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Feasibility of Decentralized Solid Waste management

System – Study and Prototype Development

Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the


B. Tech. degree in Mechanical Engineering

By

Name of Student Roll Number


1. Pradip Bariya 13BME010
2. Nisarg Shah 13BME100
3. Harshil Solanki 13BME108

Under the supervision


Of
Dr. Anurag Mudgal

SCHOOL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY


PANDIT DEENDAYAL PETROLEUM UNIVERSITY
GANDHINAGAR, GUJARAT, INDIA
2017
Feasibility of Decentralized Solid Waste management
System – Study and Prototype Development

Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the


B. Tech. degree in Mechanical Engineering

By

Name of Student Roll Number


1. Pradip Bariya 13BME010
2. Nisarg Shah 13BME100
3. Harshil Solanki 13BME108

Under the supervision


Of
Dr. Anurag Mudgal

SCHOOL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY


PANDIT DEENDAYAL PETROLEUM UNIVERSITY
GANDHINAGAR, GUJARAT, INDIA
2017
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this report on “Feasibility of Decentralized Solid Waste management
System – Study and Prototype Development” submitted by the following students, as a
requirement for the degree in Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech) in Mechanical Engineering,
Session 2016-2017. This work was carried out under my guidance and supervision.

Name of Student Roll No Signature

Pradip Bariya 13BME010


Nisarg Shah 13BME100
Harshil Solanki 13BME108

Date: Signature of the Supervisor


Place: (Name of the Supervisor)
Acknowledgement
We would like to sincerely thank our guide Dr. Anurag Mudgal for his invaluable guidance,
constant assistance, support, endurance and constructive suggestions for the betterment of the
seminar report.
I would like to convey my heartfelt thanks to our Head of Department Dr. S. S. Kacchawaha for
giving us the opportunity to embark upon this topic and for his continuous encouragement
throughout the preparation of this seminar.

We also wish to thank all the staff members of Department of Mechanical Engineering for
helping us directly or indirectly in completing this work successfully.

Further we would like to thank NEPRA for the opportunity of letting us visit their factories and
sharing the practical knowledge. We would also like to thank the Ahmedabad Municipal
Corporation for sharing the educational resources and available data with us.

i
Abstract
This paper attempts to assess the various factors that govern the sustenance of a decentralized
solid waste management system in urban India. Towards the end, a decentralized seggration
facility was studied which was started in Ahmedabad. The parameters covered under the study
were the technology and the technical expertise, managerial influence, economic viability,
community support including the socio- economic status of the community and the influence of
parallel government schemes. Our findings indicate that success and long term sustainability of
the model depend on sustenance parameters to a varying degree. It also seeks out those factors
that need to be addressed if the system is replicated in other urban settings.

ii
Contents
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................... i

Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... ii

Contents ......................................................................................................................................... iii

List of Tables .................................................................................................................................. v

List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ vi

List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................................... viii

1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1

2. Literature Survey, Case Studies and Practical Survey ............................................................ 2

2.1 Literature Survey .............................................................................................................. 2

2.2 Case Study ........................................................................................................................ 3

2.3 Practical Survey................................................................................................................ 5

2.3.1 Waste Collection System .......................................................................................... 6

2.3.2 Waste Processing and Treatment (Present Plants) .................................................. 10

2.3.3 Waste to Energy ...................................................................................................... 11

2.3.4 Disposal of E-Waste ............................................................................................... 11

2.3.5 Solution for the existing Pirana Dump Site ............................................................ 12

2.3.6 Solid Waste Recycling Centre (Material Recovery Facility) ................................. 12

2.3.7 Nepra Resources Management Private Limited (NRMPL) .................................... 13

2.4 Feasibility of DSWM ..................................................................................................... 20

2.5.............................................................................................................................................. 20

2.6 Breakup of Municipal Solid Waste ................................................................................ 20

2.7 Breakup of Revenue ....................................................................................................... 21

2.8 Percentage Breakup of Revenue .................................................................................... 22

3. Methodology ......................................................................................................................... 23

iii
3.1 Feasibility analysis of DSWM ....................................................................................... 23

3.1.4 Cost Analysis for medium scale SWM plant. ......................................................... 25

3.2 Prototype development ................................................................................................... 33

3.3.............................................................................................................................................. 33

4. Result and Discussion ........................................................................................................... 39

5. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 42

References ..................................................................................................................................... 43

iv
List of Tables
Table 2.1 Zone wise waste collection ............................................................................................. 8
Table 2. 2 Waste Processing and Treatment (Present Plants) ....................................................... 10
Table 2. 3 Companies presently working with AMC ................................................................... 11
Table 2. 4 Feasibility of DSMW ................................................................................................... 20

v
List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Community Participation............................................................................................... 4
Figure 2.2 Public Private Partnership ............................................................................................. 5
Figure 2.3 Types of waste in MT .................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2. 4 Vibrato-Scope ............................................................................................................. 13
Figure 2. 5 Motor of the Vibrating Screen .................................................................................... 14
Figure 2. 6 Debris and Small Particulate Collector ...................................................................... 14
Figure 2. 7 Belt Drive with Casing ............................................................................................... 15
Figure 2. 8 Manual rag picking operation ..................................................................................... 16
Figure 2. 9 Bags for segregation ................................................................................................... 16
Figure 2. 10 Pathways to collect segregated waste ....................................................................... 17
Figure 2. 11 Segregated waste storage .......................................................................................... 17
Figure 2. 12 Hydraulic Press ......................................................................................................... 18
Figure 2. 13 Hydraulic Press ......................................................................................................... 18
Figure 2. 14 Stacked recyclable waste .......................................................................................... 19
Figure 2. 15 Stacked Recyclable waste by cartons ....................................................................... 19
Figure 2. 16 Pie Chart of breakup of municipal solid waste ......................................................... 21
Figure 2. 17 Pie chart for the breakup of revenue......................................................................... 21
Figure 2. 18 Pie chart for percentage breakup of revenue ............................................................ 22

Figure 3. 1 Community Participation for DSWM flow chart ....................................................... 23


Figure 3. 2 Public Private Partnership for DSMW flow chart ...................................................... 27
Figure 3. 3 Matlab Code ............................................................................................................... 32
Figure 3. 4 Spring ......................................................................................................................... 33
Figure 3. 5 Motor Casing .............................................................................................................. 33
Figure 3. 6 Screen ......................................................................................................................... 34
Figure 3. 7 Funnel to collect smaller particulates ......................................................................... 34
Figure 3. 8 Assembly of vibrating screen ..................................................................................... 35
Figure 3. 9 Another view for assembly of the vibrating screen .................................................... 35
Figure 3. 10 A View of assembly of the vibrating screen ............................................................ 36

vi
Figure 4. 1 Graph of Profit vs Number of Plants .......................................................................... 39
Figure 4. 2 Graph of Profit vs Landfill ratio ................................................................................. 40
Figure 4. 3 Graph of Payback period(Months) vs Landfill ratio .................................................. 41

vii
List of Abbreviations

MSW –Municipal solid Waste

DSWM – decentralized solid waste management

AMC – Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation

CBO – Community Based organization

NGO – Non Governmental Organization

PPP–Public Private Partnership

ALM – Advanced Locality Management

viii
1. Introduction

Cities in the world are facing a high level of pollution; the situation in developing countries is
more acute, partly caused by inadequate provision of basic services like water supply, sanitation
facilities, transport infrastructure and waste collection[1]. There is a tremendous increase in the
amount of solid waste generated in the cities due to a more affluent lifestyle. Municipal
corporations in developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which
results in uncollected waste on roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards
a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial,
economic and social sustainability. There is an emerging global consensus to develop local level
solutions and to involve community participation for better waste management [2]

Waste heaps piling up are a common sight in most of the cities and townships of India also.
Exploding populations and changing lifestyles are generating enormous amounts of waste.
Studies have revealed that the quantum of waste generated varies between 0.2 - 0.4 kg/capita/day
in urban cities and goes up to 0.5 kg/capita/day in metropolitan cites. This has resulted in health
problems such as diarrhoea, cholera and malaria among the masses. Municipal agencies spend 5
- 25% of their budget on MSW management, which is Rs 75 - 250/capita/year[3].

Of the total MSW generated in India, 30 - 40% consists of organic waste, 30 - 40% ash and
fine earth, 3 - 6% paper while a meagre proportion of less than 1% accounts for plastics, glass
and metals.[4]

The present study explores alternative approaches to MSW management and estimates the
cost of waste management in Ahmedabad. The alternatives considered are as follows:

Community participation in waste management: a case of cooperation among community


based organizations (CBOs), NGOs and local government.

Public private partnership (PPP) in waste management: a case of cooperation between the
private sector and local government.

1
2. Literature Survey, Case Studies and Practical Survey

2.1 Literature Survey


The following are the research papers and their case studies taken into consideration:

1. “Sustainable Decentralized Model for Solid Waste Management in Urban India”


Hita Unnikrishnan, Brunda Gowrav and Sabrina Jathanha.

This paper attempts to assess the various factors that govern the sustenance of a decentralized
solid waste management system in urban India. This paper comprises of the study of two
decentralised composting facilities which were started at the same time in Bangalore. The
parameters covered under the study were the technology and the technical expertise, managerial
influence, economic viability, community support including the socio- economic status of the
community and the influence of parallel government schemes. The following table shows the
MSW generated per day in 6 cities of Karnataka.

