Você está na página 1de 9

2 11 d Pan-Am. Symp. Landslides, 2"d COBR.-!E. Rio de]:=!:~-:..

-:

Analysis of the Behavior of Anchored Walls Strengthening

Análise do Comportamento do Reforço de Cortinas Atirantadas

J.E.S. Soares
Furnas Centrais Elétricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

C.F. Politano
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

RESUMO: Este trabalho apresenta o reforço efetuado cm 1997 em uma obra de contenção
constituída de um co1tjunto de quatro cortinas atirantadas, localizadas parcialmente dentro de uma
massa de solo coluvionar de uma encosta da Serra do Mar, na costa sudeste do Rio de Janeiro. A
necessidade deste reforço foi identificada pela monitoração de sele células de carga, e consistiu na
avaliação das cargas e reprotensão dos 168 tirantes localizados dentro da área de deslizamento, e na
substituição de 21 tirantes rompidos, por tirantes de 1409mm. Tendo em vista que estas cortinas já
foram reforçadas várias vezes, efetuamos uma análise sucinta dos deslocamentos dos inclinômetros
instalados nesta encosta, ao longo do tempo, para melhor entendimento da variação de cargas nos
tirantes.

ABSTRACT: This paper prcsents the strengthening works carried out in 1997 on a four-lcvel
anchored wall retaining structure, constructed in colluvial soil masscs on onc slopc of thc "Serra do
Mar " in the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The need for this strcngthening was dctcrmined
by monitoring with seven load-cclls and load evaluation. lt consisted in the restrcssing of 168 anchor
wires situated in the sliding arca and substitution of 21 failed anchor wires with 1409mm anchors.
Since these anchorcd walls had becn sthengthened severa! timcs a bricf displacemcnt analysis of thc
slope indicators installed in this slope was conducted for better understanding of the anchor loads
variations.

l. INTRODUTION lowcr leve! (levei IV) was constructcd with


rcinforced concrete molded in situ with 88
During the period betwcen the cnd of 1978 and anchor wires (12qi8mm).
the beginning of 1979 four leveis of anchored An excavation of 26.000m3 for a drainage
walls were installed to support a section of channel was madc at the end of 1978 during
natural slope (about 18m high by 68m width) wall construction which brought about a
located in a slope of the Serra do Mar. ln thesc colluvial soil landslii.fe of approximatcly
walls .were installed 269 multiple anchor wires 900.000m3 •
(12qi8mm - 384kN working load) with a total To monitor the displacement of the slopc
stabilizing forces ofthe order of 1430kN/m. there were · installed in decembcr 1978 seven
The three uppcr leveis were constructed with inclinometers and ten piczometers. ln I 989
355 precast concrete platcs l,00xl,20m (94, when the anchor walls were strengthened,
125 and 136 plates for leveis 1, II and Ili seven electric load-cells wcre installcçl to
respectively) with 181 multiple anchor wires monitor anchor loads.
(12<!>8mm) altcmatively installcd in them. The

