basics of electronics

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basics of electronics

© All Rights Reserved

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• Charge (q):

– Elementary charge particle: electron

– Has a negative charge of magnitude

q = 1.6 x 10–19 Coulomb (C)

• Voltage (V) (also referred to as potential):

– Work done (or energy spent) to move a unit

charge between two points

– (work done)/(unit charge) => 1 V = 1 J/1 C

– Also, known as the potential difference (p.d.)

between two points, expressed in Volt

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 1

– For charges to flow between two points in a

closed circuit, a p.d. must exist between these two

points

– Scalar quantity: always measured with respect to

some reference

• If the reference is not explicitly specified, then it is

taken to be ground (zero volt)

• Example:

– VA - potential of point A with respect to ground

– VAB - potential of point A with respect to potential of point B

– All circuits must have a reference point

• If the reference point is not explicitly shown, then any

node can be taken as a reference point

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 2

• Actual Ground and Reference Ground:

– Ground provides a return path for the current

– Earth is considered to be an infinite source/sink

of charge

• Zero resistance => can absorb unlimited amount of

current without changing its potential

– Power supply in your homes have a ground

connection, so does all big electrical and

electronic appliances

• 3-pin plugs: Live, Neutral, and Ground

• 2-pin: Only Live and Neutral (floating ground)

– Lightning arrester is a classic example of an

actual ground

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 3

– Small and portable appliances (cell-phones, ipods,

etc.) do not have actual ground

• They have something known as floating ground (also

referred to as chassis ground)

– Typically a metal plate running at the periphery of the PCB

– Floating ground apparatus are dangerous, since

they may give electric shocks

– Another example is electrostatic discharge

(lightning is also an electrostatic discharge)

• On a dry day, we may get shock upon touching a metal

object (like door-knob) => electrostatic discharge

– The equipments that you will be using in the lab

will all have actual ground

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 4

• Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law:

– Net voltage around a closed circuit must be zero

– Origin: Law of energy conservation:

• Total energy generated in a circuit must equal total

energy dissipated in the circuit

+ V2 –

+

Element 2

+

V1 V2 V3 V4 0

Take care of the polarities

Element 3

Element 1

– – applying this law

Element 4

reference

point

+ V4 –

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 5

• Current (I):

– Measure of charge transport

– Defined as incremental charge change with respect

to incremental time change

– Expressed as: i = Δq/Δt (Coulomb/sec = Ampere)

– In the limit, as Δt → 0, i = dq/dt (differential form)

– If dq/dt is constant => direct current (dc)

– If dq/dt exists => alternating current (ac)

– Note: 1 A of current implies about 1019 electrons

flowing per second through a cross-sectional area

current electron

+ flow flow –

wire

is defined as the direction of flow of

positive charges

– Electrons flow opposite to the direction of

current flow

• Electrons always move from lower potential

to higher potential (attractive for them)

– Actual flow of current from higher potential to

lower potential

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 7

• For current to flow, the circuit must be

closed

• Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL):

– Sum of currents at a node must be zero

– Origin: Law of charge conservation:

• In a closed circuit, no charge is lost

• States that: I1

– the sum of currents I2

I5

must equal the sum A

I3

of currents flowing I4

out of the node At node A:

I1 + I3 = I2 + I4 + I5

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 8

• Power (P):

– Defined as work done per unit time

– Thus, P = (work done)/(unit charge) x (unit

charge)/(unit time) = voltage current = VI

– Unit of P is Joules/sec or Watt (W)

– In an element, if the current flows from:

• lower to higher potential, then that element is

generating power

• higher to lower potential, then that element is

absorbing or dissipating power

– Within an electric circuit, the total power

generated must equal the total power dissipated

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 9

• Ohm’s Law, Resistance, & Conductance:

– Fundamental principle of electric circuit

– Relates the current (I) that flows through a resistor

under an applied p.d. of V

– V = IR, with R being the resistance of the resistor

– Thus, resistors are linear elements

– Alternate form: I = GV, with G being the

conductance of the resistor

– Note that G = 1/R

– Current always flows from higher to lower potential

– The unit of resistance is Ohm (Ω), while that of

conductance is Mho

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 10

• Resistance (R):