At present, in the municipality of Bangalore, the corporation lorries and staff carry the
waste collected from the residents and bins to dumping areas. The waste is taken by the private
contractors which are selected by tendering process to clear it and supplement the waste.

A brief review of the sustenance factors that were considered and discussed are given below.

Technology and technical expertise: Any waste treatment venture adopts a specific technology
for treating the wastes it receives. The selection of the technology and the skill with which it is
carried out reflect the sustenance values of the venture.

Managerial hierarchy: The management’s role, involvement and attitude are keys to the
success of any venture. Hence the initiatives taken up by each management were studied.

Economic viability: The income was calculated based on the amount generated from door to
door collection and sale of byproducts and products. Expenditure was figured out through the
operational costs in terms of rent of the allotted area, salaries, consumables, electricity and water
bills. Also depreciation costs (at an assumed rate) for hardware installed at the facility were
added to this expenditure on an annual basis to arrive at the total expenditure.

2
Community support and socio-economic status: Since these facilities are one of a kind,
intellectual (in terms of scientific advisors) and financial support were received from senior
citizens, municipalities and local residents.

Parallel government initiatives: A parallel government initiative to treat the Municipal Solid
Waste can have serious repercussions on an existing community based venture.

2.2 Case Study


2. “Alternative approaches for better municipal solid waste management in Mumbai,
India” – Sarika Rathi[5]
 This study explores alternative approaches to municipal solid waste (MSW) management
and estimates the cost of waste management inMumbai, India. Two alternatives
considered in the paper are community participation and public private partnership in
waste management.
 Data for the study are from various non-governmental orgarnizations (NGOs) and from
the private sector involved in waste management in Mumbai. Mathematical models are
developed to estimate the Cost per Ton of waste management for both of the alternatives,
which are compared with the cost of waste management by Municipal Corporation of
Greater Mumbai (MCGM).

Alternative approach I: Community based waste management

Community participation is a crucial element in waste management. This model


of Decentralised Waste Management is called Advanced Locality Management (ALM).

3
Community
Participation

Benefits to CBOs and society


Cost bourne by CBO
Value of recyclable materials.
Cost of labour and supervision
Value of Compost
Cost of land
Redued burden on disposal sites
Cost of equipments
Better standard of living for rag
pickers
Costs borne by MCGM Clean and healthy surroumdings
Collection cost
Transportation cost Benefits of MCGM
Disposal cost of inert Decline in cost of waste
materials management
Lower burden on disposal sites

Figure 2.1 Community Participation

Alternative approach II: PPP for waste management

Public private partnerships in providing basic environmental services like waste


management and wastewater management are gaining importance.

4
Public Private
Partnership

Costs borne by Excel Benefits to Excel


Industry Industry

Cost of labour
Value of recyclable
material
Cost of capital

Value of compost
Cost of land

Cost borne by MCGM Benefits to MCGM

Cost of collection and Reduced burden on


transportation disposal sites

Cost of disposal of inert Reduced cost of


materials
waste management

Figure 2.2 Public Private Partnership

The costs and benefits associated with Community Participation and Public Private
Participation are calculated usuing mathematical fomulations

2.3 Practical Survey


The Ahmedabad City has a population of more than 63 lacs people and daily per capita waste
generation is more than 600gms. The City generates more than 4000 Tons/day waste including

5
300 Metric Ton of construction and demolition debris waste. All waste is collected, transported,
treated and disposed according to the MSW Rules.

Figure 2.3 Types of waste in MT

2.3.1 Waste Collection System

Manual sweeping of roads


 All public roads, streets, lanes and bye-lanes having habitation or commercial activity on
one or both sides of the street should be cleaned on a daily basis assigning clearly
demarcated area to each sweeper and street sweeping waste should not be mixed with
domestic waste and be deposited in the special container placed at the secondary waste
storage depot.
 1484 km roads are swept by more than 13000 AMC's own street sweepers on a daily
basis.
 Street sweeper is provided with a lorry and 6 bins for cleaning activity with other hand
tools.
 The cleaning activity is carried out daily 365 days in a year from morning 6:30 am to
11:30 am & 3 pm to 6 pm on all roads of the city.

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Scrubbing of roads by Road Sweeping Machines
 All major public roads, BRTS roads & Model roads are covered under this system.
 25 trucks / tractors mounted & 15 self rides Road Vacuum Sweeping machines are
helping AMC to keep city as a dust free city.
 This work is given on O&M model for 5 years. AMC is paying the Agency on shift basis.
 Vehicles and TPM working is monitored through GPS, RFID Readers and Tags.