719
Figure I shows a drawing of the anchored colluvial soil settled over a layer of rather dense
walls and the displaccments of the colluvial soil residual soil.
mass as measurcd at thc dcpths of thc sliding Thc residual soil layer shows a gradual
surfaces indicatcd by the seven inclinometers. decrcase of weathering with increasing depth
The rcading of thc inclinomctcrs and thc load and it ovcrlays a modified rock wlúch retains
cclls wcre takcn sirnultaneously so that a thé stmcture of thc original rock. This rock is
corrclation could bc cstablishcd bctwccn load mainly constituted of granite and gneiss with
and soil movcmcnl. smaller quantities ofbasalt, diabase and diorite.
Thc maximum displaccmcnt mcasurcd along The young residual soil consists of gray and
the slip si.Jrlàcc (89/scptember - 97/march) was yellow sandy silt or silty sand and shows an
of thc ordcr of 140mm which corrcsponds to an SPT in excess of 30 blows/30cm. The depth
avcrage vclocity or0,019m/ycar. varies from 4m to 40m showing thc highest
valuc in the lowcr part of thc slope (between
elevation +5m and +55m). A layer of mature
residual soil is practical\y absent.
The colluvial soil consists of porous, silty
clay cithcr rcddish or yellowish with graveis
(with fcldspar or quartz c1ystals). It shows an
avcrage SPT of 11 blows/30cm and a depth
which varies from 0,5m to 6m. Thc colluvial
soil is considcrcd to be a product of the action
ofgravity.
Figure 2 shows the longitudinal profile (view
AA) of thc slopc with thc anchored walls, the
landslidc surfaccs, thc mass colluvial soil and
thc access road.
The colluvial soil slip surface runs through
the laycr of residual soil at the depth where thc
pcnclralion rcsistance índex shows higher
valucs than 35 blows/30cm and not at the base
of the layer, as mcnlioned in the refcrences on
the subject.
This slope shows a gcntle topography (abovc
1 1º) up to clevation + 105m, above which thc
avcrage slope is 22 º up to clevation + 165m
From this point up to the begimúng of thc
rocky scarp at clevation +21 0m the topography
bccomcs rather stcep (30º).
ornM
1.u.000 ,.. 9 A largc numbcr ofrocky blocks and boulders
----------------' can be found in thc mass of talus/colluvial soil.
Figure 1: General plan in the depth as well as in the surfacc.
particularly above clevation + l 05m.
lt is worth while to note that thc anchorcé
I. I. Soil charac/eristic.:s
walls were designed to contain a local scctior.
Ficld gcolcchnical invcstigations and Iaboratory of thc slopc and that the anchor wires are
tests indicalc thc ground to consist of a laycr of anchorcd in the mass of the moving soil.

720
150

100

.!
z
O 50
;::
~
w
.,J
w

- 5 o-r------1~00-=-------2~0~0------3oro------4+00------~~=-c--.-.-_-

01srANCE (m)

Figure 2: Longitudinal profile (view AA)

1.2. Hehaviour of the colluvial .mil ma.\;v Displaccmcr:l


o 20 4-::::· ~..: ~=
o
The displacemcnt of the colluvial soil mass
5
shows a viscous-plasticity behaviour and it is
not uniform but unpredictable and complex 10
with changing directions and larger
15 -
displacements in the mass central section. '.§
Thc displacemcnt in the central scction ~ 20 ·

where the sliding surface reaches about 20m (I- ""


o
Q 25
Inclinomctc:- : : :,
I) is practically constant with the dcpth. ln the 91/junc to 9-:":::,a:_::
edges of the sliding surface (SL-19) where the 30
dcpth is smallcr (lcss than 8m) thc displacemcnt 35
increases near the surface (see Figures 3a and
3b). 40

The displacement rate is not constant. lt (a)


increases significantly during rainy seasons
because ofthe rise groundwatcr table. Uisplaccmcnt ,_e::::
20 40 60 E: - ..

1. 3. Anchor wam· strengthe11i11g work executed


in 1980 and 1983

The first anchored wall break took place in


1980 as a consequence of the displacement
brought about by the excavation. Twenty-four lnclinomclcr s:.: r,:;
anchor wires broke out of the 103 installed 87 /dcccrnbcr lo 97 ·rr:a::.:::
inside the global landslide arca of the slope
(west edgc of thc anchored walls). Thc 167
anchor wires locatcd outside this arca are intact 20

to thc present date because the was no


displacement. 25

(b)
. Figures 3a and 3b: Inclinometer displacement
(IIB e SL19B)

721
1200 INCLINOMETER
OISRUPT~ S~ _
SL4-B •• - -..j j..1
1000
O,llm/~."'..-•••••·~_,,_,
e (••:# \:_INCLlNOMETER
e800
~ ~ O~RUPT
1-
z
~600 : 0,18 m /year
"'
u 2 ,Í...INCLINOMETER DISRUPT
<
..J
a. 400
"f (- ,-j i! : O,llm/year
'3
1- BUILT OF ANCORED WALLS
2- EXCAVATION OF SLOPE TOE
li>
õ fo= '3- CONSTRUCTION OF A BERM'
4,5,6 1 7- FAILEO ANCHOREO WALLS
200

o -t-......--t--:--+---it-----t---+,----+-----+----+----+---+---1
1978 1980' 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996
/79 /81 /83 /85 /87 /89 /91 /93 /95 /97
TIME