– Typically cylindrical, having length l and radius

r, with cross-sectional area A = πr2

– Expressed as: R = ρl/A, where ρ = resistivity

(Ω-cm) = 1/σ, with σ = conductivity (Ω-cm)–1

– Usually, nichrome wires wound around a base

with an insulating material, bonded with resin

a b c d

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 11

• Resistor Color Code:

– B B Roy of Great Britain has a Very Good Wife

– BBROYGBVGW: Black (0), Brown (1), Red

(2), Orange (3), Yellow (4), Green (5), Blue (6),

Violet (7), Gray (8), White (9)

– Band d is tolerance band: Violet - 0.1%, Blue -

0.25%, Green - 0.5%, Brown - 1%, Red - 2%,

Gold - 5%, Silver - 10%, None - 20%

– Example: brown black brown gold - 100 Ω with

±5% tolerance, blue gray yellow - 680 kΩ with

±20% tolerance

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 12

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 13

• Resistor Temperature & Power Ratings:

– Power dissipated in a resistor = VI = V2/R = I2R

– Causes a rise in temperature of the resistor due

to Joule heating

– Causes a change in the resistor value,

determined by its temperature coefficient (TCF)

– TCF = α = (1/R)(dR/dT), expressed in /K or /°C

– R = Rnom[1 + α(T – Tnom)], where Tnom is the

nominal temperature, and Rnom is the value of

the resistance at Tnom

– Resistors should be able to effectively dissipate

the generated heat, otherwise, they may burn

out

– Resistors have safe power ratings

– Common power ratings: 1/8 W, 1/4 W, 1/2 W,

1 W, and 2 W

– Resistors having power rating of more than 2

W are referred to as high-power resistors

– In power electronics applications, the power

rating of resistors may even be kW or more

• Series Combination of Resistors:

I

+ V V1 V2 V3

+

V1 R1

I R1 R 2 R 3

I

–

+

IR eq

+

V V2 R2 V Req

R eq R1 R 2 R 3

–

–

+ Largest R

V3 R3

–

dominates

–

supplied by the source => VI = I2Req

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 16

• Parallel Combination of Resistors:

I I

+ +

I1 I2 I3

R1 R2 R3 V Req V

– –

1 1 1 V

I I1 I 2 I3 V

R1 R 2 R 3 R eq Smallest R

R eq R1 R 2 R 3 R R R

(highest G)

1

1

1

2

1 1

3

Dominates

G1 G 2 G 3

1

conductances in series

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 17

• Current Branching between Two Parallel

Resistors:

I

R 1R 2

+ V IR eq , R eq R1 R 2

R1 R 2

I1 I2

V R1 R2 V R2 R1

I1 I, and I 2 I

R1 R1 R 2 R1 R 2

–

• If R2 >> R1, then I1 ≈ I, and I2 ≈ 0

• If R1 >> R2, then I2 ≈ I, and I1 ≈ 0

• If R1 = R2, then I1 = I2 = I/2 (equal split)

– The larger resistor carrier lesser current, since

the voltage drop across both of them is same

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 18

• Sources:

– Elements that supply power (or energy)

– Voltage and Current

– Independent and Dependent

• Notational Convention (IEEE Standard):

– Capital letter with capital suffix - pure DC

• Example: VS

– Small-case letter with small-case suffix - pure ac

• Example: ia

– Capital letter with small-case suffix, or small-

case letter with capital suffix - instantaneous

• Example: Is or Aloke

vA Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 19

• Independent Voltage Source:

VL

RS

Independent VS

+

Voltage

I

Source VS RL VL

– non-ideal source

ideal source

with finite RS and

with RS = 0

VS: Rated Voltage decreasing RL

RS: Series Resistance of Source

RL: Load Resistance 0

I

VL: Load Voltage

VS RL

I , VL IR L VS

RS R L RS R L

– For VL = VS, RS must be zero - an important

requirement for a good voltage source

• Known as Ideal Voltage Source => lossless

– For finite RS, VL will drop with decreasing RL

• Known as loading effect

– Practical voltage sources have series resistance

of the order of a few kΩ

– For well designed sources, it may be less than

100 Ω

– Effect of loading becomes more and more

pronounced as RL and RS start to become

comparable

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 21

• Independent Current Source:

