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STUDY QUESTIONS (100): MIDTERM EXAM – Intercultural Communication

Understanding Intercultural Communication, Chapters 1-6

McHenry County College, Fall Semester, 2014 – Ron Compton, Instructor

Chapter 1, “Why Study Intercultural Communication?”

1. Intermediate-level culture includes _____.

a. practices of the middle class
b. symbols (e.g., language), meanings, and norms
c. relationship expectation
d. all of the above

2. Deep-level culture includes _____.

a. nonverbal communication emphasis
b. relationship expectation
c. traditions, beliefs, and values
d. all of the above

3. Surface-level culture includes _____.

a. relationship expectation
b. verbal communication emphasis
c. cultural artifacts or systems that have mass appeal and that infiltrate our daily life
d. all of the above

4. Relationship expectation is how much role formality/informality or task/social tone you want
to forge in the interaction.
a. True
b. False

5. Culturally shared ________ involve answers to questions such as human origins, concepts of
time, space, reality, and the existence of a supernatural being.
a. traditions
b. beliefs
c. norms
d. values

6. Culture is a learned ________________ system that consists of patterns of traditions, beliefs,

values, norms, meanings, and symbols that are passed on from one generation to the next and are
shared to varying degrees by interacting members of a community.
a. normative
b. meaning
c. language

7. These can include myths, legends, ceremonies, and rituals that are passed on from one
generation to the next via an oral or written medium.
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a. Culturally shared traditions

b. Culturally shared beliefs
c. Cultural norms
d. Cultural values

8. Music and images produced by Snoop Dogg, Beyoncé Knowles, and other musical artists,
belong to what level of culture?
a. Surface-level culture
b. Intermediate-level culture
c. Deep-level culture
d. Immediate-level culture

9. There has been a dramatic increase in intercultural dating and marriage relationships in the
United States.
a. True
b. False

10. Through the study of intercultural communication, we can deepen our other-awareness, but
not our self-awareness.
a. True
b. False

11. Cultural norms belong to deep-level culture.

a. True
b. False

12. Television shows such as Dancing with the Stars and American Idol are primarily examples
of intermediate-level culture, and specifically, examples of culturally shared beliefs.
a. True
b. False

13. A symbol refers to a sign, artifact, word(s), gesture, or nonverbal behavior that stands for or
reflects something that is meaningful for one individual.
a. True
b. False

14. Cultural norms refer to individual expectations of what constitutes proper or improper
a. True
b. False

15. Culturally shared traditions include myths, legends, ceremonies, and rituals passed on from
one generation to the next via a written medium because oral ones have perished.
a. True b. False
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16. Culturally shared beliefs refer to fundamental assumptions or worldviews that people hold
dearly to their hearts without question.
a. True
b. False

17. Cultural values – in times past but no longer generally true today - refers to priorities that
guide “good” or “bad” behavior, “desirable” or “undesirable” practices, and “fair” or “unfair”
a. True
b. False

Chapter 2, “What Is Intercultural Communication Flexibility?”

18. Aileen becomes aware that she has committed an intercultural faux pas during an interaction
with a cultural stranger, but thinks to herself, “That’s just the way I am. It’s not worth trying
to change.” Aileen is in what stage of the staircase model of flexible intercultural
a. Unconscious incompetence
b. Conscious incompetence
c. Conscious competence
d. Unconscious competence

19. The degree to which communicators achieve mutually shared meaning and integrative goal-
related outcomes is which of the four criteria of a flexible intercultural communicator?
a. Appropriateness
b. Effectiveness
c. Communication adaptability
d. Communication ethnocentrism

20. The degree to which exchanged behaviors are regarded as proper and match the expectations
generated by insiders of a culture is which of the four criteria of a flexible intercultural
a. Appropriateness
b. Effectiveness
c. Communication adaptability
d. Communication creativity

21. In the staircase model of intercultural communication, the stage in which an individual is
“mindlessly mindful” and can code-switch effortlessly between the two different intercultural
communication stages is the ____________ stage.
a. conscious competence b. conscious incompetence
c. unconscious incompetence d. unconscious competence
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22. Adine decides to increase her intercultural communication flexibility. She takes a vacation in
Belgium, taking in the sights and interacting with Belgian individuals. What component of
flexible intercultural communication is she focusing on?
a. Knowledge: informal learning
b. Knowledge: formal studying
c. Meaning: cognitive layer
d. Meaning: affective layer

