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ISBN-3-934584-47-0 Order Number 1 987 722 135 AA/PDI-08.

AA/PDI-08.01-En The Bosch Yellow Jackets Edition 2001 Technical Instruction Diesel-Engine Management

2001 Electronic

The Bosch Yellow Jackets

Diesel Control EDC

The Program Order Number ISBN

Automotive electrics/Automotive electronics

Electronic Diesel Control EDC

Batteries 1 987 722 153 3-934584-21-7 Automotive Technology
Alternators 1 987 722 156 3-934584-22-5
Starting Systems 1 987 722 170 3-934584-23-3
Lighting Technology 1 987 722 176 3-934584-24-1
Electrical Symbols and Circuit Diagrams 1 987 722 169 3-934584-20-9
Safety, Comfort and Convenience Systems 1 987 722 150 3-934584-25-X
• Lambda closed-loop control for passenger-car diesel engines
Diesel-Engine Management • Functional description
Diesel Fuel-Injection: an Overview 1 987 722 104 3-934584-35-7 • Triggering signals
Electronic Diesel Control EDC 1 987 722 135 3-934584-47-0
Diesel Accumulator Fuel-Injection System

Technical Instruction
Common Rail CR 1 987 722 175 3-934584-40-3
Diesel Fuel-Injection Systems
Unit Injector System/Unit Pump System 1 987 722 179 3-934584-41-1
Radial-Piston Distributor
Fuel-Injection Pumps Type VR 1 987 722 174 3-934584-39-X
Diesel Distributor-Type
Fuel-Injection Pumps VE 1 987 722 164 3-934584-38-1
Diesel In-Line Fuel-Injection Pumps PE 1 987 722 162 3-934584-36-5
Governors for Diesel In-Line
Fuel-Injection Pumps 1 987 722 163 3-934584-37-3

Gasoline-Engine Management
Emission Control (for Gasoline Engines) 1 987 722 102 3-934584-26-8
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System K-Jetronic 1 987 722 159 3-934584-27-6
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System KE-Jetronic 1 987 722 101 3-934584-28-4
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System L-Jetronic 1 987 722 160 3-934584-29-2
Gasoline Fuel-Injection
System Mono-Jetronic 1 987 722 105 3-934584-30-6
Spark Plugs 1 987 722 155 3-934584-32-2
Ignition 1 987 722 154 3-934584-31-4
M-Motronic Engine Management 1 987 722 161 3-934584-33-0
ME-Motronic Engine Management 1 987 722 178 3-934584-34-9
Gasoline-Engine Management:
Basics and Components 1 987 722 136 3-934584-48-9

Driving and Road-Safety Systems

Conventional Braking Systems 1 987 722 157 3-934584-42-X
Brake Systems for Passenger Cars 1 987 722 103 3-934584-43-8
ESP Electronic Stability Program 1 987 722 177 3-934584-44-6
Compressed-Air Systems for
Commercial Vehicles (1):
Systems and Schematic Diagrams 1 987 722 165 3-934584-45-4
Compressed-Air Systems for
Commercial Vehicles (2): Equipment 1 987 722 166 3-934584-46-2
Robert Bosch GmbH


Published by: Unless otherwise stated, the above are all em-
© Robert Bosch GmbH, 2001 ployees of Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart.
Postfach 30 02 20,
D-70442 Stuttgart. Reproduction, duplication, and translation of this
Automotive Aftermarket Business Sector, publication, including excerpts therefrom, is only
Department AA/PDI2. to ensue with our previous written consent and
Product-marketing, software products, with particulars of source.
technical publications. Illustrations, descriptions, schematic diagrams,
and other data only serve for explanatory pur-
poses, and for presentation of the text. They
Editor-in-Chief: cannot be used as the basis for design, installa-
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Horst Bauer. tion, and scope of delivery. We undertake no lia-
bility for conformity of the contents with national
Editors: or local regulations.
Dipl.-Ing. (BA) Jürgen Crepin, Robert Bosch GmbH is exempt from liability,
Dipl.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Dietsche. and reserves the right to make changes at any
Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Berger Printed in Germany.
(Sensors), Imprimé en Allemagne.
Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Feger
(VE-EDC), 1st Edition, February 2001.
Dipl.-Ing. Lutz-Martin Fink English translation of the German edition
(Open and closed-loop control), dated: August 2001.
Dipl.-Ing. Wolfram Gerwing (1.0)
(Lambda closed-loop control),
Dipl.-Ing. Martin Grosser
(Common Rail System),
Dipl.-Inform. Michael Heinzelmann
Dipl.-Math. techn. Bernd Illg
(Diagnosis, open and closed-loop control),
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Joachim Kurz
(VP30, VP44),
Dipl.-Ing. Felix Landhäußer
(In-line injection pumps)
Dipl.-Ing. Rainer Mayer
(Torque-controlled EDC systems),
Dr. rer. nat. Dietmar Ottenbacher
(VP30, VP44),
Dipl.-Ing. Werner Pape
Dr. Ing. Michael Walther
(Data transfer),
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Andreas Werner
(Common Rail System),
in cooperation with the responsible technical
departments of Robert Bosch GmbH.

Peter Girling.
Robert Bosch GmbH

Diesel Control EDC

Robert Bosch GmbH


4 Diesel fuel-injection systems: 38 Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

An overview 38 Operating conditions, design and
4 Technical requirements construction, data processing
6 Designs
44 Open and closed-loop electronic
12 Electronic diesel control EDC control
12 Technical requirements, 44 Open and closed-loop electronic
system overview control, data processing (DP)
13 System blocks 46 Data exchange with other systems
14 In-line injection pumps 48 Diesel-injection control
15 Port-and-helix-controlled axial-pis- 57 Lambda closed-loop control for
ton distributor pumps passenger-car diesel engines
16 Solenoid-valve-controlled axial-pis- 63 Further special adaptations
ton and radial-piston distributor 63 Port-and-helix-controlled injection
pumps systems: Triggering
17 Common Rail System (CRS) 66 Solenoid-valve-controlled injection
18 Unit Injector System (UIS) for pas- systems: Triggering
senger cars 73 Control and triggering of the re-
19 Unit Injector System (UIS) and maining actuators
Unit Pump System (UPS) for com- 74 Substitute functions
mercial vehicles 75 Torque-controlled EDC systems

20 Sensors 78 Electronic diagnosis

21 Temperature sensors 78 Operating concept
22 Micromechanical pressure sensors 81 On-Board Diagnostics (OBD)
25 Rail-pressure sensors
26 Inductive engine-speed (rpm) 82 Data transfer between electronic
sensors systems
27 Rotational-speed (rpm) sensors 82 System overview, serial data trans-
and incremental angle-of-rotation fer (CAN)
sensors 87 Prospects
28 Hall-effect phase sensors
30 Half-differential short-circuiting-ring 88 Actuators
sensors 88 Electropneumatic transducers
31 Nozzle holders with needle-motion 89 Continuous-operation braking sys-
sensor tems, engine-fan control
32 Accelerator-pedal sensors 90 Start-assist systems
34 Hot-film air-mass meter HFM5
36 Planar broad-band Lambda oxygen 92 Index of technical terms
sensors 92 Technical terms
94 Abbreviations
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electronics is coming more and more to the forefront in the control and management
of the diesel engine, whereby the question is often raised “Is it really necessary to fill
the vehicle with so much electronics ?”
The point is though, without electronics it would be impossible to detect a large
number of important variables, such as engine speed, quickly enough for them to be
used for engine management. Electronic control is behind the modern diesel engine
having become more powerful, more efficient, quieter, cleaner, and more economical.
These facts hold true irrespective of the engine’s operating range or mode.
Electronic Diesel Control, EDC, permits the implementation of such auxiliary func-
tions as smooth-running control (SRC).
EDC is applied for all modern diesel injection systems:

 In-line injection pumps, PE,

 Distributor injection pumps, VE, VR,
 Unit Injector System, UIS,
 Unit Pump System, UPS,
 Common Rail System, CRS.

Although these injection systems differ in many respects, and are installed in a wide
variety of different vehicles, they are all equipped with a similar form of EDC.
This “Technical Instruction” manual describes the Electronic Diesel Control and all
its components. The differences between the individual injection systems are shown in
tabular form (Pages 12 through 17). The manual thus provides the reader with a com-
prehensive overview of the various diesel fuel-injection systems from the point of view
of their open and closed-loop electronic control.
Robert Bosch GmbH

4 Diesel fuel-injection systems: An overview Technical requirements

Diesel fuel-injection systems: An overview

Diesel engines are characterized by their Technical requirements
high levels of economic efficiency. Since the
first series-production injection pumps In line with the severe regulations coming into
were introduced by Bosch in 1927, injec- force to govern exhaust and noise emissions,
tion-system developments have continued and the demand for lower fuel consumption,
unceasingly. increasingly stringent demands are being
made on the diesel engine's injection system.
Diesel engines are employed in a wide range
of different versions (Figure 1 and Table 1), Basically speaking, depending on the partic-
for example as: ular diesel combustion process (direct or in-
direct injection), in order to ensure efficient
 The drive for mobile electric generators A/F mixture formation the injection system
(up to approx. 10 kW/cylinder), must inject the fuel into the diesel engine’s
 High-speed engines for passenger cars combustion chamber at a very high pressure
and light commercial vehicles (today, this is between 350 and 2,050 bar),
(up to approx. 50 kW/cylinder), and the injected fuel quantity must be me-
 Engines for construction, agricultural, tered with extreme accuracy. With the diesel
and forestry machinery engine, load and speed control must take
(up to approx. 50 kW/cylinder), place using the injected fuel quantity with-
 Engines for heavy trucks, buses, and trac- out intake-air throttling.
tors (up to approx. 80 kW/cylinder),
 Stationary engines, for instance as used in For diesel injection systems, the mechanical
emergency generating sets (flyweight) governor is increasingly being
(up to approx. 160 kW/cylinder), superseded by the Electronic Diesel Control
 Engines for locomotives and ships (EDC). In the passenger-car and commer-
(up to 1,000 kW/cylinder). cial-vehicle sector, the new diesel fuel-injec-
tion systems are all EDC-controlled.

1 Bosch diesel fuel-injection systems. Areas of application

Figure 1 M M M A/P P/H ZWM ZWM

A, P, H,
CW In-line injection
pumps in order of
increasing size;
PF Single-plunger in-
jection pumps VR VR VR VR VR
VE Axial-piston
distributor injection
VR Radial-piston dis-
tributor injection
pumps PF(R) PF(R)
æ UMK1563-1Y

UPS Unit Pump System

UIS Unit Injector CR CR CR CR CR CR
CR Common Rail
Robert Bosch GmbH

Diesel fuel-injection systems: An overview Technical requirements 5

1 The most important diesel-engine high-pressure fuel-injection systems: Properties and characteristic data

Fuel-injection system Application Fuel injection Engine-related data

N Comm. vehs. & buses

S Ships/Locomotives

No. of engine cylin-

quantity per stroke

Max. permissible
P Passenger cars

nozzle pressure

Max. power per

and light trucks

engine cylinder
DI Direct injection
Solenoid valve
O Off-Highway 1

POI Post Injection

PI Pilot injection
Injected fuel

Max. speed

IDI Indirect


mm3 (0.1 MPa) min–1 kW
In-line injection pumps
M P 60 550 – m, e IDI 4 ... 6 5000 20
A O 120 750 – m DI/IDI 2 ... 12 2800 27
MW P, O 150 1100 – m DI 4 ... 8 2600 36
P3000 N, O 250 950 – m, e DI 4 ... 12 2600 45
P7100 N, O 250 1200 – m, e DI 4 ... 12 2500 55
P8000 N, O 250 1300 – m, e DI 6 ... 12 2500 55
P8500 N, O 250 1300 – m, e DI 4 ... 12 2500 55
H1 N 240 1300 – e DI 6 ... 8 2400 55
H1000 N 250 1350 – e DI 5 ... 8 2200 70
ZWM S 900 850 – m DI/IDI 6 ... 12 1500 150
CW S 1500 1000 – m DI/IDI 6 ... 10 1600 260
Axial-piston distributor pumps Table 1
VE … F P 70 350 – m IDI 3 ... 6 4800 25 1 Stationary engines,
VE … F P 70 1205 – m DI 4 ... 6 4400 25 building and con-
VE … F N, O 125 800 – m DI 4, 6 3800 30 struction machines,
VP37 (VE-EDC) P 70 1250 – em DI 3 ... 6 4400 25 agricultural and
VP37 (VE-EDC) O 125 800 – em DI 4, 6 3800 30 forestry machines
VP30 (VE-M) P 70 1400 PI e, MV DI 4 ... 6 4500 25 2 With two ECUs,
VP30 (VE-M) O 125 800 PI e, MV DI 4, 6 2600 30 larger numbers of
cylinders are possi-
Radial-piston distributor pumps
VP44 (VR) P 85 1850 PI e, MV DI 4, 6 4500 25
2a As from EDC16: 6
VP44 (VR) N 175 1500 – e, MV DI 4, 6 3300 45
Single-plunger injection pumps 3 1st generation
PF(R)… O 13 ... 450 ... – m, em DI/IDI Arbitrary 4000 4 ... 4 Pilot injection (PI) up
120 1150 30 to 90° cks before
PF(R)… Large diesel P, N, O, S 150 ... 800 ... – m, em DI/IDI Arbitrary 300 ... 75 ... TDC; post injection
engines 18000 1500 2000 1000 (POI) possible
UIS P1 P 60 2050 PI e, MV DI 52, 2a 4800 25 5 Up to 5,500 min–1
UIS 30 N 160 1600 – e, MV DI 82 4000 35 during overrun
UIS 31 N 300 1600 – e, MV DI 82 2400 75 6 2nd generation
UIS 32 N 400 1800 – e, MV DI 82 2400 80 7 Pilot injection (PI)
UPS 12 N 180 1600 – e, MV DI 82 2400 35 possible up to 90°
UPS 20 N 250 1800 – e, MV DI 82 3000 80 cks before TDC;
UPS (PF[R]) S 3000 1600 – e, MV DI 6 ... 20 1500 500 post injection (POI)
up to 210° after TDC
Common Rail accumulator injection system
8 Pilot injection (PI) up
CR3 P 100 1350 – PI, POI4 DI 3 ... 8 48005 30 to 30° cks before
CR6 P 100 1600 – PI, POI7 DI 3 ... 8 5200 30 TDC; post injection
CR N, S 400 1400 – PI, POI8 DI 6 ... 16 2800 200 (POI) possible
Robert Bosch GmbH

6 Diesel fuel-injection systems: An overview Designs

Injection-pump designs In-line injection pumps

PE standard in-line injection pumps
The diesel engine’s injection system has the The standard PE in-line injection pumps
task of injecting the diesel fuel into the en- (Figure 1) have a plunger-and-barrel assem-
gine’s cylinders at very high pressure, in the bly for each engine cylinder. As the name
correct quantities, and at exactly the right implies, this comprises the pump barrel (1)
instant in time. and the corresponding pump plunger (4).
The pump camshaft (7) is integrated in the
Depending upon the particular combustion pump and driven by the engine, and forces
process, the nozzle extends into either the the pump plunger in the delivery direction
main or the auxilary combustion chamber. (in this case upwards). The plunger is re-
It opens at a fuel pressure which is specific turned by its spring (5). The individual
to the particular injection system, and closes plunger-and-barrel assemblies (also known
as soon as the pressure drops again. The ma- as pumping elements) are normally arranged
jor difference between the various injection in-line, and plunger lift is invariable.
systems is to be found in the high-pressure During the plunger’s upward travel, high-
generation process. pressure generation starts when the inlet
The very high injection pressures involved port (2) is closed by the plunger's top edge.
necessitate the precision manufacture of all This instant in time is termed the start of
the injection components from high-tensile delivery. The plunger continues to move be-
materials. All components must be exactly yond this point and in doing so increases the
matched to each other. fuel pressure to such an extent that the noz-
zle opens and fuel is injected into the engine
Electronic closed-loop control functions en- cylinder.
able the inclusion of numerous auxiliary A helix has been mechanically machined
functions (for instance, active surge damp- into the plunger, and as soon as it opens the
ing, Cruise Control, and boost-pressure con- inlet port the fuel pressure collapses, the
trol). nozzle needle closes and injection stops.
Figure 1
a PE standard in-line 1 In-line fuel-injection pump: Principle of functioning
injection pump
b Control-sleeve in-
line injection pump a 10 b 10
1 Pump barrel
2 Inlet port 1
3 Helix
9 2
4 Pump plunger X
5 Plunger return X
spring 3
6 Rotational travel due 4 8
to action of control 4
rack (injected fuel 5 5
quantity) 6 6
7 Camshaft
8 Control sleeve
9 Adjustment travel
due to actuating
shaft (start of fuel
æ UMK1759Y

delivery) 7 7
10 Flow of fuel to the
X Effective stroke
Robert Bosch GmbH

Diesel fuel-injection systems: An overview Designs 7

2 Port-and-helix-controlled axial-piston distributor pump: Principle of functioning

2 3 4 5

Figure 2
1 Timing-device travel
on the roller ring
2 Roller
3 Cam plate
4 Axial piston
5 Control collar
7 6 High-pressure

æ UMK1760Y
7 Fuel outlet to the in-
jection nozzle
1 X 8 8 Metering slot
X Effective stroke

The plunger travel between the closing and Distributor injection pumps
opening of the inlet port is termed the effec- The distributor pump has only one plunger-
tive stroke (X). and-barrel asembly for all the engine’s cylin-
The pump is equipped with a control rack ders (Figures 2 and 3). A vane-type supply
(6) which rotates the plunger so that the po- pump delivers fuel to the high-pressure
sition of the helix relative to the inlet port is chamber (6). High-pressure generation is
changed. This changes the plunger’s effective the responsibility of either an axial piston
stroke, and along with it the injected fuel (Figure 2, Pos. 4) or several radial pistons
quantity. The control rack is controlled by (Figure 3, Pos. 4). A rotating distributor
either a mechanical (flyweight) governor or plunger opens and closes the metering slots
an electrical actuator mechanism. (8) and spill ports, and in the process dis-
tributes the fuel to the individual engine
Control-sleeve in-line injection pump cylinders via the injection nozzles (7). The
The control-sleeve in-line injection pump duration of injection (injection time) can be
differs from a conventional in-line injection varied using a control collar (Figure 2, Pos.
pump by having a “control sleeve” (Figure 1, 5) or a high-pressure solenoid valve (Figure
Pos. 8) which slides up and down the pump 3, Pos. 5).
plunger. By way of an actuator shaft (Figure
1, Pos. 9), this varies the plunger lift to (in- Axial-piston distributor pump
let) port closing, and with it the start of in- The drive for the cam plate (Figure 2, Pos. 3)
jection. comes from the vehicle’s engine. The num-
ber of cams on the underside of the cam
Since the start of injection can be varied in- plate corresponds to the number of engine
dependent of engine speed, the control- cylinders. These cams ride on the rollers (2)
sleeve version features an additional degree of the roller ring with the result that a rotat-
of freedom compared to the standard PE in- ing-reciprocating movement is imparted to
line injection pump. the plunger. For one revolution of the drive-
shaft, the piston performs as many strokes as
there are engine cylinders.
Robert Bosch GmbH

8 Diesel fuel-injection systems: An overview Designs

3 Solenoid-valve-controlled radial-piston distributor pump: Principle of functioning

8 6

Figure 3 2
1 Timing device on
roller ring
2 Roller
3 Cam ring
4 Radial piston
5 High-pressure
solenoid valve
6 High-pressure

æ UMK1765Y
7 Fuel outlet to the
injection nozzle
8 Metering slot

On the port-and-helix-controlled VE axial- Solenoid-valve-controlled distributor

piston distributor pump with mechanical pumps
(flyweight) governor, or electronically con- On the solenoid-valve-controlled distributor
trolled actuator, the control collar (5) de- pump, an electronically controlled high-pres-
fines the effective stroke and with it the in- sure solenoid valve (5) is used to meter the in-
jected fuel quantity. jected fuel quantity and to change the start-of-
injection point. With the solenoid valve
The timing device adjusts the pump's start closed, pressure can build up in the high-pres-
of delivery by rotating the roller ring (1). sure chamber (6). Once the valve opens, fuel
escapes so that there is no fuel-pressure
Radial-piston distributor pumps buildup and no fuel is injected. The open and
Here, instead of the cam plate as used on the closed-loop control signals are generated in
axial-piston distributor pump, a radial-pis- either one or two ECU’s (pump ECU and en-
ton pump with cam ring (Figure 3, Pos. 3) gine ECU, or only in the pump ECU).
and two to four radial pistons (4) is respon-
sible for high-pressure generation. Higher Single-plunger injection pumps
pressures can be achieved with the radial- PF single-plunger pumps
piston pump than with the axial-piston ver- PF single-plunger pumps are used principally
sion, although this necessitates the pump for small engines, diesel locomotives, marine
having to be much stronger mechanically. engines, and construction machinery. Single-
plunger pumps are also suitable for operation
The cam ring is rotated by the timing device with viscous heavy oils.
(1). On all radial-piston distributor pumps,
start of injection and duration of injection Although these pumps have no camshaft of
(injection time) are solenoid-valve-con- their own (the F in their designation stands
trolled. for external drive) their basic operating con-
cept corresponds to that of the PE in-line
pumps. The cams for actuating the individual
PF single-plunger injection pumps are on the
engine camshaft. When used with large en-
gines, the mechanical-hydraulic governor, or
Robert Bosch GmbH

Diesel fuel-injection systems: An overview Designs 9

the electronic controller, is attached directly to der, and driven directly by tappet or indirectly
the engine block. The fuel-quantity adjust- from the engine camshaft through a valve
ment as defined by the governor (or con- lifter. Compared with the in-line and distribu-
troller) is transferred by a rack integrated in tor injection pumps, considerably higher in-
the engine. The cams for actuating the indi- jection pressures (up to 2050 bar) have be-
vidual PF single-plunger pumps are on the come possible due to the omission of high-
engine camshaft, and this means that injection pressure lines. The fuel-injection parameters
timing cannot be implemented by rotating the are calculated by the ECU, and injection is
camshaft. When used with large engines, the controlled by opening and closing the high-
mechanical-hydraulic governor, or the elec- pressure solenoid valve.
tronic controller, is attached directly to the en-
gine block. The fuel-quantity adjustment as Unit-Pump System (UPS)
defined by the governor (or controller) is The modular Unit Pump System (UPS) uses
transferred by a rack integrated in the engine. the same operating concept as the UIS. In
Due to the direct connection to the engine’s contrast to the UIS, pump and nozzle holder
camshaft, this cannot be turned to implement (2) are joined by a short high-pressure deliv-
injection timing. Instead, injection timing ery line (3) precisely matched to the respective
takes place by adjusting an intermediate ele- components. Separation of high-pressure-
ment, whereby an advance angle of several an- generation stage and nozzle holder simplifies
gular degrees can be obtained. Adjustment is installation at the engine. The UPS system fea-
also possible using solenoid valves. tures an injection unit for each cylinder com-
prised of pump, delivery line, and nozzle
Unit-Injector System (UIS) holder. The pump is driven from the engine’s
In the Unit Injector System (UIS), injection camshaft (6).
pump and injection nozzle form a single unit On the UPS too, injection duration and start
(Fig. 4). One of these units is installed in the of injection are controlled electronically by a
engine’s cylinder head for each engine cylin- high-speed high-pressure solenoid valve (4).