Door/ Gate to Dump System


 AMC introduced a concept of Door / Gate to Dump since July 2009-10, in which the
AMC appointed contractor to collects waste from residential units in morning hours and
from commercial units in evening hours in closed Hydraulic Euro III vehicles. Contract
period is 7 years.
 This system is completely outsourced.
 Agency has to provide vehicles, drivers, labours, fuel, maintenance, keep 10% spare
vehicles, appoint one supervisor per ward, paint a complain number on the vehicle, etc.
 Payment to agency on per ton basis with yearly 5% increase.
 Average distance per trip total 5 to 7 km.
 Average rate at present AMC is giving Rs 800 per ton.
 The project is successfully covering 100% of all residential (14.50 lacs plus) &
commercial units (3 lacs plus) , on all 365 days of the year.
 Sta. More than 600 vehicles of Tata ACE with more than 1 ton capacity are deployed and
more than 1700 TPD waste collection in this System.
 No responsibility on the Agency for collection of user charges. AMC issues a property
tax bill (which covers conservancy tax) once in a year for all sanitation services to the
citizens.
 At present no source segregation has been done by citizens, so agency is collected waste
in mix nature (other then C&D waste)

Waste Collection from Spots


 AMC collect more than 1000 TPD waste from various spots in six zones by 130 tractors,
trucks, JCB, etc. equipments & machineries. Monitoring through GPS system.

7
 In order to remove nuisance spots and to meet the increasing needs as well as to maintain
cleanliness and public health, AMC has purchased 660 / 1100 liters capacity galvanized
1050 trolleys (silver colour) and 60 vehicles like Refuse Compactor.

Waste collection from road side litterbins

Statement of Zone wise deployment of 90 liters bins

Zone Installed

Central 210

East 150

North 148

South 80

New West 356

West 296

Total 1240

8 vehicles deployed for collection

Table 2.1 Zone wise waste collection

Collection of Construction & Demolition Waste


 Earlier, Construction and Demolition (C&D) was being disposed without any treatment /
recovery which resulted into wastage of land and loss of valuable materials.
 Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) has issued an Expression of Interest (EoI) on
18th March, 2012 for Design, Build, Finance, Own & Operate for 30 years on PPP (Public
Private Partnership) Mode. Subsequently, 6 companies sent their offers to this EoI.
 Work order was issued to Ahmedabad Enviro Projects Ltd. (AEPL) and 5 acres of land
was allocated by AMC for this project.
 AEPL has commenced the plant phase wise from December 2013 and the plant is fully
operational since June 2014.

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 AEPL capital investment for this project till time is more than 7 Crore.
 Citizen are well informed to dump their C& D waste at their own cost at the defined 16
locations. Amdavad Enviro Pvt. Ltd. is authorized by AMC on PPP mode to collect,
transport & process 300 TPD C & D waste from designated locations and convert it into
various recyclables. AMC is paying Rs. 155 per ton to AEPL (with an escalation clause
of 5% yearly increase).
 Recently AMC make a policy to buy 25 % of Final product (i.e. Precast Concrete Box
Culverts, Paving Blocks , Kerb Stone) of the C & D Waste processing agency in the
development of different civil & infrastructures projects of AMC by the approval of
competent authority.

Collection of segregated Kitchen waste from Hotels and Restaurants


 AMC has awarded work to three agencies for collection of food waste from such units
and charge from hotel units on monthly basis so there is no cost to AMC in this system.

 80 TPD segregated food waste is collected from more than 1000 units of hotels and
restaurants.

 It is delivered to compost plant for treatment. The waste is transported through closed
body hydraulic vehicles.

 All employees of agencies are supposed to wear a unique uniform and shall possess
requisite protective gear. 24x7 helpline numbers are operated by the agencies so that any
unit can obtain information or lodge complaint(s).

 The agency at his own cost has installed a GPS in coordination with Solid Waste
Management Department and has to maintain a system of generating daily reports as well
as see that the system operates round the clock.

• The units which produce such kitchen waste have to obtain a health licence from AMC to
operate and such licenses are renewed every year. For such units, the health licences shall
be renewed only if they follow this kitchen waste collection model.
• AMC is in a process of planning to utilize food waste for Gas / Electricity generation by
bio-methanation.

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Collection of Municipal Bio Medical Waste
 AMC has contracted 2 agencies approved by GPCB for daily collection, transportation
and disposal of bio-medical waste from 4 municipal hospitals, 2 referral hospitals, 64
urban health centers and dispose it in their incineration plant.

Collection of Carcass / Animal Waste


 AMC has deployed 4 hydraulic based vehicles and staffs to collect carcass of dead animal
like cow, camel, buffalo, donkey, dog, rat, etc. AMC has deployed 2 vehicles to collect
fish market, meat market and slaughter house waste from market. Around 8 TPD animal
waste is collected from the city under this system.

