Setzungskurve curva de asiento curva di cedimento

mesure de tassement Setzungsmessung medida del asiento misura del cedimento

plaque repère de Setzungsplatte placas testigos de piano di

tassement asientos assestamento
point de dilatation

égout Abwasserleitung colector, desagüe fogna


puits Schacht pozo albero, asta, pozzo

diamètre du fût Pfahldurchmesser diametro del pozzo

schiste Tonschiefer pizarra arcillosa schisto argilloso

tranchée peu profonde flacher Aushub trinchera somera taglio superficiale,
scavo superficiale
fondation en surface Flachgründung cimentación fondazione
somera superficiale
effort de cisaillement Scherkraft corte forza di taglio
contrainte de Schubspannung, esfuerzo cortante sollecitazione altaglio
cisaillement Scherspannung
essai de cisaillement Abscherversuch prova di taglio
resistance au Scherfestigkeit resistencia al resistenza al taglio,
cisaillement esfuerzo cortante taglio


rideau de palplanches Spundwand pared tablestacada paratia con palancole,


parafouille étanche en Spundwandsporn tablestacado diaframma di

palplanches cortaguas palancole
rideau de palplanches Spundwand pared tablestacada muro di palancole,
palplanche Verbau tablestacado palificata,
revistimento con

taret/terrède/ver de

étayage Abstützung apuntalamiento puntellamento

béton projeté Spritzbeton hormigón lanzado calcestruzzo


pelle Schaufel pala, lampa pala, badile, draga

retrait Schwinden retracción ritiro

frottement latéral Seitenreibung fricción lateral attrito laterale


analyse Siebanalyse análisis analisi granulometrica

granulométrique granulométrico por per vagliatura
graisseur compte-
gouttes à débit visible

palplanche vérinée

silice Kieselsäure, Silika sílice silice

silt Schluff limo silt, limo

dépôt de silt Verschlammung rellenarse de fango insabbiamento,

deposito di limo

emplacement du Baustelle ubicación de la sito, luogo cantiere

chantier obra

recherche sur place Untersuchung der reconocimientos en indagine in sito

Baustelle obra
frottement superficiel Mantelreibung rozamiento resistenza all'attrito
superficial, fricción


plaque/mèche Platte, Decke losa, aligerado soletta

ardoise Schiefer pizarra argilloscisto, ardesia

miroir de surface Gleitschicht espejo de falla specchio di faglia

glissement Rutschung, Abgleiten corrimiento scivolo, piano
inclinato, frana

orifice pour élinguer

glissement Erddrutsch corrimiento scorrimento

surface de glissement Erddrutschfläche, superficie de superficie di

Gleitfläche corrimiento scorrimento
pente, talus, Böschung talud, inclinación scarpata, pendenza
rupture de talus Böschungsbruch caida de un talud rottura del pendio,
franamento di pendio

protection des talus Böschungssicherung protección de protezione del pendio

rainure Schlitz ranura fessura apertura


affaissement Ausbreitmaß asiento, cedimento,

hundimiento scivolamento, frana,

boue Bentonitmischung pasta fango, miscela

parois moules Schlitzwand muro calado slurry trench wall

paroi moulée en coulis Einphasenschlitzwan muro bentonitico

sol sensible au

sol tendre weicher Boden suelo blando terreno molle, terreno


sondage de sol

carotte de sondage

sol-ciment Erdbodenzement, suelo-cemento cemento del terreno

caractéristiques du sol Bodenklassifizierung, características del caratteristiche del
Bodenmerkmale suelo terreno

investigation Bodenaufschluß reconocimiento del esplorazione del
terreno terreno

mécanique des sols Bodenmechanik mecánica de suelos meccanica del


humidité du sol Bodenfeuchtigkeit humedad del suelo umidità del terreno

particule de sol Bodenteilchen partícula del suelo grani del terreno,


profil stratigraphique Bodenprofil perfil del suelo profilo stratigrafico

appareil de sondage
de sol

stabilisation du sol Bodenstabilisierung estabilización del stabilizzazione del

suelo terreno

couchis, semelles Stahlträger peones, estemples trave d'armatura


Stahlträgerbohlenver berlinaise
bau, Berliner

essai d'ausculatation Ultraschallversuch im carotaggio sonico

sonique par Pfahl
Fonçage par vibrations

essai d'ausculatation Ultraschallversuch prova sonica

sonique par réflexion
sondage Sondierung sondage scandaglio

écarteur Abstandhalter distanziatore

séparation, intervalle Abstand separación interasse, distanza

portee Spannweite luz, tramo portata, arco
poids spécifique spezifisches Gewicht peso específico peso specifico

spécification Leistungsbeschreibu especificación specifica

spécimen Probe muestra provino, campione
pieu bois

point de

cuiller à fente geteilte aufklappbare tomamuestras divisore di campioni

Entnahmesonde partido (per quartatura),
matériau d'excavation

échantillon pris à la Löffelprobe, muestra tomada campione (ottenuto

cuiller Sondenprobe con cucharilla per quartatura)

fondation superficielle flache Gründung cimentación por fondazioni estese,

(radier, semelle) superficie fondazione

source Quelle, Feder fuente molla, sorgente

perforateur à

stabilité Stabilität estabilidad stabilità

suspension stable stabile Suspension sospensione stabile

construction par Bauablauf in construcción por costruzione a fasi

étapes Bauabschnitten etapas


normes Niveau, Richtlinien, normas norme

tube vertical Standrohr, Steigrohr tubo piezométrico collo d'oca,
piezometro, pozzo di
essai de chargement statische prova di carico statico
statique Probebelastung
essai statique de mise statischer ensayo de carga prova di carico statico
en charge Belastungsversuch estático
essai statique de mise statischer ensayo de carga prova di carico statico
en charge Belastungsversuch estático

essai de chargement statische prova statica sul palo

statique de pieu Probebelastung

mouton à vapeur Dampframmbär maza de vapor battipalo, maglio a


acier Stahl acero acciaio

pieu en acier Stahlpfahl pilote de acero palo in acciaio

pièces de
argile raide fissurée steifer geklüfteter Ton arcilla firme argilla rigida fessurata
raideur Steifigkeit rigidez rigidezza