4 High-pressure components of the Unit Injector 5 High-pressure components of the Unit Pump
System (UIS): Principle of functioning System (UPS): Principle of functioning

1 2
Figure 4
4 1 Actuating cam
2 Pump plunger
3 1 5
3 High-pressure
solenoid valve
4 Injection nozzle

Figure 5
1 Injection nozzle
2 Nozzle holder
3 High-pressure line
æ UMK1766Y
æ UMK1761Y

4 4 High-pressure
6 solenoid valve
5 Pump plunger
6 Actuating cam
Robert Bosch GmbH

10 Diesel fuel-injection systems: An overview Designs

Accumulator injection system 6 High-pressure components of the Common Rail

Common-Rail System CRS System (CRS): Principle of functioning
In this system the processes of pressure gen- 2
eration and fuel injection are decoupled
from each other (Figure 6). Injection pres-
sure is generated and controlled by a high-
pressure pump (1), and is for the most part
independent of engine speed and injected
fuel quantity. It is permanently available in 1
the “rail” (fuel accumulator, 2) for injection.
The CRS thus provides maximum flexibil-
Figure 6 ity in the injection-process design.
1 High-pressure pump
2 Rail (high-pressure
Each engine cylinder is provided with an in-
fuel accumulator)

æ UMK1762Y
3 High-pressure sole-
jector (4) which forms the injection unit.
noid valve Opening and closing the high-pressure sol-
4 Injector enoid valve (3) controls the injection
5 Injection nozzle process. The instant of injection and the in-
jected fuel quantity are calculated in the

7 Examples of the high-pressure components as used in Bosch diesel injection systems

2 3

Figure 7
1 P1 Unit Injector
(passenger cars) 5
2 CP2 Common Rail
high-pressure pump
(commercial vehi-
3 Rail with injectors 4
4 VP30 distributor
pump (passenger
æ UMK1767Y

5 RP39 control-sleeve 10 cm
in-line pump (com-
mercial vehicles)
Robert Bosch GmbH

Diesel fuel-injection systems: An overview A brief history of diesel injection 11

 A brief history of diesel injection

Bosch started at the end of 1922 with the Milestones in

development of a fuel-injection system for diesel injection technology
diesel engines. All technical factors were
favorable: Bosch had experience with internal- First series-
combustion engines, production engineering production in-line pump

was highly developed, and above all it was

possible to apply the know-how that Bosch
had accumulated in the manufacture of lubri-
cation pumps. Notwithstanding these facts, for 1962
First axial-
Bosch there was considerable risk involved in piston distributor
this development work, and numerous chal- pump,
the EP-VM
lenges had to be surmounted.
The first injection pumps went into series
production in 1927. At that time, the precision
achieved in their manufacture was absolutely The first electronically
unique. They were small and of lightweight controlled axial-piston
distributor pump
design, and were behind the diesel engine
now being able to run at high speeds. These
in-line pumps were installed as from 1932 in
commercial vehicles, and as from 1936 in pas- 1994
First Unit Injector
senger cars. From this point onwards, there System (UIS) for
was not letup in the development of the diesel- commercial vehicles

engine and its injection equipment.

In 1976, the diesel engine was given a new
lease of life when Bosch introduced the distribu- 1995
tor injection pump with automatic timing device. First Unit Pump
System (UPS)
And a decade later, after years of intensive
development work to bring it to the volume-pro-
duction stage, Bosch brought the Electronic
Diesel Control (EDC) onto the market. 1996
First radial-
Development engineers are constantly piston distributor
faced with the need for the even more precise pump

injection of minute quantities of diesel fuel, at

exactly the right instant in time, and under
higher and higher injection pressures. This has First Common
Rail accumulator
led to a number of innovative injection-system
injection system
developments (see adjacent Figure). (CRS)
The diesel engine is still at the forefront
regarding fuel economy and efficient utilization
of fuel. First Unit Injector
New injection systems make even better System (UIS) for
passenger cars
use of this potential. In addition, the internal-
æ UMK1753E

combustion engine’s power output is continu-

ously increasing, while its noise and emissions
figures have continued to drop.
Robert Bosch GmbH

12 Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) Technical requirements

Electronic diesel control EDC

Modern electronic diesel-engine control  Adaptation of injected fuel quantity, boost
permits the precise and highly flexible defi- pressure, and injected fuel quantity to the
nition of the fuel-injection parameters. This given operating state,
is the only way to comply with the wide  Temperature-dependent start quantity,
range of technical demands made on a  Load-independent idle-speed control,
modern diesel engine. The Electronic Diesel  Cruise Control,
Control (EDC) is subdivided into the three  Closed-loop-controlled exhaust-gas recir-
system blocks “Sensors and desired-value culation (EGR), and
generators”, “ECU”, and “Actuators”.  Tighter tolerances for injected fuel quan-
tity and injection point, together with
high accuracy to be maintained through-
Technical requirements out the vehicle’s useful life.

The calls for reduced fuel consumption and Conventional mechanical (flyweight) gover-
emissions, together with increased power nors use a number of add-on devices to reg-
output and torque, are the decisive factors ister the various operating conditions, and
behind present-day developments in the ensure that mixture formation is of high
diesel fuel-injection field. standard. Such governors, though, are re-
In the past years this has led to an increase stricted to simple open-loop control opera-
in the use of direct-injection (DI) diesel en- tions at the engine, and there are many im-
gines. Compared to prechamber or whirl- portant actuating variables which they can-
chamber engines, the so-called indirect-in- not register at all or not quickly enough.
jection (IDI) engines, the DI engine operates
with far higher injection pressures. This The increasingly severe demands it was sub-
leads to improved A/F mixture formation, jected to, meant that the EDC developed from
combustion of the more finely atomized fuel a simple system with electrically triggered ac-
droplets is more complete, and there are less tuator shaft to become a complex engine-
unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) in the exhaust management unit capable of carrying out
gas. In the DI engine, the improved mixture real-time processing of a wide variety of data.
formation and the fact that there are no
overflow losses between pre-chamber/whirl
chamber and the main combustion chamber System overview
results in fuel-consumption savings of be-
tween 10...15% compared to the IDI engine. In the past years, the marked increase in the
computing power of the microcontrollers
In addition, the increasing requirements re- available on the market has made it possible
garding vehicle driveability have a marked for the EDC (Electronic Diesel Control) to
effect on the demands made on modern en- comply with the above-named stipulations.
gines, and these are subject to increasingly In contrast to diesel-engine vehicles with
more severe requirements with regard to ex- conventional in-line or distributor injection
haust-gas and noise emissions (NOX, CO, pumps, the driver of an EDC-controlled ve-
HC, particulates). hicle has no direct influence, for instance
This has led to higher demands being through the accelerator pedal and Bowden
made on the injection system and its control cable, upon the injected fuel quantity.
with respect to:

 High injection pressures,

 Structured rate-of-discharge curve,
 Pilot injection and possibly post injection,
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) System blocks 13

On the contrary, the injected fuel quantity is System blocks

defined by a variety of actuating variables,
for instance: The EDC system comprises three system
 Driver input (accelerator-pedal setting), blocks: (Fig. 1):
 Operating state,
 Engine temperature, 1. Sensors and desired-value generators (1)
 Intervention from other systems for the detection of operating conditions
(e.g. TCS), (e.g. engine rpm) and of desired values (e.g.
 Effects on toxic emissions etc. switch position). These convert the various
physical quantities into electrical signals
Using these influencing variables, the ECU
not only calculates the injected fuel quantity, 2. Electronic control unit (ECU) (2) processes
but can also vary the instant of injection. the information from the sensors and the
This of course means that an extensive safety desired-value generators in accordance with
concept must be implemented that detects given computational processes (control al-
deviations and, depending upon their sever- gorithms). The ECU triggers the actuators
ity, initiates appropriate countermeasures with its electrical output signals and also sets
(e.g. limitation of torque, or emergency up the interfaces to other systems in the ve-
(limp-home) running in the idle-speed hicle (4) and to the vehicle diagnosis facility
range). EDC therefore incorporates a num- (5).
ber of closed control loops.
3. Solenoid actuators (3) convert the ECU’s
EDC also permits the exchange of data with electrical output signals into mechanical
other electronic systems in the vehicle (e.g. quantities (e.g. for the solenoid valve which
with the traction control system (TCS), the controls the injection, or for the solenoid of
electronic transmission-shift control, or the actuator mechanism).
with the electronic stability program (ESP).
This means that engine management can be
integrated in the overall vehicle system (e.g.
for engine-torque reduction when shifting
gear with an automatic gearbox, adaptation
of engine torque to wheel slip, release signal 1 Major EDC components
for fuel injection from the vehicle immobi-
lizer, etc.).
The EDC system is fully integrated in the 2 4 5
vehicle’s diagnostics system. It complies with
all OBD (On-Board-Diagnosis) and EOBD
(European On-Board Diagnosis) stipula-

3 Figure 1
1 Sensors and de-
sired-value genera-
tors (input signals)
æ UAE0734Y

3 Actuators
4 Interface to other
5 Diagnosis interface
Robert Bosch GmbH

14 Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) In-line injection pumps

In-line injection pumps

1 Overview of the EDC components for in-line injection pumps

Accelerator-pedal sen- Fuel temperature, control-rack travel

sor with low-idle switch
ECU MS 5 /6.1 In-line
injection pump ***
Engine rpm Signal inputs
Sensor evaluation
Engine rpm and Ambient-pressure sensor
cylinder identification
Signal processing
Boost pressure - Idle-speed control
- Intermediate-speed
Engine temperature control
(coolant) Redundant fuel shutoff
- External intervention in
Vehicle speed injected fuel quantity
- Injected fuel-quantity
control and limitation Injected-fuel-quantity actuator
Cruise Control
operator unit - Cruise Control Start-of-delivery actuator*

Multi-stage switch - Vehicle-speed limitation

for maximum-speed - Calculation of start-of-
limiter delivery and delivery Boost-pressure actuator
Multi-stage switch for - Supplementary special
injected-fuel-quantity Exhaust-brake triggering
limitation, and max.
rpm control Intercooler-bypass
Changeover switch for System diagnosis
Cruise Control and Substitute functions
vehicle-speed limitation Supplementary
Engine diagnosis
driver stages*
Switch for
intermediate- Power stages
speed control Signal outputs
CAN communication
Brake switch
Diagnosis + Vehicle-speed-
Exhaust-brake communication limitation lamp
switch EoL programming +
Diagnosis lamp
Clutch switch

Door contact Power supply K ISO interface

(e.g. OBD)
Glow-plug and
starter switch L

Start of injection** Input pwm signals

(needle-motion Kl.15
24V (12V*)
+ CAN CAN interface*

Input signals Communication

æ NAE0747E

* Optional
** On control-sleeve in-line injection pumps,
*** Start-of-delivery actuator on control- sleeve in-line injection pumps.
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) Axial-piston distributor pumps 15

Port-and-helix-controlled axial-piston distributor pumps

2 Overview of the EDC components for VE-EDC port-and-helix-controlled distributor pumps

Accelerator-pedal sen- Actuator position

sor with low-idle switch
ECU EDC 15V Actuator

Engine rpm Signal inputs

Distributor pump
(crankshaft) Sensor evaluation
Ambient-pressure sensor
Boost pressure
Signal processing:
Intake-air temperature - Idle-speed control
- Cylinder-balance
Engine temperature
(coolant) - Active surge damper
- External Timing-device
Fuel temperature torque intervention solenoid valve

- Immobilizer ELAB
Engine-oil temperature - Injected-fuel-quantity
control and limitation
EGR positioner
- Cruise Control
Air mass - Vehicle-speed limitation
Boost-pressure actuator
- Calculation of start of
Vehicle speed delivery and delivery +
(also possible via CAN) Km/h
period A/C compressor
- Supplementary
Supplementary driver
Multi-stage Cruise
Control switch System diagnosis
Substitute functions
+ Engine diagnosis
Warning lamp
Brake switch Power stages
+ +
OBD lamp
Signal outputs
+ CAN communication K ISO interface
Clutch switch (e.g. OBD)
OBD communication
+ EoL programming L
Glow-plug and
starter switch
Glow control unit
Main A/C switch Power supply
Start of injection* signal (TQ signal)
(needle-motion Engine-speed signal
sensor) (TD signal)
Kl.15 Input for pwm
+ CAN CAN interface*

Input signals Communication

æ NAE0748E

Robert Bosch GmbH

16 Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) Axial-piston and radial-piston distributor pumps

Solenoid-valve-controlled axial-piston
and radial-piston distributor pumps
1 Overview of the EDC components for solenoid-valve-controlled distributor pumps VE-MV, VR

Accelerator-pedal sen- Angle of rotation of the trigger wheel, timing-device setting (IWZ signal)
sor with low-idle switch
and kick-down switch 12 V +
Distributor pump
(24V*) VP 30
Engine rpm VP 44

Boost pressure relay

Air temperature

Engine temperature Power supply +12V

(coolant) CAN-Bus
Signal inputs
Sensor evaluation DZG
Fuel temperature Ambient-pressure sensor
Signal processing
Engine-oil temperature
- Idle-speed control
EGR positioner
- Cylinder-balance
Air mass Boost-pressure actuator
- Active surge damper
- External
torque intervention +
Vehicle speed A/C compressor
(also possible via CAN) Km/h
- Immobilizer
- Injected-fuel-quantity Supplementary driver
control and limitation stages*
Multi-stage Cruise - Cruise Control
Control switch Actuators
- Vehicle-speed limitation
- Cylinder shutoff (only
for commercial vehs.) +
+ Warning lamp
- Calculation of start of
Brake switch delivery, and of delivery +
+ Diagnosis lamp
- Pilot-injection control*
K ISO interface
Glow-plug and + - Supplementary (e.g. diagnostics)
starter switch special adaptations*
+ Fuel-consumption
Clutch switch
System diagnosis signal (TQ signal)
Substitute functions Engine rpm signal
Main A/C switch Engine diagnosis (TD signal)
Input for pwm signals*
Solenoid-valve driver
Start of injection* stages
(needle-motion Power stages CAN CAN interface*
Signal outputs
CAN communication
Glow control unit
æ NAE0749E

Input signals EoL programming Communication

*Optional ECU EDC 15 M
On distributor pumps with pump ECU PSG16, the engine ECU is integrated in the pump ECU
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) Common Rail System (CRS) 17

Common Rail System (CRS)

2 Overview of the EDC components for the Common Rail System (CRS)

ECU Injectors
Accelerator-pedal sen- EDC 15 C / MS 6.3 (max. 6 per ECU)
sor, with low-idle switch
and kick-down switch Signal inputs
Sensor evaluation * *
Engine rpm Ambient-pressure sensor
Signal processing:
- Idle-speed control
Engine rpm
and cylinder - Intermediate-speed
identification (camshaft) control
- Smooth-running
control (SRC)
Rail pressure
- Active surge damper Rail-pressure control valve
- External of the high-pressure pump
torque intervention
Boost pressure Element shutoff*
- Immobilizer
- Injected-fuel-quantity Electronic shutoff
control and limitation or electric fuel pump
Charge-air pressure - Cruise Control*
- Vehicle-speed EGR positioner
Engine temperature
(coolant) - Cylinder shutoff Boost-pressure actuator*
- Fuel-quantity control
- Fuel-pressure control Throttle-valve actuator
temperature* - Start-of-injection control
- Pilot-injection control Auxiliary heater*
- Post-injection control*
Air mass or exhaust- Intake-tract switch-over*
gas-signal check-back - Supplementary special
Fan control*

Terminal 15 Starter*
System diagnosis
Substitute functions Additional driver stages*
Clutch switch (or P/N
contact for automatic Engine diagnosis
transmissions) Actuators
Solenoid-valve driver
stages ISO interface
Terminal 50* Power stages (e.g. diagnosis)
Signal outputs
CAN communication
Multi-stage switch for Diagnosis communication Glow control unit (GZS)
maximum-speed limiter EoL programming
and for Cruise Control Engine rpm signal
Power supply
(TD signal)
Diagnosis lamp
+ 12V
Main CAN CAN interface
æ NAE0750E

Input signals Communication

Robert Bosch GmbH

18 Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) Unit Injector System (UIS) for passenger cars

Unit Injector System (UIS) for passenger cars

1 Overview of the EDC components for a passenger-car unit injector system (UIS)

Accelerator-pedal ECU EDC 15 P Unit Injector (max. 5 per ECU)

sensor with low-idle
switch and kick-down Signal inputs
switch (2nd sensor*)
Sensor evaluation *
Engine rpm
(crankshaft) Ambient-pressure sensor

Engine rpm and Signal processing

cylinder recognition
- Idle-speed control
- Cylinder-balance control
Boost pressure - Active surge damper
- External Start of delivery, delivery period
Intake-air temperature torque intervention
- Immobilizer
Engine temperature - Injected-fuel-quantity Glow-relay control
(coolant) control and limitation
- Cruise Control
Fuel temperature
- Calculation of start of A/C switch-off
delivery and delivery
Air mass period
EGR actuator
- Start-of-delivery (BIP)
Vehicle speed Boost-pressure actuator
- Supplementary special
(also possible via CAN) Km/h
MIL request System diagnosis low-power driver stages
(request for
MIL lamp) Substitute functions (e.g. A/C switch-off, fan,
auxiliary heater)
Engine diagnosis
Multi-stage Cruise
Solenoid-valve driver Actuators
Control switch
Power stages K ISO interface
+ Signal outputs (e.g. diagnosis)
Brake switch CAN communication
communication +
System lamp
Clutch switch EoL programming
+ MIL lamp
Power supply (for diagnosis)
Terminal 15

Glow-relay status CAN CAN interface

relay Engine rpm signal
Gearbox input 12 V (TD signal)
Air-conditioner input signal (TQ signal)
æ NAE0736E

Input signals Communication

Robert Bosch GmbH

Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) UIS and UPS for commercial vehicles 19

Unit Injector System (UIS)

and Unit Pump System (UPS) for commercial vehicles
2 Overview of the EDC components for Unit Injector System (UIS) and Unit Pump Systems (UPS) for commercial vehicles

Accelerator-pedal ECU MS 6.2 UP* (max. 8 per ECU)

sensor with low-idle
switch and kick-down Signal inputs
switch* Sensor evaluation
Engine rpm Ambient-pressure sensor *
Signal processing:

Engine rpm and - Idle-speed control

cylinder identification - Intermediate-speed
(camshaft) control
- External
Exhaust-gas torque intervention or
turbocharger, - Immobilizer UI* (max. 8 per ECU)
rpm signal
- Injected-fuel-quantity
Boost pressure control and limitation
- Cruise Control *
- Vehicle-speed
Charge-air temperature limitation
- Cylinder shutoff
- Calculation of start of
Engine temperature delivery and
(coolant) delivery period
- Start-of-delivery (BIP) Start-of-delivery, delivery period
Fuel temperature correction
- Supplementary
Vehicle speed special adaptations* Boost-pressure actuator
(also possible Km/h
via CAN) System diagnosis
Calibration Exhaust brake
Cruise Control Substitute functions
Engine diagnosis Additional driver stages
switch (e.g. fan control)

Solenoid-valve driver
stages Actuators
Multi-function switch
Driver stages
Signal outputs Diagnosis lamp
CAN communication
Brake contact K ISO interface
Diagnosis communic.
EoL programming (e.g. diagnosis)
Clutch contact L
Power supply
Exhaust-brake CAN CAN interface
Main Input for
Parking-brake relay
contact pwm signals
24V (12V*)
+ + Engine rpm signal
Terminal 15
(TD signal)
æ NAE0735E

Input signals Communication

Robert Bosch GmbH

20 Sensors Automotive applications

Sensors register operating states (e.g. engine Since their output signals directly affect not
speed) and setpoint/desired values (e.g. ac- only the engine’s power output, torque, and
celerator-pedal position). They convert emissions, but also vehicle handling and
physical quantities (e.g. pressure) or chemi- safety, sensors, although they are becoming
cal quantities (e.g. exhaust-gas concentra- smaller and smaller, must also fulfill de-
tion) into electric signals. mands that they be faster and more precise.
These stipulations can be complied with
thanks to mechatronics.
Automotive applications
Depending upon the level of integration,
Sensors and actuators represent the inter- signal conditioning, analog/digital conver-
faces between the ECU’s, as the processing sion, and self-calibration functions can all
units, and the vehicle with its complex drive, be integrated in the sensor (Fig. 1), and in
braking, chassis, and bodywork functions future a small microcomputer for further
(for instance, the Engine Management, the signal processing will be added. The advan-
Electronic Stability Program ESP, and the air tages are as follows:
conditioner). As a rule, a matching circuit in
the sensor converts the signals so that they  Lower levels of computing power are
can be processed by the ECU. needed in the ECU,
 A uniform, flexible, and bus-compatible
The field of mechatronics, in which me- interface becomes possible for all sensors,
chanical, electronic, and data-processing  Direct multiple use of a given sensor
components are interlinked and cooperate through the data bus,
closely with each other, is rapidly gaining in  Registration of even smaller measured
importance. They are integrated in modules quantities,
(e.g. in the crankshaft CSWS (Composite  Simple sensor calibration.
Seal with Sensor) module complete with
rpm sensor).