2.3.2 Waste Processing and Treatment (Present Plants)

Sr. Name of Company Daily MSW Operational Since and Final


Treatment Land given on Rs. 1 per
No. Product
Sq. Mtr. lease (not allowed
to mortgage)

1 Excel Industries Ltd 300 Tons January-2000 25 acres for Compost (25 to 30 tons)
15 years

2 Bharuch Enviro 250 Tons July -2009 15 acres for 25 Compost (25 to 30 tons) RDF
Engineers Ltd.(UPL years (25 to 30 tons)
Djai Power Ltd.)

3 Creative Eco- 400 Tons December-2012 Compost (40 to 50 tons) RDF


Recycle Port Pvt. (40 to 50 tons)
12.5 acres for 25 years
Ltd.

4 Amdavad Enviro 300 Tons December-2012 Paver Blocks, hollow blocks


Projects Ltd. etc.
(C & D Waste) 5 acres for 30 years

Table 2. 2 Waste Processing and Treatment (Present Plants)

10
All the above plants are on Design, Build, Finance, Own and Operate basis by investing their
own capital and also bear 100% operation and maintenance cost.

2.3.3 Waste to Energy


Present Status

Sr. Name of Company Daily MSW Land given on Rs. 1 per Sq. Mtr. lease Rate (Rs /
Treatment and Capital (not allowed to mortgage) and Daily kWh)
No.
Investment (Rs in Cr) production of MW

1 Abellon Clean 1000 Tons 13 acres 7.03


Energy Ltd
Rs. 211.62 Cr for 29 years

14 MW

2 Essel Infraprojects 1000 Tons 10 acres 7.03


Ltd. - Hitachi Zosen
Rs. 480 Cr for 30 years
India Private Limited
Consortium 15 MW

3 JITF Urban 1000 Tons 14 acres 7.07


Infrastructure Ltd.
Rs. 122.80 Cr for 30 years

11 MW

Table 2. 3 Companies presently working with AMC

2.3.4 Disposal of E-Waste


 AMC has secured engineered landfill site in operation and made provision for another
five scientific landfill sights for Disposal of Inert / Post Process Solid Waste at Gyaspur
which is operational since October-2009.
 Capacity:

11
o 11.50 Lakh Metric Tones (i.e. 1.15 million tons)
 Total construction cost of the site:
o Rs. 13 Crore (i.e. Rs.130 million )
 Area: 12.88 Hectares (32.8271 acres)

2.3.5 Solution for the existing Pirana Dump Site


 Legacy Solid Waste is being disposed & accumulated at Pirana dumping site having total
area of about 84 acres for a long back. 65 acres of land is accumulated with heaps of
garbage having 15-45 meter height at various locations.
 AMC has planned a project for bio-mining &/or capping of the site.
 AMC has invited a Global Request for Proposal for Pirana Site Bio-Mining (or any other
suitable technology)-cum-Clearance-cum-Recovery of Land with / without Capping of
the Site with / without Waste to Energy-cum-other type of treatment plants for Pirana
Dump Site of Ahmedabad on Design, Build, Finance, Own & Operate (DBFOO) basis
from reputed organizations on Public Private Partnership mode.

2.3.6 Solid Waste Recycling Centre (Material Recovery Facility)


 Recently AMC has awarded work to Nepra Resources Management Private Limited
(NRMPL) as a pilot project to establish a "Solid Waste Recycling Centre (Material
Recovery Facility)" under this Pilot Project, AMC will allot 4000 sq. mt. (mortgage not
allowed) of land at Gyaspur for 6 months to NRMPL to carry out segregation of dry
waste at its own costs, and recover the same from different streams.
 NRMPL will collect dry waste from Large Commercial and Industrial units from agreed
areas and segregates into different streams, which shall be supplied to various recyclers
as raw material.
 The said project will be reviewed after six months and will be expanded and extended.
NRMPL will be allotted land by AMC soon and NRMPL will start the work.

12
2.3.7 Nepra Resources Management Private Limited (NRMPL)

It is a segregation plant that the Municipal Corporation of Ahmedabad allotted a Pilot


Project to establish Solid waste Recycling Centre. Nepra possesses its own vehicles that collect
the waste from different points in the city. Nepra follows a semi automatic plant layout. The
processes happen in a sequence as:

Vibrato-Scope
The Vibrato Scope uses a piston crank mechanism to separate 2D and 3D objects. A
motor is connected to the crank via belt drive (generally V-Belt). It rotates the crank and hence
rotates the arms that are connected to the arms that perform swinging motion. The waste tends to
toss around and the lighter 2D weights fall down where as the heavy 3D objects gets thrown out.