etrier Bügel estribos staffe

pierre, roche Stein piedra pietra, sasso

déformation Deformation pro deformación deformazione

comparateur, Dehnungsmesser testigo de indicatore di
extensomètre, jauge deformación deformazione
de déformation
clouage de liteaux
strate, couche Schicht estrato strato
force, résistance, Festigkeit resistencia forza, resistenza
contrainte, tension Spannung tensión sforzo, sollecitazione

concentration des Spannungskonzentra concentración de concentrazione dello

contraintes tion tensiones sforzo
distribution des Spannungsverteilung distribución de las distribuzione degli
contraintes tensiones sforzi

courbe contrainte- Spannungs- curva de tensiónes curva sforzo-

déformation Dehnungs-Kurve y deformaciones deformazione

fil à plomb

fondation sur semelle Streifenfundament cimentación por fondazione a strisce

filante zapata corrida (nastriforme)
fissuration (de bauliche Schäden averias de una danno strutturale
bâtiment) estructura
structure, ouvrage Bauwerk estructura struttura

étai, contre-fiche Steife, Strebe puntal diagonale, puntello,

contrasto rigido

étai, contre-fiche Steife, Strebe puntal diagonale, puntello,

contrasto rigido
soubassement Untergrund, Unterbau subsuelo sottosuolo, sottofondo

densité immergée, Raumgewicht unter densidad peso di volume

dejaugée Wasser sumergida sommerso
affaissement, Senkung, subsidencia subsidenza
effondrement Nachlassen
sous-sol Untergrund subsuelo sottosuolo
reconnaissance du baugrundtechnische reconocimiento del esplorazione del
sous-sol, investigation Untersuchung subsuelo sottosuolo
sous-sol unter der Oberfläche subsuelo sotterraneo, sotto la

succion Ansaugen succión aspirazione

essai de contrôle Eignungsprüfung test d'idoneità
puisard Senkgrube, foso, colector de pozzo collettore
Pumpensumpf aguas

pompe de puisard

appui Stütze apoyo supporto

fluide d'excavation Stützende Flüssigkeit fluido di supporto

surcharge Auflast sobrecarga sovraccarico

force de surface Oberflächenkraft fuerza de superficie forza superficiale

onde de surface Oberflächenwelle onda superficial onda superficiale

relevés Vermessung levantamientos perizia


suspension Suspension suspensión sospensione

pieu à estamper

essai de système Systemprüfung test di sistema


réservoir Behälter, Tank depósito cisterna

pieu en pointe/conique

température Temperatur temperatura temperatura

tirant d'ancrage Kurzzeitanker ancoraggio
provisoire temporaneo
mur temporaire

armature Zugglied trefolo

longueur de Verankerungslänge lunghezza di

scellement de de Zuggliedes fondazione del trefolo
longueur libre de Freie Stahllänge lunghezza libera del
l'armature trefolo

contrainte de traction Zugkraft fuerza de tensión forza di trazione

résistance à la traction Zugfestigkeit resistencia a la resistenza a trazione
contrainte de traction Zugspannung tensión negativa, sforzo di trazione
tension Zug tensión, tracción tensione

fissure de tension Zugriss, Zugzone grieta de tensión tensione di

spaccatura, zona di

pieu en traction Zugpfahl palo a trazione

Zugstahl acero en tracción accino in tensione
taret/terrède/ver de

terrasses Terrassenablagerung depósitos de depositi terrazzati

faire un essai Versuch ensayar, ensayo prova

charge d'essai Versuchslast carga de prueba carico di prova

charge d'essai Versuchslast carga de prueba carico di prova
micropieu d'essai Abnahmeversuchs- test sul micropalo
(Probepfahl 3)
pieu d'essai Probepfahl test sul palo
procédure d'essai Versuchsverfahren procedimiento de procedura della prova
machine d'essai Prüfgerät máquina de ensayo macchina di prova

texture Gefüge, textura tessitura

Bodenstruktur, Textur

théorie Theorie teoría teoria

propriétés thermiques thermale propiedades proprietà termali
Eigenschaften, térmicas

carottier à paroi mince dünnwandiges tomamuestras de campionatore a pareti

Probeentnahmegerät pared delgada sottili

thixotropie Thixotropie tixotropía tissotropia

clapet de
régulatrice à papillon

marées Tide, Gezeiten mareas marea

tirant Verankerung, tensor anclado tiranti

tirant Zugstange tirante de anclaje tirante (di

sous-abattage festverbunden, dicht hermético chiuso, a tenuta

moraine glacaire umgelagerter Boden till till, detrito glaciale,

und Geröll, Mergel morena glaciale
inclinomètre Neigungsmeßgerät inclinómetro inclinometro
pilotis de bois Holzpfahl pilotes de madera palo in legno

courbe ou diagramme Zeit-Setzungs-Kurve curva de tiempos- curva tempo-

de tassement en asientos assestamento
fonction du temps

pointe du pieu, sabot Pfahlspitze azuche de un punta del palo

pilote, punta de un

rupture de base Basisbruch fallo de pie rottura al piede


plaque porte-nez
terre végétale Mutterboden tierra vegetal terreno superficiale
méthode hiérarchisée


torsion Torsion torsión torsione


manomètre/capteur Vermittler, transductor trasduttore


zone de transition Übergangzone zona de transición zona di transizione

béton coulé sous l'eau Kontraktorbeton, hormigón colocado calcestruzzo gettato

Unterwasserbeton con tubo-tolva contubo getto

tranchée Graben, Schlitz trinchera trincea

trépan/foret à
1. pont monté sur

micropieu defaisabilité Eignungsversuchs- microplai prova

(Probepfahl 2)
pieu a faisabilité Probepfahl pali prova

distrubtion triangulaire dreieckige carga repartida distribuzione

Lastverteilung triangularmente triangolare dei carichi

appareil triaxial Triaxialgerät aparato triaxial apparecchiatura

cellule triaxiale Probe für cédula triaxil, cella triassiale
dreiachsigen triaxial

essai triaxial dreiachsiger ensayo de prova di

Druckversuch compresión triaxial compressione

2. appareil

tube-à-manchettes Manschettenrohr tubo valvolato

dalle armée selon zweiachsig losa armada en dos soletta armata in due
deux directions gespannte Platte direcciones direzione