23. Alisha is from Georgia and is surprised that on her first trip to New York City, native New
Yorkers do not respond to her friendly overtures on the subway. She learns that New Yorkers
generally do not talk to strangers on the subways as a way of obtaining some privacy in a
very crowded city. So, instead of condemning New Yorkers as “unfriendly and suspicious,”
she uses a different cultural frame of reference, understanding their behavior from within
their own frame of reference. Alisha is using what mind-set to evaluate New Yorkers’
a. Adaptability
b. Informal
c. Ethnocentric
d. Ethnorelative

24. Taking this class in intercultural communication is an example of which kind of knowledge?
a. Formal studying
b. Informal learning
c. Affective knowledge
d. Ethnocentric knowledge

25. Ah Ming, a Chinese native, is assigned to a temporary overseas work assignment in the
United States, and upon return, he reports that U.S. employees are “pushy and critical,” as
they often directly told him what to do. What kind of mind-set is Ah Ming using to evaluate
U.S. employees’ behavior?
a. Flexible intercultural communication
b. Ethnocentric
c. Ethnorelative
d. Appropriate

26. Barry approaches his international manager to ask her for a salary increase. What type of
goal is Barry’s salary increase in this intercultural communication interaction?
a. Content goal b. Relational goal
c. Identity goal d. Symbolic goal

27. The fact that intercultural communication involves simultaneous encoding and decoding
reflects which characteristic of intercultural communication?
a. Symbolic exchange b. Process
c. Different cultural communities d. Content meaning
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28. The instructor says to Brooke and Bianca, “You look tired.” Although they both understand
the words, Brooke takes this as a comforting message and Bianca believes she has been
criticized. These two women have understood the same words but attached differing
___________ to them.
a. symbols
b. settings
c. goals
d. meanings

29. __________ meaning is inferred via nonverbal intonations, body movements, or gestures that
accompany the verbal content.
a. Content
b. Relational
c. Instrumental
d. Transactional

30. Dr. Brown realizes she has inappropriately criticized Binh Phuoc’s family remedy for
sprained ankles. However, because intercultural communication is a(n) _____________ process,
he cannot take back his remark.
a. transactional
b. embedded
c. irreversible
d. symbol

31. Informal learning, such as visiting ethnic neighborhoods, is one way to increase our
knowledge of flexible intercultural communication.
a. True
b. False

32. We should all try to attain the unconscious incompetence stage of flexible intercultural
a. True
b. False

33. The staircase model consists of two main stages: flexible and inflexible intercultural
a. True
b. False

34. Symbolic exchange refers to the use of verbal and nonverbal symbols between a minimum of
two individuals to accomplish shared meanings.
a. True
b. False
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35. The digital aspects of communication refers to the content information that we convey to our
a. True
b. False

36. Identity meaning refers to questions such as “Who am I and who are you in this interaction
a. True
b. False

Chapter 3, “What Are the Essential Cultural Value Patterns?”

37. People of cultures high in uncertainty avoidance prefer clear procedures and conflict
a. True
b. False

38. Attitude is a predisposed tendency that influences thinking patterns, but actions to a much
less extent.
a. True
b. False

39. Self-construal is the degree to which people conceive of themselves as separate or connected
to others.
a. True
b. False

40. This is a common cultural pattern found in most northern and western regions of Europe and
in North America.
a. “Being” activity value orientation
b. Collectivism
c. Subjugation-to-nature value orientation
d. Individualism

41. A flood has hit a small town in England, where Carly lives. She responds to the flood by
viewing it as something that is beyond the control of her or her town, and in fact, was
predestined. Which destiny value orientation is she endorsing?
a. Controlling the environment
b. Harmony-with-nature
c. Subjugation-to-nature
d. Internal locus of control

42. Cici is most often concerned with her personal achievements, and is rather competitive with
classmates. She would tend to have a(n) _____________ construal of self.
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a. internal
b. external
c. independent
d. interdependent