Figure 2. 4 Vibrato-Scope

Vibrating Screen
Vibrating screen also has a motor but here the motor has an unbalanced force which
causes vibration when rotating at high speeds. These motors are connected to the sheet metal that

13
posses holes of required diameter. When the screen vibrates the particles that are lighter and
smaller in size passes through the holes and hence the particle of smaller and larger sizes are
segregated. The vibrating screen is used to separate the sand particles and smaller particulate to
bottom of the screen and rest matter is carried forward to the conveyer belt for manual
segregation.

Figure 2. 5 Motor of the Vibrating Screen

Figure 2. 6 Debris and Small Particulate Collector

14
Figure 2. 7 Belt Drive with Casing

Manual Segregation
The Manual segregation process consists of an oval shaped conveyor system where workers
are arranged on the periphery.

These workers are divided into a group of three in a line and are given a specific matter to
pick from the conveyor belt and collect it in a bag or keep it in the blue box that form a ballet of
a particular item.

15
Figure 2. 8 Manual rag picking operation

Figure 2. 9 Bags for segregation

16
Figure 2. 10 Pathways to collect segregated waste

Hydraulic Press
Hydraulic Press is used to form rectangular pallets by compressing the waste to a pre
determined pressure. This helps in better transport and material handling. This makes it easy for
the workers to load and unload the pallets.

Figure 2. 11 Segregated waste storage

17
Figure 2. 12 Hydraulic Press

Figure 2. 13 Hydraulic Press

18
Figure 2. 14 Stacked recyclable waste

Figure 2. 15 Stacked Recyclable waste by cartons


19
2.4 Feasibility of DSWM

percentage of percentage of
Waste waste output price per unit total revenue revenue

green
waste(fertilizer) 38.6 0.75 3 86.85 22.93947518

green
waste(biogas) 38.6 0.25 9.5 91.675 24.21389047

paper 5.6 1 7 39.2 10.35379881

plastic 6 1 8 48 12.678121
RDF(refuse derived
fuel) 6.6 1 1.5 9.9 2.614862456

metals 0.2 1 15 3 0.792382562

C&D (construction
and demolition) 25 1 0.3 7.5 1.980956406

non recyclable
materials 13 1 0 0 0
Fish
market/Caracas +
Hotel Restaurant
and Kitchen Waste 5 0.6 25 75 19.80956406

fish
market/Caracas 1 0.4 9.5 3.8 1.003684579

hotel restaurant
and Kitchen waste 4 0.36 9.5 13.68 3.613264484
20
Total 100 378.605 100
Table 2. 4 Feasibility of DSMW
2.5 Breakup of Municipal Solid Waste

Breakup of Municipal solid waste


green waste(biogas)

5 1 4 paper

13 plastic
38.6
rdf(refuse derived fuel)

metals

C&D (construction and


demolition)
25 non recyclable materials

5.6 Fish market/Caracas+Hotel


0.2 6 Restaurant and Kictchen Waste
6.6 fish market/Caracas

Figure 2. 16 Pie Chart of breakup of municipal solid waste

2.6 Breakup of Revenue

Breakup of revenue green waste(fertiliser)

3.8 13.68
green waste(biogas)
75 86.85
0
paper
7.5
3 91.675
48 plastic
9.9
39.2
rdf(refuse derived fuel)

Figure 2. 17 Pie chart for the breakup of revenue

21
2.7 Percentage Breakup of Revenue

Percentage breakup of revenue


1.980956406 green waste(fertiliser)

green waste(biogas)
1.003684579 3.613264484
paper

22.93947518 plastic
19.80956406
0 rdf(refuse derived fuel)

24.21389047 metals
12.678121
C&D (construction and
10.35379881 demolition)
non recyclable materials
0.792382562 Fish market/Caracas+Hotel
2.614862456 Restaurant and Kictchen Waste
fish market/Caracas

Figure 2. 18 Pie chart for percentage breakup of revenue

22
3. Methodology

The project is divided into 2 main parts

3.1 Feasibility analysis of DSWM


The Feasibility study is divided into two main parts

3.1.1 Community participation for DSWM


Figure 3. 1 Community Participation for DSWM flow chart

House to House
Collection

Organic Non-Organic

Composting
Sorting by
workers

Recyclable
Compost
Other

Sold
Sold Transported

Dumpsite

23
In this case the door to door waste collection is carried out in a community where the community
has a biogas plant in the neighborhood. In this system the waste is sorted by the community
members in their residences as organic and non organic and the non organic waste is further
classified as Recyclable and non Recyclable.

3.1.2 Cost analysis for Domestic use purpose biogas plant.


Amount of waste required to feed in plant – 6 kg/day.

Requirement: Per person 400 gm/day feed of waste required.

Daily feed = 6kg = No. of people400gm. = 15400 = 6kg

No. of people required for daily feed = 15

 Total cost

Capital investment: 15000 = 30000 Rs.