charge limite de Grenzpressungsbela resistencia límite de resistenza al carico di

rupture, charge stung rotura rottura, capacita
portante limite portante limite

charge limite de Bruchlast, Grenzlast carga límite de carico di rottura,

rupture rotura carico limite
pieu foré

résistance à la Druckfestigkeit mit resistancia a la resistenza alla

compression sans Querdehnung compresión sin compressione
contrainte latérale constricción lateral semplice

essai de compression unverfestigter direkter ensayo sin prova non consolidata

triaxiale rapide Scherversuch, consolidación ni - non drenata
Schnellversuch drenaje

drains sous chaussée Sickerdrainage subdren dreno, sottofondo

souterrain Untergrund, subterráneo sottosuolo
reprise en sous oeuvre Fundamentunterstütz recalce sottomurazione
ung, Unterfangung

puits à base élargie mit Kleinem pilote de base palo alesato

Durchmeßer ensanchada
vorgebohrte Pfahl
infiltration Untersickergung filtración através de sottofiltrazione,
la cimentación filtrazione dal fondo
subaquatique Unterwasser subacuático subacqueo

échantillon intact ungestörte muestra inalterada campione indisturbato

résistance au undrainierte resistencia al resistenza al taglio
cisaillement à teneur Scherfestigkeit esfuerzo cortante, non drenata
en eau constante sin consolidación
compression uniaxial einachsiger Druck compresión compressione
unidimensional monoassiale
système de vereinheitlichte clasificación classificazione dei
classification USCS Bodenklazifizierung unificada de suelos terreni unificata

coefficient d'uniformité Ungleichförmigkeitsgr coeficiente de coefficiente di

(de Hazen) ad uniformidad uniformità
sol à granulométrie Boden mit suelo terreno
uniforme gleichmäßiger uniformemente uniformemente
Korngrößenverteilung graduado gradato

poids unitaire Raumgewicht densidad peso unitario

sous-pression Hebung, subpresión sollevamento


pieux d'ancrage Zugpfahl pilotes de tracción pali a trazione

sous-pressions Sog, Hebedruck, subpresiones pressione di
Auftrieb sollevamento

vide Unterdruck, Vakuum vacío vuoto

appareil à palettes Flügelapparat, sonda de molinete apparecchiatura

Flügelsonde vane, scissometro

argile stratifée Bänderton arcilla listada agille a varve

extensomètres à corde Schwingungsspannu testigo de cuerda estensimetro a corda

vibrante ngsmeßgerät vibrante vibrante

vibration Schwingung vibración vibrazione

appareil de
par vibrations

fonçage des pieux par Pfhleinrütteln hinca de pilotes por infissione a
vibration vibración vibrazione
compactage par
vibroflottation Rütteldruckverfahren vibroflotación vibroflottazione

branche de première Erstdrucklastkurve curva de curva di

compression du compresión noval compressione vergine
viscosité Viskosität viscosidad viscosità
examen à vue visuelle exámen a simple ispezione visiva
Untersuchung vista
vide Hohlraum, Pore poro vuoto, poro

indice des vides Porenzahl índice de poros rapporto (indici) dei


volcan Vulkan volcán vulcano

volume Volumen, Inhalt volúmen volume
changement de Volumenänderung variación de cambiamento
volume volúmen (variazione) di volume

madrier Gurt carrera, durmiente trave orizzontale

frottement contre un Wandreibung rozamiento de attrito terra-muro

mur tierras con fábrica
épaisseur de mur
sondage par injection Spülbohrung sondeo por foro di lavaggio ,
inyección de agua sondaggio a
circolazione d'acqua

eau de lavage Spülwasser agua de inyección acqua di lavaggio

sondage par injection Spülbohrung sondeo por foro di lavaggio ,
inyección de agua sondaggio a
circolazione d'acqua

teneur en eau Wassergehalt humedad contenuto d'acqua

jet d'eau/forage au jet

surface de la nappe
fluctuation de la nappe Schwankung des oscilación del nivel fluttuazioni della
aquifère, phréatique Grundwasserspiegels freático superficie di falda

rapport eau-ciment Wasser-Zement- relación agua- rapporto acqua-

Faktor cemento cemento
aquifère wasserführend con agua acquifero
rapport eau-ciment Wasser-Zement- relación agua- rapporto acqua-
Faktor cemento cemento
niveau d'eau Wasserstand, nivel del agua livello dell'acqua
imperméable wasserdicht impermeable a tenuta d'acqua,
mur étanche à
l'eau/mur d'étanchéité

onde, vague Welle onda, ola onda

équation d'onde

longueau d'onde Wellenlänge longitud de onda lunghezza d'onda

célérité des ondes Wellengeschwindigke velocidad de onda velocità d'onda


sols sans consistance Boden mit geringer suelo blando terreno poco
Tragfähigkeit resistente

altération Verwitterung meteorización alterazione (alle


coin, cale Keil cuña cuneo

coinçage, coincement, Verkeilung acuñado incuneamento
barbacanes Entwässerungsloch mechinal foro di sfogo

perte en poids Gewichtsverlust périda de peso perdita di peso

puits Brunnen pozo pozzo
blindage de puits Brunnenverrohrung, entibación de un pozzo rivestito
Futterrohr pozo
puits filtrant Brunnen mit tubo filtrante well point

filtre de puits Brunnenfilter tubería perforada porzione finestrata

para pozo del pozzo
procédé par voie


structures de quai Kaikonstruktionen, obras portuarias banchina, pontile


à larges ailes ou

bois Holz madera legno

pieu en bois Holzpfahl pilote de madera palo in legno
agents protecteurs du Holzschutzmittel preservadores de la conservanti per legno
bois madera
facilité de mise en Verarbeitbarkeit docilidad lavorabilità

