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BP.

COLUMN BASE PLATES


We will cover only the case of column axial loads.

Function of a Base Plate


P
To distribute the load from the steel column to
concrete foundation so that bearing pressure on
concrete is not exceeded. Since steel is lot stronger
than concrete, the steel column must be supported
over a "base Plate" Base
Plate
How the column & base plates are connected to function
• The base plate is welded to the column
• The base plate is anchored to concrete footing by
"anchor bolts"
• The anchor bolts are embedded into concrete
• Connection by anchor bolts can be fixed (moment
resisting) or pinned (no or negligible moment
capacity).
Base Plate Size
-Plan dimension B × N M
Both B & N must exceed the column size
-thickness t p , controlled by bending of plate under
pressure

There are two approaches for t p


a) Cantilever method → controls when plates has B
reasonable projection
b) Yield-line method (LRFD) → controls when N
negligible M
plates has small projection ~pinned connection
The plate thickness is the larger of the two criteria
N
P
B

Critical section for bending (fixed)


bf (AISC method) high moment resistance

n
m

d 0.95d N t

f p=bearing pressure
m

n 0.8bf n
B

Cantilever approach for larger plates


BP. 2

The design bearing strength φc Pp must be


φc Pp ≥ Pu (ultimate axial load) φ = 0.60
Pp = 0.85 f c' A1
or Pp = 0.85 f c' A1 A2 A1 ≤ 0.85 f c' (2 A1 ) , if A2 > A1 A1
A2
A1 = B × N of plate concentrically bearing on concrete A1~A2

A2 = maxm. area of portion of concrete surface that is


geometrically similar to and concentric with the
loaded area A1

f c
' = concrete strength at 28-day A2
A1>A2

Cantilever Method
⎛ N ⋅ n2 ⎞
Factored cantilever moment M u = f p ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ , on section parallel to web.
⎝ 2 ⎠
⎛ N ⋅ n2 ⎞
M u = f p ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ , on section parallel to flange.
⎝ 2 ⎠
Pu
f p = actual bearing strength =
B× N
φb M n ≥ Mu
123
bending
strength .of . plate

φb M n = φb Z ⋅ Fy = φb ( N ⋅ t p2 / 4) Fy ⎫⎪
⎬ depending on the direction chosen
orφb M n = φb ( B ⋅ t p2 / 4) Fy ⎪⎭
Thus,
⎛ N ⋅ t p2 ⎞ N ⋅ n2
φb ⎜ ⎟ ⋅F = fp
⎜ 4 ⎟ y 2
⎝ ⎠
⎛ N ⋅ t p2 ⎞
⎟ ⋅ Fy = f p B ⋅ n
2
orφb ⎜
⎜ 4 ⎟ 2
⎝ ⎠
Solving for t p ,
2fp 2fp
tp = n or t p = m
φb Fy φ b Fy
With φb = 0.9
t p = 1.5n f p / Fy or t p = 1.5m f p / Fy whichever is larger
Hint: if possible, make n ≈ m , this gives minimum thickness t p .
b) Yielding of plate within the column area
d = depth of column,
Effective cantilever length n' = 14 d ⋅ b f
b f = width of flange
Find the factor λ ( λ ≤ 1.0 )
2 x 4d ⋅ b f
λ= , x=
1+ 1− x (d + b f ) 2
BP. 3

λ = 1.0 when x = 0.64


Required t p = 1.5(λn' ) f p / Fy
c) Plate thickness
The value of t p will be govern by the larger of three values, n , m or λn' .
t p = 1.5 (larger of n , m or λn' ) × f p / Fy
Example
Design the base plate for a W14x145 column of A-36 steel to carry
400kDL , 275kLL and 100kWL . Assume concrete pedestal size 6" more than
base plate in both sides. f c' = 3000 psi .
Pu = 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL = 920k ← controls
Pu = 1.2 DL + 0.5LL + 1.3WL = 748k
Thus, Pu = 920k

i) Size B × N
Pu 920
Required Area of base plate, A1 = = = 601in 2
φ × 0.85 f c 0.6 × 0.85 × 3
'

0.80b f = 0.80 × 15.5 = 12.40in


0.95d = 0.95 × 14.78 = 14.04in
Try B = 24in and N = 25in ; concrete pedestal = 30 × 31in
A2 = 30 × 31 = 930in 2
A2 / A1 = 930 / 600 = 1.24 < 2.0 maxm.
Pu 601
Required A1 = = = 485in 2
φ × 0.85 f A1 A2 / A1 c
'
1.24
Use B = 21in and N = 23in (check if satisfactory)
ii) Thickness t p
t p = 1.5 (larger of n , m or λn' ) × f p / Fy
m = 0.5( N − 0.95d ) = 0.5(23 − 14.04) = 4.48" ← (1)
m = 0.5( B − 0.80b f ) = 0.5(21 − 12.40) = 4.30" ← (2)
φ c Pp = 0.85 f c' A1 A2 A1 = 941k
4d ⋅ b f Pu 4 × 14.78 × 15.50 920
x= ⋅ = × = 0.97 > 0.64
(d + b f ) 2
φPp (14.78 + 15.50) 2 941
Thus, λ = 1.0
Now, n' = 14 d ⋅ b f = 1
4 14.78 × 15.50 = 3.78" ← (3)
Largest value of n , m or λn' = 4.48"
Pu 920
fp = =
B × N 21 × 23
920
t p = 1.5 × 4.48 f p / Fy = 1.5 × 4.48 = 1.54" = 1 12 " ,
21 × 23 × 36

Use 1 12 "×21"×23" plate