2000 Rs. No. of person (15) = 30000 Rs.

Maintenance cost per year = 1000 Rs.

 Revenue

Green waste Fertilizer: 86.85 Rs.

Green waste Biogas: 91.675 Rs.

Total: 178 Rs. per 43kg

Daily Revenue per 6 kg = 25 Rs.

Monthly Revenue: 3025 = 750Rs.

 Break-even point

Considering capital investment break-even including compound interest @ 10%

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E = A . r(1+r) n / ((1+r) n - 1)

Where,

A = Amount borrowed

E = EMI or Monthly payment

r = interest rate in % divided by 12

n = total number of months

Break-even point =57 months

3.1.3 Public Private Partnership

In this case the waste is collected from door to door and then it is transported to Municipal Bins.
This kind of mechanism is done on a larger scale where the waste is then taken to segregating
plants and it is then sorted on the basis of organic, Recyclable and other. The green waste is
taken to Biogas plants where it is put in aerobic digester giving useful biogas and bio fertilizer.
The recyclable waste is sold off to vendors and the other waste is transported to landfills[4].
These other wastes are sometimes used for filling up the base in construction sites or they are
used as filler materials in construction of roads. Some useful items such as Pavers and manhole
comers are also produced from them. If such material I obtained they are sold to such vendors or
they are used as landfills.

3.1.4 Cost Analysis for medium scale SWM plant.


Factors taken into consideration

municipal solid waste generation per month

 cost of collection
 cost of transportation
 cost of disposal

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 Cost of collection

waste generated per day

waste that can be collected by each worker per day

salary of each worker per day

collection cost per day

number of bins used for collection

cost of each bin

total cost of bins

 Cost of transportation

length of travel per truck per year

cost of travel per truck per tonne in a month

number of trucks required

travel cost per tonne

total cost of transport

 Cost of disposal

cost of maintenance of disposal sites

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Figure 3. 2 Public Private Partnership for DSMW flow chart

Households

Carry waste

Municipal

bins

Transported by
Transported
MCGM to Excel
By AMC
site

Sorting by
Excel

Organic Recyclable Other

Aerobic Transported to
Sold
composting dumpsite

Compost

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Sold
Capacity = 12 ton daily waste processing.

Requirement: Per person 400 gm/day feed of waste required.

Daily feed = 12000kg = No. of people 400gm.

= 30,000 400gm.

No. of people required for daily feed = 30,000

Revenue

Selling of waste per kg. = 3.8 Rs.

Considering 12 ton

Total revenue = 12 1000 3.8

= 45600 Rs. per day

Total revenue per month = 45600 30

=13, 68000 Rs. per month

Total capital cost

Capital investment for biogas plant= 40 lakhs

Capital cost of Dustbins

Dustbin Cost: 2 Dustbin provided for the segregation of the dry and wet waste per 4 people
(Considering the 4 people in one family).(2 dustbins for dry and wet waste)

Cost of dustbin = 500 Rs.

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Total cost = = 75 lakhs

Capital Cost of Machinery and segregation plant = 40 lakhs

Total capital costs=4000000+4000000+7500000

=15500000

Total working costs

Collection cost = 850 Rs. per ton

=850 12 = 10200 Rs. per day

=306000 Rs. Per month

Segregation cost

Staff required = 14 labor 1 supervisor

Monthly salary for labor = 6000 Rs.

Monthly salary for Supervisor = 16000 Rs.

Total Segregation cost = 6000 14 16000 1

= 100000

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Cost of land used: Data on land requirement for composting ton of waste per day is collected
from city.

Required land = 1000 sq mt

Rent for the land = 50Rs per sq mt

Total cost = 50000 Rs. per month

Cost of Biogas plant man power:

Required staff = 15 plant worker +1 Manager

Monthly salary for plant worker = 7000 Rs. per month

Monthly salary for Manager = 15000 Rs. per month

Total cost = 15 7000 + 1 15000

= 120000

Electricity cost per month = 10000 Rs.

Maintenance costs = 40000 (1% of the machinery cost)

Cost of disposal of non recyclable waste

=12*.13*250*30=11700 per month approx 12000

Monthly revenues neglecting capital cost = 1368000-306000-100000-50000-120000-10000-


40000-12000

=730000

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 Break-even point
Considering capital investment break-even including compound interest @ 10%

E = A . r(1+r)n / ((1+r)n - 1)

Where,
A=Amount Borrowed
E = EMI or Monthly payment
r = interest rate in % divided by 12
n = total number of months