niveau de travail Arbeitsebene piano di lavoro

micropieu de fondation Bauwerksmikropfahl micropalo di lavoro

pieu de fondation Bauwerkspfahl palo di lavoro

rayons x Röntgenstrahlen rayos-x raggi-x

limite élastique Ergiebigkeit fluencia resa, rendimento,

limite apparente Streckgrenze, límite aparente de limite di snervamento

d'élasticité Fließgrenze elastidad
limite d'élasticité Elastizitätsgrenze tensión límite de tensione
fluencia snervamento
module d'Young Schubmodul, módulo de Young modulo di Young
Youngscher Modul
zero Nullpunkt punto zero
sinc Zink zinc zinco
zone de saturatation Bereich kapillarer zona di saturazione
capillaire Sättigung capillare
zone d'ecoulement plastischer zona di saturazione
plastique du sol Fließbereich des capillare
zone d'ecoulement Durchströmungsberei zona di filtrazione
zone de gonflement Schwellbereich zona di rigonfiamento

manchon Koppelelement/Muffe


teste de recepção controleproef

estaca executada com avegaarpaal

trado contínuo
impulso activo das active gronddruk
ajustador, adaptador verloopstuk

aditivo toeslagstof

adesão, adesividade adhesie

aditivo, adição bijmengsel,


agua adsorvida geadsorbeerd


loess, limo argilo- loss


inerte, agregado granulaat

ar lucht
ar incorporado lucht bijmenging

tubo de ar, mangueira luchtslang

de ar

capacidade de carga toelaatbare


carga admissivel de toelaatbare

estacas paaldraagkracht

aluvião Alluvium/Holoceen

ancoragem anker

cabeça de ancoragem ankerkop

bloco de ancoragem ballastanker

cortina de ancoragem ankerwand

ancoragem, ancorar, verankering,

placa de ancorajem verankeren,
pranchada ancorada verankerde
ângulo natural hoek van natuurlijk
anodo anode

comprimento livre schijnbare (fictieve)

equivalente vrije ankerlengte

carga aplicada, tensão aangebrachte

aplicada spanning

aquicluso ondoorlatende laag

efeito de arco gewelfwerking

pressao artesiana artesische druk


pressao em repouso neutrale

limites de Atterberg Atterbergse

trado avegaar

furo de trado avegaar boring

estaca executada com avegaarpaal

trado contínuo (CFA)

estaca executada com avegaarpaal

trado contínuo
aterro aanvulling

retroscavadora getrokken

limpadeira puls

barreta diepwand element

deslocamento pela zwel van de

base (bouwput)bodem

rotura pela base bezwijken

beneden de voet
(van de paal)
fundaçao kelder

estaca inclinada schoorpaal

viga balk
capacidade de carga draagvermogen

estaca de suporte paal op druk belast

carga funderingsdruk
firme, sào (diepe,

ancoragem em forma injectieanker met

de sino verbreed uiteinde
caixão em forma de boorpaal met
sino verbrede voet
flexão buiging
momento flector buigend moment
bentonite Bentoniet

berma, banqueta berm

desmontar a fogo doen springen,

ressurgência bleeding (van

blocos de verstopping (van

encunhamento, calços verticale drains)

contagem de kalender (bij heien)

contador de pancadas klappen teller

turfeira moeras, drassig


passagem a movediça opbarsten van

(bijvoorbeeld door

parafuso bout

resistencia de aanhechtingssterkt
aderencia e

flutuantes de proteção giek

sondagem boren, boring,

estaca executada à boorpaal

diametro do furo de diameter van het

sondagem boorgat

material de escavação uitkomende grond

deslocamento pela zwel van de
base (bouwput)bodem
godo grosso steen

conglomerado kleileem, klei met


escora stempelen

escavação entivada gestempelde

entivação stempel

tensão de rotura breukspanning

muro de suporte keermuur
flambagem, knikken
edificio, construção gebouw, bouwwerk

regulamento de bouwvoorschrift

estaleiro bouwplaats

bolbo de tensões spanningsconcentr


aterro no tardoz duma opvullen van holle

cortina ruimte
cortina de estacas, kistdam

tractor de lamina bulldozer

impulsão opdrijven

peso especifico onderwater

submerso gewicht, effectief
topo, cabeca paalkop

sustentar com ondersteunen


gaiola (de armaduras) wapeningskorf

caixão caisson

aferir, calibrar calibratie

consola uitkragende ligger

estacas-pranchas em onverankerde
consola damwand
capilaridade capilairiteit

historico de casos, voorbeeld van een

exemplos tipicos uitgevoerd project

furo de sondagem met casing

entubado ondersteund
encamisamento casing

tubo de revestimento casing buis

parede de betão diepwand

armado moldada no
estaca moldada no boorpaal
catodo kathode

cavidade holte

ensecadeira celular kistdam

opgebouwd uit

calda de cimento grout

centralizador zoeker, centreer


centrifugadora centrifuge

camara, caverna kamer

resistência interna karakteristieke

característica duma sterkte van het
ancoragem verankeringseleme
cargas de explosivos springlading

injecção de produtos chemische injectie

propridades quimicas chemische
cinzel beitel

trepano snijtand

escavadora de schelpvormige
mandibulas grijper
argila klei

representante técnico opzichter

do cliente

solo de granulometria grond met uniforme

uniforme korrelverdeling

grosseiro grofkorrelig
grosseiro grofkorrelig
calhau rolado (burgau, kei, steen

coeficiente de impulso gronddruk

de terras coefficient

ensecadeira kistdam

coesão cohesie

incoerente niet-cohesief

coloides colloïd

coluna kolom, pijler

compactar verdichten

compatibilidade verdichtbaarheid

injecção de compaction
compactação grouting

estacas de verdichtingspaal
compactação (zoals een stone
estacas mistas combinatiepaal

ar comprimido lucht onder

compressão samendrukking,

estaca comprimida op druk belaste


onda de compressão drukgolf

compressor compressor

carga concentrada puntlast, punt

betão (armado) [gewapend] beton

estaca de betão betonpaal

betonagem beton storten

tubo de betonagem transportbuis voor

penetrómetro em cone sondeer apparaat

ensaio edometrico uni-axiale drukproef

conglomerado conglomeraat

consolidar consolideren

carregamento constante belasting

constante snelheid

variação constante verplaatsingsgestu

dum ensaio de urde proefbelasting

injecção de contacto grouten van

tensão de contacto contactdruk

contentor container

estaca executada com avegaarpaal

trado contínuo (CFA)

empreiteiro aannemer
explosão controlada gecontroleerd
springen (opblazen
met explosieven)