1 Sensor integration levels

Sensors Transmission path ECU

Susceptible to
Conventional SE interference SA A SG
(analog) D

Resistant to
Multiple interference A
Figure 1 1st Integration level SE SA SG
tap-off (analog) D
SE Sensor(s)
SA Analog signal con-
ditioning Immune to
2nd integration level SE SA A interference SG
A/D Analog-digital con- D compatible (digital)
æ UAE0037-1E

SG Digital ECU Immune to
MC Microcomputer 3rd integration level SE SA A MC interference SG
D compatible (digital)
(evaluation electron-
Robert Bosch GmbH

Sensors Temperature sensors 21

1 Coolant-temperature sensor 2 Characteristic curve of an NTC resistor

1 2 3 4 5 6

10 4

Figure 1
10 3 1 Electrical
æ UMK0124-7Y

2 Housing

æ UMK1998E
3 Seal ring
10 2
1 cm - 40 0 40 80 120°C 4 Sensor thread
Temperature 5 Measuring resistor
6 Coolant

Temperature sensors stage of the fuel system. The fuel tempera-

ture is an important factor in precisely
Applications defining the correct injected fuel quantity.
Engine-temperature sensor The measurable temperature range is be-
This is incorporated in the coolant circuit tween – 40 and +120 °C.
and measures the coolant temperature as an
indication of engine temperature (Fig. 1). Exhaust-gas temperature sensor
This information is needed for the engine- This sensor is installed at a point in the ex-
management system. The measurable tem- haust system which is critical with regard to
perature range is between – 40 and +130 °C. temperature. It is used in the control of the
exhaust-gas treatment system. Platinum is
Air-temperature sensor usually used for the measuring resistor. The
This is installed in the engine's intake tract measurable temperature range is between
and measures the temperature of the intake – 40 and +1000 °C.
air. In coordination with a boost-pressure
sensor, this intake-air temperature can be Design and operating concept
used to precisely measure the mass of the air Depending upon the particular application,
drawn into the engine. Apart from this, the these temperature sensors are available in a
setpoint values for closed control loops (e.g. variety of different shapes and versions. A
EGR, boost-pressure control) can be temperature-dependent semiconductor
adapted as a function of the air temperature. measuring resistor is mounted inside the
The measurable temperature range is be- sensor housing. This resistor is usually of the
tween – 40 and +120 °C. NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient)
type, or less commonly of the PTC (Positive
Engine-oil temperature sensor Temperature Coefficient) type. In other
The signal from the engine-oil temperature words, when subjected to increasing temper-
sensor is used when determining the service ature, its electrical resistance decreases
interval. The measurable temperature range (NTC) or increases (PTC) dramatically.
is between – 40 and +170 °C.
The measuring resistor is part of a voltage-
Fuel-temperature sensor distributor circuit to which 5 V is applied,
This sensor is installed in the low-pressure and the voltage measured across it is there-
Robert Bosch GmbH

22 Sensors Micromechanical pressure sensors

fore temperature-dependent. This is in- 1 Sensor element of a pressure sensor with reference
putted to the ECU through an A/D con- vacuum on the component-buildup side (schematic)
verter and is a measure for the temperature
at the sensor. The engine ECU incorporates
Figure 1 a characteristic curve which allocates a spe- 1 3
1 Diaphragm R2
cific temperature to each output-voltage R1 R1
2 Silicon chip
3 Reference vacuum
value or resistance (Fig. 2, Page 21). 2 p
4 Glass (Pyrex)
5 Wheatstone bridge Micromechanical pressure 4
p Measured pressure
U0 Supply voltage
sensors R2 R1
UM Measurement
5 UM

æ UAE0017-1Y
voltage U0
R1 Measuring resistors
Applications R1 R2

(compressed) and Intake-manifold sensor or boost-pressure

R2 Measuring resistors sensor
(stretched) This sensor measures the absolute pressure
in the intake manifold (typically 250 kPa or
2.5 bar) between the supercharger and the 2 Sensor element of the pressure sensor with cap and
reference vacuum on the component side (design)
engine. The actual measurement is referred
to a reference vacuum and not to the sur-
rounding pressure. This permits precise
Figure 2 measurement of the air mass so that the su-
1, 3 Electrical connec- percharger can be controlled in accordance 1 4
tions with glass-en- with engine requirements.
closed lead-in 5
2 Reference vacuum 6
Atmospheric-pressure sensor
4 Sensor element
(chip) with evalua-
The atmospheric-pressure sensor can be in-
tion electronics stalled in the ECU or at another location in
5 Glass base the engine compartment. Its signal is used 3 7
æ UAE0648-2Y
6 Cap for altitude-dependent correction of the set-
7 Pressure connection point values for the closed control loops (for p
for measured pres-
instance for the EGR and the boost-pressure
sure p
control). This permits the differences in at-
mospheric pressure encountered at different 3 Sensor element of the pressure sensor with cap and
altitudes to be taken into account. The at- reference vacuum on the component side
mospheric-pressure sensor measures ab-
solute pressure (60...115 kPa, 0.6...1.15 bar).

Oil-pressure and fuel-pressure sensors

Oil-pressure sensors are installed in the oil
filter for measuring the absolute oil pressure.
This information is applied for determining
engine loading as required for the Service
Display. The sensor’s pressure range is
50...1000 kPa (0.5...10.0 bar). The sensor el-
ement’s high resistance to the measured
æ UAE0721Y

medium means that it can also be used for

the fuel-pressure measurement in the fuel-
system low-pressure stage. The sensor is fit-
Robert Bosch GmbH

Sensors Micromechanical pressure sensors 23

ted either in the fuel filter or on it, and its 4 Micromechanical pressure sensor with
signal is used to monitor the degree of fuel reference vacuum on the component side
contamination (measuring range 20...400
1 2 3 4 5
kPa or 0.2...4 bar).

Design with the reference vacuum on

the component side
The measuring element is the heart of the
micromechanical pressure sensor, and is Figure 4
comprised of a silicon chip (Fig. 1, Pos. 2) 1 Temperature sensor
into which a thin diaphragm (1) has been (NTC),
7 2 Housing base
etched micromechanically. Four measuring
3 Intake-manifold wall
resistors (R1, R2), whose electrical resistances
4 O-rings
change when mechanical pressure is applied,

æ UAE0722Y
5 Electrical plug-in
are arranged on the diaphragm. On its connection
structure side, the sensor element is sur- 1 cm 6 Housing cover
rounded and sealed off by a cap which en- 7 Sensor element
closes the reference vacuum (Figs. 2 and 3).
A temperature sensor can also be integrated 5 Characteristic curve of a micromechanical boost-
pressure sensor (example)
in the pressure sensor (Fig. 4, Pos. 1), whose
signals can be evaluated separately. This has
the advantage that only a single sensor hous-
ing is needed when both temperature and
pressure are to be measured.
Output voltage

Operating concept
The sensor-element diaphragm bends by
several µm (10...1000 µm) as a function of 1.87
the applied pressure. The resulting mechani-
æ UAE0719-1E

cal tension causes the four measuring resis-

tors on the diaphragm to change their resis-
100 250 kPa
tance (piezoresistive effect).
These measuring resistors are arranged on
the silicon chip so that when the diaphragm
deforms (due to pressure application), the higher level of sensor sensitivity.
electrical resistance of two of the resistors
increases, and that of the other two de- The component side of the diaphragm to
creases. Since the resistors are part of a which no pressure is applied is subjected to a
Wheatstone bridge (Fig. 1, Pos. 5), when the reference vacuum (Fig. 2, Pos. 2) so that the
resistance values change so does the voltage sensor measures absolute pressure.
ratio across the measuring resistors, and The signal-conditioning electronics are in-
with it the measurement voltage UM which tegrated on the chip and have the job of am-
thus becomes a measure of the pressure ap- plifying the bridge voltage, compensating for
plied to the diaphragm. temperature fluctuations, and linearizing the
Using a bridge circuit enables a higher pressure curve. Output voltage is 0...5 V and
measurement voltage to be generated than via the sensor’s electrical plug-in connection
would be possible with a single resistor. The (Fig. 4, Pos. 5) it is inputted to the ECU which
Wheatstone bridge, therefore, permits a uses it to calculate the pressure curve (Fig. 5).
Robert Bosch GmbH

24 Sensors Micromechanical pressure sensors

Version with the reference vacuum in a nent side. In contrast to the latter version
cavity though, there is no hole in the cavity-type
Design sensor’s glass base for transmitting the mea-
The pressure sensor with reference vacuum sured pressure from the sensor’s rear side to
inside a cavity (Figs. 6 and 8) is used as an the sensor element. Instead, pressure is ap-
intake-manifold or boost-pressure sensor. It plied to the silicon chip at the side contain-
is simpler in design than the version with ing the evaluation electronics. This side
the reference vacuum on the component must therefore be sealed off with a special
side. A silicon chip with etched diaphragm gel to protect it against environmental ef-
and four measuring resistors in a bridge cir- fects (Fig. 7, Pos. 1). The reference vacuum is
cuit is mounted as the sensor element on a located in the hollow space (cavity) between
glass base similar to the sensor version with the silicon chip (6) and the glass base (3).
cap and reference vacuum on the compo- The complete measuring element is
mounted on the ceramic hybrid (4) which is
provided with solder surfaces for connec-
6 Micromechanical pressure sensor with reference tions within the sensor.
vacuum in a cavity

It is also possible to integrate a temperature

sensor inside the pressure sensor’s housing.
This extends into the air stream and is thus
1 5
able to react extremely quickly to tempera-
ture changes.

2 Operating concept
Figure 6 Operating concept, signal conditioning and
1 Intake-manifold wall amplification, as well as the characteristic
2 Housing 6 curve, are all identical to those of the sensor
3 Seal ring with cap and reference vacuum on the com-
4 Temperature sensor
ponent side. The sole difference is that the
æ UMK1645-1Y

5 Electrical plug-in
sensor-element’s diaphragm, and with it the
connection measuring resistors, is deformed in the op-
6 Housing cover posite direction.
1 cm
7 Sensor element

7 Sensor element with reference 8 Micromechanical pressure sensor with

vacuum in a cavity reference vacuum in a cavity and
integrated temperature sensor

Figure 7
1 Protective gel
2 Gel frame 1
3 Gass base
4 Ceramic hybrid 6
5 Cavity with refer- 3
ence vacuum 7
æ UMK1644-1Y

6 Sensor element 4
æ UMK1997Y

(chip) with evalua-

tion electronics
7 Bonded connection
p Measured pressure
Robert Bosch GmbH

Sensors Rail-pressure sensors 25

Rail-pressure sensors is in the range 0...80 mV and is inputted to

the evaluation circuit (2) in the sensor. This
Application amplifies the bridge signal to 0...5 V and
In the Common-Rail injection system and transmits it to the ECU which uses it to-
the gasoline direct-injection system MED- gether with a stored characteristic curve to
Motronic, these sensors are used to measure calculate the pressure (Fig. 2).
the fuel pressure in the high-pressure fuel
accumulator (or rail, from which the system
took its name). Strict compliance with the
stipulated fuel pressure is of extreme impor- 1 Rail-pressure sensor
tance with regard to emissions, noise, and
engine power. The fuel pressure is regulated
in a control loop, and deviations from the
2 cm
desired pressure level are compensated for
by a pressure-control valve. 1

The rail-pressure sensors feature very tight

tolerances, and in the main measuring range
the measuring accuracy is better than 2% of 2
the measuring range.
These rail-pressure sensors are used in the
following engine systems:
 Common-Rail diesel injection system Figure 1
(CRS) 5
1 Electrical plug-in
Maximum operating pressure pmax connection
2 Evaluation circuit
(rated pressure) is 160 MPa (1600 bar).
3 Steel diaphragm
æ UMK1576-1Y

with measuring re-

 Gasoline direct injection MED-Motronic p sistors
For this gasoline direct-injection system, 4 Pressure connection
operating pressure is a function of load 5 Mounting thread
and rotational speed, and is 5...12 MPa
(50...120 bar).
2 Rail-pressure sensor: Characteristic curve
Design and operating concept
The heart of this sensor is a steel diaphragm V
on which measuring resistors in the form of
a bridge circuit have been vapor-deposited 4.5
(Fig. 1, Pos. 3). The sensor’s measuring
Output voltage

range is a function of diaphragm thickness

(thicker diaphragms for higher pressures,
thinner diaphragms for lower pressures). As
soon as the pressure to be measured is ap-
plied to the diaphragm through the pressure
æ UAE0719-2E

connection (Fig. 1, Pos. 4), this bends and 0.5

causes a change in the resistance of the mea-
0 pmax
suring resistors (approx. 20 µm at 1500 bar).
The output voltage generated by the bridge
Robert Bosch GmbH

26 Sensors Inductive engine-speed (rpm) sensors

Inductive engine-speed 1 Inductive rpm sensor (principle)

(rpm) sensors
1 2 3
Applications 2 cm
Such engine-speed sensors are used for mea-
Figure 1  Engine rpm,
1 Permanent magnet  Crankshaft position N
2 Sensor housing (for information on the position of the
3 Engine block 4
engine pistons).

æ UMZ0138-2Y
4 Pole pin 5
5 Solenoid winding 6
6 Air gap The rotational speed is calculated from the 7
7 Trigger wheel with intervals between the signals from the rpm
reference-mark gap sensor. The output signal from the rpm sen-
sor is one of the most important quantities
in electronic engine management. fluctuation of the flux which in turn gener-
ates a sinusoidal voltage in the solenoid
Design and operating concept winding which is proportional to the rate of
The sensor is mounted directly opposite a change of the flux (Fig. 2). The amplitude of
ferromagnetic trigger wheel (Fig. 1, Pos. 7) the AC voltage increases strongly along with
from which it is separated by a narrow air increasing trigger-wheel speed (several
gap. It has a soft-iron core (pole pin) (4), mV...>100 V). At least about 30 rpm are
which is enclosed by the solenoid winding needed to generate an adequate signal level.
(5). The pole pin is also connected to a per-
manent magnet (1), and a magnetic field ex- The number of teeth on the trigger wheel
tends through the pole pin and into the trig- depends upon the particular application. On
ger wheel. The level of the magnetic flux solenoid-valve-controlled engine-manage-
through the winding depends upon whether ment systems for instance, a 60-pitch trigger
the sensor is opposite a trigger-wheel tooth wheel is normally used, although 2 teeth are
or gap. Whereas the magnet’s stray flux is omitted (Fig. 1, Pos. 7) so that the trigger
concentrated by a tooth and leads to an in- wheel has 60 – 2 = 58 teeth. The very large
crease in the working flux through the wind- tooth gap (7) is allocated to a defined crank-
ing, it is weakened by a gap. When the trig- shaft position and serves as a reference mark
ger wheel rotates therefore, this causes a for synchronizing the ECU.
There is another version of the trigger
2 Signal from an inductive rpm sensor wheel which has one tooth per engine cylin-
der. In the case of a 4-cylinder engine, there-
fore, the trigger wheel has 4 teeth, and 4
1 pulses are generated per revolution.
The geometries of the trigger-wheel teeth
and the pole pin must be matched to each
Output voltage

other. The evaluation-electronics circuitry in

the ECU converts the sinusoidal voltage,
3 which is characterized by strongly varying
amplitudes, into a constant-amplitude
æ UAE0727E

Figure 2 2
1 Tooth square-wave voltage for evaluation in the
2 Tooth gap Time
ECU microcontroller.
3 Reference mark
Robert Bosch GmbH

Sensors Rotational-speed (rpm) sensors and incremental angle-of-rotation sensors 27

Rotational-speed (rpm) sen- tial magnetoresistive sensor is used.

Magnetoresistors are magnetically con-
sors and incremental angle- trollable semiconductor resistors and similar
of-rotation sensors in design to Hall-effect sensors.
Application The double differential sensor has four re-
The above sensors are installed in distribu- sistors connected to form a full bridge cir-
tor injection pumps with solenoid-valve cuit. The sensor has a permanent magnet,
control. Their signals are used for: the magnet pole face opposite the toothed
pulse disc being homegenized by a thin fer-
 The measurement of the injection pump’s romagnetic wafer on which are mounted the
speed, four magnetoresistors, separated from each
 Determining the instantaneous angular other by half a tooth gap. This means that
position of pump and camshaft, alternately there are two magnetoresistors
 Measurement of the instantaneous setting opposite tooth gaps and two opposite teeth
of the timing device. (Fig. 1). The magnetoresistors for automo-
tive applications are designed for operation
The pump speed at a given instant is one of in temperatures of ≤170°C (≤200°C briefly).
the input variables to the distributor pump’s
ECU which uses it to calculate the triggering
time for the high-pressure solenoid valve, 1 Rotational-speed/angle-of-rotation sensor

and, if necessary, for the timing-device sol-

enoid valve.
The triggering time for the high-pressure
solenoid valve must be calculated in order to N
inject the appropriate fuel quantity for the
particular operating conditions. The cam 1
plate’s instantaneous angular setting defines
Figure 1
the triggering point for the high-pressure sol- 2
1 Magnet
æ UMK1771Y

enoid valve. Only when triggering takes place 3

2 Homogenization
at exactly the right cam-plate angle, can it be 4 wafer (Fe)
guaranteed that the opening and closing 3 Magnetoresistor
points for the high-pressure solenoid valve are 4 Toothed pulse disc
correct for the particular cam lift. Precise trig-
gering defines the correct start-of-injection 2 Rotational-speed/angle-of-rotation sensor (installed)

point and the correct injected fuel quantity.

The correct timing-device setting as
needed for timing-device control is ascer-
tained by comparing the signals from the
camshaft rpm sensor with those of the an- 2
Figure 2
gle-of-rotation sensor. 3 1 Flexible conductive
4 strip
Design and operating concept 3 2 Rotational-speed
The rpm sensor, or the angle-of-rotation 5 (rpm)/angle-of-rota-
sensor, scans a toothed pulse disc with 120 tion sensor
3 Tooth gap
teeth which is attached to the distributor
æ UMK1553-1Y

6 4 Toothed pulse disc

pump’s driveshaft. There are tooth gaps, the (trigger wheel)
number of which correspond to the number 5 Rotatable mounting
of engine cylinders, evenly spaced around 3 ring
the disc’s circumference. A double differen- 6 Driveshaft
Robert Bosch GmbH

28 Sensors Hall-effect phase sensors

Hall-effect phase sensors Hall elements (Fig. 4) as needed for this

The engine’s camshaft rotates at half the Such sensors are used when particularly se-
crankshaft speed. Taking a given piston on vere demands are made on accuracy. Further
its way to TDC, the camshaft‘s rotational advantages are their relatively wide air-gap
position is an indication whether the piston range and good temperature-compensation
is in the compression or exhaust stroke. The characteristics.
phase sensor on the camshaft provides the
ECU with this information.

Design and operating concept

Hall-effect rod sensors
As the name implies, such sensors (Fig. 2a)
make use of the Hall effect. A ferromagnetic
trigger wheel (with teeth, segments, or per- 1 Hall element (Hall-effect vane switch)
forated rotor, Pos. 7) rotates with the
camshaft. The Hall-effect IC (6) is located +B

Figure 1
between the trigger wheel and a permanent
I Wafer current magnet (5) which generates a magnetic field
IH Hall current perpendicular to the Hall element. I
IV Supply current If one of the trigger-wheel teeth (Z) now IH α
UH Hall voltage passes the current-carrying rod-sensor ele-
UR Longitudinal volt- IV
ment (semiconductor wafer), it changes the

æ UAE0699-2Y
B Magnetic induction
field strength. This causes the electrons, UR

α Deflection of the which are driven by a longitudinal voltage UH

electrons by the across the element, to be deflected perpen-
magnetic field dicularly to the direction of current (Fig. 1,
angle α).
This results in a voltage signal (Hall volt- 2 Hall-effect rod sensor
age) in the millivolt range, which is indepen-
dent of the relative speed between sensor a
Figure 2
and trigger wheel. The evaluation-electron-
a Positioning of sensor ics stage integrated in the sensor’s Hall IC
and single-track trig- conditions the signal and outputs it in the
2 cm

ger wheel form of a rectangular-pulse signal (Fig. 2b 3

b Output signal charac- “High”/“Low”). 4
teristic UA 5 N

Differential Hall-effect rod sensors 6 a

1 Electrical plug-in con-
Rod sensors operating as per the differential Z

2 Sensor housing principle are provided with two Hall ele- 7 L

3 Engine block ments. These elements are offset from each
4 Seal ring other either radially or axially (Fig. 3, S1 and
5 Permanent magnet S2), and generate an output signal which is b
6 Hall-IC L L
proportional to the difference in magnetic UA ϕs High
7 Trigger wheel with
æ UMK1768E

tooth/segment (Z)
flux at the element measuring points. A two-
track perforated plate (Fig. 3a) or a two- Low
and gap (L)
a Air gap, track trigger wheel (Fig. 3b) are needed in Angle of rotation ϕ
φ Angle of rotation order to generate the opposing signals in the
Robert Bosch GmbH

Sensors Hall-effect phase sensors 29

3 Differential Hall-effect rod sensors

a S2 S1 b

2 1 S1 S2

Figure 3
a Axial tap-off
7 8
(perforated plate)
b Radial tap-off
(two-track trigger

1 Electrical plug-in con-
2 nection
2 Sensor housing
3 Engine block
3 4 Seal ring
4 S 5 Permanent magnet
6 Differential Hall-IC
5 N
S2 S1 S2 with Hall elements S1
S1 L Z L Z and S2
L Z 7 Perforated plate
æ UMK1769Y

7 Z L 8 Two-track trigger
I Track 1
II Track 2

4 Characteristic curve of the output signal UA from a differential Hall-effect rod sensor

L1 L2 L3 L4
UA Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Figure 4
Output signal “Low”:
Material (Z) in front of
S1, gap (L) in front of
180° S2;

Output signal “High”:
360° Gap (L) in front of S1,
æ UMK1770Y

material (Z) in front of

0° ϕ
φS signal width
Robert Bosch GmbH

30 Sensors Half-differential short-circuiting-ring sensors

Half-differential short- the ECU maintains the current constant

(load-independent current), the voltage
circuiting-ring sensors across the coil also changes.
The above sensors are applied as position The ratio of the output voltage UA to the
sensors for travel or angle. They are very reference voltage URef (Fig. 3) is calculated
precise and very robust, and are used as by an evaluation circuit. This ratio is pro-
portional to the deflection of the measuring
 Rack-travel sensors (RWG) for measuring short-circuiting ring and can be processed
the control-rack setting in in-line diesel by the ECU. Bending the reference short-cir-
injection pumps, and as cuiting ring adjusts the characteristic-curve
 Angle-of-rotation sensors in the injected- gradient, and the basic position of the mea-
fuel quantity actuators for diesel distribu- suring short-circuiting ring defines the zero
tor pumps. point.

Design and operating concept

These sensors (Figs. 1 and 2) are comprised
of a laminated soft-iron core on each limb of
which are wound a measuring coil and a ref-
erence coil.
When the alternating current (AC) out-
putted by the ECU flows through these coils, 2 Design of the half-differential short-circuiting-ring
sensor for diesel distributor pumps
alternating magnetic fields are generated.
Figure 1 The copper short-circuiting rings surround- 1 2 60° 3 4
1 Soft-iron core ing the limbs of the soft-iron core, though, x
2 Reference coil ϕ ma
screen these against the alternating magnetic 0°
3 Reference short-
fields. Whereas the reference short-circuiting

circuiting ring
4 Control rack rings are fixed in position, the measuring UA
5 Measuring coil short-circuiting rings are attached to the
6 Measuring short- control rack or to the control-collar shaft
circuiting ring (in-line pumps and distributor pumps re- URef
s Control-rack travel spectively) and are free to move (control-
æ UAE0746Y

rack travel s, and adjustment angle φ).