Break-even point =23 months

3.1.5 Cost analysis for Large Scale Plants

Assumptions taken for calculations

 The waste collected in all cities is similar to the waste breakup found in Ahmedabad.
 The land value is not taken into consideration as it depends on the city as well as it varies
from area to area. The land required by segregation plants is assumed to be the same as
the saving in land required by landfill sites.
 The value of 3.8 Rs. Per Kg is derived for the case of Ahmedabad based on current price
trends of obtained components
 Each collector truck goes for one trip a day and has a capacity of 2 Tonnes
 Each Dumper truck has a carrying capacity of 12 Tonnes and goes for 3 trips a day
 The cost of collector vehicle is 600000 Rs.
 The cost of Dumper truck is 2000000 Rs.
 Maintenance and depreciation is kept at 2% per month or 24% per year in line with
industry standards
 Compound interest is taken into consideration for payback period
 Total capital costs for segregation plants is taken from sources and interpolated linearly

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 The salaries of workers and the number of workers required are taken from the AMC
models and NEPRA plants.
 The cost of segregation plant varies linearly with its size for a plant of sufficient size.
 The waste segregation takes place at the source where green waste, recyclable materials
and non recyclable materials go in different bins
 Operating cost of collector vehicles is kept at Rs. 8 per Km
 Operating costs of Dumper vehicles is kept at Rs. 30 per Km
 The collector vehicles are assumed to travel every road of the city and the total distance
travelled by them is equal to the total road length of the city

Figure 3. 3 Matlab Code

The following analysis has been performed in Matlab with various parameters and costs
associated with it being taken into consideration

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3.2 Prototype development
3.3

Figure 3. 4 Spring

Figure 3. 5 Motor Casing

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Figure 3. 6 Screen

Figure 3. 7 Funnel to collect smaller particulates

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Figure 3. 8 Assembly of vibrating screen

Figure 3. 9 Another view for assembly of the vibrating screen

35
Figure 3. 10 A View of assembly of the vibrating screen

36
Figure 3. 11 Front View of Hydraulic Press assembly

Figure 3. 12 Side view of Hydraulic Press assembly

37
Figure 3. 13 Top View of Hydraulic Press assembly

Figure 3. 14 Orthographic View of Hydraulic Press assembly

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4. Result and Discussion

4.1 Profit V/S number of segregation plants


It is clear from the above graph that as the number of plants increase the profit increases
marginally. This is due to the fact that transportation distance decreases which saves fuel cost.
Also more throughput can be obtained in the same time

Figure 4. 1 Graph of Profit vs Number of Plants

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4.2 Profit V/S Landfill Ratio
A linear trend is observed in the Profit V/S landfill ratio. The profit decreases with a constant
negative slope. This is due to the fact that while the transportation cost remains same the revenue
generated decreases. However the capital investment decreases as both the biogas plant and the
segregation plant have decreased capacities

Figure 4. 2 Graph of Profit vs Landfill ratio

4.3 Payback period V/S landfill ratio


Also due to the decreased profitability the payback period increases. For linear decrease in profit
an exponential increase in payback time is observed. This is due to compounding of interest.

40
For a factor of landfill ratio of greater than 0.5 the payback period is infinite meaning that the
business is unsustainable.

Figure 4. 3 Graph of Payback period(Months) vs Landfill ratio

41
5. Conclusion

The feasibility analysis of DSWM as used in our matlab analysis fall in line with the current
budget of AMC. It is observed that after a landfill ratio of more than 50% to the total waste, the
business is unprofitable.

It is also seen that as the number of waste segregation centers increase, the profitability increases
as expected. This is because of the fact that collector trucks have to travel shorter distance saving
on fuel cost.

It is seen that almost 60-70% of the revenue comes from green waste conversion into biogas and
fertilizer while 30-40% revenue comes from segregation of waste.

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References

[1] Anschutz, J., 1996. Community Based Solid Waste Management and Water Supply Project:
Problems and Solutions compared – a survey of the literature, UWEP working paper document
2, Gouda, WASTE.

[2] Zurbrugg, C. (2002). Urban solid waste management in low-income countries of Asia: How
to cope with the garbage crisis. Presented for: Scientific Committee on Problems of the
Environment (SCOPE) Urban Solid Waste Management Review Session, Durban, South Africa,
1-13.

[3] Talyan, V., Dahiya, R. P., & Sreekrishnan, T. R. (2008). State of municipal solid waste
management in Delhi, the capital of India. Waste Management, 28(7), 1276-1287.

[4] Subramani, T., Umarani, R., & Devi, S. B. (2014). Sustainable Decentralized Model For
Solid Waste Management In Urban India. International Journal of engineering Research and
Applications, 1(4), 264-269.

[5] Rathi, S. (2007). Optimization model for integrated municipal solid waste management in
Mumbai, India. Environment and development economics, 12(01), 105-121.

[6] www.ceeindia.org/

[7] www.teriin.org/

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