Figure 4: Displacemcnt rate&ofthe SL-4 inclinometer

Thc anchored walls were strengthened for The remaining 57 were installed throughout the
the first time at thc end of 1980. After this four leveis to increase the safety factor of the
operation other measures were taken to anchored walls. The total number of anchor
stabilize the slopc such as construction of an wires was increased to 326 ali of 124>8mm of
equilibrium bcrm with 256.000m3 of rockfill which 160 are located with in the landslide area
and thc inslallation of horizontal deep drain and 167 out ofit.
abovc highway UR-101. With the additional strengthening the
The construction of the berm reduced retaining sttucture lris an total stabilizing force
significantly thc displacement of the slope as of about 2440kN/m for the section with in the
can be seen in Figure 4. The displacement of sliding arca.
thc colluvial soil mass as measured by
inclinometer SI ,-4 was approximately 1100mm 1. 4. Anchor wal/s strengthening work exec..1Jted
with an avcragc velo"city of the order of in 1989
0,225m/year and 0,027m/year before and after
thc constmction of thc cquilibrium bcrm. Another widespread failure of the 124>8mm
During the first quarler of 1980 the creep anchor wires and displacement of anchored
rate was very high (0,6m/year) due primarily to wall plates took place in 1989 despite the
thc largc watcr infiltration into the ground strengthening work of 1980 and 1983 and the
through the cracks which appeared at the start significant reduction of ground movement.
of the displacemcnt although the rainfall At the time of this strengthening works an
rccordcd for january (314mm) and february evaluation of the load on 144 anchor wires of
(230mm) of 1980 are below the yearly average. 12fj,8mm (see table 1) was carried out
Thc sccond strengthening was carried out in disclosing that 25 of them ruptured becausc of
1983 which together with that of 1980 corrosion near the heads. The remaining 119
consistcd basically in thc installation of 107 were tested up to 672 kN (equivalent to a work
rnultiple anchor wires (12(j)8mm). Fifty ofthese load 1,75 times that of the 124>8mm anchor
wcrc installcd to rcplace those which had failed .. wire).

722
At first it was thought to use 32mm anchor • 26 anchor wires (18%) showed an increase
bars (working load 350kN) instead of 14j,9mm in load ofabout 35% ofthe lock-offload;
anchor wires (working load 5 IOkN) to reduce Figure 5 shows a sketch of one of the four
the corrosion problems. This was not possible leveis with .anchor v.ire construction details.
because of difficulties with the constructión of Considering that tbe slope was still
40m long anchor bars and the interference undergoing displacement and tbat not ali
between adjacent fixed anchor zone due to the anchl:_>r wires -bad been repla.ced, a scheme of
increase in anchors quantity. continuous monitoring of the anchored wall
Sixteen anchor wires were not tested. Of the was established. To this effect se.·en Ioad cells
119 which were tested 78 were approved and with strain-gauges were instaIIed to measure
41 failed. variations of thrust against the s:tructures and
The strengthening operation basically displacement pins so as to detect relative
consisted in the installation of 74 anchor wires displacement between paneis
(14(j)9mm); 66 to replace the old ones which
failed and 8 additional. 1.5. Anchor walls strengtherong "ork ere.:uted
Eight of the new 14<f,9mm anchor wires were in 1997
given tests of suitability and creep. Toe
remaining 69 were subjected to a acceptance During the period betv.·een ai:g-.:s::: : çs;i and
tcst at a load 1, 7 5 higher than the working load march 1997 (see Figure frl ~ ,1,as a
in accordance with the Brazilian norm NBR- significant increase (50%) of tl:.e :e.a= ::: tl-...-ee
5629/77. load cells (LC2, LC4 and LC-:--1 ·.-..-::.-e::-ea..s the
From the table 1 which covers a pcriod of 6 other four showed a small increa...-.e i : =" : -
years the following observations can be made: The monitoring of tbe loaê .:e:s :..-.c;;a:ed
• the total loss of load for the 143 anchor the need to check the load on :l:e : ::S a::.:t;:,r
wires was of the order of 30% of the lock- wires located in the landslide 2.;--e:a n: :-es:ore
off load; the work loads to maintain the ;:.2~e-~ :::esgn
• 25 anchor wires (18%) were ruptured; safety factor detennined by s.o;:-e s:ri.:.ity
• 92 anchor wires (64%) lost 49% of the calculations.
lock-off load;