Figure 2
When the measuring short-circuiting ring 5 6
1 Measuring coil moves, the magnetic flux changes and, since
2 Measuring short-
circuiting ring 1 Design of the rack-travel sensor 3 Voltage ratio as a function of
3 Soft-iron core for diesel in-line injection pumps control-rack travel
4 Control-collar shaft
5 Reference coil 3 1
Linear range
6 Reference short-
circuiting ring
φmax Adjustment angle 2
for the control-col-
UA / URef

lar shaft
φ Measured angle
æ UAE0290-1Y

6 5
æ UMK0641E

Figure 3 s
UA Output voltage mm
Control-rack travel s
URef Reference voltage
Robert Bosch GmbH

Sensors Nozzle holders with needle-motion sensor 31

Nozzle holders with

needle-motion sensor

Application 2 Two-spring nozzle holder with needle-motion sensor

The start-of-injection point is an important for direct-injection (DI) engines
parameter for optimum diesel-engine oper-
ation. Its evaluation, for instance, permits
load and speed-dependent injection timing,
and/or the control of the exhaust-gas recir-
culation (EGR), as well as diagnosis in the
ECU. Here, a nozzle holder with needle-mo-
tion sensor (Fig. 2) is used which outputs a
signal as soon as the nozzle needle lifts off its
Design and operating concept
When the needle lifts, the extended pressure
pin (12) enters the coil (11). The degree to
which it enters the coil (immersion length 3
“X” in Fig. 2), determines the strength of the
magnetic flux in the coil. Nozzle-needle 4

movement causes a change in the coil’s mag-

netic flux so that a signal voltage is induced 6 2 cm
which is proportional to the needle’s speed
of movement but not to the distance it has
travelled. This signal is processed directly in
the evaluation circuit. When a given thresh-
old voltage is exceeded (Fig. 1), the evalua- 7
tion circuit uses this as the signal for the Figure 1
start of injection. a Needle-lift curve,
b Corresponding sig-
nal-voltage curve at
the coil

1 Needle-motion sensor: Signal

Detail Y Figure 2
11 Nozzle-holder body
a 9 12 Needle-motion sen-
Needle lift

10 13 Spring
14 Guide element
b 15 Spring
Threshold 16 Pressure pin
voltage X
Signal voltage

11 17 Nozzle-retaining nut
18 Connection to the
Start-of-injection 12 evaluation circuit
æ UMK1427-1E

æ UMK1718-1Y

19 Setting pin
10 Contact lug
Crankshaft angle 11 Coil (sensor coil)
12 Pressure pin
13 Spring seat
Robert Bosch GmbH

32 Sensors Accelerator-pedal sensors

Accelerator-pedal sensors the pedal travel, or its angular setting, and

sends this to the engine ECU in the form of
Application an electrical signal.
In conventional engine-management sys- The accelerator-pedal module (Fig. 2b
tems, the driver transmits his/her wishes for and c) is available as an alternative to the in-
acceleration, constant or lower speed, to the dividual accelerator-pedal sensor (Fig. 2a).
engine by using the accelerator pedal to in- The module is a ready-to-install unit com-
tervene mechanically at the throttle plate prising accelerator pedal and sensor. Such
(gasoline engine) or injection pump (diesel modules mean that adjustments on the vehi-
engine). Intervention is transmitted from cle have become unnecessary.
the accelerator pedal to throttle plate or in-
jection pump by means of a Bowden cable Design and operating concept
or linkage. Potentiometer-type accelerator-pedal sensor
On today’s engine-management systems, The heart of the accelerator-pedal sensor is a
the Bowden cable and/or linkage have been potentiometer across which there is a volt-
superseded and the driver’s accelerator- age which is a function of the accelerator-
pedal inputs are transmitted to the ECU by pedal setting. In the ECU, a programmed
an accelerator-pedal sensor. This registers characteristic curve is used to calculate the
accelerator-pedal travel or its angular setting
from this voltage.
1 Characteristic curve of an accelerator-pedal
sensor with redundant potentiometer
A second (redundant) sensor is incorpo-
rated for diagnosis purposes and for use in
V case of malfunction. It is a component part
4.75 of the monitoring system. One version of
the accelerator-pedal sensor operates with a
second potentiometer. The voltage across
Output voltage

1 this potentiometer is always half that across

the first potentiometer. This provides two
2 independent signals which are used for trou-
Figure 1
ble-shooting (Fig. 1). Instead of the second
1 Potentiometer 1
potentiometer, another version uses a low-
æ UAE0724E

(master poten- 0.75

tiometer) idle switch which provides a signal for the
2 Potentiometer 2 Pedal travel approx. 25 mm ECU when the accelerator pedal is in the
(50% of voltage) idle position. For automatic-transmission

2 Accelerator-pedal-sensor versions

Figure 2 a b c
a Individual accelera-
tor-pedal sensor
1 5 cm 1
b Top-mounted accel- 1
erator-pedal module 3
c Bottom-mounted ac-
celerator-pedal mod- 3
ule FMP1 2 2
æ UAE0725Y

1 Sensor
2 Vehicle-specific
pedal 10 cm
3 Pedal bracket
Robert Bosch GmbH

Sensors Accelerator-pedal sensors 33

vehicles, a further switch can be incorpo- Mechanically, this sensor is highly suitable
rated for a kick-down signal. for installation in an accelerator-pedal mod-
ule (Fig. 5).
Hall-effect angle-of-rotation sensors
This Hall-effect angle-of-rotation sensor
(ARS1) is based on the movable-magnet 3 Hall-effect angle-of-rotation sensor ARS1
principle. It has a measuring range of ap-
prox. 90° (Figs. 3 and 4).
A semicircular permanent-magnet rotor
(Fig. 4, Pos. 1) generates a magnetic flux
which is returned back to the rotor via a
2 Figure 3
pole shoe (2), two conductive elements (3) 1 Housing cover
and the magnetically soft shaft (6). In the 3
2 Rotor
process, the amount of flux which is re- (permanent mag-
turned through the conductive elements is a 4 net)
function of the rotor’s angle of rotation φ. 3 Evaluation electron-
ics with Hall-effect
There is a Hall-effect sensor (5) located in
5 sensor
the magnetic path of each conductive ele-

æ UAE0769Y
4 Housing base
ment, so that is it possible to generate a 6 5 Return spring
practically linear characteristic curve in the 6 Coupling element
measuring range. (e.g. gear)

On the ARS2 sensor, a simpler design is used 4 Hall-effect angle-of-rotation sensor ARS1
(shown with angular settings a...d)
without magnetically soft conductive ele-
ments. Here, a magnet rotates around the
a b
Hall-effect sensor. The path it takes is in the
Figure 4
form of a circular arc. Since only a small sec- 1 Rotor
tion of the resulting sinusoidal characteristic (permanent mag-
curve features good linearity, the Hall-effect net)
sensor is located slightly outside the center 2 Pole shoe
c 4 d
of the arc. This causes the characteristic 3 Conductive ele-
1 ϕ 5 ment
curve to deviate from its sinusoidal form so
4 Air gap
that the linear section of the curve is in-
æ UAE0770Y

2 3
5 Hall-effect sensor
creased to more than 180 °. 4 6 6 Pedal shaft
(magnetically soft)
φ Angle of rotation
5 Hall-effect angle-of-rotation sensor ARS2

a b

1 1

Figure 5
a Installation in
2 2
æ UAE0771Y

3 b Components
1 Hall-effect sensor
2 Pedal shaft
3 Magnet
Robert Bosch GmbH

34 Sensors Hot-film air-mass meter HFM5

Hot-film air-mass meter tube is installed in the intake tract down-

stream from the air filter. Plug-in versions
HFM5 are also available which are installed inside
Application the air filter.
For the optimal combustion as needed to The most important components in the
comply with the emission regulations im- sensor are the sensor element (4), situated in
posed by legislation, it is imperative that the air intake (8), and the integrated evalua-
precisely the necessary air mass is inducted tion electronics (3).
as dictated by the engine’s operating state.
To this end, part of the total air flow which Vapor-deposition is used to apply the sen-
is actually inducted through the air filter or sor-element components to a semiconduc-
the measuring tube is measured by a hot-film tor substrate, and the evaluation-electronics
air-mass meter. Measurement is very precise (hybrid circuit) components to a ceramic
and takes into account the pulsations and re- substrate. This principle permits a very
verse flows caused by the opening and closing compact design. The evaluation electronics
of the engine’s intake and exhaust valves. In- are connected to the ECU through the plug-
take-air temperature changes have no effect in connection (1). The partial-flow measur-
upon measuring accuracy. ing tube (6) is shaped so that the air flows
past the sensor element smoothly (without
Design and construction whirl effects) and back into the measuring
The housing of the HFM5 hot-film air-mass tube via the air outlet (7). This method en-
meter (Fig. 1, Pos. 5) projects into a measur- sures efficient sensor operation even in case
ing tube (2) which, depending upon the en- of extreme pulsation, and in addition to for-
gine's air-mass requirements, can have a va- ward flow, reverse flows are also detected
riety of diameters (for 370...970 kg/h). This (Fig. 2).

1 Hot-film air-mass meter HFM5 Operating concept

The hot-film air-mass meter is a “thermal
sensor” and operates according to the fol-
1 lowing principle:

A micromechanical sensor diaphragm (Fig.

3, Pos. 5) on the sensor element (3) is heated
2 by a central heating resistor and held at a
constant temperature. The temperature
drops sharply on each side of this controlled
Figure 1 heated zone (4).
1 Electrical plug-in
connection 3
The temperature distribution on the di-
2 Measuring tube or
air-filter housing wall
aphragm is registered by two temperature-
3 Evaluation electron- dependent resistors which are attached up-
ics (hybrid circuit) 4
stream and downstream of the heating resis-
4 Sensor element tor so as to be symmetrical to it (measuring
5 Sensor housing
5 8 points M1, M2). Without the flow of incom-
6 Partial-flow measur- QM ing air, the temperature characteristic (1) is
æ UMK1713-1Y

ing tube
the same on each side of the heated zone
7 Air outlet for the par-
tial air flow QM
(T1 = T2).
8 Intake for partial air 1 cm 7
flow QM
Robert Bosch GmbH

Sensors Hot-film air-mass meter HFM5 35

As soon as air flows over the sensor element, vided for (inner measuring tube and protec-
the uniform temperature distribution at the tive grid).
diaphragm changes (2). On the intake side,
the temperature characteristic is steeper
since the incoming air flowing past this area
cools it off. Initially, on the opposite side
(the side nearest to the engine), the sensor
element cools off. The air heated by the 2 Output voltage of the hot-film air-mass meter as a
heater element then heats up the sensor ele- function of the partial air mass flowing past it
ment. The change in temperature distribu-
tion leads to a temperature differential (∆T) V
between the measuring points M1 and M2. Reverse flow
Forward flow
The heat dissipated to the air, and therefore 5
the temperature characteristic at the sensor
element is a function of the air mass flow.
Output voltage

The temperature differential is a measure of
the air mass flow, and is independent of the
absolute temperature of the air flowing past.
Apart from this, the temperature differential
is directional, which means that the air-mass 1

æ UMK1691E
meter not only registers the mass of the in-
coming air but also its direction. 0
0 200 400 kg/h 600
Due to its very thin micromechanical di- Air-mass flow
aphragm, the sensor has a highly dynamic
response (<15 ms), a point which is of par-
ticular importance when the incoming air is 3 Hot-film air-mass meter: Measuring principle
fluctuating heavily.
The resistance differential at the measur-
ing points M1 and M2 is converted by the T
evaluation electronics integrated in the sen- 1

sor into an analog signal of 0...5 V which is 2

Figure 3
suitable for processing by the ECU. Using T1 = T2 1 Temperature profile
T2 without air flow
the sensor characteristic (Fig. 2) pro-
∆T across sensor ele-
grammed into the ECU, the measured volt- ment
age is converted into a value representing the 2 Temperature profile
air mass flow [kg/h]. with air flow across
sensor element
The shape of the characteristic curve is such 3 Sensor element
that the diagnosis facility incorporated in M2 4 Heated zone
M1 7 5 Sensor diaphragm
the ECU can detect such malfunctions as an
6 Measuring tube with
open-circuit line. A temperature sensor for air-mass meter
auxiliary functions can also be integrated in 7 Intake-air flow
the HFM5. It is located on the sensor ele- 4 M1, M2 measuring points
ment upstream of the heated zone, and is T1, T2 Temperature val-
3 ues at the mea-
not required for measuring the air mass.
æ UMK1652Y

suring points
For applications on specific vehicles, sup-
6 M1 and M2
plementary functions such as improved sep- 7
∆T Temperature differ-
aration of water and contamination are pro- ential
Robert Bosch GmbH

36 Sensors Planar broad-band Lambda oxygen sensors

Planar broad-band Lambda cations led to the designation LSU: Lambda

Sensor Universal (taken from the German),
oxygen sensor LSU4 in other words Universal Lambda Sensor).
Application The sensor projects into the exhaust pipe
As its name implies, the broad-band and registers the exhaust-gas flow from all
Lambda sensor is used across a very exten- cylinders. In a number of systems, several
sive range to determine the oxygen concen- Lambda sensors are installed for even
tration in the exhaust gas. The figures pro- greater accuracy. Here, for instance, they are
vided by the sensor are an indication of the fitted upstream and downstream of the cat-
air-fuel (A/F) ratio in the engine’s combus- alytic converter as well as in the individual
tion chamber. The excess-air factor λ is used exhaust tracts (cylinder banks).
when defining the A/F ratio. The broad-
band Lambda sensor is capable of making Design and construction
precise measurements not only at the “stoi- The LSU4 broad-band Lambda sensor (Fig.
chiometric” point λ = 1, but also in the lean 3) is a planar dual-cell limit-current sensor.
range (λ > 1) and the rich range (λ < 1). In It features a zirconium-dioxide measuring
the range from 0.7 < λ < ∞ (∞ = air with cell (Fig. 1) which is a combination of a
21 % O2) these sensors generate an unmis- Nernst concentration cell (sensor cell which
takable, clear electrical signal (Fig. 2). functions the same as a two-step Lambda
sensor) and an oxygen pump cell for trans-
These characteristics enable the broad-band porting the oxygen ions.
Lambda sensor to be used not only in en- The oxygen pump cell (Fig. 1, Pos. 8) is so
gine-management systems with two-step arranged with respect to the Nernst concen-
control (λ = 1), but also in control concepts tration cell (7) that there is a 10 ... 50 µm dif-
Figure 1 with rich and lean air-fuel (A/F) mixtures. fusion gap (6) between them which is con-
1 Exhaust gas
This type of Lambda sensor is also suitable nected to the exhaust gas through a gas-ac-
2 Exhaust pipe
3 Heater
for the Lambda closed-loop control used cess passage (10). A porous diffusion barrier
4 Control electronics with lean-burn concepts on gasoline en- (11) serves to limit the flow of oxygen mol-
5 Reference cell with gines, as well as for diesel engines, gaseous- ecules from the exhaust gas.
reference-air pas- fuel engines and gas-powered central heaters On the one side, the Nernst concentration
sage and water heaters (this wide range of appli- cell is connected to the atmosphere by a ref-
6 Diffusion gap
7 Nernst concentra-
1 Planar broad-band Lambda sensor (installation in the exhaust pipe and schematic design of the measuring cell)
tion cell
8 Oxygen pump cell
with internal and ex- 2 3 4
ternal pump elec-
9 Porous protective US I P
layer –
10 Gas-access pas- UP
sage URef
1 11
11 Porous diffusion bar-
rier 10

IP Pump current
UP Pump voltage UH
æ UMK1260-1Y

UH Heater voltage
URef Reference voltage
(450 mV, corres-
ponds to λ = 1) 9 8 7 6 5
US Sensor voltage
Robert Bosch GmbH

Sensors Planar broad-band Lambda oxygen sensors 37

erence-air passage (5), and on the other, it is outside (positive pump current). On the
connected to the exhaust gas in the diffusion other hand, if it is rich, due to the decompo-
gap. sition of CO2 and H2O at the exhaust-gas
The sensor must have heated up to at least electrode the oxygen is pumped from the
600 ... 800 °C before it generates a usable sig- surrounding exhaust gas and into the diffu-
nal. It is provided with an integral heater sion gap (negative pump current). Oxygen
(3), so that the required temperature is transport is unnecessary at λ = 1 and pump
reached quickly. current is zero. The pump current is propor-
tional to the exhaust-gas oxygen concentra-
Operating concept tion and is thus a measure for the non-linear
The exhaust gas enters the actual measuring excess-air factor λ (Fig. 2).
chamber (diffusion gap) of the Nernst con-
centration cell through the pump cell’s gas-
access passage. In order that the excess-air
factor λ can be adjusted in the diffusion gap,
the Nernst concentration cell compares the
exhaust gas in the diffusion gap with the
surrounding air in the reference-air passage. 2 Pump current IP of a broad-band Lambda sensor as
a function of the exhaust-gas excess-air factor λ

The process as a whole functions as follows: mA

By applying the pump voltage UP across
the pump cell’s platinum electrodes, oxygen 1
Pump current Ip

from the exhaust gas can be pumped

through the diffusion barrier and into or out
of the diffusion gap. With the help of the
Nernst concentration cell, an electronic cir-
cuit in the ECU controls the voltage UP -1
æ UMK1266-1E

across the pump cell in order that the com-

position of the gas in the diffusion gap re- -2
0.7 1 2 3 4
mains constant at λ = 1. If the exhaust gas is
Excess-air factor λ
lean, the pump cell pumps the oxygen to the

3 LSU4 planar broad-band sensor

Figure 3
1 Measuring cell
(combination of
Nernst concentra-
tion cell and oxygen-
1 cm pump cell)
2 Double protective
3 Seal ring
4 Seal packing
5 Sensor housing
6 Protective sleeve
7 Contact holder
8 Contact clip
9 PTFE sleeve
æ UMK1607Y

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
10 PTFE shaped sleeve
11 Five connecting
12 Seal ring
Robert Bosch GmbH

38 ECU Data processing

Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

Digital technology permits the implementa- Design and construction
tion of a wide range of open and closed-
loop control functions in the vehicle. An ex- The pcb (printed-circuit board) with the
tensive array of influencing variables can be electronic components (Fig. 1) is installed in
taken into account simultaneously so that a metal case, and connected to the sensors,
the various systems can be operated at max- actuators, and power supply through a
imum efficiency. The ECU (Electronic Con- multi-pole plug-in connector (4). The high-
trol Unit) receives the electrical signals from power driver stages (6) for the direct trigger-
the sensors, evaluates them, and then calcu- ing of the actuators are integrated in the
lates the triggering signals for the actuators. ECU case in such a manner that excellent
The control program, the “software”, is heat dissipation to the case is ensured.
stored in a special memory and imple- When the ECU is mounted directly on the
mented by a microcontroller. engine, an integrated heat sink is used to
dissipate the heat from the ECU case to the
Operating conditions fuel which permanently flushes the ECU.
This ECU cooler is only used on commercial
The ECU is subjected to very high demands vehicles. Compact, engine-mounted hybrid-
with respect to technology ECUs are available for even
higher levels of temperature loading.
 Surrounding temperatures (during nor- The majority of the electronic compo-
mal operation from – 40 °C to between nents use SMD technology (SMD, Surface-
+60 °C and +125 °C) Mounted Device). Conventional wiring is
 Resistance to the effects of such materials only applied at some of the power-electron-
as oil and fuel etc., ics components and at the plug-in connec-
 Surrounding dampness, tions, so that a particularly space-saving and
 Mechanical loading due for instance to weight-saving design can be used.
engine vibration.

Even when cranking the engine with a weak Data processing

battery (cold start), the ECU must operate
just as reliably as when operating voltage is Input signals
at a maximum (fluctuations in on-board In their role as peripheral components, the
voltage supply). actuators and the sensors represent the in-
terface between the vehicle and the ECU in
To the same degree, very high demands ap- its role as the processing unit. The ECU re-
ply regarding EMC (ElectroMagnetic Com- ceives the electrical signals from the sensors
patibility) and the limitation of HF interfer- through the vehicle's wiring harness and the
ence-signal radiation. plug-in connection. These signals can be of
the following type:
More details on the severe standards apply-
ing to the ECU are given in the box at the Analog input signals
end of this Chapter. Within a given range, analog input signals
can assume practically any voltage value. Ex-
amples of physical quantities which are
available as analog measured values are in-
take-air mass, battery voltage, intake-mani-
fold and boost pressure, coolant and intake-
air temperature. An analog/digital (A/D)
converter in the ECU microcontroller con-
Robert Bosch GmbH

ECU Data processing 39

verts these values to the digital values used Signal conditioning

by the microprocessor to perform its calcu- Protective circuitry is used to limit the input
lations. The maximum resolution of these signals to a permissible maximum voltage.
signals is in steps of 5 mV per bit (approx. By applying filtering techniques, the super-
1000 steps). imposed interference signals are to a great
extent removed from the useful signal
Digital input signals which, if necessary, is then amplified to the
Digital input signals only have two states. permissible input-signal level for the micro-
They are either “high” or “low” (logical 1 controller (0 ... 5 V).
and logical 0 respectively). Examples of digi- Signal conditioning can take place com-
tal input signals are on/off switching signals, pletely or partially in the sensor depending
or digital sensor signals such as the rota- upon the sensor’s level of integration.
tional-speed pulses from a Hall generator or
a magnetoresistive sensor. Such signals are Signal processing
processed directly by the microcontroller. The ECU is the system control center, and is
responsible for the functional sequences of
Pulse-shaped input signals the engine management (Fig. 2, next page).
The pulse-shaped signals from inductive The closed and open-loop control functions
sensors containing information on rota- are executed in the microcontroller. The in-
tional speed and reference mark are condi- put signals from the sensors and the inter-
tioned in their own ECU stage. Here, spuri- faces to other systems serve as the input
ous pulses are suppressed and the pulse- variables, and are subjected to a further
shaped signals converted into digital plausibility check in the computer.
rectangular signals.

1 ECU: Design and construction

Figure 1
1 Atmospheric-pres-
sure sensor
9 2 Switched-mode
2 power supply
(SMPS) with volt-
age stabilization
3 Low-power driver
8 stage
4 Plug-in connection
5 CAN interface and
general input and
output circuitry (un-
derneath the pcb,
6 therefore not visible
6 High-power driver
æ UAE0737-1Y

7 ASIC for driver-

m stage triggering
8 Booster-voltage
store (Common Rail)
9 Microcontroller core
Robert Bosch GmbH

40 ECU Data processing

The output signals are calculated using the This program is stored in a Read-Only
program. Memory (ROM, EPROM, or Flash-EPROM)
which also contains variant-specific data
Microcontroller (individual data, characteristic curves, and
The microcontroller is the ECU’s central maps). This is non-variable data which can-
component and controls its operative se- not be changed during vehicle operation. lt
quence. Apart from the CPU (Central Pro- is used to regulate the program’s open and
cessing Unit), the microcontroller contains closed-loop control processes.
not only the input and output channels, but The program memory can be integrated in
also timer units, RAMs, ROMs, serial inter- the microcontroller and, depending upon
faces, and further peripheral assemblies, all the particular application, expanded by the
of which are integrated on a single micro- addition of a separate component (e.g. by an
chip. Quartz-controlled timing is used for external EPROM or a Flash-EPROM).
the microcontroller.
Program and data memory Program memories can be in the form of a
In order to carry out the computations, the ROM (Read Only Memory). This is a mem-
microcontroller needs a program - the “soft- ory whose contents have been defined per-
ware”. This is in the form of binary numeri- manently during manufacture and there-
cal values arranged in data records and after remain unalterable. The ROM installed
stored in a program memory. in the microcontroller only has a restricted
These binary values are accessed by the memory capacity, which means that an ad-
CPU which interprets them as commands ditional ROM is required in case of compli-
which it implements one after the other (re- cated applications.
fer also to the Chapter “Electronic open and
closed-loop control”).

2 Signal processing in the ECU



Driver stages
Power supply

Input signals: controller EEPROM
Signal Flash-
Digital conditioning EPROM
Monitoring module

A /D


æ UMK1508-3E

Interface to
other systems

Diagnosis interface
Robert Bosch GmbH

ECU Data processing 41

EPROM EEPROM (also known as the E2PROM)

The data on an EPROM (Erasable Program- As stated above, the RAM loses its informa-
mable ROM) can be erased by subjecting the tion immediately its power supply is re-
device to UV light. Fresh data can then be moved (e.g. when the "ignition switch " is
entered using a programming unit. turned to OFF). Data which must be re-
The EPROM is usually in the form of a tained, for instance the codes for the vehicle
separate component, and is accessed by the immobilizer and the fault-store data, must
CPU through the Address/Data-Bus. therefore be stored in a non-erasable (non-
volatile) memory. The EEPROM is an elec-
Flash-EPROM (FEPROM) trically erasable EPROM in which (in con-
The Flash-EPROM is often referred to trast to the Flash-EPROM) every single
merely as a “Flash”. lt can be erased electri- memory location can be erased individually.
cally so that it becomes possible to repro- lt has been designed for a large number of
gram the ECU in the service workshops writing cycles, which means that the
without having to open it. In the process, the EEPROM can be used as a non-volatile
ECU is connected to the reprogramming read/write memory.
unit through a serial interface.
lf the microcontroller is also equipped ASIC
with a ROM, this contains the programming The ever-increasing complexity of ECU
routines for the Flash programming. Flash- functions means that the computing powers
EPROMs are available which, together with of the standard microcontrollers available
the microcontroller, are integrated on a sin- on the market no longer suffice. The solu-
gle microchip (as from EDC16). tion here is to use so-called ASIC modules
Its decisive advantages have helped the (Application Specific Integrated Circuit).
Flash-EPROM to largely supersede the con- These IC's are designed and produced in ac-
ventional EPROM. cordance with data from the ECU develop-
ment departments and, as well as being
Variable-data or main memory equipped with an extra RAM for instance,
Such a read/write memory is needed in or- and inputs and outputs, they can also gener-
der to store such variable data (variables) as ate and transmit pwm signals (see “PWM
the computational and signal values. signals” below).