transportador lopende band

carote (nucleo) boorkern

estaca revestida paal waarin een

kernboring is
acoplador koppeling
recobrimento (betão) betondekking

fissura scheur

fluir kruip
limite de fluência kruipmaat

estacas de madeira met creosoot

creosotada geimpregneerde
houten paal

muros de suporte ?? (zoals een

celulares berlinerwand)

carga crítica de kritische

fluência kruipbelasting
brita gebroken steen

cortina de waterkerend
estanquidade scherm


almofada dempen

trincheira verticale ontgraving

muro corta-aguas waterkerend


anel cortante snijring

cilindro cylinder
barragem dam

carga de referência initiële belasting

peso próprio eigen gewicht
bloco de ancoragem ballastanker

tempo de queda de
rocha alterada verweerd gesteente

descompressão drukafname

fundação profunda paalfundering

flecha, deflecção doorbuiging,

deformação vervorming,
grau de compactação verdichtingsgraad

grau de saturação verzadigingsgraad

diferenca de tempo de vertraging

baridade, densidade

baridade, densidade dichtheid, volumiek

depósito depot

profundidade da aanlegdiepte
profundidade de indringingsdiepte

exsicaça, secagem
exsicação, secagem uitdroging
projecto ontwerp(berekenin

carga de cálculo ontwerpbelasting

pormenores details

deterioração uiteenvallen
detonação opblazen, doen

aparelho apparaat
por a sêco o cabouco, ontwatering,
drenagem bemaling
diafragma membraan

assentamento verschilzetting

declive depressie

desintegração uiteenvallen

deslocamento verplaatsing
injecção provocando verdringend
deslocamento do solo grouten

estaca de paal met

deslocamento grondverdringing

carga distribuida verdeelde belasting

amostra remexida verstoord monster

derivação, desvio omleiding

doca, cais, molhe haven, kade

duque d'Alba dukdalf

ensecadeira de kistdam
arrastar ww.: sleuren,
hangen; zn.: dreg
colher de arrasto dragline

abaixamento neerwaarts richting

van een kracht
(zoals in negatieve
dragar baggeren


deriva afwijking van de


furar boren

furo de sondagem boorgat

estaca perfurada boopaal

furação boren

fluido de furação boorspoeling

lama de sondagem boorspoeling

lama de perfuração dikke boorspoeling

equipamento de boor equipment

cravar heien

ponteira driving shoe

tubo de cravação heibuis, heicasing

estaca cravada heipaal

cravação heien

registro de cravaçao

registo de cravação kalender (bij heien)

resistência à cravação heiweerstand

ensaio de penetração heiproef

pilão valblok

baridade seca droge dichtheid,

droog volumiek

peso seco droge dichtheid,

droog volumiek
ductilidade vervormbaarheid

durabilidade duurzaamheid

dique dijk

ensaio de carga dynamische

dinâmico proefbelasting
carga dinâmica dynamische
ensaio dinâmico duma dynamische
estaca belastingsproef op
sondagem dinâmica dynamische
ensaio dinâmico dynamische proef

impulso de terras gronddruk

carga excêntrica excentrische


excentricidade excentriciteit
pressão efectiva effectieve

deformação elástica elastische rek

módulo de elasticiteitsmodulus
electrodo electrode
electro-osmose electro-osmose

aterro ophoging, dam

envolver inbedden

entubamento coating

estaca trabalhando de stuitpaal

ponta (puntdragende
perda de energia energie verlies

engenharia ontwerpen

engenharia geológica ingenieursgeologie

base alargada vergrote voet,
verbrede voet
ar ocluso ingesloten lucht

resinas epóxidicas kunsthars

equilibrio evenwicht
equipamento equipment

evaporação verdamping
material escavado ontgraven grond
escavação ontgraving

escavadora graafmachine
sobrepressão water overspanning

explosivos explosief
resistência externa houdkracht van het
duma ancoragem anker

extracção uittrekken

coeficiente de veiligheidsfactor

rotura bezwijken
carga de rotura bezwijkbelasting

superficie de rotura bezwijk oppervlak

falsa presa schijnverharding

(van beton)
faxina takkenbos

falha geologische breuk

aterro aanvul materiaal

filler, enchimento vulmiddel

enchimento aanvullen

filtro, dreno filter

finos fijn zand, fijn

metodo dos eindige elementen
elementos finitos methode

base firme vaste grondslag

injecção de fissura injectie van

comprimento de weerstandselement
selagem duma (van een
ancoragem grondanker)
encastramento na inklemmingsmome
base nt ??

fundação flexivel slappe fundering

resistência à flexão buigsterkte

fundação sobre kleefpaalfundering

estacas flutuantes
floculado flucculent

pavimento vloer, etage

flutuação flotation

fluxo, escoamento stroming, debiet

rede de percolação grondwater net

cinza volante vliegas

foliação foliatie (bij


adicional de cravação follower

de estaca

sapata fundament

formação formatie, laag

fundação fundering
fractura breuk, scheur
pórtico frame

comprimento livre vrije ankerlengte

dum tirante

frequencia frequentie

agua doce zoetwater

rocha friavel brossige rots
atrito wrijving

estaca flutuante wrijvingspaal

(estaca por atrito

gelo vorst

empolamento devido opvriezen

ao gelo
comporta, portão poort

instrumento de opnemer
medida, bitola,

geologia geologie
exploração geofisica geofysische

geotecnico geotechniek

viga ligger, stalen balk

depósito glaciar ijstijd afzetting,

gaciale afzetting
depósito glaciar glacial uitspoeling
graduação gradatie

niveladora shovel

forma dos grãos korrelvorm

dimensão dos grãos korrelafmetingen

godo, burgau grind

injecção por gravidade grouten zonder

martelo de queda livre valhamer
fundação em grelha fundament van
gestapelde balken