43. A culture which confronts a natural disaster, such as floods, by building dams, bridges, and
other water-control features, is operating from which people-nature value orientation?
a. Controlling their environment value solution
b. Harmony-with-nature or “flowing” value solution
c. Subjugation-to-nature or “yielding” value solution
d. “Being” value solution

44. On Carlos’ first day as a study-abroad student, he was surprised to find that his instructor
asked for student feedback and that at the end of class, the instructor went to lunch with
some of the students. Having paid attention in his intercultural communication class, Carlos
understands that the culture in which he is now living is a ____________ culture.
a. future-oriented
b. past-oriented
c. large power distance
d. small power distance

45. Caitlyn’s father always decides where to go on vacation and Caitlyn is expected to accept the
decision without complaint. Caitlyn’s mother does the packing and is concerned with the
quality of the hotel. Caitlyn is in a _____________ family situation.
a. “masculine”
b. “feminine”
c. “being-in-becoming”
d. “being”

46. Which group or nation is most likely to emphasize individual initiative and achievement and
a future value solution?
a. Saudi Arabia b. Saudi Arabian upper class
c. U.S. middle-class European Americans d. All Japanese classes

47. Camille and Chika have different reactions to their equally poor performances on the first
exam of the semester. Camille believes that it is her responsibility to do better and that she must
make extra effort on the next exam. Chika believes that destiny or fate was involved and that
sometimes external forces shape one’s life events. Camille has a(n) _____________ locus of
control and Chika has a(n) ____________ locus of control.
a. internal; external
b. external; internal
c. vertical; horizontal
d. horizontal; vertical
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48. A culture which answers the question of the relationship between people and the natural by
being more fatalistic and acting humbly in the face of cataclysmic external forces, is operating
under which people-nature value orientation?
a. Controlling their environment value solution
b. Harmony-with-nature or “flowing” value solution
c. Subjugation-to-nature or “yielding” value solution
d. “Doing” value solution

49. Cristina is a study-abroad student who moves to the United States to live in a college
apartment in California. She notices that her roommates don’t knock before entering her
bedroom; they just open the door and walk right in. Rather than decide that U.S. Americans
are “rude,” she practices the O-D-I-S method from her intercultural communication class.
Which letter represents her efforts to be more open-ended in evaluating her roommates’
behavior and to refrain from her initial ethnocentric evaluation of the behavior as “rude?”
a. O
b. D
c. I
d. S

50. The most important value dimension that shapes our sense of self is the individualism-
collectivism value dimension.
a. True
b. False

51. Individuals with an external locus of control tend to emphasize free will, individual
motivation, and personal effort and responsibility.
a. True
b. False

52. People with a vertical self-construal emphasize informal interactions and a direct approach to
resolving problems.
a. True
b. False

53. People operating under a future-oriented time sense are concerned with fixed schedules and
short- to medium-term planning.
a. True
b. False

54. All individuals from Asian countries operate from an interdependent self-construal.
a. True
b. False
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Chapter 4, “What Are the Keys to Understanding Cultural and Ethnic Identities?”

55. Dashelle’s _______________ identity includes the information that she is nineteen, has a
son, and a college student at UNLV; her ______________ identity is fun-loving, optimistic,
and a fan of country music.
a. personal; social
b. social; personal
c. cultural; social
d. social; cultural

56. In the ethnic-cultural typological model, an individual who identifies strongly with the larger
culture and weakly with his or her own ethnic identity is operating from which of the four
a. Bicultural identity
b. Ethnic-oriented identity
c. Assimilated identity
d. Marginal identity

57. Even after moving to Thailand, Deidre continues to identify strongly with her native British
values and traditions rather than with her new culture. Which identity does Deidre have?
a. Bicultural identity
b. Ethnic-oriented identity
c. Assimilated identity
d. Marginal identity

58. _________________ refers to the process whereby people are socialized into and internalize
the primary cultural values of their birth country.
a. Acculturation
b. Enculturation
c. Adaptation
d. Assimilation

59. Damek has moved from his native Hungary to the United States. He is going through the
process of viewing himself as a Hungarian to incorporating a new identity, that of a U.S.
American. What is this process of identity change called?
a. Acculturation
b. Enculturation
c. Ethnic identity salience
d. Cultural identity salience