RAM Monitoring module

Instantaneous values are stored in the RAM The ECU is provided with a monitoring
(Random Access Memory) read/write mem- module. Using a “Question and Answer”
ory. If complex applications are involved, the cycle, the microcontroller and the monitor-
memory capacity of the RAM incorporated ing module supervise each other, and as
in the microcontroller is insufficient so that soon as a fault is detected one of them trig-
an additional RAM module becomes neces- gers appropriate back-up functions inde-
sary. lt is connected to the ECU through the pendent of the other.
When the ECU is switched off by turning
the “ignition” key, the RAM loses its com-
plete stock of data (volatile memory).
Robert Bosch GmbH

42 ECU Data processing

Output signals Communication within the ECU

With its output signals, the microcontroller In order to be able to support the microcon-
triggers driver stages which are usually pow- troller in its work, the peripheral compo-
erful enough to operate the actuators di- nents must communicate with it. This takes
rectly. The driver stages can also trigger spe- place using an address/data bus which, for
cific relays. The driver stages are proof instance, the microcomputer uses to issue
against shorts to ground or battery voltage, the RAM address whose contents are to be
as well as against destruction due to electri- accessed. The data bus is then used to trans-
cal or thermal overload. Such malfunctions, mit the relevant data. For former automo-
together with open-circuit lines or sensor tive applications, an 8-bit structure sufficed
faults are identified by the driver-stage IC as whereby the data bus comprised 8 lines
an error and reported to the microcon- which together can transmit 256 values si-
troller. multaneously.
The 16-bit address bus commonly used
Switching signals with such systems can access 65,536 ad-
These are used to switch the actuators on dresses. Presently, more complex systems de-
and off (for instance, for the engine fan). mand 16 bits, or even 32 bits, for the data
bus. In order to save on pins at the compo-
PWM signals nents, the data and address buses can be
Digital output signals can be in the form of combined in a multiplex system. That is,
pwm (pulse-width modulated) signals. data and addresses are dispatched through
These are constant-frequency rectangular the same lines but offset from each other
signals with variable on-times (Fig. 3), and with respect to time.
are used to shift the actuators to the desired Serial interfaces with only a single data
setting (e.g. EGR valve, fan, heating element, line are used for data which need not be
boost-pressure actuator). transmitted so quickly (e.g. data from the
fault storage).

EoL programming
The extensive variety of vehicle variants with
differing control programs and data records,
makes it imperative to have a system which
reduces the number of ECU types needed by
3 PWM signals a given manufacturer. To this end, the Flash-
EPROM's complete memory area can be
programmed at the end of production with
a the program and the variant-specific data
b record (this is the so-called End-of-Line, or
EoL, programming). A further possibility is
to have a number of data variants available
Signal voltage

(e.g. gearbox variants), which can then be

selected by special coding at the end of the
a line (EoL). This coding is stored in an
æ UAE0738E

Figure 3
a Fixed frequency
b Variable on-time
Robert Bosch GmbH

ECU Severe demands on the ECU 43

 Very severe demands are made on the ECU

Basically, the ECU in the vehicle functions the Environmental influences

same as a conventional PC. Data is entered Notwithstanding the wide range of environmen-
from which output signals are calculated. The tal influences to which it is subjected, the ECU
heart of the ECU is the printed-circuit board must always operate reliably.
(pcb) with microcontroller using high-precision  Temperature: Depending upon the area of
microelectronic techniques. The automotive application, the ECUs installed in vehicles
ECU though must fulfill a number of other must perform faultlessly during continual
requirements. operation at temperatures between –40°C
Real-time compatibility and + 60...125°C. In fact, due to the heat
Systems for the engine and for road/traffic safe- radiated from the components, the tempera-
ty demand very rapid response of the control, ture at some areas of the substrate is consid-
and the ECU must therefore be "real-time com- erably higher. The temperature change
patible". This means that the control's reaction involved in starting at cold temperatures and
must keep pace with the actual physical then running up to hot operating tempera-
process being controlled. lt must be certain that tures is particularly severe.
a real-time system responds within a fixed peri-  EMC: The vehicle's electronics have to go
od of time to the demands made upon it. This through severe electromagnetic compatibility
necessitates appropriate computer architecture testing. That is, the ECU must remain com-
and very high computer power. pletely unaffected by electromagnetic distur-
Integrated design and construction bances emanating from such sources as the
The equipment’s weight and the installation ignition, or radiated by radio transmitters and
space it requires inside the vehicle are becom- mobile telephones. Conversely, the ECU
ing increasingly decisive. The following tech- itself must not negatively affect other elec-
nologies, and others, are used to make the ECU tronic equipment.
as small and light as possible:  Resistance to vibration: ECUs which are
mounted on the engine must be able to with-
 Multilayer: The printed-circuit conductors are
stand vibrations of up to 30 g (that is, 30
between 0.035 and 0.07 mm thick and are
times the acceleration due to gravity).
“stacked” on top of each other in layers.
 Sealing and resistance to operating medi-
 SMD components are very small and flat
ums: Depending upon installation position,
and have no wire connections through holes
the ECU must withstand damp, chemicals
in the pcb. They are soldered or glued to the
(e.g. oils), and salt fog.
pcb or hybrid substrate, hence SMD (Sur-
face Mounted Devices). The above factors and other requirements mean
 ASIC: Specifically designed integrated com- that the Bosch development engineers are con-
ponent (Application-Specific Integrated Cir- tinually faced by new challenges.
cuit) which can combine a large number of
different functions.
 Hybrid substrate of an ECU
Operational reliability
Very high levels of resistance to failure are pro-
vided by integrated diagnosis and redundant
mathematical processes (additional processes,
usually running in parallel on other program
æ UAE0744Y
Robert Bosch GmbH

44 Open and closed-loop electronic control Data processing (DP)

Open and closed-loop electronic control

The most important assignment of the Elec- In fact, therefore, the EDC Electronic Con-
tronic Diesel Control (EDC) is the control trol Unit (ECU) is really an “open and
of the injected fuel quantity and the instant closed-loop control unit”. The term ECU
of injection. The “Common Rail” accumula- “Electronic Control Unit” has become so
tor injection system also controls the injec- widespread though, that it is still used even
tion pressure. Furthermore, on all systems, though the word “control” alone is not ex-
the engine ECU also controls a number of plicit enough.
actuators. For all components to operate ef-
fciently, it is imperative that the EDC func- Data processing (DP)
tions be precisely matched to every vehicle
and every engine (Fig. 1). The ECU processes the incoming signals
from the external sensors and limits them to
Open and closed-loop the permissible voltage level. A number of
electronic control the incoming signals are also checked for
In both forms of control, one or more input Using these input data, together with
quantities influence one or more output stored characteristic curves, the micro-
quantities processor calculates the injection’s timing
and its duration. This information is then
Open-loop control converted to a signal characteristic which is
With open-loop control, the actuators are aligned to the engine’s piston movements.
triggered by the output signals which the This calculation program is termed the
ECU has calculated using the input vari- “ECU software”.
ables, stipulated data, characteristic maps,
and algorithms. The final results are not The required degree of accuracy together
checked (open control loop). This principle with the diesel engine’s outstanding dy-
is used for instance for the glow-plug se- namic response necessitate high-level com-
quence control. puting power. The output signals are applied
to output stages which provide adequate
Closed-loop control power for the actuators (for instance the
On the other hand, as its name implies, high-pressure solenoid valves for fuel injec-
closed-loop control is characterized by a tion, EGR positioner, or boost-pressure ac-
closed control loop. Here, the actual value at tuator). Apart from this, a number of other
the output is continually checked against the auxiliary-function components (e.g. glow
desired value, and as soon as a deviation is relay and air conditioner) are triggered.
detected this is corrected by a change in the
actuator control. The advantage of closed- Faulty signal characteristics are detected by
loop control lies in the fact that disturbances the output-stage diagnosis functions. Fur-
from outside are detected and taken into ac- thermore, signals are exchanged with other
count. Closed-loop control is used for in- systems in the vehicle via the interfaces. The
stance to control the engine’s idle speed. engine ECU monitors the complete injec-
tion system within the framework of a safety
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Data processing (DP) 45

1 Electronic Diesel Control (EDC): Basic sequence

Fuel control loop 1 (fuel-injection components) Air control loop

Fuel control loop 2 (engine) Data and information flow
“Detour” by way of the driver

EDC ECU Exchange of data with

other systems
- Traction Control System (TCS),
Triggering of the fuel- - Transmission-shift control,
injection components - Climate control ...


Closed-loop control Closed-loop control

of the fuel injection and triggering of the
remaining actuators

Demands from Sensors and desired-

the driver value generators
- Driver input, - Accelerator-pedal sensor,
- Cruise Control (CC), - Rotational-speed sensor,
- Exhaust brake ... - Switches ...

Engine System for electronic

cylinder-charge control
- Supercharging,
- Exhaust-gas recirculation
- Electropneumatic transducer
- Continuous-operation
braking system
Fuel - Fans, blowers,
- Glow control ...
Fuel-injection components
- In-line injection pumps,
- Distributor injection pumps,
- Unit Injector / Unit Pump,
- Common Rail high-pressure
pump and injectors,
æ NMK1793E

- Nozzles and nozzle holders.

Robert Bosch GmbH

46 Open and closed-loop electronic control Data exchange with other systems

Data exchange with other Glow control unit

The glow control unit (GZS, 5) receives in-
systems formation from the engine ECU on when
Fuel-consumption signal glow is to start and for how long. It then
The engine ECU (Fig. 1, Pos. 3) detects the triggers the glow plugs accordingly and
engine fuel consumption and transmits the monitors the glow process, as well as report-
signal via CAN to the instrument cluster, or ing back to the ECU on any faults (diagnosis
to an independent on-board computer (6), function). The pre-glow indicator lamp is
where the driver is informed of the current usually triggered from the ECU.
fuel consumption and/or the remaining
range with the fuel still in the tank. Older Electronic immobilizer
systems used pulse-width modulation To prevent unauthorized starting and drive-
(pwm) for the fuel-consumption signal. off, the engine cannot be started before a
special immobilizer (7) ECU removes the
Starter control block from the engine ECU.
The starter (8) can be triggered from the en- Either by remote control or by means of
gine ECU. This ensures that the driver can- the glow-plug and starter switch (“Ignition”
not operate the starter with the engine al- key), the driver can signal the immobilizer
ready running. The starter only turns long ECU that he/she is authorised to use the ve-
enough for the engine to have reliably hicle. The immobilizer ECU then removes
reached self-sustaining speed. This function the block on the engine ECU so that engine
leads to a lighter and thus lower-priced start and normal operation become possible.

1 Possible components involved in the exchange of data with the Electronic Diesel Control (EDC)

3 4 5
1 2
Figure 1
(with ABS and TCS)
2 ECU for transmis-
sion-shift control 7
3 Engine ECU (EDC) 8
4 A/C ECU 9
5 Glow control unit
6 Instrument cluster
with on-board com- 10
æ UAE0777Y

7 Immobilizer ECU
8 Starter
9 Alternator
10 A/C compressor
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Data exchange with other systems 47

External torque intervention Air conditioner

In the case of external torque intervention, In order to maintain comfortable tempera-
the injected fuel quantity is influenced by tures inside the vehicle when it is very hot
another (external) ECU (for instance the outside, the air conditioner (A/C) cools
ECU for transmission shift, or for TCS). down the air with the help of a refrigerating
This informs the engine ECU whether the compressor (10). Depending upon the en-
engine torque is to be changed, and if so, by gine and the operating conditions, the A/C
how much (this defines the injected fuel compressor can need as much as 30% of the
quantity). engine’s output power.

Alternator control Immediately the driver hits the accelerator

By means of a standard serial interface, the pedal (in other words he/she wishes maxi-
EDC can remotely control and remotely mum torque), the compressor can be
monitor the alternator (9). The regulator switched off briefly by the engine ECU, so
voltage can be controlled, just the same as that all the engine’s power is available at the
the complete alternator assembly can be wheels. Since the compressor is only
switched off. In case of a weak battery for in- switched off very briefly, this has no notice-
stance, the alternator’s charging characteris- able effect upon the passenger-compartment
tic can be improved by increasing the idle temperature.
speed. It is also possible to perform simple
alternator diagnosis through this interface.

 Where does the word “Electronics” come from?

This term really originates from the ancient The first “Electronic Engineer” though goes
Greeks. They used the word electron for "am- back to the 19th century. He was listed in the
ber" whose forces of attraction for wool and 1888 Edition of a form of “Who’s Who”, pub-
similar materials had already been described lished during the reign of Queen Victoria. The
by Thales von Milet 2,500 years ago. official title was “Kelly’s Handbook of Titled,
Landed and Official Classes”. The Electronic
The term “electronics” originates directly from Engineer is to be found under the heading
the word “electrons”. The electrons, and “Royal Warrant Holders”, that is the list of per-
therefore electronics as such, are extremely sons who had been awarded a Royal Warrant.
fast due to their very small mass and their And what was this Electronic Engineer’s
electrical charge. job? He was responsible for the correct func-
The mass of an electron has as little effect tiong and cleanliness of the gas lamps at
on a gram of any given substance as a 5 gram court. And why did he have such a splendid ti-
weight has on the total mass of our earth. tle ? Because he knew that “Electrons” in an-
cient Greece stood for glitter, shine, and
Incidentally, the word “electronics” is a prod- sparkle.
uct of the 20th century. There is no evidence
available as to when the word was used for Source:
the first time. Sir John Ambrose Fleming, one “Basic Electronic Terms” (“Grundbegriffe der
of the inventors of the electron tube could Elektronik”) – Bosch publication (reprint from
have used it around 1902. the “Bosch Zünder” (Bosch Company News-
Robert Bosch GmbH

48 Open and closed-loop electronic control Diesel-injection control

Fuel-injection control In order that the engine can run with opti-
mal combustion under all operating condi-
An overview of the various control func- tions, the ECU calculates exactly the right
tions which are possible with the EDC con- injected fuel quantity for all conditions.
trol units is given in Table 1. Fig. 1 opposite Here, a number of parameters must be taken
shows the sequence of fuel-injection calcula- into account. On a number of solenoid-
tions with all functions, a number of which valve-controlled distributor pumps, the sol-
are special options. These can be activated in enoid valves for injected fuel quantity and
the ECU by the workshop when retrofit start of injection are triggered by a separate
equipment is installed. pump ECU (PSG).

1 EDC variants for road vehicles: Overview of functions

Fuel-injection system In-line injection Helix-controlled Solenoid-valve- Unit Injector Common Rail
pumps distributor controlled System and System
injection pumps distributor Unit Pump
injection pumps System

Injected-fuel-quantity limitation     
External torque intervention 3    
Vehicle-speed limitation 3    
Vehicle-speed control
(Cruise Control)     
Altitude compensation     
Boost-pressure control     
Idle-speed control     
Intermediate-speed control 3    
Active surge damping 2    
BIP control – –   –
Intake-tract switch-off – –  2 
Electronic immobilizer 2    
Controlled pilot injection – –  2 
Glow control 2   2 
A/C switch-off 2    
Auxiliary coolant heating 2   – 
Cylinder-balance control 2    
Control of injected fuel
quantity compensation 2 –   

Table 1 Fan (blower) triggering –    

1 Only control-sleeve EGR control 2   2 
in-line injection
Start-of-injection control
with sensor  1, 3   – –
2 Passenger cars only
Cylinder shutoff – – 3 3 3
3 Commercial vehicles
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Diesel-injection control 49

1 Calculation of fuel-injection process in the ECU

Vehicle-speed controller
Accelerator-pedal sensor
(Cruise Control),
(driver input)
vehicle-speed limiter

Inputs from
other systems
(e.g. ABS, TCS, ESP)


Selection of the required
External torque intervention
injected fuel quantity


Idle-speed controller,
or controller for injected-fuel- Injected-fuel-quantity limit
quantity compensation

Smooth-running controller Active surge damper

Start Drive mode

Start quantity

Control of start of injection, Fuel-quantity metering

and/or start of delivery (pump map)


Timing-device Solenoid-valve Pump ECU

triggering triggering triggering
æ NMK1755E
Robert Bosch GmbH

50 Open and closed-loop electronic control Diesel-injection control

Start quantity When adjusting the stipulated idle speed,

For starting, the injected fuel quantity is cal- the idle-speed control must cope with heav-
culated as a function of coolant temperature ily fluctuating requirements. The input
and cranking speed. Start-quantity signals power needed by the engine-driven auxiliary
are generated from the moment the starting equipment varies extensively.
switch is turned (Fig. 1, switch in “Start” po- At low electrical-system voltages for in-
sition) until a given minimum engine speed stance, the alternator consumes far more
is reached. power than it does when the voltages are
The driver cannot influence the start quan- higher. In addition, the power demands
tity. from the A/C compressor, the steering
pump, and the high-pressure generation for
Drive mode the diesel injection system must all be taken
When the vehicle is being driven normally, into account. Added to these external load
the injected fuel quantity is a function of the moments is the engine’s internal friction
accelerator-pedal setting (accelerator-pedal torque which is highly dependent upon en-
sensor) and of the engine speed (Fig. 1, gine temperature, and which must also be
switch in “Drive” position). Calculation de- compensated for by the idle-speed control.
pends upon maps which also take other in-
fluences into account (e.g. fuel and intake- In order to regulate the desired idle speed,
air temperature). This permits best-possible the controller continues to adapt the in-
alignment of the engine’s output to the dri- jected fuel quantity until the actual engine
ver’s wishes. speed corresponds to the desired idle speed.

Idle-speed control Maximum-rpm control

When the accelerator is not depressed, it is The maximum-rpm control ensures that the
the job of the idle-speed control to ensure engine does not run at excessive speeds. To
that a given idle speed is maintained. This avoid damage to the engine, the engine
can vary depending upon the engine’s par- manufacturer stipulates a permissible maxi-
ticular operating mode. For instance, with mum speed which may only be exceeded for
the engine cold the idle speed is usually set a very brief period.
higher than when it is warm. There are fur-
ther instances when the idle speed is held Above the rated-power operating point, the
somewhat higher. For instance when the ve- maximum-rpm controller reduces the in-
hicle‘s electrical-system voltage is too low, jected fuel quantity continually, until just
when the air-conditioner is switched on, or above the maximum-rpm point fuel-injec-
when the vehicle is rolling freely. When the tion stops completely. In order to prevent
vehicle is driven in stop-and-go traffic, to- engine surge, a ramp function is used to en-
gether with stops at traffic lights, the engine sure that the drop off in fuel injection is not
runs a lot of the time at idle. Considerations too abrupt. This becomes all the more diffi-
concerning emissions and fuel consumption cult the nearer the rated-power point is to
dictate therefore that idle speed should be the maximum-rpm point.
kept as low as possible. This of course is a
disadvantage with respect to smooth-run-
ning and pull-away.
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Diesel-injection control 51

Intermediate-speed control If the Cruise Control has been switched off,

The intermediate-speed control is used only the driver only needs to shift the lever to the
for trucks and small commercial vehicles reactivate setting in order to again select the
with auxiliary power take-offs (e.g. for crane last speed which had been set.
operation) or for special vehicles (e.g. am-
bulances with electrical power generator). The operator’s controls can also be used for
With the control in operation, the engine is a step-by-step change of the selected speed.
regulated to a load-independent intermedi-
ate speed. With the vehicle stationary, the in- Vehicle-speed limiter
termediate-speed control is activated via the Variable limitation
Cruise Control operator panel. The vehicle-speed limiter limits the vehicle’s
A fixed rotational speed can be called up maximum speed to a set value even if the ac-
from the data store at the push of a button. celerator is depressed further. On very quiet
In addition, this operator panel can be used vehicles, in which the engine can hardly be
for preselecting specific engine speeds. The heard, this is a particular help for the driver
intermediate-speed control is also applied who can then no longer exceed speed limits
on passenger cars with automated gearboxes inadvertently.
(e.g. Tiptronic) to control the engine speed
during gearshifts. The vehicle-speed limiter keeps the injected-
fuel quantity down to a limit which is in line
Vehicle-speed controller with the selected maximum speed. It can be
(Cruise Control) switched off by the lever or by the kick-
The Cruise Control is taken into operation down switch. In order to again select the last
when the vehicle is to be driven at a constant speed which had been set, the driver only
speed. It controls the vehicle speed to that needs to shift the lever to the reactivate set-
selected by the driver without him/her need- ting. The operator’s controls can also be
ing to press the accelerator pedal. The driver used for a step-by-step change of the se-
can input the required speed either through lected speed.
an operating lever or through the steering-
wheel keypad. The injected fuel quantity is Fixed limitation
either increased or decreased until the de- In a number of countries, fixed maximum
sired (set) speed is reached. speeds are mandatory for certain classes of
vehicles (for instance, for heavy trucks). The
On some Cruise Control applications, the vehicle manufacturers also limit the maxi-
vehicle can be accelerated beyond the cur- mum speeds of their heavy vehicles by in-
rent set speed by pressing the accelerator stalling a fixed speed limit which cannot be
pedal. As soon as the accelerator pedal is re- switched off.
leased again, the Cruise Control regulates
the speed back down to the previously set In the case of special vehicles, the driver can
speed. also select from a range of fixed, pro-
If the driver depresses the clutch or brake grammed speed limits (for instance, when
pedal while the Cruise Control is activated, there are workers on the garbage truck’s rear
the control is terminated. On some applica- platform).
tions, the control can be switched off by the
accelerator pedal.
Robert Bosch GmbH

52 Open and closed-loop electronic control Diesel-injection control

Active surge damping Smooth-running control (SRC)/Control

Sudden engine-torque changes excite the ve- of injected-fuel-quantity compensation
hicle’s drivetrain, which as a result goes into (MAR)
surge oscillation. These oscillations are reg- Presuming the same duration of injection,
istered by the vehicle’s occupants as unpleas- not all of the engine’s cylinders generate the
ant periodic changes in acceleration (Fig. 2, same torque. This can be due to differences
a). It it the job of the active surge damper to in cylinder-head sealing, as well as differ-
reduce them (b). Two separate methods are ences in cylinder friction and in the hy-
used: draulic injection components. These differ-
ences in torque output lead to rough engine
 In case of sudden changes in the torque running and an increase in toxic emissions.
required by the driver (through the accel-
erator pedal), a precisely matched filter The smooth-running control (SRC), or the
function reduces the drivetrain excitation control of injected-fuel-quantity compensa-
(1). tion (MAR), use the resulting rotational-
 The speed signals are used to detect drive- speed fluctuations when detecting such
train oscillations which are then damped torque fluctuations. By selected variation of
by an active control. In order to counter- the injected fuel quantities at the cylinders
act the drivetrain oscillations (2), the ac- concerned, they compensate for the torque
tive control reduces the injected fuel variation. Here, the rotational speed at a
quantity when rotational speed increases, given cylinder after injection is compared to
and increases it when speed drops. a mean speed. If the particular cylinder’s
speed is too low the injected fuel quantity is
increased, and if it is too high the fuel quan-
tity is reduced (Fig. 3).