moer slijpen

nivel do solo maaiveld,

superficie do terreno maaiveld,


água subterrânea, grondwater

aquífero, nivel freático

efeito de grupo groepsaktie

calda / calda de grout

cortina de injecção gegroute wand

injectar grouten

injecção sob pressão het grouten

pressão de injecção groutdruk

muretes-guia geleide wanden

martelo, pilão hamer

rocha alterada dichte tussenlaag

equipamento de diepladers
risco levensgevaarlijke

coroamento do muro kopwand

calor de hidratação hydratatie warmte

empolar zwellen, rijzen,

trado helicoidal avegaar

heterogeneo heterogeen
homogeneo homogeen

pressao horizontal de horizontale

terras gronddruk

estacas de perfil H H-profiel paal

aterro hidraulico opgespoten grond

fracturação hidráulica hydrraulisch breken

hidrologia hydrologie
gelo e neve ijs en sneeuw

impacto stoot, botsing


impermeavel ondoordringbaar,
tapete impermeavel ondoorlatende laag
indice index

endurecido, verhard
deformação não linear inelastische
infiltração infiltratie

presa inicial initiele zetting

entrada, admissão inlet

solo inorganico anorganisch

resistência "in situ" sterkte ter plaatse,

in situ sterkte

ensaio "in situ" test ter plaatse, in

situ test,
inspecção inspectie

instrumentação instrumentatie

rocha sã intacte rots

ensaio de integridade integriteits meting,
sonisch doormeten

intergranular intergranulaire

encaixes de estacas- damwand slot

pranchas metálicas

atrito interno inwendige wrijving

base de uma conduta omkeren

teste de ensaio onderzoek test

macaco vijzel

estacas instaladas gevijzelde palen

sob pressão

equipamento de vijzel appartuur


jacto mondstuk, straal,

estacas cravadas com gespoten palen
jacto de água

junta verbinding

padrão de juntas scheur patroon

karst, carst karst

atraso, desfasagem keerwand

terra land

escorregamento aardverschuiving

forças laterais laterale, zijdelingse


pressão lateral laterale, zijdelingse


suporte lateral laterale, zijdelingse


camada laag
deslavar loog
perda por infiltração lekkage

levada, açude rivierdijk

braço de alavanca hefboom arm

agregados leves lichtgewicht toeslag

cal, calcáreo kalk, kalksteen

analise limite bezwijkanalyse

manga bekleding

encamisamento stortkoker, stortpijp

rotura por liquefação bezwijken door

liquido vloeistof
limite de liquidez vloeigrens
indice de liquidez vloeiindex
sobrecarga veranderlijke
carga belasting
elemento resistente dragend element

capacidade de carga draagvermogen

fator de carga belastingsfactor

medidor de carga drukdoos

incremento de carga belastingstoename

perda de tensão belastinggrens

ensaio de carga poefbelasting

carregadora wiellader

carga e descarga belasten en

estrutura de carga belastings frame

curva de carga-

curva de tensão- lastzakkingsdiagra

deformação m
limo leem

eclusa slot
força de ankerschot,
bloqueamento ankerwand

loess, limo argilo- loss


toro, tronco logboek, journaal

brando, frouxo, solto, loss

cimento de baixo calor lage warmte

de hidratação cement

lubrificar smeermiddel

aterro aangebrachte
ensaio de carga test met

camisa, involucro mantel, mouw

depósito marinho marine afzetting
referencia vast punt, referentie

marga mergel
pantano moeras

betão de enchimento, betonmassa

betão ciclópico

ensoleiramento geral balken fundering

medida, medição meting

membrana membraam
malha maas, netwerk

microestaca micropile
junta de microestaca micopile koppeling

minerais mineraal

misturado no local in sity gemend

misturador, betoneira mixer, menger

equipamento movel monbiele


modulo de elasticiteitsmodulus

coeficiente de reacção ondergrond reactie

humido vocht
teor de humidade vochtgehalte
momento de inercia traagheidsmoment

martelo de bate- persoon/apparaat

estacas voor positioneren
moreia morene

argamassa mortel

variegado, gevlekt
vasa, lama

vasa, lama modder, waterige


injecção de argila het pompen van


onda de lama modderstroom

explosão por explodere met
banquetas multiplas meerdere

explosão por filas exploderen in rijen


injecção múltipla grouten in

meerdere stappen
edificio alto, edificio gebouw met
com muitos andares meerdere

teor de humidade natuurlijk

natural vochtgehalte

sucção capillar negative


sucção capilar negatieve


mamilo nippel
ensaios nao- nietdestructief
destrutivos onderzoek
injecção sem
deslocamento de solo

normalmente normaal
adensado geconsolideerd

tubo piezometrico observaite put

caixão aberto open caisson

trincheira aberta open snede

materia organica organisch materiaal

oscilador oscillator, vibrator

osmose osmose

afloramento rots aan het

plano aluvionar vlakke uitspoeling

sobreescavação extrauitgraving
sobreescavação verspilld materiaal

recobrimento overdruk

sobreconsolidado overgeconsolideerd

sobrecarga overbelasting

sobretensão overspanning

painel paneel
dimensão dos grãos afmetingen deeltje

impulso passivo das passieve gronddruk


gravilha fijn grind

resistência limite ao maximale

corte afschuifsterkte
turfa veen

pedra, seixo, kiezelsteen

cascalho, calhau
soco, embasamento voetstuk

injecção de groutinjectie
registo de penetração indringingsregistrati
resistencia à indringweerstand

ensaio de penetração indringingstest

penetrómetro penetrometer

percentagem em peso gewichtspercentag


nivel de águas waterspiegel door

penduradas capillaire werking

percolação percolatie

sondagem por heiend boren


terreno permafrost
ancoragem definitiva blijvend naker

permeabilidade doorlatendheid
injecção de impregnerend
impregnação grouten

nivel freatico phreatisch


pegão, fundação por paal fundament

poços, tubulão

piezometro waterspanningsmet

altura piezometrica waterspanningshoo

superficie piezemetriach
piezometrica oppervlak

estaca paal

bate-estacas heiframe

capacidade de carga paaldraagvermoge

de estaca n
encabecamento de paalmuts

cravação de estacas heien

fórmula de cravação heiformule

resistência à cravação heiweerstand

extracção de estaca het trekken van een


fundação por paalfundering

grupo de estacas paalgroep
pilão do bate-estacas heinamer

ensaio de carga de proefbelasting


martelo de bate- persoon/apparaat

estacas voor positioneren
tubo pijp

alinhamento de pijplijn
condutas, tubagem
erosão interna piping, sifonwerking

extractor de embolo bemonsteringsbuis

poço bouwput

materiais de vrijgekomen
mineração materiaal
superficie de menor afglijdvlak
deformação plana vlakke