IL

+

Independent IS

IL

Current IS RS RL V

Source

–

non-ideal source

ideal source

IS: Rated Current with finite RS and

RS: Shunt Resistance of Source increasing RL with RS ->

RL: Load Resistance

IL: Load Current

0

V

RS R SR L

IL IS , V IL R L IS

RS R L RS R L

– For IL = IS, RS must be infinite - an important

requirement for a good current source

• Known as Ideal Current Source => lossless

– For finite RS, IL will drop with increasing RL

• Known as loading effect

– Practical current sources have shunt resistance

of the order of a few hundreds of kΩ

– For well designed sources, it may be even

greater than 1 MΩ

– Effect of loading becomes more and more

pronounced as RL and RS start to become

comparable

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 23

• Dependent (or Controlled) Sources:

Source voltage (current) dependent on another

voltage (current) somewhere else in the circuit

+

V I

–

Note the diamond shape, which distinguishes

these from independent sources (round)

– Four possibilites:

• VCVS (Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source)

– V = AvVx, Av: voltage gain, Vx: controlling voltage

• VCCS (Voltage-Controlled Current Source)

– I = GmVx, Gm: transconductance

• CCCS (Current-Controlled Current Source)

– I = AiIx, Ai: current gain, Ix: controlling current

• CCVS (Current-Controlled Voltage Source)

– V = RmIx, Rm: transresistance

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 24

• Electrical Network:

– Connection of elements to form a closed path

through which current flows

• Branch:

– Any portion of a circuit with two terminals

connected to it

– May contain one or more circuit elements

+

R

V

+ –

V I R

– R I

• Node:

– Junction point of two or more branches

– Junction point of only two branches is also

known as trivial node

A B C

node F E D

A, B, C, D, E, F: Nodes

A, C, D, F: Trivial Nodes

• Supernode:

– 2 nodes connected by a dc voltage source is

denoted as a supernode

– Voltages at the two nodes of a supernode are

not independent, e.g., VB = VA + V1

V1

I I

A B

– +

• At any supernode, net current entering = net current

leaving

• Loop:

– Closed connection of branches

– Different loops in the same circuit may include

some of the same elements or branches

• Mesh:

– A loop that does not contain other loops

A B C

Loops 1 and 2 are meshes,

but Loop 3 is not a mesh,

Loop 1 Loop 2 Loop 3

since it includes Loops 1 and 2

F E D

• Measuring Instruments:

– Ohmmeter:

• Measures the resistance of a resistor

• The resistance is put across the two terminals of the

instrument, which injects a small current (I) through

the resistor, and measures the voltage (V) dropped

across it => then R = V/I

• The meter is calibrated to show the output in terms

of the ohmic value of the resistor

– Voltmeter:

• Measures the voltage (or potential) dropped across

any element in the circuit

• Always put in parallel to the two nodes across which

the potential is to measured

• To prevent loading caused by this instrument, it has

extremely high resistance

• Never put a voltmeter in series with any element in a

circuit, since due to the high resistance of this

instrument, that branch will immediately become

open-circuited

– Ammeter:

• Measures the current flowing through any branch in

a network

• Always put in series with the branch through which

the current flow is to be measured

• To prevent loading caused by this instrument, it has

negligible resistance

• Never put an ammeter in parallel with any element

in a circuit, since due to the extremely small

resistance of this instrument, a huge amount of

current will flow through this instrument and burn it

– Wattmeter:

• Also known as Power Meter

• Measures the power consumed by a branch

A

B D B D

Power

Meter Ammeter

V

current lead

voltage leads

Voltmeter

common C C

terminal

measurements, and then performs a multiplication of

the two in order to get the power

Aloke Dutta/EE/IIT Kanpur 32

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