2 Active surge damper (ARD): Example 3 Smooth-running control (SRC): Example

(setpoint) speed: 800 min-1

1000 a
Engine speed n

Actual speed:
Cyl. 1 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 3 Cyl. 4
800 min-1 800 790 820 790

Injected fuel quantity

25 Injected
1+2 fuel = + +
Figure 2 b quantity
a Without active surge 1
æ NMK1557-1E

damper 2
æ NMK1792E

b With active surge 12

0 1 2s
1 Filter function Time t
2 Active correction
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Diesel-injection control 53

The smooth-running control is a comfort Altitude compensation

function, the primary object of which is to Atmospheric pressure drops along with in-
ensure that the engine runs smoothly in the creasing altitude so that the cylinder is
vicinity of idle. The injected-fuel-quantity charged with less combustion air. This
compensation function is aimed at not only means that the injected fuel quantity must
improving comfort at idle but also at reduc- be reduced accordingly, otherwise excessive
ing the emissions in the medium speed soot will be emitted.
ranges by ensuring identical injected fuel
quantities for all cylinders. On commercial In order that the injected fuel quantity can
vehicles, the smooth-running control is also be reduced at high altitudes, the atmos-
known as the AZG (adaptive cylinder equal- pheric pressure is measured by the ambient-
ization). pressure sensor in the ECU. Atmospheric
pressure also has an effect upon boost-pres-
Injected-fuel-quantity limit sure control and torque limitation.
There are a number of reasons why the fuel
quantity actually wished for by the driver, or Cylinder shutoff
that which is physically possible, should not If less torque is required at high engine
always be injected. The injection of such fuel speeds, very little fuel must be injected. As
quantities could have the following effects: an alternative, cylinder shutoff can be ap-
plied for torque reduction. Here, half of the
 Excessive emissions, injectors are switched off (commercial-vehi-
 Excessive soot, cle UIS, UPS and CRS). The remaining in-
 Mechanical overloading due to high jectors then inject correspondingly more
torque or excessive engine speed, fuel which can be metered with even higher
 Thermal overloading due to excessive precision.
temperatures of the exhaust gas, coolant, When the injectors are switched on and
oil, or turbocharger, off, special software algorithms ensure
 Thermal overloading of the solenoid smooth transitions without noticeable
valves as a result of them being triggered torque changes.
too long.
Start-of-injection control
To avoid these negative effects, a number of The start of injection has a critical effect on
input variables (for instance intake-air power output, fuel consumption, noise, and
quantity, engine speed, and coolant temper- emissions. The desired value for start of in-
ature) are used in generating this limitation jection depends on engine speed and in-
figure. The result is that the maximum in- jected fuel quantity, and it is stored in the
jected fuel quantity is limited and with it the ECU in special maps. Adaptation is possible
maximum torque. as a function of coolant temperature and
ambient pressure.
Engine-brake function
When a truck’s engine brake is applied, the
injected fuel quantity is either reduced to
zero or the idle fuel quantity is injected. For
this purpose, the ECU registers the setting of
the engine-brake switch.
Robert Bosch GmbH

54 Open and closed-loop electronic control Diesel-injection control

Tolerances in manufacture and in the pump The needle-motion sensor’s untreated signal
mounting on the engine, together with is amplified and interference-suppressed be-
changes in the solenoid valve during its life- fore being converted to precision square-
time, can lead to slight differences in the sol- wave pulses which can be used to mark the
enoid-valve switching times which in turn start of injection for a reference cylinder.
lead to different starts of injection. The re- The ECU controls the actuator mecha-
sponse behaviour of the nozzle-and-holder nism for the start of injection (for in-line
assembly also changes over the course of pumps the solenoid actuator, and for dis-
time. Fuel density and temperature also have tributor pumps the timing-device solenoid
an effect upon start of injection. This must valve) so that the actual start of injection al-
be compensated for by some form of control ways corresponds to the desired/setpoint
strategy in order to stay within the pre- start of injection.
scribed emissions limits. The following The start-of-injection signal can only be
closed-loop controls are employed (Table 2): evaluated when fuel is being injected and
when the engine speed is stable. During
starting and overrun (no fuel injection), the
2 Start-of-injection control needle-motion sensor cannot provide a sig-
nal which is good enough for evaluation.

Closed-loop control
Control using

This means that the start-of-injection con-

BIP control

trol loop cannot be closed because there is


no signal available confirming the start-of-

Injection system
In-line injection pumps  – –
distributor pumps  – –
4 Conditioning of the signal from the needle-motion
Solenoid-valve-controlled sensor
distributor pumps   –
Common Rail – – –
Table 2 Unit Injector/Unit Pump – – 

The start-of-injection control is not needed
with the Common Rail System, since the
high-voltage triggering used in the CRS per-
mits highly reproducible starts of injection.
Closed-loop control using the needle-mo-
Figure 4 tion sensor
1 Untreated signal from
The inductive needle-motion sensor is fitted
the needle-motion 3
sensor (NBF),
in an injection nozzle (reference nozzle, usu-
2 Signal derived from ally cylinder 1). When the needle opens (and
the NBF signal, closes) the sensor transmits a pulse (Fig. 4).
3 Untreated signal from The needle-opening signal is used by the
the inductive engine- ECU as confirmation of the start of injec- 4
speed sensor tion. This means that inside a closed control
æ NMK0466-1E

4 Signal derived from

loop the start of injection can be precisely 5
untreated engine-
speed signal,
aligned to the desired value for the particu- Time t
5 Evaluated start-of-in- lar operating point.
jection signal
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Diesel-injection control 55

In-line injection pumps TDC pulse of the crankshaft-speed sensor.

On in-line pumps, a special digital current The angle between the tooth gap, or the syn-
controller improves the control’s accuracy chronization pulse generated by the tooth
and dynamic response by aligning the cur- gap, and the TDC pulse is continually regis-
rent to the start-of-injection controller’s set- tered by the pump ECU and compared with
point value practically without any delay at the stored reference value. The difference be-
all. tween the two angles represents the timing
In order to ensure start-of-injection accu- device’s actual position, and this is continu-
racy in open-loop-controlled operation too, ally compared with its setpoint/desired posi-
the start-of-delivery solenoid in the control- tion. If the timing-device position deviates,
sleeve actuator mechanism is calibrated to the triggering signal for the timing-device
compensate for the effects of tolerances. The solenoid valve is changed until actual and
current controller compensates for the ef- setpoint position coincide with each other.
fects of the temperature-dependent solen-
oid-winding resistance. All these measures Since all cylinders are taken into account,
ensure that the setpoint value for current as the advantage of this form of start-of-deliv-
derived from the start map leads to the cor- ery control lies in the system’s rapid re-
rect stroke of the start-of-delivery solenoid sponse. It has a further advantage in that it
and to the correct start of injection. also functions during overrun when no fuel
injection takes place which means that the
Start-of-delivery control using the incre- timing device can be preset for when the
mental angle/time signal (IWZ) next injection event occurs.
On the solenoid-valve-controlled distributor In case even more severe demands are
pumps (VP30, VP44), the start of injection made on the accuracy of the start of injec-
is also very accurate even without the help of tion, the start-of-delivery control can have
a needle-motion sensor. This high level of an optional start-of-injection control with
accuracy was achieved by applying position- needle-motion sensor superimposed upon
ing control to the timing device inside the it.
distributor pump. This form of closed-loop
control serves to control the start of delivery
and is referred to as start-of-delivery con-
5 Rotational-speed/Angle-of-rotation sensor for the
trol. Start of delivery and start of injection IWZ signal
have a certain relationship to each other and
this is stored in the so-called wave-propaga-
tion-time map in the engine ECU.

The signal from the crankshaft-speed sensor 1

and the signal from the incremental
angle/time system (IWZ signal) inside the
Figure 5
pump, are used as the input variables for the 1 Rotational-
timing-device positioning control. speed/angle-of-rota-
tion sensor inside
The IWZ signal is generated inside the the injection pump
pump by the rotational-speed or angle-of- 2 Trigger wheel
rotation sensor (1) on the trigger wheel (2) 2 3 3 Trigger-wheel tooth
attached to the driveshaft. The sensor shifts
æ NAE0760Y

4 Shift due to timing

along with the timing device (4) which, device
when it changes position, also changes the 5 Electrical plug-in
position of the tooth gap (3) relative to the connection
Robert Bosch GmbH

56 Open and closed-loop electronic control Diesel-injection control

BIP control Shutoff

BIP control is used with the solenoid-valve- The “auto-ignition”principle of operation
controlled Unit Injector System (UIS) and means that in order to stop the diesel engine
Unit Pump System (UPS). The start of de- it is only necessary to cut off its supply of fuel.
livery – or BIP (Begin of Injection Period) – With EDC (Electronic Diesel Control), the
is defined as the instant in time in which the engine is switched off due to the ECU out-
solenoid closes. As from this point, pressure putting the signal “Fuel quantity zero” (that
buildup starts in the pump high-pressure is, the solenoid valves are no longer triggered,
chamber. The nozzle opens as soon as the or the control rack is moved back to the zero-
nozzle-opening pressure is exceeded, and in- delivery setting).
jection can commence (start of injection).
Fuel metering takes place between start of There are also a number of redundant (sup-
delivery and end of solenoid-valve trigger- plementary) shutoff paths (for instance, the
ing. This period is termed the delivery pe- electrical shutoff valve (ELAB) on the port-
riod. and-helix controlled distributor pumps).

Since there is a direct connection between The UIS and UPS are intrinsically safe, and
the start of delivery and the start of injec- the worst thing that can happen is that one
tion, all that is needed for the precise control single unwanted injection takes place. Here,
of the start of injection is information on therefore, supplementary shutoff paths are
the instant of the start of delivery. not needed.

So as to avoid having to apply additional

sensor technology (for instance, a needle-
motion sensor), electronic evaluation of the
solenoid-valve current is used in detecting
the start of delivery. Around the expected in-
stant of closing of the solenoid valve, con-
stant-voltage triggering is used (BIP win-
dow, Fig. 6, Pos. 1). The inductive effects 6 BIP detection
when the solenoid valve closes result in the
curve having a specific characteristic which
is registered and evaluated by the ECU. For
each injection event, the deviation of the so- 3
lenoid-valve closing point from the theoreti-
cal setpoint is registered and stored, and ap-
plied for the following injection sequence as
Solenoid-valve current IM

a compensation value.

If the BIP signal should fail, the ECU 4

changes over to open-loop control.

Firgure 6
1 BIP window
æ NAE0751E

2 BIP signal
3 Level of pickup cur-
Time t
4 Holding-current level
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Lambda closed-loop control 57

Lambda closed-loop-control The broad-band Lambda oxygen sensor in

the exhaust pipe (Fig. 1, Pos. 7) measures the
for passenger-car diesel en- residual oxygen in the exhaust gas. This is an
gines indicator for the A/F ratio (excess-air-factor
Applications Lambda l). A high level of signal accuracy is
The lawmakers are continually increasing ensured throughout the sensor’s service life
the severity of the legislation governing the by adapting the Lambda-sensor signal dur-
exhaust-emission limit values for diesel en- ing actual operations. The Lambda-sensor
gines. Apart from the measures taken to op- signal is used as the basis for a number of
timize the engine’s internal combustion, the Lambda functions which will be described
open and closed-loop control of those func- in more detail in the following.
tions which are relevant with regard to the
exhaust emissions are continuing to gain in A Lambda closed-loop control circuit is im-
importance. The introduction of the perative for the regeneration of NOX accu-
Lambda closed-loop control opens up im- mulator-type catalytic converters.
mense potential for reducing the diesel en-
gine’s exhaust emissions. The Lambda closed-loop-control is suitable

1 System overview of Lambda closed-loop control for passenger-car engines (Example)



Figure 1
1 Diesel engine
7 2 Diesel injection com-
ponent (here Com-
mon Rail injector)
3 Throttle valve
4 Hot-film air-mass
1 meter
5 Exhaust-gas tur-
bocharger (here,
VTG version)
6 Engine ECU for
æ UMA0031Y

7 Broad-band Lambda
oxygen sensor
8 EGR valve
Robert Bosch GmbH

58 Open and closed-loop electronic control Lambda closed-loop control

for all passenger-car diesel injection systems Lambda sensor’s adaptation takes into ac-
controlled by the EDC16 generation. count the deviation of the measured oxygen
concentration from the fresh-air oxygen con-
Basic functions centration (approx. 21%). As a result, the sys-
tem “learns” a correction value which at every
Pressure compensation engine operating point is used to correct the
The untreated Lambda-sensor signal is a measured oxygen concentration. This leads to
function of the oxygen concentration in the a precise, drift-compensated Lambda output
exhaust gas and of the exhaust-gas pressure signal throughout the sensor’s service life.
at the sensor’s installation point. The influ-
ence of the pressure on the sensor signal Lambda-based EGR control
must therefore be compensated for.
Regarding emissions, compared with the
The pressure-compensation function incor- conventional EGR method based on air
porates two maps, one for the exhaust-gas mass, using the Lambda oxygen sensor to
pressure and one for the pressure-depen- measure the residual oxygen in the exhaust
dence of the lambda sensor’s output signal. gas permits a tighter tolerance range for the
These two maps are used for the correction complete vehicle fleet. In the MNEFZ (mod-
of the sensors output signal with reference ified new European driving cycle) exhaust-
to the particular operating point. gas test, therefore, from the exhaust-emis-
sions viewpoint this equates to an improve-
Adaptation ment of 10...20% with regard to the fleet as a
In the overrun (trailing throttle) mode, the whole.

2 Exhaust-gas recirculation using Lamda closed-loop control (EGR cascade control): Principle of operation

➞ Lambda control loop  Further sensor signals

➞ Air-mass control loop

Engine ECU

Desired injected
fuel quantity
Engine-rpm sensor

Calculation of the - + Desired

actual air mass characteristic map
using Lambda for EGR
Lambda oxygen
sensor Desired
Lambda controller
- +
air-mass meter

Air-mass controller

EGR valve
æ UAE0898E
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Lambda closed-loop control 59

Cascade control Notwithstanding the change to the calcu-

With the cascade control (Fig. 2), the con- lated air mass as the reference (command)
ventional air-mass control loop as used in variable for the EGR, in its physical effects,
present-day series production has a Lambda this control architecture acts as a Lambda
control loop superimposed upon it (refer to closed-loop control (in contrast to the
the section “Control and triggering of the Lambda closed-loop control used on gaso-
remaining actuators”). line engines in which the fuel mass is taken
as the reference (command) variable).
The dynamic response is excellent when air-
mass control is used (that is, the air-mass Fuel-quantity mean-value adaptation
meter responds far more quickly). The ex- The fuel-quantity mean-value adaptation
ternal Lambda closed-loop control circuit (MMA) provides a precise injected-fuel-
improves the EGR-system accuracy. quantity signal for the setpoint generation as
needed for those control loops which are
The actual air-mass figure is calculated from relevant for exhaust-gas emission (e.g. EGR
the Lambda oxygen sensor signal and from control, boost-pressure control, and start-
the desired value for the injected fuel quan- of-injection control). The MMA operates in
tity. The system deviation between the cal- the lower part-load range and determines
culated air mass and the desired air mass the average deviation in the injected fuel
taken from the EGR desired-value character- quantity of all cylinders together.
istic map, is compensated for by the Lambda
controller. Fig. 3 shows the basic structure of the MMA
and its intervention in the control loops

3 Fuel-quantity mean-value adaptation in the "indirect control" mode: Principle of operation

 Further sensor signals

Engine ECU

Lambda oxygen
sensor Calculating the in- + - Desired injected
jected fuel quantity
from Lambda fuel quantity

air-mass meter Start-of-injection +
control +

Injection system Characteristic

map for EGR -

Engine-rpm sensor Desired air mass

characteristic map
Air-mass controller

EGR valve
æ UAE0899E
Robert Bosch GmbH

60 Open and closed-loop electronic control Lambda closed-loop control

which are relevant for the exhaust-gas emis- Operating mode: Indirect control
sions. In the “indirect control” mode (Fig. 3), a
precise desired injected fuel quantity is used
The Lambda-sensor signal and the air-mass as an input variable in the desired-value
signal are used in calculating the actually in- characteristic maps which are relevant for
jected fuel mass which is then compared exhaust emissions. The injected fuel quan-
with the desired injected fuel mass. Differ- tity is not corrected during the fuel-meter-
ences are then stored in an adaptation map ing process.
in defined “learning points”. This procedure
ensures that when the operating point ne- Operating mode: Direct control
cessitates an injected fuel quantity correc- In the “direct control” mode, in order that
tion, this can be implemented without delay the amount of fuel actually injected corre-
even during dynamic changes of state. sponds as closely as possible to the desired
quantity, the fuel-quantity deviation is used
These correction quantities are stored in the to correct the injected fuel quantity during
EEPROM of the ECU and are available im- the fuel-metering process. In this case, this is
mediately the engine is started. (indirectly) a closed fuel-quantity loop.

Basically speaking, there are two MMA op-

erating modes. These differ in the way they
apply the detected deviations in injected fuel

4 Full-load smoke limitation using the Lambda closed-loop control: Principle of operation

 Further sensor signals

Engine ECU

Calculation of the
Hot-film quantity
air-mass meter

Desired-value map λ desired -

for smoke limitation +

Engine-rpm sensor
λ actual Lambda controller

Lambda oxygen Smoke-limitation quantity

sensor Lowest
Calculation of the
injected fuel
Injection system
æ UAE0900E
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Lambda closed-loop control 61

Full-load smoke limitation Summary

Fig. 4 shows the block diagram of the con- Using Lambda-based EGR it is possible to
trol structure for full-load smoke limitation considerably reduce a vehicle fleet’s exhaust-
using a Lambda oxygen sensor. The objec- gas emissions scatter. Here, either fuel-quan-
tive here is to determine the maximum tity mean-value adaptation (MMA) can be
amount of fuel which may be injected with- used or cascade control.
out exceeding a given smoke value.
MMA provides a precise injected-fuel-quan-
The signals from the air-mass meter and the tity signal for generating the desired (set-
engine rpm sensor are applied together with point) values for the control loops which are
a smoke-limitation map in determining the relevant for emissions (for instance, for EGR
desired Lambda value λDESIRED. This, in control, boost-pressure control, start-of-in-
turn, is applied together with the air mass in jection control). The precision of these con-
order to calculate the preliminary value for trol loops is increased as a result.
the maximum permissible injected fuel
quantity. In addition, the application of Lambda
closed-loop control permits the precise defi-
This form of control is already in series pro- nition of the full-load smoke quantity as
duction, and has a Lambda closed-loop con- well as the detection of undesirable combus-
trol imposed upon it. Using the difference tion in the overrun (trailing throttle) mode.
between λDESIRED and the actually measured
residual oxygen in λACTUAL the Lambda con- Furthermore, the Lambda sensor’s high-pre-
troller calculates the correction fuel quan- cision signal can be used in a Lambda con-
tity. The maximum full-load injected fuel trol loop for the regeneration of NOX cat-
quantity is the total of the preliminary alytic converters.
quantity and the correction quantity.

This control architecture permits a high

level of dynamic response due to the pilot
control, and improved precision due to the
superimposed Lambda control loop.

Detection of undesirable combustion

During overrun (trailing throttle), if the
Lambda-sensor signal drops below a given,
specially calculated threshold this indicates
that undesirable combustion is taking place.
In this case, the engine can be switched off
by closing a control flap and the EGR valve.
The detection of undesirable combustion
represents an additional engine safeguard
Robert Bosch GmbH

62 Open and closed-loop electronic control Engine dynamometer

 Engine dynamometer
1 Intake air
2 Filter
3 Cold-water supply
Every injection system is tested using an en- The dynamometer computer (20) is responsi-
4 Hot-water supply gine-dynamometer setup featuring a high de- ble for the control and monitoring of the en-
5 Fuel gree of engine accessibility. gine and the test equipment. It also takes over
6 Coolant data acquisition and data storage. Highly effi-
7 Heater By conditioning intake, air, fuel, and coolant cient application-engineering work (map mea-
8 Quick-change sys-
with respect to temperature and pressure etc., surements) can be carried out with the help of
it is possible to obtain reproducible test re- automation software.
9 Transfer module for
coolant, water, fuel, sults.
etc. By means of suitable quick-change systems
10 Engine management Increasingly, dynamic tests with rapid load and (8), it is possible to change engine pallets
(EDC) rpm changes must be run through in addition within about 20 minutes, a feature which in-
11 Intercooler to steady-state tests. Here, test stands with an creases the dynamometer’s utilization time.
12 Injection system
electrical dynamometric brake (dynamometer)
13 Engine
14 Triggering and sen-
are the best solution, as they can also “drive”
sor signals the test specimen (as takes place on the road
15 Catalytic converter during overrun or trailing-throttle operation on
16 Power supply a downhill gradient). Using the appropriate
17 Interface for mea- simulation software, the passenger-car ex-
surement tech-
haust-gas tests demanded by law can then be
run through on the engine dynamometer in-
18 Electrical dy-
namometer stead of on the roller-type test bench.
19 Accelerator-pedal
20 Test-bench com-
 Engine dynamometer: Basic design
21 Indicating system
(high-speed angle- 8 10 11 17
synchronous mea-
sured-value acquisi- 14
tion) 3 4
12 13 16 19 18
22 Exhaust-gas analysis 7 9 15
equipment (e.g.
Analysis equipment 5 3
for gaseous emis-
sions, opacimeter,
6 3
infrared (FTIR) spec-
troscope, mass
spectrometer, parti-
28 22
cle-counting system)
23 Dilution tunnel
25 24 21 20
24 Dilution air
25 Mixing chamber
26 Volume meter 26 30
27 Blower
28 Particle sampling 27 29
æ SWT0076Y

29 CVS bag sampling 30
30 Change-over valve
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Special adaptations. Port-and-helix-controlled injection systems: Triggering 63