T abl e 1 T enst'Ie I d s actm~ on t he 160 anc orwtres ocated wtt


. hinthe landslid earea1_.,.3.,;,
ºª
· 1,1,:VKJ. 1 - 47 anchorages LEVKL li· 37 anchorages u;v_i,;i, 111-33 anchorages u,-,,·.1,:.1. r,.· --0 -~
,.._.
AIKhor kN Anchor kN Anchor kN Am:hor kN Anchor kN Anchor kN ADclNr k."< k..'
:•: ·- :.11:
UI 200 LI 175 UI 100 LI 145 UI 510 LI "180 UI -..
U2 220
o
LIB Failcd U2 160 L2 604 U2 Failcd
o
L2 o l!2 :!..:
:r;:
-
..
::$:
U3 L2 Failcd U3 130 L3 Failcd U3 L3 340 U3 - _J::'
U4 250 L3 80 U4 120 L4 286 U4 o L4 560 ü4 :J.: :, ..t::
U5 270 L4 Failcd U5 190 L5 19 U5 o L5 280 U5 .o: ., éil:
U6 Failcd L5 l'ailcd U6 80 L6 404 U6 230 L6 160 U6 •Fn:::. _.é ?àcé
U7 F'ailcd L6 Failcd U7 310 L7 219 U7 o L7 340 U7 : r.: . - i
.a:
U8 480 L7 Failcd U8 Failcd L8 Failed U8 230 L8 390 U8 : :~: :1 .
U9 Failcd L8 Failcd U9 Failcd L9 Failed U9 210 L9 360 U9
1
::;: -- ~i
UIO 495 L9 FRilcd UIO so LIO 217 ÚIO 80 LIO 340 UIO : ·--
--· 3: 1
UII 400 LIO Failcd u li 160 Lll Failcd Ull 130 LI! 180 UI! i : ·--
-·- :!);
Ul2 320 LII Failcd U12 180 Ll2 412 U 12 80 Ll2 210 Ul2 1 : - --
.
-- -·
U13 290 Ll2 240 Ul3 345 U 13 180 1 i::
90 LJ3 Ll3 140 Ul3 --· =--=
U!4 430 Ll3 Failcd Ul4 145 Ll4 200 Ul4 o Ll4 300 Ul4 ~-=- :..:.t :..:
Ul5 220 Ll4 570 Ul5 190 Ll5 141 U14A Failcd L15 140 U15 !-'"'." ::~ ~-=-
Ul6 250 Ll5 475 U 16 o Ll6 290 Ul5 100 LISA Failcd U16 ~-=- :.:s
--
.--·
!--:-
Ul7 280 Ll6 360 Ul7 170 Ll7 314 Ll6 230 Ul7 ~-=- ~-=-
UIB 150 Ll7 390 U18 o Ll8 Failcd U18 !-, ::, ~-=-
U19 145 Ll8 310 Ll9 NT U19 ~-=- :..!;, ~-=-
~,.
U20 240 Ll9 200 U20 ~"T :
U21 40 L20 285 U21 ~,. ~

::..::1 ~,.
U22 70 L21 140 r..:.: i ~;
U23 40 1.22 220 Lcgcnd:
1.23 195 NT Not Tcotcd

723
With the removal of anchor wires protective walls. These loads were obtained from graphs
heads (in concrele) it was found that 21 anchor of t!Íe tension checks using the jack pump
wires were broken. They were replaced with calibration curve.
l 4<j>9mm anchor wires. From this table which covers a period of 7 ½
A recently calibrated jack pump was used in years the following observations can be made:
thc tests. The jack pressure was increased in • The total loss of load of the 168 anchor
steps of 1MP a each to obtain at least five wires was of the order of 27% of total
prcssure leveis alter the anchor wire hcad had stabilizing force. The 12cj)8mm anchors
loosened. This proceélure was adopted in order (shorter) showed a total load loss of 42%,
to cstablish a more represcntative anchor wire whereas the 14q,9mm anchors (longer)
extension curve and a more accurate loading. showed a 13% loss.
Also during the work of 1997 it was found
that in addition to thc rupturc of the old anchor
wires several 14<j>9mm anchors with special
corrosion protection installed in 1989 had also
failc<l. 1t was concludcd that the main cause of
thc rupture of anchor wires locatcd within thc
landslide arca was the displacement ofthe slopc
and not the corrosion problem.