betão plástico plastisch beton

parede em betão wand van plastisch

plástico beton

deformação plástica plastische

limite de plasticidade plasticiteitsgrens

solo plástico plastische grond

plasticidade plastciteit

indice de plasticidade plasticiteitsindex

ensaio de carga sobre plaat test

tampão plug

caixão pneumático pneumatisch


estaca trabalhando de puntdragende paal

carga de ponta puntbelasting

resistencia de ponta puntweerstand

coeficiente de Poisson Poisson getal

polimero polymeer
encher de água vijver

mal graduado slecht gegradeerd

dissipação de waterdruk disspatie

pressões neutras

pressão de água porienwaterdruk

porosidade porositeit

trados mecanizados gemotoriseerde

ante-poco; (poço- voorboring
piloto), pré-sondagem,
sondagem prévia,

betão préfabricado prefab beton

parede moldada pré- wand van prefab

fabricada beton

estaca préfabricada prefab betonnen


précompressão voordruk
préconsolidação preconsolidatie
pressão de pré- preconsolidatiedruk

préfabricação prefabricatie

estudo preliminar voorlopig

microestaca preliminar tijdelijke micropaal

estaca preliminar voorlopige paal

pré-carga voorbelasten

estaca pré-imjectada voorgeinjecteerde

preservação bescherming
pré-fissuração explosietechniek
met initiele
pressão, tensão druk
impulso em repouso druk in rusttoestand

bolbo de pressões druk bel

manómetro drukopnemer

pré-esforçar voorspanning

consolidação primária primaire

projecto, projekt
carga de ensaio test belasting
escora prop

protecção bescherming
revestimentos beschemende laag

argila de amassar modderige klei

ensaio de trektest
bomba pomp
betão bombado gepompt beton

ensaio de bombagem pomp test

ensaio de qualificação kwalificatie test

controlo de qualidade kwaliteitscontrole

pedreira groeve
quartzo kwarts
cais kade
muro de cais kademuur
sifonamento vloeiconditie
cal viva vloeiend kalk
areia movediça drijfzand

martelo de bate- persoon/apparaat

estacas voor positioneren

ensoleiramento geral balken fundering

caminho de ferro spoorweg


maço heiblok

abaixamento rápido snelle inlinking

(do reservatorio)

taquimetro snelheidsindicator

velocidade de belastingssnelheid
aplicação de carga
broqueado, alargado met verlengde boor

curva de ontlastingskrome
empolamento, de
recarregar herladen

recompressão hercompressie

recuperação herstel

sapata retangular rechthoekige

marca, referencia referentiepunt

estaca de betão gewapende

armado betonnen paal

terra armada gewapende grond

parede moldada gewapende

densidade relativa relatieve dichtheid

relaxação relaxatie,
poço de alivio ontlastbronnen

carga repetida herhaalde belasting

tensão residual restspanning,

residuele spanning


momento resistente tegenwerkend

frequencia de resonantiefrequenti
ressonancia e

muro de suporte keerwand,


agente retardador vertrager

fundação rigida stijve fundering

muro rigido stijve wand

enrocamento de steenaanvulling

rocha rots, gesteente

ancoragem em rocha rotsanker

chumbadoros em rotsanker

enrocamento steenaanvulling

haste stang, staaf

sondagem com sonda roratyboring

perfuração por rotary-slagboring

rotação draaiing, rotatie

alinhamento de palenrij
escoamento afschot
ruptura, rotura breuk, scheur

carga de segurança toelaatbare


coeficiente de veiligheidsfactor

sais zouten
amostra monster,
remeximento de monsterverstoring

colher para colheita monsterlepel

de amostras
extractor monsternameboor

areia zand

drenos de areia zanddrain

estaca de areia zandpaal

solo saturado
escala schaal

escarpa verhang

infra-escavação uitspoelen

scraper scraper

peneiro zeef

estaca de rosca schroefpaal

nivel do mar zeeniveau,

molhe havendam

selar afdichten

efeito sazonal seizoeneffect

compressao secundaire druk(-

secundaria belasting)

sucção doorsnede
rocha sedimentar sedimentgesteente

fluxo de percolação

projecto sismico seismisch ontwerp

velocidade sismica seismische


sismometro seismometer

calda autoendurecida zelfhardende slurry

peso próprio eigen gewicht

argila sensitiva gevoelige klei

sensor sensor

sequencia de estratos laagvolgorde

ou camadas

presa (materiais) opstijving,

assentamento zetting

análise de zettingsanalyse
curva de zettingskromme
medição de zettingsmeting
placa para medição zettingsplaat
de assentamentos

tubo, conduta de riolering


poço schacht
diâmetro do fuste paaldoorsnede,

xisto schiste
trincheira pouco ondiepe ontgraving
fundação superficial fundering op staal

esforço de corte schuifkracht

tensão de corte schuifspanning

ensaio de corte schuifproef

resistencia ao corte shuifsterkte

cortina de estacas- damwand


corta-aguas em damwandscherm
cortina de estacas- damwand
estaca-prancha keerwand

escoramento afschoring,
betáo projectado spuitbeton

pá shovel
contracção, retracção krimp
atrito lateral plaatselijke wrijving

peneiração, análise zeefanalyse

por peneiração

silica silica
silte silt


local da obra bouwplaats

(flemish: werf)

estudo no local bouwplaatsonderzo

atrito superficial schachtwrijving

laje plaat, strook


espelho de falha glijdschacht

escorregamento afglijden

deslizamento glijden

superficie de glijdvlak
talude helling

rotura de talude bezwijken van


protecção de talude bescherming van

ranhura paneel

assentamento slump

lama, pasta, calda (de slurry,

perfuração) betonietspoeling

muro de lamas diepwand


parede moldada de slurrywand

lamas bentoníticas

solo brando slappe grond

solo-cimento grond-cement

caracteristicas do solo grondeigenschappe


prospecção grondonderzoek

mecanica dos solos grondmechanica

humidade do solo grondvochtigheid

particula de solo gronddeeltje

perfil do solo bodemprofiel

estabilizaçao de um grondstabilisatie

escoras verticais stalen balk, stalen


elementos verticais de Berliner wand


inspecção sónica ultrasonore

controle op

ensaio sónico (ultra-)sonore,

akoestische test
sondagem sondering

espaçador afstandhouder

espaçamento afstand
vão overspanning
peso especifico specifiek gewicht

especificação specificatie
provete, amostra proefmonster

limpadeira de fenda pulsmonster-lepel

amostra colhida com Lepelsonde


ensoleiramento fundering-op-staal

ressurgencia, bron
estabilidade stabiliteit

suspensão estável stabiele suspensie

construção por gefaseerde bouw

estágios (etapas)