Further special adaptations Port-and-helix-controlled fuel-

In addition to those described here, EDC
injection systems: Triggering
permits a wide range of other functions. For
instance, these include: Electronically controlled in-line injection
pumps, PE-EDC
Drive recorder As with the mechanically (flyweight) gov-
On commercial vehicles, the Drive Recorder erned in-line fuel-injection pumps, the in-
is used to record the engine’s operating con- jected fuel quantity here is also a function of
ditions (for instance, how long was the vehi- the control-rack position and the engine
cle driven, under what temperatures and speed. The control rack is shifted to the de-
loads, and at what engine speeds). This data sired position by the linear magnet of the
is used in drawing up an overview of opera- actuator mechanism directly attached to the
tional conditions from which, for instance, pump (Fig. 1 on the next page, Pos. 3).
individual service intervals can be calcu- On the control-sleeve in-line pump, an
lated. additional electrical actuator in connection
with start-of-injection control can be used
Special application engineering for to arbitrarily adjust the injected fuel quan-
competition trucks tity and the start of delivery. This necessi-
On race trucks, the 160 km/h maximum tates an extra actuator mechanism (4).
speed may be exceeded by no more than
2 km/h. On the other hand, this speed must Triggering the control-rack actuator
be reached as soon as possible. This necessi- mechanism
tates special adaptation of the ramp func- With the solenoid de-energized, a spring
tion for the vehicle-speed limiter. forces the control rack to the stop position
and thus interrupts the fuel supply. When
Adaptations for off-highway vehicles the current through the solenoid increases,
Such vehicles include diesel locomotives, rail the solenoid gradually overcomes the force
cars, construction machinery, agricultural of the spring and control-rack travel in-
machinery, boats and ships. In such applica- creases so that more fuel is injected.
tions, the diesel engine(s) is/are far more of- This means that the level of current per-
ten run in the full-load range than is the mits the continuous adjustment of control-
case with road vehicles (90% full-load oper- rack travel between zero and maximum de-
ation compared with 30%). The power out- livery quantity (pwm signal = pulse-width-
put of such engines must therefore be re- modulated signal).
duced in order to ensure an adequate service
life. The corresponding pump characteristic map
The mileage figures which are often used is programmed into the ECU. Using this map,
as the basis for the service interval on road and depending on engine speed, the control-
vehicles are not available for such equip- rack travel appropriate to the desired fuel
ment as agricultural or construction ma- quantity is calculated. In order to improve
chinery, and in any case if they were avail- driveability, a control characteristic can be
able they would have no useful significance. provided which is familiar from the mechan-
Instead, the Drive Recorder data is used ical (flyweight) RQ and RQV governors.
Using a sensor (rack-travel sensor (RWG)),
the position control in the ECU registers the
actual control-rack setting so that the system
deviation can be calculated.
Robert Bosch GmbH

64 Open and closed-loop electronic control Port-and-helix-controlled injection systems: Triggering

This enables the position control to quickly Port-and-helix-controlled axial-piston

and accurately correct the rack setting. distributor pumps, VE-EDC
Solenoid actuator for injected-fuel-quantity
Triggering of the control-sleeve actuator control
mechanism The solenoid actuator (moving-magnet ac-
A power stage which is triggered directly tuator) engages the delivery-piston control
from the processor with a pwm signal pro- collar via a shaft (Fig. 2, Pos. 3). Similar to
vides the power needed to energize the start- the mechanically governed distributor
of-delivery solenoids. A low-level current pumps, the cutoff bores are exposed sooner
causes minor travel of the start-of-delivery or later depending upon the position of the
solenoid, and retards the start of delivery or control collar.
start of injection. On the other hand, a high
level of current advances the start-of-deliv- The injected fuel quantity can be continually
ery point. varied between zero and maximum. By
The injected-fuel-quantity controls as ap- means of an angle sensor (Hall short-cir-
plied to the control-sleeve in-line pumps cuiting-ring sensor, HDK), information on
and the conventional in-line pumps (both the angle of rotation of the actuator, and
with EDC) are identical. The more extensive therefore on the setting of the control collar
functional scope in the ECU for the control- with respect to the cutoff ports, is reported
sleeve pump results to a great extent from back to the ECU and used to calculate the
expanded programs. correct fuel quantity as a function of engine
Key stop
The key stop function using the “ignition” In the de-energized state, the fuel delivery is
key supersedes the conventional mechanical set to zero by return springs on the actuator
shutoff device. It stops the supply of fuel by mechanism.
interrupting the power supply to the electri-
cal shutoff valve (ELAB, redundant shutoff
path) and to the control-rack linear sol-

1 PE control-sleeve in-line fuel-injection pumps: Injection-triggering components

Figure 1
1 In-line injection
2 Electrical shutoff 2
valve (ELAB)
3 Control-rack actua-
tor mechanism (in-
jected fuel quantity)
æ NMK1754Y

4 Control-sleeve actu-
ator mechanism
(start of delivery)
5 Engine ECU
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Port-and-helix-controlled injection systems: Triggering 65

2 VE-EDC axial-piston distributor pumps: Injection-triggering components

1 3 4 Figure 2
1 Distributor pump
2 Timing-device sol-
enoid valve (start of
3 Moving-magnet actu-
ator (injected fuel

æ NMK1756Y
4 Electric shutoff valve
5 Engine ECU

Solenoid valve for start-of-injection control Shutoff

The pump’s internal pressure is proportional As a rule, shutoff is by means of the in-
to the pump speed and, similar to the me- jected-fuel-quantity actuator (“zero” fuel de-
chanical timing device, is effective at the livery). The redundant electrical shutoff
timing-device piston. This pressure is ap- valve (ELAB) provides a further degree of
plied to the timing-device pressure side and safety (4).
is modulated by the clocked timing-device
solenoid valve (2). The on/off ratio (ratio of On the distributor pump, the redundant
the solenoid’s open time to its closed time) electrical shutoff valve is mounted on the
for the triggering of the solenoid valve is upper side of the pump’s distributor head.
taken from a programmed control map. When switched on (that is, with the engine
running), the solenoid keeps the inlet port
A permanently opened solenoid valve (pres- to the high-pressure chamber open (the ar-
sure reduction) results in later start-of-injec- mature with sealing cone is pulled in). When
tion points, and with the solenoid valve per- switch off takes place using the "ignition
manently closed (pressure increase) the switch", the solenoid winding is de-ener-
start-of-injection points take place earlier. In gized and the sealing cone is forced back
between these two extremes, infinite varia- onto its seat by a spring so that the inlet port
tion of the on/off ratio can be implemented to the high-pressure chamber is interrupted.
by the ECU.
On marine engines, the ELAB is open when
Deviations between actual and desired start- de-energized. This means that the engine
of-injection points, as detected with the help can still run even though the on-board
of the needle-motion sensor, result in a power supply has failed. Apart from this, the
change of the on/off ratio for triggering the number of electrical consumers is kept to a
timing-device solenoid valve. This ratio is minimum since continuous current aggra-
changed continually until the system devia- vates the effects of saltwater corrosion.
tion is “zero”, and ensures a dynamic re-
sponse which is comparable to that of the
mechanical start-of-injection adjustment.
Robert Bosch GmbH

66 Open and closed-loop electronic control Solenoid-valve-controlled injection systems: Triggering

Solenoid-valve-controlled in- Solenoid-valve-controlled distributor

jection systems: Triggering On the distributor pumps equipped with a
high-pressure fuel-quantity solenoid valve
The solenoid-valve-controlled injection-sys- (VP44 and VP30), a pump ECU (PSG) at-
tem family includes the following: tached to the pump housing is responsible
for triggering the solenoid valves at the cal-
 Axial-piston distributor pumps, culated start-of-delivery point (Fig. 1a, Pos.
VE-M (VP30), 1a). This takes place in accordance with the
 Radial-piston distributor pumps, requirements of the engine ECU (6) which
VR (VP44), is responsible for the engine and vehicle
 Common Rail System CRS, functions. The two ECUs communicate with
 Unit Injector System, UIS each other through the CAN bus.
 Unit Pump System, UPS The latest generation of the VP44 system
features only a single ECU (PSG 16) which
These solenoid-valve-controlled injection has united all the EDC functions in a single
systems are all triggered by similar signals. unit, and which is situated directly on the
The characteristic features of the individual pump (Fig. 1b, Pos. 1b).
systems are described in the following sec- The timing-device solenoid valve (4) used
tions, together with the differences between on the distributor pumps is triggered using a
them and conventional injection systems. pulse-width-modulated (pwm) signal. In or-
Due to better EMC (ElectroMagnetic der to avoid malfunctions due to resonance
Compatibility) characteristics, the high- effects, the clock frequency is not held con-
pressure solenoid valves are triggered by stant thoughout the complete rotational-
analog signals. Since the triggering signal speed range but instead, at given speed
must feature steep current edges in order to ranges, it is switched to a different frequency
ensure narrow tolerances and a high degree (window technique).
of reproducibility for the injected fuel quan- The high-pressure fuel-quantity solenoid
tity, this form of triggering makes severe de- valve is triggered via current control (Fig. 2)
mands on the output stages.
In addition, the triggering process must 1 Solenoid-valve-controlled distributor pumps: Injec-
ensure a minimum of power loss in the ECU tion-triggering components

and in the high-pressure solenoid valve. In

other words, the triggering currents must be CAN
a 1a
Figure 1 as low as possible. 6
a With separate pump Irrespective of operating range, injection 2
and engne ECU control must be extremely accurate in order
b With integral pump that the injection pump and solenoid injec- 5
and engine ECU
tor inject precisely and with a high level of
reproducibility. 4
1a Pump ECU (PSG5) 3
1b Pump ECU The injection system must respond ex-
(PSG16) tremely quickly to changes, which means
b 1b
2 Distributor pump that the calculations in the microcontroller
3 Timing device and the triggering-signal implementation in 2
4 Timing-device sol- the output stages must take place at very
enoid valve 5
æ NMK1764Y

high speed. Data processing is therefore re-

5 High-pressure fuel-
quantity solenoid
ferred to as being “real-time compatible” 4
(resolution time 1 µs). 3
6 Engine ECU (MSG)
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Solenoid-valve-controlled injection systems: Triggering 67

which subdivides the triggering process into Defined, rapid opening of the solenoid valve
a pickup-current phase (a) of approx. 18 A, is required at the end of the injection
and a holding-current phase (c) of approx. process. To this end, high-speed quenching
10 A. At the beginning of the controlled (d) using a high quenching voltage (1) is ap-
holding-current phase (after 200 ... 250 µs), plied at the valve to dissipate the energy
the BIP evaluation circuit detects the sol- stored in its solenoid.
enoid-valve needle closing against the valve
seat (BIP = Beginning of the Injection Pe- The solenoid valve can also be used to con-
riod). trol pilot injection (PI) for reduction of
The latest generation uses the PSG16 combustion noise. Here, the solenoid valve
pump ECU, and is also provided with a BIP is operated ballistically between the PI point
current (b) between the pickup and hold- and the MI (main injection) point. In other
ing-current phases which is at the optimum words it is only partially opened, which
level for the BIP detection function. means that it can be closed again very
quickly. The resulting injection spacing is
In order that the pump’s injection character- very short so that even at high rotational
istics are always reproducible irrespective of speeds, adequate cam pitch remains for the
operating conditions, the triggering circuitry main injection process.
as a whole, and the current control, must be The subdivision into the individual trig-
extremely accurate. Furthermore, they must gering phases is calculated by the microcon-
keep the power loss in ECU and solenoid troller in the pump ECU.
valve down to a minimum.

2 High-pressure solenoid valves: Triggering sequence using current control

Pilot injection (PI) Main injection (MI)

a b c d a b c d

current I M

1 1

voltage UM

Figure 2
a Pickup-current
b BIP detection
c Holding-current
æ NAE0752E

needle lift h M
d High-speed quench-
Time t
1 Quenching voltage
Robert Bosch GmbH

68 Open and closed-loop electronic control Solenoid-valve-controlled injection systems: Triggering

Common Rail System CRS reached which can be handled by the injec-
In the Common Rail System (CRS), the fuel tor. When this is reached, it is injected at the
pressure in the rail (Fig. 3, Pos. 3) and with it next possible opportunity.
the injection pressure, are determined by the
rail-pressure valve (Pos. 8), and if required by Rail-pressure control
a throttle upstream of the high-pressure The permanent pressure in the rail is gener-
pump (1). The injector’s (6) high-pressure ated by a continuously operating high-pres-
solenoid valve (7) defines the injection point sure pump. The closed control loop for the
and the duration of injection in accordance rail pressure comprises the rail-pressure sen-
with the various operating parameters. This sor (4) the engine ECU (5) and the rail-pres-
means, therefore, that injection pressure is sure control valve (8).
decoupled from injection point and duration The microcontroller in the engine ECU
of injection. Decoupling the injection pres- receives the sensor signal and uses it to cal-
sure from injection point and duration of in- culate the desired pressure. This is outputted
jection means that in addition to the main in- to a driver stage which triggers the rail-pres-
jection (MI), which is responsible for the gen- sure control valve by means of a pwm signal.
eration of torque, other injection processes The level of the applied current corresponds
independent of the injection pressure can to the desired pressure. The higher the trig-
also be triggered. On the one hand these are gering current the higher the rail pressure.
for the most part pilot injections (PI) with The microcontroller compares the actual
the principle objective of reducing the com- pressure at the sensor with the desired pres-
bustion noise, and on the other secondary in- sure and takes appropriate closed-loop con-
jection processes (post injection (POI))which trol action in case of deviation.
serve to reduce exhaust emissions. The in- In a number of versions, at high speeds
jected fuel quantity is the product of injection and low levels of required fuel, one of the
pressure and duration of injection. high-pressure pump’s three pumping ele-
ments can be switched off (element shutoff).
Post injection involves minute quantities of In this case, a triggering current flows
fuel. Injection is not carried out individually through the element-shutoff solenoid valve.
at stipulated cylinders, but rather the minute Switching off one of the elements reduces
quantities concerned are added together in the strain on the pump as well as increasing
the ECU until the smallest quantity is the engine’s efficiency.

3 Common Rail System (CRS): Injection-triggering components

Figure 3
1 High-pressure pump
2 Element shutoff
3 Rail
4 Rail-pressure sensor
5 Engine ECU (for 5
higher numbers of
cylinders, it is also
possible to use a 2
"master slave al-
liance" with 2
6 Injector
æ NMK1758Y

7 High-pressure sol- 8
enoid valve 1
8 Rail-pressure control
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Solenoid-valve-controlled injection systems: Triggering 69

4 Triggering sequence of a high-pressure solenoid valve for a single injection event

a b c d e f

current IM

needle lift h M
Figure 4
a Opening phase
b Pickup-current
c Transition to holding-
Injected fuel current phase
quantity Q

æ NAE0743E
d Holding-current
e Switch off,
Time t f Recharge

Injector triggering limits pickup current to approx. 20 A.

In the inoperative mode, the injector’s high-
pressure solenoid valve is not triggered and Holding-current phase
is therefore closed. In order to reduce the power loss in ECU
The injector injects when the solenoid and injector, the current is dropped to ap-
valve opens. Solenoid-valve triggering is prox. 12 A in the holding-current phase. The
subdivided into five phases (Figs. 4 and 5). energy which becomes available when
pickup current and holding current are re-
Opening phase duced is routed to the booster-voltage store.
Initially, in order to ensure tight tolerances
and high levels of reproducibility for the in- Switch off
jected fuel quantity, the current for opening When the current is switched off in order to
the valve features a steep, precisely defined close the valve, the surplus energy is also
flank and increases rapidly up to approx. routed to the booster-voltage store.
20 A. This is achieved with a so-called
“booster voltage” of up to as much as 100 V Recharge
which is generated in the ECU and stored in Between the actual injection events, a saw-
a capacitor (boost-voltage store). When this tooth waveform is applied to the injectors
voltage is applied across the solenoid valve, which are not injecting (Fig. 5, f1). Maxi-
the current increases several times faster than mum current level is so low that there is no
it does when only battery voltage is used. danger of the injector opening. Energy
stored in the solenoid valve as a result is
Pickup-current phase then routed to the booster-voltage store
During the pickup-current phase, battery (Fig. 5, f2), which it recharges until the origi-
voltage is applied to the solenoid valve, and nal voltage is reached as required for open-
assists in opening it quickly. Current control ing the solenoid valve.
Robert Bosch GmbH

70 Open and closed-loop electronic control Solenoid-valve-controlled injection systems: Triggering

5 Common Rail System: Block diagram of the triggering phase in the control for a single cylinder group

2 I 4
a Opening phase
3 3 I
I 7 7 6

b Pickup-current phase

c Transition to
holding-current phase

d Holding-current phase

e Switch off


Figure 5 f1 Recharge
1 Battery
2 Current control
3 Solenoid windings
of the high-pressure
solenoid valves
4 Booster switch
5 Booster-voltage
f2 Recharge to booster-
store (capacitor)
voltage store
6 Free-wheeling
diodes for energy re-
covery and high-
æ NMK1757E

speed quenching
7 Cylinder selector
I Current flow
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Solenoid-valve-controlled injection systems: Triggering 71

Unit Injector Systems and Unit Pump calculation of the individual triggering
Systems (UIS/UPS) phases. An ASIC module (gate array) with
The triggering of the high-pressure solenoid high computing power assists the microcon-
valve places severe demands on the output troller by generating two digital triggering
stages. Close tolerances and high repro- signals (MODE signal and ON signal).
ducibility of the injected fuel quantity de- These triggering signals then instruct the
mand that the triggering signal features a
particularly steep edge. 6 Unit Injector and Unit Pump Systems (UIS/UPS):
Triggering components

The Unit Injector and Unit Pump high-pres-

sure solenoid valves are triggered in a similar 3
manner using current control (Figs. 6
through 8) which divides the triggering
process into the pickup-current phase (a)
and the holding-current phase (c). This
form of triggering permits very fast switch- 3
ing times and reduces the power loss. For a CAN
brief period between these two phases, con-
stant triggering current is applied to permit
the detection of the solenoid-valve closing Figure 6
point (refer to section “BIP control”, b). a Unit Injector System
3 (UIS) with 2 ECUs
In order to ensure high-speed, defined b Unit Pump System
opening of the solenoid valve at the end of æ NMK1791Y 1 Unit Injector (UI)
the injection event, a high voltage is applied 4
2 High-pressure sol-
across the terminals (d) for rapid quenching enoid valve
of the energy stored in the solenoid valve. 3 Engine ECU
The microcontroller is responsible for the 4 Unit Pump (UP)

7 High-pressure solenoid valve: Triggering sequences

a b c d

current IM

Figure 7
a Pickup current
Switch-on signal
UIS/UPS: 12...20 A;
Needle-motion passenger-car UIS:
detection 20 A)
b BIP detection,
c Holding current
needle lift h M
æ NAE0740-2E

UIS/UPS: 8...14 A;
passenger-car UIS:
12 A)
Time t
d High-speed quench-
Robert Bosch GmbH

72 Open and closed-loop electronic control Solenoid-valve-controlled injection systems: Triggering

output-stage drivers to generate the required ECU coupling

triggering-current sequence. The passenger-car Unit Injector System can
also be used on engines with more than 6
Boot-shaped injection characteristic cylinders. In order to be able to cope with
Future systems will provide the possibility of the requirement for more driver stages for
a special “boot-shaped” injection character- injector triggering, and for increased micro-
istic (with the main injection (MI) immedi- controller computing power, such engines
ately following the pilot injection (PI Fig. 8). can be equipped with two ECUs coupled to-
Here, the solenoid-valve current is held at a gether to form a “master-slave alliance”. Sim-
precise intermediate level (approx. 4...6 A, ilar to the Common Rail System (CRS), the
c1) between the pickup-current and hold- ECUs are coupled together by means of an
ing-current phases. This leads to the sol- internal CAN-Bus operating at a baud rate
enoid valve being held in an intermediate of up to 1 Mbaud (1,000,000 bit/s).
position so that a “boot-shaped” injection Some of the functions are allocated to a
characteristic is the result. specific ECU which is then solely responsi-
ble for their processing (for instance, the in-
jected-fuel-quantity compensation). Other
assignments though can be flexibly
processed in this configuration by either of
the ECUs (for instance, the registration of
sensor signals). This configuration cannot
be changed during operation.
Using this master-slave concept, it is pos-
sible to implement both Biturbo control and
active exhaust-gas treatment.

8 Triggering sequences of the high-pressure solenoid valves for the “boot-

shaped” injection characteristic

a b c d e

current IM

Figure 8
a Pickup current (com- needle lift hM
UIS/UPS: 12...20 A)
b BIP detection
c1 Holding current for
"boot-shaped" injec-
tion characteristic pressure pE
æ NAE0740-1E

c2 Holding current
UIS/UPS: 8...14 A) Time t
d High-speed quench-
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Control and triggering of the remaining actuators 73

Control and triggering of the 1 Intake-duct switch-off

remaining actuators
In addition to the fuel-injection compo- 1

nents themselves, EDC is responsible for the 2

control and triggering of a large number of
other actuators. These are used for cylinder- 3 6
charge control, or for the control of engine 5
cooling, or are used in diesel-engine start-
assist systems. Here too, as is the case with
the closed-loop control of injection, the in-
puts from other systems (such as TCS) are
taken into account. Figure 1
1 Intake valve
A variety of different actuators are used, 4

æ NMM0555Y
2 Turbulence duct
depending upon the vehicle type, its area of 3 Cylinder
application and the type of fuel injection. 4 Piston
This chapter deals with a number of exam- 5 Intake duct
ples, and further actuators are covered in the 6 Flap
Chapter “Actuators”.
Auxiliary coolant heating
A variety of different methods are used for High-performance diesel engines are very
triggering: efficient, and under certain circumstances
do not generate enough waste heat to ade-
 The actuators are triggered directly from quately heat the vehicle’s interior. One solu-
an output (driver) stage in the engine tion for overcoming this problem is to install
ECU using appropriate signals (e.g. the auxiliary coolant heating using glow plugs.
EGR valve). Depending upon the power available from
 If high currents are involved (for instance the alternator, this system is triggered in a
for fan control), the ECU triggers a relay. number of steps. It is controlled by the en-
 The engine ECU transfers signals to an in- gine ECU as used for EDC.
dependent ECU, which is then used to
trigger or control the remaining actuators Intake-duct switch-off
(for instance, for glow control). In the lower engine-rpm ranges and at idle,
a flap (Fig. 1, Pos. 6) operated by an elec-
The advantage of incorporating all engine- tropneumatic transducer closes one of the
control functions in the EDC ECU lies in the intake ducts (5). Fresh air in then only in-
fact that not only the injected fuel quantity ducted through the turbulence duct (2).
and instant of injection can be taken into ac- This leads to improved air turbulence in the
count in the engine control concept, but also lower rpm ranges which in turn results in
other engine functions such as EGR and more efficient combustion. In the higher
boost-pressure control. This leads to a con- rpm ranges, the engine’s volumetric effi-
siderable improvement in engine manage- ciency is improved thanks to the open intake
ment. Apart from this, the engine ECU has a duct (5) and the power output increases as a
vast amount of information at its disposal as result.
needed for other functions (for instance, en-
gine and intake-air temperature as used for
glow control on the diesel engine).
Robert Bosch GmbH

74 Open and closed-loop electronic control Control and triggering of the remaining actuators

Boost-pressure control The lower the measured mass of the incom-

Boost-pressure control applied to the ex- ing fresh air compared to the theoretical air
haust-gas turbocharger improves the en- requirement, the higher is the proportion of
gine’s torque curve in full-load operation, recirculated exhaust gas.
and its exhaust and refill cycle in the part-
load range.The optimum (desired) boost Currently, EGR is only used on passenger
pressure is a function of engine speed, in- cars, although work is proceeding on the de-
jected fuel quantity, coolant and fuel tem- velopment of a commercial-vehicle version.
perature, and the surrounding air pressure.
This optimum (desired) boost pressure is Substitute functions
compared with the actual value registered by
the boost-pressure sensor and, in the case of If individual input signals should fail, the
deviation, the ECU either operates the by- ECU is without the important information
pass valve’s electropneumatic transducer or it needs for calculations. In such cases, sub-
the guide blades of the VTG (Variable Tur- stitute functions are used. Two examples are
bine Geometry) exhaust-gas turbocharger given below:
(refer also to the Chapter “Actuators”).