2. RESULTS

Figures 7a and 7b show some checks of the


tensions acting on the l 2<j,8mm and l 4q,9mm
LOCAL ANCIIOR LENGIITS
anchor wires rcspcctivcly, made with the 12 • 8mn1 14 • 9mm
strcssing systcm. LEVELI 28m 40m
IJWELII 25m 35m
Ailer thc chccks wcrc made on thc loads LEVEI. Ili 20m 35m
acting on the anchorcd walls the anchor wires LEVEI.IV 20m 30m
wcrc lockcd-off at 308kN and 408kN for
/\NCIIUR 12 8mm 14 9mm
anchors of 12q,8mm and l 4q,9mm rcspcctively. FIXED /\NCIIOR IOm 16m
Tablc 2 shows a summary of the tensile loads
acting on the 168 anchor wires located within Figure 5: Construction details
the landslide area in the four leveis of anchored

6.'iO

•••
~50
-✓
_ ---,,..---
......
;\00

~ • <O
'ii
(.)

-,J ·"º
"o
...J
'.4.00

2<0

200

"º - - - -510/05- - - - - - . - - - - - - - - -93/01- - - - - - - -


R9/07 91/03 91/12 92110 514/06 -.------
9.S/°'1 ----
915/12 97/09
96/02

Ycar / Monlh

Figure 6: Load cell variations

724
• 21 anchors wires · (14%) ruptured; 70% • 5 anchor wires were without Ioad with thc
were old (12cj>8mm) and 30% were 14cj>9m steel plates completely loose. These anchors
ofwhich 10 were located in levei IV (48%). were tested and restressed at the working
• 118 anchor wires (about 73%) loss 40% of Ioad. There was no need for replacement.
lock-offload. Ofthese 70 were of 12tj,8mm • It was not possfüle to establish a
and 48 of l 4if,9mm. relationship for the load variation in ,.;ew of
• 22 anchor wires (14%) showed an increase its erratic beh.aviour, probably due the non-
in load of about 20%. Of these 4 were of unifoim displacement cf the cclh.r.w soil
l 2cj>8mm and 18 of l 4cj>9mm. The increase mass.
was 22% and 16% of the Iock-off load for
the wires of 14cj>9mm and 12cj>8mm
respectively.

oU 3-Levelll
25 11L 15-Level li
• L 3-Levellll
ANCHORI2,j,8mm
• l 5-Levellll
AL 13-Level Ili
x U 1 - LevellV
- L 3 - Levei IV

o +--·
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 ·=
Jack Picssure (MPa)

(a)

------- -- ------
A U 15 - Levell
25
A L 17 • Levell
xL6-Levelll
,-.. 20 11 L 10 - Levei li ANCHOR 14 4> 9 mm
e
e
';;;' 15
• L 17 - Levei li
+U 5-Level Ili
r:: -U 7-Levellll
.9 "~
ig 10 )('✓

!
/

5 .

o --~----- -
o 5 20 2S
1J8Jc Pressure (MPa} 5
(b)
Figures 7a and 7b: Checks ofthe tensions acting on the 12tj,8mm (a) and 14t,9mm (b)