60. The ___________ family system emphasizes communal meanings, ascribed roles and
statuses between parents and child, and family rule conformity.
a. extended b. blended
c. positional d. personal
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61. In a society with a(n) _________stance, immigrants are often expected to conform quickly to
local cultural practices while in a society with a(n) __________ stance, immigrants are given
more leeway to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to adapt to the new culture.
a. assimilation; pluralist
b. pluralist; assimilation
c. enculturated; acculturated
d. acculturated; enculturated

62. Donatello and his family emigrated to the United States from Italy. Donatello was fortunate
to have had English classes in Italy in which he learned about verbal and nonverbal styles of U.S.
communication. What kind of knowledge is this?
a. Personal
b. Cultural
c. Interaction-based
d. Enculturated

63. Donatello also learned about U.S. geography, its political and economic situation, and its
predominant spiritual beliefs. What kind of knowledge is this?
a. Personal
b. Cultural
c. Interaction-based
d. Enculturated

64. Danine emigrated with her family from Taiwan to Canada. She feels a strong affiliation with
Canadian culture. In other words, she feels strong cultural identity ___________.
a. hierarchy
b. value
c. salience
d. tradition

65. An individual who identifies strongly with both ethnic traditions and the cultural practices of
the larger society is said to be a bicultural individual.
a. True
b. False

66. Enculturation occurs when a person moves to a new culture or country and stays there for at
least one year.
a. True
b. False

67. In a society that is culturally pluralistic, there is little or no tolerance for immigrants who
practice their ethnic traditions and customs.
a. True b. False
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68. Democratic decision making is the dominant method of making decisions in the personal
family system.
a. True
b. False

69. In the Racial-Ethnic Identity Development Model, the encounter stage is when the individual
develops a secure racial-ethnic identity and also has genuine contact with many different groups.
a. True
b. False

Chapter 5, “What Is Culture Shock?”

70. Ephraim was excited at first about his study abroad trip to the United States. After he arrived,
he was surprised to find out that he had periods of loneliness and disorientation. What Ephraim
should know is that he is in the process of ____________.
a. enculturation
b. resocialization
c. reentry culture shock
d. culture shock

71. According to the revised W-Shaped Adjustment Model, in which stage might sojourners
become very aggressive in the new culture, or totally withdraw from it?
a. Humorous
b. Reentry culture shock
c. Hostility
d. Ambivalence

72. After a few months, Ephraim’s feelings began stabilizing and he now feels relatively
comfortable and satisfied as he continues his study-abroad experience. Ephraim is experiencing
good ____________ adjustment.
a. assimilation
b. sociocultural
c. cultural distance
d. psychological

73. In the ABCs of culture shock, “A” stands for the _________ dimension of disorientation,
which includes feelings of anxiety, bewilderment, and confusion.
a. affective
b. adaptation
c. acculturation
d. alienation
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74. Elaine travels from the United States to study abroad in Canada. She notices that her culture-
shock experience does not involve very intense experiences with negative feelings. This is due to
the fact that there is not a great difference in ____________ factors such as language, cultural
values, verbal styles, and nonverbal gestures between the two countries.
a. culture shock
b. cultural distance
c. adaptation
d. enculturation

75. Which of the following is an example of a socioemotional goal for a sojourner in a foreign
a. Establishing a friendship with a member of the foreign country
b. Hiring individuals from the foreign country for the overseas office
c. Incorporating a new business model at the overseas office
d. Attending courses for university credit at the foreign country’s national university

76. Ellie decided to do some research on orangutans. She spent six months abroad, consulting
with scientists at the Nairobi Zoo in Kenya. Because she knew her intercultural communication
terms, when asked by Kenyans who she was, she replied, “My name is Ellie and I am a(n)
a. tourist
b. visitor
c. immigrant
d. sojourner

77. ______________ adjustment refers to the ability to fit in and execute appropriate and
effective interactions in a new cultural environment.
a. Assimilation b. Sociocultural
c. Psychological d. Voluntary