normas normen, richtlijnen

tubo vertical standpijp

ensaio estático de statische

carga proefbelasting
ensaio de carga statische
estático proefbelasting
ensaio de carga

ensaio estático duma statische

estaca proefbelasting

martelo a vapor stoomblok,


aço staal

estaca de aço stalen paal

argila rija fissurada stijve klei

rigidez stijfheid

estribos, cintas beugel

pedra steen

deformação rek

extensometro rekmeter

estrato, camada laag

resistencia sterkte

tensão, esforço spanning

concentração de spanningsconcentr
tensoes atie
distribuição de spanningsverdeling

curva tensão- spannings-rek-

deformação curve
fundação contínua strookfundering

dano estrutural constructieve

estrutura constructie,

escora stempel

subleito ondergrond

peso especifico soortelijk gewicht

imerso onder water
subsidencia bodemzakking,
subsolo ondergrond
prospecção do grondonderzoek

subsolo onder het


sucção aanzuigen
ensaio de controlo geschiktheidstest
fossa pompput

apoio support,
fluido de escavação steunvloeistof

sobrecarga voorbelasting
força de superficie oppervlaktekracht

onda superficial oppervlaktegolf

levantamentos uitzetten,

suspensão suspensie

sistema de ensaio systeemtest

tanque tank, container

temperatura temperatuur
ancoragem provisória tijdelijk anker
armadura verankering

comprimento de verankeringslengte
selagem duma
comprimento livre vrije ankerlengte
duma armadura

força de tracção trekkracht

resistencia à tracção treksterkte

tensao de tracção trekspanning

tensão trek

fenda de tracção trekscheur

estaca à tracção trekpaal

aço traccionado trekstaal

depositos em terracos terrasafzetting

ensaiar test, proef

carga de ensaio proefbelasting

carga de ensaio
microestaca de ensaio proefmicropaal

estaca de ensaio testpaal

procedimento de testprocedure
maquina de ensaio testapparaat

textura bodemstructuur,

teoria theorie
propriedades termicas thermische

amostrador de parede dunwandig

fina monsternameappar
tioxtropia thixotropie

marés getijden
tirante ancorado verankering

tirante trekstang

rocha saliente sobre o dicht

perfil de explosão
moreia, conglomerado glaciale afzetting,
argilo-arenoso keileem
inclinometro hellingsmeter
estaca de madeira houten paal

curva dos tijd-zakkings-curve

assentamentos em
função do tempo

ponta de estaca paalpunt

rotura pelo pé do paalpuntbezwijken


terra vegetal toplaag

torsão torsie, wringing

transductor, transducer

zona de transição overgangszone

betonagem submersa onderwaterbeton

trincheira, vala paneel

microestaca de ensaio proefmicropaal

estaca de ensaio proefpaal

distribuição triangular driehoekige

de carga belastingsverdeling

aparelho triaxial triaxiaalapparaat

camara triaxial proef voor


ensaio de compressao triaxiaalproef

tubo de manchettes manchetbuis

laje armada segundo tweedimensionaal

duas direcções belaste plaat

carga de rotura grensspanningsbel


carga de rotura grenslast (flemish:

resistencia à
compressão simples

ensaio de compressão
nao-adensado e nao-

dreno subterraneo,
subterraneo ondergrond

reforço de fundação funderingsherstel

estaca de base

infiltração infiltratie

subaquatico onderwater

amostra intacta ongeroerd monster

resistencia ao corte ongedrianerde

com teor de humidade schuifsterkte
compressão uniaxial

classificação unificada uniforme

de solos bodemklassering

coeficiente de ongelijkvormigheids
uniformidade coefficient
solo uniformemente bodem met
graduado gelijkmatige


subpressão opdrijvingsdruk

estacas de tracção trekpaal

subpressões opdrijvingsdruk

vacuo onderdruk, vacuüm

trado-molinete vanetest-apparaat

argila estratificada

extensometro de trillingsmeter
corda vibrante

vibração trillingen

cravação vibratoria de palen intrillen

vibroflutuação vibroflotation

curva virgem de initiele drukcurve


viscosidade viscociteit
exame visual visuele inspectie,
visueel onderzoek
vazio holle ruimte, poriën

indice de vazios poriëngetal

vulcão vulkaan
volume volume, inhoud
variação de volume volumeverandering

cinta, longarina gording

atrito lateral contra um wandwrijving


sondagem por

água de injecção spoelwater

sondagem por spoelboring

teor de humidade watergehalte

oscilação do nivel grondwaterfluctuati
freático e

relaçao agua-cimento water-cement-

aquifero watervoerend
relaçao água-cimento

nivel de água waterstand

impermeável waterdicht

onda, vaga golf

comprimento de onda golglengte

velocidade de onda golfsnelheid

solo brando grond met geringe


meteorização, erosão verwering

por agente
cunha wig
travamento wiggen
furo drenante, ontwateringsgat
perda de peso gewichtsverlies
poço bronnen
revestimento (de um bronbuis
furo de drenagem bronnering

tela filtrante para poço bronfilter

estruturas portuárias, kadeconstructie

de cais

madeira hout
estaca de madeira houten paal
preservativos para houtconservering
praticabilidade, verwerkbaarheid

nivel de trabalho werkniveau

microestaca de micropaal
microestaca de funderingspaal
raios-x röntgenstralen
fluencia, escoamento, elasticiteitsgrens

limite aparente de Strekgrens

tensão de cedência elasticiteitsgrens

módulo de Young elasticiteitsmodulus

ponto zero nulpunt

zinco zink
zona de saturação
zona de escoamento
plástico do solo

zona de escoamento doorstromingszone

zona de empolamento zwelbereik,