725
Table 2: Tensile loads acting on the 168 anchor wires located within the landslide area (1997)
Li':VJ;J, 1 - 48 anchorag.,. LJ:VEJ, 11- 41 anchorages LEVEI. Ili - 36 anchonges LEVEL IV - 43 andlonges
Anchor kN Anchor kN Anchor kN Ancbor kN Anchor kN Anchor kN Anchor kN Anchor kN
UI 454 1.1 Failcd U1. 82 LJ• 145 UI• Failed LI• 50 UI• 232 LI• 2n
U2 LID 494 u2• 98 L2 (LC) 604 U2 239 L2 371 U2. 145 L2• 196
U3 220 L2(!.C) 545 U3 • 93 L3 547 U3. Faik:d L3 • 149 U3. 141 L3• 208
IJ 4 Failed L3 380 U4 • 80 u• 286 U4• 19 u• 233 U4• 129 L4(LC) 648
li s 288 1.4 416 lJ 5 315 1.5. 19 us 248 LS• 172 us• 351 1.5. 510
U6 JRS 1.5 502 IJ6 339 L6 404 IJ6. 19 L6(LC) 327 U6 412 L6 430
lJ 7 286 L6 310 U7 • 228 L7• 219 U7 282 L7• 245 U7• 311 1.1• 412
ll 8 J.7(LC) 628 ll 8 428 L8 318 U8• 39 u• 263 U8• 290 L8 282
\] 9 308 1.8 298 \] 9 371 L9 294 U9• 237 L9(LC) 518 U9• Failed L9• 276
U10 361 1.9 392 U10 280 LIO 217 UIO• 133 LIO 343 UIO• 2n LIO• Failcd
IJ 11 401 1.10 324 U11 335 1.11 239 U11 380 Lll • 196 UII • 248 Lll • 286
\J 12 223 1.11 318 lJ 12 363 LI2(J.C) 412 Ul2 108 Ll2 • 113 u12• 263 L12• Failcd
Ul.1 387 1.12 290 IJ13 • 129 1,13 345 U13 • 113 Ll3• Failc:d Ul3 • 256 Lt3• 433
IJ 14 265 1.13 l'ailcd \/14 • 168 Ll4• 200 Ul4 290 Ll4• Failcd Ul4• 39 Ll4• Failcd
\J 15 193 Ll4 • 290 Ul5 • 82 LIS • 141 IJ14A 292 1.15 • 123 UIS • Failed Lt5• 123
U 16 341 Ll5 • 208 Ul6 • 137 1.16 290 UIS • 98 LISA 439 Ulõ • Failed Ll6• Failcd
tJ 11 • 1"7 J.16 • l:17 IJl7 • 101 Ll7 314 TA6 LJ6• 137 Ut7• 248 LI7• Failcd
U18 • 206 1.17 325 U18 • 113 Ll8 • Failcd TA7 355 TA8 396 U18 • 153 Ll8 • 272
lJ 19 • 204 1.18 • 249 TA2 451 L19* 231 U19 • Failed L19 • 239
u20• 153 1.19 • 137 TA3 408 TAS 241 U20 • 58 1.20• 176
U 21 • 139 L20 • 149 TA4 292 Lcgmd: U21. Failed 1.21 • 39
U 22 • F11ilcd 1.21 • 170 • 1208mm L22 • 290
lJ 21 • Failcd 1.22 • 166 1409mm
TA 1 JRR 1.23 l'ailcd (l.C) J.oad Cell

Ailer load chccking the scven anchor wires


with load cclls wcrc unloaded for remova! of 50500 , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
thesc instruments. The load cclls wcre 50000
calibrated again to chcck whcther the
49500
calibration constants had changed during the
time in service. A maximum difference of 15%
was observed between the new calibrations
i 49000

e:, 48500
( 1997) and those supplied by the manufacturer
(1989).
~
u
48000 4-ii: ,-=-~ 0,99991
A LC2 - r ... 0,9997
l..., 41500 + LCJ
[ •
- r., 0,99117
The calibrations of april 1997 wcre made l,C-4 - r = 0,9998
47000 · •LC5 -rr. 1,0 .
using a press of l200kN capacity with an )( I.C6 - r.., 0,9998
accuracy of 10kN. Three series of 20 test 46500
~-I:~?- --~-~~.9~.~
points each wcre made for every load cell. ln 46000 +----+---+---i--~.......t--~'""'-i
cach series the load was incrcased by steps of o 400 200
600 800 1000
Load (kN)
50kN until a maximum load of 1000kN was
reachcd. Figure 8: Load cell calibrations (1997)
Figure 8 shows a plot of linear regression
lines for the 60 points corresponding to each
cell. The correlation coefficients (r) are close
to unit which shows the calibration of the load T abl e 3 Tens1e
·1 loads actmg on t he anchors
J.oad Jack 1989 1997 1989/1997 Jack/1989 Jack/1997
cells are trustworthy. Ccll (kN) (kN) /kN) /kN) llcN) llcN\
Table 3 shows thc tensile loads acting on the ccl 54,5 44,20 52,0 0,85 1,23 105
cc2 62 8 45 09 47,4 095 l,39 1,32
anchor wires. They were determined with the cc3 60,4 52,02 47,6 1,09 116 1,27
jack pump and the load cells. Because the cc4 41,2 37,12 38,4 0,97 1,11 1,07
cc5 32,7 29,95 27,4 1,09 1,09 1,19
loads dctermined with jack pump were not in cc6 64,8 44,80 41,4 1,08 1,45 1.57
agreement with those obtained with the load cc7 64,7 57,20 52,1 1,10 1,13 1,24
cells anothcr calibration was made for the
stressing system and the lock-off loads were
restored.