78. As a sojourner, Ernest has begun making new friends and has spent enough time in the new
culture to realize that there are pros and cons in each culture. He is experiencing which stage of
the revised W-shaped adjustment model?
a. Honeymoon b. Hostility
c. Ambivalence d. Humorous

79. Els is a study abroad student from the United States studying in China. When she encounters
an awkward or confusing situation with a Chinese individual, she tries to imaginatively place
herself in the other’s shoes, considering what the other individual is experiencing, both
intellectually and emotionally. Else is practicing which aspect of communication competence?
a. In-sync adjustment b. Behavioral flexibility
c. Cross-cultural empathy d. Bicultural identity
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80. Sojourners who have realistic expectations tend to have a more negative culture shock
a. True
b. False

81. Elmira has spent the first two weeks of her study-abroad experience really enjoying herself,
so she will not experience culture shock.
a. True
b. False

82. Sometimes there are returnees who never quite fit back into their home culture. These are
called “alienators” and they often seek out more sojourner experiences.
a. True
b. False

83. Individuals going through reentry culture shock may feel more severe emotions than when
they experienced the hostility stage of the revised W-Shaped Adjustment Model.
a. True
b. False

84. The revised W-Shaped Adjustment Model describes the long-term adaptation process of
immigrants and refugees.
a. True
b. False

Chapter 6, “What Is the Connection Between Verbal Communication and Culture?”

85. Francis has decided to write a history of his family’s immigration to England. Because
language is _____________, he can write about the past.
a. arbitrary
b. abstract
c. meaning-centered
d. creative

86. A(n) ____________ worldview reflects a holistic reasoning pattern and avoids using
polarized ends such as good/evil and young/old.
a. linear b. relational
c. inductive d. deductive

87. The word “hit” has many definitions, but when Fatima hears the word used with regard to
musical hits, it brings many good thoughts and feelings due to her experiences with listening to
music. This illustrates the __________ meaning of a word.
a. connotative b. inductive
c. deductive c. denotative
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88. The notion that language functions to emphasize what is considered “important” or
“interesting” in our social environment is a description of which function of language?
a. Worldview function
b. Everyday social reality function
c. Cognitive function
d. Linguistic relativity function

89. Felicia uses incorrect grammatical structure when she refers to a boy’s sailor suit by saying
“Handsome outfit, that.” She is violating which rule of language?
a. Phonology
b. Morphology
c. Syntactics
d. Semantics

90. When Farrell, who is from Georgia, pronounces the word “father,” it sounds noticeably
different from Frank, who is from Boston. This describes the language feature of a(n)
a. individualist b. collectivist
c. accent d. relational worldview

91. The word “rap” has as one of its dictionary definitions, “to tap or knock.” It also describes a
particular music style. These two dictionary definitions illustrate that words have
______________ meanings.
a. connotative
b. inductive
c. deductive
d. denotative

92. A(n) ____________ is defined as a group of individuals who share a common set of norms
and rules regarding appropriate communication practices.
a. speech community
b. worldview
c. co-culture
d. collectivism

93. A(n) _________ worldview emphasizes rational thinking that is based on an objective
a. linear
b. relational
c. inductive
d. deductive

94. U.S. individuals tend to use ___________ while Japanese individuals tend to use
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a. high-context communication; low-context communication

b. low-context communication; high-context communication
c. relational worldview; linear worldview
d. deductive reasoning; inductive reasoning

95. A cultural community that uses talk to “break the ice” and reserves silence for their most
intimate relationships is most likely to use _______________ communication.
a. high-context
b. low-context
c. deductive
d. dramatic spiral

96. When Frankie talks to her roommate, she speaks in a matter-of-fact tone and states her
message clearly. What kind of verbal style does this reflect?
a. Direct
b. Indirect
c. Understated
d. High-context

97. Inductive reasoning reflects a linear worldview and deductive reasoning reflects a relational
a. True
b. False

98. The linguistic relativity hypothesis states that language is relative, or arbitrary, and is not
linked to culture.
a. True
b. False

99. The syntactic rules of a language refer to “how to say what to whom and under what
a. True
b. False

100. Black English (Ebonics) is a distinctive language that is governed by rules with specific
historical derivations.
a. True
b. False