726
3. CONCLUSIONS Dueto global displacement of cc'.:::.,1 52':
mass it will be necessary to mak.e repairs e= ::.e
From the iilclinometer data it can be observed anchored walls and to substitute r..i;::-:=eé
that the colluvial soil mass displacement during anchor wires.
the last seven years is very slow (0,027m/year). To detect the need for repairs yea:iy
It is nevertheless within the expected and iilspections will be undertaken iilcludiilg anchor
allowable values. wires head removal ·for better evaluation and
The maximum rccorded displacement rate monthly readi.ng of load cells and displaccment
after the construction of the berm was of the pins.
order of 0,048m/year and it corresponds to a
rainfâll of 523mm in november 1982.
lnclinometer 11B, the closest to the anchored 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
wall, recorded a displacement of 65mm.
Because the displacement pins did not The authors wish to thank Fumas Centrais
indicate relative displacement between the Elétricas S.A. for the permission to present this
concrete paneis, topographic marks will be paper and Marcelo B. Coelho and Paulo Cesar
installed iil the anchored walls to measure panei de Souza for their help.
individual displacement.
It was not possible to establish a correlation
between anchor wire load and displacement 5. REFERENCES
because of the scattering of the data which is
due to viscous-plasticity behaviour of lhe ABNT NBR-5629/96. Execução de tirantes
colluvial soil mass. ancorados no terreno.
ln tables 1 and 2 it is observed that the Barata, F. E. (1969). Landslides i11 the
changes in load detected in 1989 and 1997 are Tropical Regio11 of Rio de Janeiro. Proc.
of lhe sarne order of magnitude from which it 7u. ICOSOMEF, México.
was concluded that the anchored walls show Brugger, P. J., Ehrlich M. e Lacerda, W. A
the sarne behaviour (loss of load) with the (1994). Monitoração de J,,11costas e
passage of time. Análise de Movimentações em Função de
From the load checks of 1997 it was Precipitação Pluviométrica. X
concluded the load loss is greater for the COBRANSEF, Foz Iguaçu.
anchor· roads locatcd farther from the slip Da Costa Nunes, A. J. (1969). Landslides i11
surface and Iower for those closer to it. Soils of Decomposed Rock due to /11te11se
Anchor wires rupture did not show definite Rainstorms. Proc. 7u. ICOSOMEF,
trends except at levei IV whcre there was 1t México.
load concentration on the concrete paneis, Lacerda, W.A e Sandrori, S. S. (1985).
probably because in 1989 the load was not Movimelllos de Massas Coh111iais. Mesa
checked on ali anchor wires. Redonda Sobre Aspectos Geotécnicos de
lt is advisable to use a stressing system with Encostas, Clube de Engenharia /ABMS.
load cell instead of the traditional system Morgenstern, N. R. e de Matos, M. (1975).
(hydraulic hollow ram jack with hydraulic Stability of Slopes in Residual Soils. V Pan
pump). Amcrican Conf Soil Mechanics and
Monitoring was of great importance iil Foundation Engiileering, Buenos Aires.
restoõng the anchor wire working load to Teixeira, A. H. e Kanji, M. A. (1970).
maintairi the safety factor required by the Evtahilização do 1-:.vcorregamenlo da
stability calculation. Encosta da Serra do Mar na Área da cota
To improve the anchored-wall monitoring 500 da Via Anchieta. IV COBRAMSEF,
system it is planned to instai! five additional Rio de Janeiro.
load cells in order to have three for each levei.

727