Fan triggering Example 1: The fuel temperature is needed

When a given engine temperature is ex- for calculation of the injected fuel quantity.
ceeded, the engine ECU triggers the engine If the fuel-temperature sensor fails, the ECU
cooling fan, which continues to rotate for a uses a substitute value for its calculations.
brief period after the engine is switched off. This must be selected so that excessive soot
This run-on period is a function of the formation is avoided, although this can lead
coolant temperature and the load imposed to a reduction of engine power in certain
on the engine during the preceding driving operating ranges.
Example 2: Should the camshaft sensor fail,
Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) the ECU applies the crankshaft-sensor signal
In order to decrease the NOX emissions, ex- as a subsitute. Depending on the vehicle
haust gas is directed into the engine’s intake manufacturer, there are a variety of different
duct through a channel, the cross section of concepts for using the crankshaft signal to
which can be varied by an EGR valve. The determine when cylinder 1 is in the com-
EGR valve is triggered by an electropneu- pression cycle. The use of substitute func-
matic transducer or by an electric actuator. tions leads to engine restart taking slightly
Due to the high temperature of the exhaust
gas and its high proportion of contamina- Substitute functions differ according to ve-
tion, it is difficult to precisely measure the hicle manufacturer, so that many vehicle-
exhaust-gas flow which is recirculated back specific functions are possible.
into the engine. Control, therefore, takes
place indirectly through an air-mass meter The diagnosis function stores data on all
located in the flow of fresh intake air. The malfunctions that occur. This data can then
meter’s output signal is then compared in be accessed in the workshop (refer also to
the ECU with the engine’s theoretical air re- the Chapter “Electronic Diagnosis (OBD)”).
quirement which has been calculated from a
variety of data (e.g. engine rpm).
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Torque-controlled EDC systems 75

Torque-controlled given torque from the engine. At the same

time, but independent of the driver’s re-
EDC systems quirements, via the interfaces other vehicle
The engine-management system is continu- systems submit torque demands resulting
ally being integrated more closely into the from the power requirements of the particu-
overall vehicle system. Through the CAN- lar component (e.g. air conditioner, alterna-
Bus, vehicle dynamics systems such as TCS, tor). Using these torque-requirement inputs,
and comfort and convenience systems such the engine management calculates the out-
as Cruise Control, have a direct influence on put torque to be generated by the engine
the Electronic Diesel Control (EDC). Apart and controls the fuel-injection and air-sys-
from this, much of the information regis- tem actuators accordingly. This method has
tered and/or calculated in or by the engine the following advantages:
management system must be passed on to
other ECUs through the CAN-Bus.  No single system (for instance, boost pres-
sure, fuel injection, pre-glow) has a direct
In order to be able to incorporate the EDC effect upon the engine management. This
even more efficiently in a functional alliance enables the engine management to also
with other ECUs, and implement other take into account higher-level optimiza-
changes rapidly and effectively, it was neces- tion criteria (such as exhaust emissions
sary to make far-reaching changes to the and fuel consumption) when processing
newest-generation controls. These changes external requirements, and thus control
resulted in the torque-controlled EDC which the engine in the most efficient manner,
was introduced with the EDC16. The main  Many of the functions which do not di-
feature is the change over of the module in- rectly concern the engine management
terfaces to the parameters as commonly en- can be designed to function identically for
countered in practice in the vehicle. diesel and gasoline engines.
 Extensions to the system can be imple-
Engine parameters mented quickly.
Essentially, an IC engine’s output can be de-
fined using the three parameters: Power P, 1 Example of the torque and power-output curves as
a function of engine speed for two passenger-car
rpm n, and torque M. diesel engines with approx. 2.2 l displacement
For 2 diesel engines. Fig. 1 compares typi-
cal curves of torque and power as a function kW
of engine rpm. Basically speaking, the fol-
Power output

lowing formula applies:

50 b
P = 2·π·n·M
In other words, it suffices to use the torque 0
as the reference (command) variable. Engine N·m
power then results from the above formula.
300 b
Since power output cannot be measured di-

rectly, torque has turned out to be a suitable

reference (command) variable for engine
management. 100 a
æ NMM0556E

Figure 1
0 a Year of manufacture
Torque control 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 min-1 1968
When accelerating, the driver uses the accel- Engine rpm b Year of manufacture
erator pedal (sensor) to directly demand a 1998
Robert Bosch GmbH

76 Open and closed-loop electronic control Torque-controlled EDC systems

Engine-management sequence Internal torque demands

Fig. 2 shows (schematically) the processing At this stage, the idle-speed control and the
of the setpoint inputs in the engine ECU. In active surge damper intervene.
order to be able to fulfill their assignments For instance, if demanded by the situa-
efficiently, the engine management’s control tion, in order to prevent mechanical dam-
functions all require a wide range of sensor age, or excessive smoke due to the injection
signals and information from other ECUs in of too much fuel, the torque limitation re-
the vehicle. duces the internal torque requirement. In
contrast to the previous engine-manage-
Propulsion torque ment systems, limitations are no longer only
The driver’s input (that is, the signal from applied to the injected fuel-quantity, but in-
the accelerator-pedal sensor), is interpreted stead, depending upon the required effects,
by the engine management as the request for also to the particular physical quantity in-
a propulsive torque. The inputs from the volved.
Cruise Control and the Vehicle-Speed Lim- The engine’s losses are also taken into ac-
iter are processed in exactly the same man- count (e.g. friction, drive for the high-pres-
ner. sure pump). The torque represents the en-
Following this selection of the desired gine’s measurable effects to the outside. The
propulsive torque, should the situation arise, engine management though can only gener-
the vehicle-dynamics system (TCS, ESP) in- ate these effects in conjunction with the cor-
creases the desired torque value when there rect fuel injection together with the correct
is the danger of wheel lockup and decreases injection point, and the necessary marginal
it when the wheels show a tendency to spin. conditions as apply to the air-intake system
(e.g. boost pressure and EGR rate). The re-
Further external torque demands quired injected fuel quantity is determined
The drivetrain’s torque adaptation must be using the current combustion efficiency. The
taken into account (drivetrain transmission calculated fuel quantity is limited by a pro-
ratio). This is defined for the most part by the tective function (for instance, protection
ratio of the particular gear, or by the torque- against overheating), and if necessary can be
converter efficiency in the case of automatic varied by the smooth-running control
gearboxes. On vehicles with an automatic- (SRC). During engine start, the injected fuel
gearbox, the gearbox control stipulates the quantity is not determined by external in-
torque requirement during the actual gear puts such as those from the driver, but
shift. Apart from reducing the load on the rather by the separate “start-quantity con-
gearbox, reduced torque at this point results trol” function.
in a comfortable, smooth gear shift. In addi-
tion, the torque required by other engine- Actuator triggering
powered units (for instance, air-conditioner Finally, the desired values for the injected
compressor, alternator, servo pump) is deter- fuel quantity are used to generate the trig-
mined. This torque requirement is calculated gering data for the injection pump and/or
either by the units themselves or by the en- the injectors, and for defining the optimum
gine management. operating point for the intake-air system.
Calculation is based on unit power and
rotational speed, and the engine manage-
ment adds up the various torque require-
ments. The vehicle’s driveability remains un-
changed notwithstanding varying require-
ments from the auxiliary units and changes
in the engine’s operating status.
Robert Bosch GmbH

Open and closed-loop electronic control Torque-controlled EDC systems 77

2 Engine-management sequence for torque-controlled diesel injection

Propulsion torque:
Driver input: Selection of the
- Accelerator-pedal desired propulsion
- Vehicle-speed control
(Cruise Control)
- Vehicle-speed limitation

Input from the vehicle- Coordination of the
dynamics systems: propulsion torque
- TCS,
- ESP. Data
Further external torque demands

Drivetrain transm. Coordination of the

drivetrain torque
Input from the
gearbox ECU

Engine loading due to

auxiliary units

Internal torque requirements

Idle-speed control Control of the engine
Active surge damping (internal functions)

Torque limitation

Start quantity

Engine efficiency
Start Drive
Fuel- mode
Fuel-quantity limit
Smooth-running control

Actuator triggering

Inputs: Input:
- Boost pressure - Start of delivery,
- EGR rate, - Timing device,
- ... - Rail pressure,
External - ... (depending on system).
sequences Intake-air system Injection system
- Turbocharger,
, - Fuel-injection
Data trans- pump,
æ NMK1763E

mission - EGR ...

- Injectors ...
through CAN
Robert Bosch GmbH

78 Electronic diagnosis Operating concept

Electronic diagnosis
ECU-integrated diagnostics belong to the Output-signal monitoring
basic scope of electronic engine-manage- Here, in addition to the connections to the
ment systems. During normal vehicle oper- ECU, the actuators are also monitored. Us-
ation, input and output signals are checked ing the results of these checks, open-circuits
by monitoring algorithms, and the overall and short-circuits in the lines and connec-
system is checked for malfunctions and tions can be detected in addition to actuator
faults. If faults are discovered in the process, faults. The following processes are applied
these are stored in the ECU. When the vehi- here:
cle is checked in the workshop, this stored
information is retrieved through a serial in-  Hardware monitoring of the output-sig-
terface and provides the basis for rapid and nal circuit using the driver stage. The cir-
efficient trouble-shooting and repair. cuit is checked for open circuit, and for
short circuits to battery voltage UBatt and
Operating concept to ground.
 The actuator’s influence on the system is
Originally, it was intended that the self-diag- checked for plausibility. In the case of ex-
nosis of the engine-management system haust-gas recirculation (EGR) for in-
(on-board diagnostics/OBD) should merely stance, a check is made whether intake-
be a help in rapid and efficient fault-finding manifold pressure is within given limits
in the workshop. Increasingly severe legal and that it reacts accordingly when the ac-
stipulations, and the more wide-ranging tuator is triggered.
functional scope of the vehicle’s electronic
systems though, led to the emergence of a Monitoring ECU communication
more extensive diagnostics system within As a rule, communication with the other
the engine-management system. ECUs takes place via CAN-Bus (Controller
Area Network). The diagnostics integrated
Input-signal monitoring in the CAN module are described in the
Here, the analysis of the input signals is ap- Chapter “Data transfer between electronic
plied for monitoring the sensors and their systems”. A number of other checks are also
connection lines to the ECU (Table 1). These performed in the ECU. Since most CAN
checks serve to uncover not only sensor messages are sent at regular intervals by the
faults, but also short-circuits to the battery particular ECUs, monitoring the time inter-
voltage UBatt and to ground, as well as open vals concerned leads to the detection of ECU
circuits in lines. The following processes are failure.
applied: In addition, when redundant information
is available in the ECU, the received signals
 Monitoring the sensors’ power supply. are checked the same as all input signals.
 Checking that the measured values are in-
side the correct range (e.g. engine temper-
ature –40 °C...+150 °C.
 If auxiliary information is available, the
registered value is subjected to a plausibil-
ity check (e.g. the camshaft and/or crank-
shaft speed).
 Important sensors (such as the accelera-
tor-pedal sensor) are designed to be re-
dundant which means that their signals
can be directly compared with each other.
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electronic diagnosis Operating concept 79

Monitoring the internal ECU functions component is detected immediately. Se-

In order that the functional integrity of the quences which require extensive computing
ECU is ensured at all times, monitoring capacity (for instance for checking the
functions are incorporated in the hardware EPROM), are run through immediately the
(e.g. “intelligent driver-stage modules”) and engine is switched off (only possible at pre-
in the software. sent on gasoline engines).
These check the individual ECU compo- This method ensures that the other func-
nents (e.g. microcontroller, Flash-EPROM, tions are not interfered with. On the diesel
RAM). Many of these checks are performed engine, the switch-off paths are checked in
immediately the engine is switched on. Dur- the same period.
ing normal operations, further checks are
performed regularly so that the failure of a

1 Monitoring the most important input signals

Signal path Monitoring

Accelerator-pedal sensor Check of the power supply and the signal range
Plausibility with regard to a redundant signal
Plausibility with regard to the brakes
Crankshaft-rpm sensor Checking the signal range
Plausibility with the camshaft-rpm sensor
Checking the changes as a function of time (dynamic plausibility)
Engine-temperature sensor Checking the signal range
Logical plausibility as a function of rpm
and injected fuel quantity or engine load
Brake-pedal switch Plausibility with regard to redundant brake contact
Speed signal Checking the signal range
Plausibility with regard to rpm and injected fuel quantity or engine load
EGR positioner Checks for short circuits and open circuits in lines
EGR control
Checking the system's reaction to valve triggering
Battery voltage Checking the signal range
Plausibility with regard to engine rpm (at present, only possible with gasoline (SI) engines)
Fuel-temperature sensor Checking the signal range (at present, only possible with diesel engines)
Boost-pressure sensor Checking the power supply and the signal range
Plausibility with regard to ambient-pressure sensor and/or further signals
Boost-pressure actuator Checking for short circuits and open-circuit lines
Control deviation of boost-pressure control
Air-mass meter Checking the power supply and the signal range
Logical plausibility
Air-temperature sensor Checking the signal range
Logical plausibility with regard to the engine-temperature sensor for instance
Clutch-signal sensor Plausibility with regard to vehicle speed
Ambient-pressure sensor Checking the signal range
Logical plausibility of the intake-manifold-pressure sensor
Table 1
Robert Bosch GmbH

80 Electronic diagnosis Operating concept

Dealing with a fault using a System Tester (e.g. Bosch KTS500),

Fault recognition or a scan tool. Once the fault information
When a fault remains in a signal path longer has been retrieved in the workshop and the
than a defined period, the signal path is clas- fault repaired, the fault memory can be
sified as being defective. Until it is finally cleared again using the tester.
classified as defective, the last valid value is
utilised in the system. Normally, as soon as it Diagnostic interface
is classified as defective, a substitute func- A communication interface is needed for
tion is triggered (refer to the Chapter “Off-board testers” in order for them to be
“Closed-loop and open-loop electronic con- able evaluate the “On-Board Diagnosis”.
trol”). This serial interface is mandatory and is de-
fined in ISO 9141 (diagnostic interface
Most faults can be revoked and the signal through the K-line). The interface operates
path classified as serviceable again provided with a transfer rate (baud rate) of between
the signal path remains without fault for a 10 baud and 10 kbaud, and is either a single-
defined period of time. wire interface with common send and re-
ceive lines, or a two-wire interface with sepa-
Fault storage rate data line (K-line) and initiate line (L-
Each fault is stored as a malfunction code in line). A number of ECUs can be connected
the non-volatile area of the data memory. In together at a single diagnostic connector.
the fault entry, each malfunction code is ac-
companied by auxiliary information in the The tester sends an initiate address to all the
so-called “freeze-frame” containing the op- ECUs, one of which recognises this address
erating and environmental conditions at the and replies with a baud-rate identification
moment the fault occurred (e.g. engine rpm, word. Using the interval between the pulse
engine temperature). Information is also edges, the tester determines the baud rate,
stored on the fault type (for instance short adjusts itself accordingly and sets up the
circuit, conductor open circuit) and the fault communication with the ECUs.
status (in other words, permanent fault or
sporadic fault). Actuator diagnosis
An actuator diagnosis facility is incorpo-
The lawmaker has prescribed specific mal- rated in the ECU so that the workshops can
function codes for many of the faults which selectively actuate individual actuators and
have an effect on the vehicle’s toxic emis- check their correct functioning. This test
sions. Further fault information not covered mode is triggered by the tester and only
by legislation can also be stored for retrieval functions with the vehicle at standstill, and
by the vehicle workshop. with the engine running at below a given
Following storage of the fault entry, the speed or with it stopped. Actuator function-
diagnosis for the system or component con- ing is checked either acoustically (e.g. click-
cerned continues. If the fault does not occur ing of the valve), visually (e.g. movement of
again in the further course of the diagnosis a flap), or by other uncomplicated methods.
(in other words it was a sporadic fault), it is
then erased from the fault memory provided
that certain conditions are complied with.

Fault retrieval
The faults can be retrieved from the fault
memory with a specified workshop tester
provided by the vehicle manufacturer, or by
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electronic diagnosis On-Board Diagnostics 81

On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD) OBD II

The diagnostic procedure for Stage 2 of the
In the past years there has been a continual CARB-OBD is far more extensive than OBD
reduction in toxic emissions per vehicle. In I. Monitoring no longer stops at the check of
order for the emission limits defined by the the electrical signals from the components,
vehicle manufacturers to be maintained dur- but has been extended to include the check
ing continuous in-field operations, it is nec- of correct system functioning. For instance,
essary that the engine and its components it is no longer sufficient to check that the
are monitored continually. This was the rea- signal from the engine-temperature sensor
son for the lawmaker defining specifications does not exceed certain fixed limits. OBD II
to regulate the diagnosis scope for the ex- registers a fault if the engine temperature re-
haust-gas-relevant components and systems mains too low (for instance below 10 °C) for
in the vehicle. a longer period of time (plausibility check).
OBD II demands that all those systems
1988 marked the coming into force of OBD and components be checked which in case
I in California, that is, the first stage of of malfunction can lead to a noticeable in-
CARB legislation (California Air Resources crease in toxic emissions. In addition, all the
Board). All newly registered vehicles in Cali- components which are actually used for
fornia were forced to comply with these OBD must also to be checked, and every de-
statutory regulations. OBD II, that is the sec- tected fault must be stored. The driver must
ond stage, came into force in 1994. be warned of malfunctions by a lamp in the
Since 1994, in the remaining US States the instrument cluster. The stored faults are
laws of the Federal Authority EPA (Environ- then retrieved by testers which are con-
mental Protection Agency) have applied. nected for trouble-shooting.
The scope of these diagnostics comply for OBD II legislation stipulates the standard-
the most part with the CARB legislation ization of the information stored in the fault
(OBD II), although the requirements for memory in accordance with the ruling of
compliance with the emissions limits are less the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers).
severe. The means that provided they comply with
the standards, commercially available testers
The OBD adapted to European require- can retrieve fault information from the fault
ments is known as the EOBD and is based memory (so-called “scan tools”).
on the EPA-OBD. At present, the EOBD
stipulations are even less severe than those Diagnosis-sequence control
of the EPA-OBD. As a rule, the diagnostic functions for all the
systems and components to be tested must
OBD I be run through at least once during each ex-
The electrical components which are rele- haust-gas test cycle (e.g. ECE/EU test cycle).
vant for exhaust-gas emissions are checked Depending on the driving status, the diag-
for short circuits and breaks by the first nostics-system management can dynami-
stage of the CARB-OBD. The resulting elec- cally change the order of the diagnosis func-
trical signals must remain within the stipu- tions. The target here is that all diagnosis
lated plausibility limits. functions are run through often enough
When a fault/error is discovered, the dri- during everyday operations.
ver is warned by a lamp in the instrument
cluster. Using “on-board devices” (for in-
stance, a diagnosis lamp which displays a
blink code), it must be possible to read out
which component has failed.
Robert Bosch GmbH

82 Data transfer between electronic systems System overview, serial data transfer (CAN)

Data transfer between

automotive electronic systems
Today’s vehicles are being equipped with a To underline this point:
constantly increasing number of electronic Apart from being about 1 mile long, the
systems. Along with their need for extensive wiring harness of an average middle-class
exchange of data and information in order vehicle already includes about 300 plugs and
to operate efficiently, the data quantities sockets with a total of 2000 plug pins. The
and speeds concerned are also increasing only solution to this predicament lies in the
continuously. application of specific vehicle-compatible
Bus systems. Here, CAN has established it-
For instance, in order to guarantee perfect self as the standard.
driving stability, the Electronic Stability Pro-
gram (ESP) must exchange data with the en- Serial data transfer (CAN)
gine management system and the transmis-
sion-shift control. Although CAN (Controller Area Network)
is a linear bus system (Fig. 2) specifically de-
System overview signed for automotive applications, it has al-
ready been introduced in other sectors (for
Increasingly widespread application of elec- instance, in building installation engineer-
tronic communications systems, and elec- ing).
tronic open and closed-loop control sys- Data is relayed in serial form, that is, one
tems, for automotive functions such as after another on a common bus line. All
CAN stations have access to this bus, and via
 Electronic engine-management (EDC and a CAN interface in the ECUs they can re-
Motronic), ceive and transmit data through the CAN
 Electronic transmission-shift control bus line. Since a considerable amount of
(GS), data can be exchanged and repeatedly ac-
 Antilock braking system (ABS), cessed on a single bus line, this networking
 Traction control system (TCS), results in far fewer lines being needed.
 Electronic Stability Program (ESP),
 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), and
 Mobile multimedia systems together with
their display instrumentation

has made it vital to interconnect the individ- 1 Conventional data transfer

ual ECUs by means of networks.
Transmission-shift control Engine management
The conventional point-to-point exchange Station 1 Station 2

of data through individual data lines has

reached its practical limits (Fig. 1), and the
complexity of current wiring harnesses and
the sizes of the associated plugs are already
very difficult to manage. The limited num-
ber of pins in the plug-in connectors has
also slowed down ECU development work.
æ UAE0745E

ABS/TCS/ESP Instrument cluster

Station 3 Station 4
Robert Bosch GmbH

Data transfer between electronic systems Serial data transfer (CAN) 83

Applications in the vehicle Diagnosis applications

For CAN in the vehicle there are four areas The diagnosis applications using CAN are
of application each of which has different aimed at applying the already existing net-
requirements. These are as follows: work for the diagnosis of the connected
ECUs. The presently common form of diag-
Multiplex applications nosis using the special K line (ISO 9141)
Multiplex is suitable for use with applications then becomes invalid. Large quantities of
controlling the open and closed-loop control data are also transferred in diagnostic appli-
of components in the sectors of body elec- cations, and data transfer rates of 250 kbaud
tronics, and comfort and convenience. These and 500 kbaud are planned.
include climate control, central locking, and
seat adjustment. Transfer rates are typically Real-time applications
between 10 kbaud and 125 kbaud (1 kbaud = Real-time applications serve for the open
1 kbit/s) (low-speed CAN). and closed-loop control of the vehicle's
movements. Here, such electronic systems as
Mobile communications applications engine management, transmission-shift con-
In the area of mobile communications, CAN trol, and electronic stability program (ESP)
networks such components as navigation are networked with each other.
system, telephone, and audio installations Commonly, data transfer rates of between
with the vehicle’s central display and operat- 125 kbaud and 1 Mbaud (high-speed CAN)
ing units. Networking here is aimed at stan- are needed to guarantee the required real-
dardizing operational sequences as far as time response.
possible, and at concentrating status infor-
mation at one point so that driver distrac- Bus configuration
tion is reduced to a minimum. With this ap- Configuration is understood to be the layout
plication, large quantities of data are trans- and interaction between the components in
mitted, and data transfer rates are in the 125 a given system. The CAN bus has a linear
kbaud range. It is impossible to directly bus topology (Fig. 2) which in comparison
transmit audio or video data here. with other logical structures (ring bus
and/or star bus) features a lower failure
probability. If one of the stations fails, the
bus still remains fully accessible to all the
2 Linear bus topology other stations. The stations connected to the
Transmission-shift Engine
bus can be either ECUs, display devices, sen-
control management sors, or actuators. They operate using the
Station 1 Station 2
Multi-Master principle, whereby the stations
concerned all have equal priority regarding
their access to the bus. It is not necessary to
have a higher-order administration.

æ UAE0283-2E

ABS/TCS/ESP Instrument cluster

Station 3 Station 4
Robert Bosch GmbH

84 Data transfer between electronic systems Serial data transfer (CAN)

Content-based addressing Bus arbitration

The CAN bus system does not address each The identifier not only indicates the data
station individually according to its features, content, but also defines the message’s prior-
but rather according to its message contents. ity rating. An identifier corresponding to a
It allocates each “message” a fixed “identi- low binary number has high priority and
fier” (message name) which identifies the vice versa. Message priorities are a function
contents of the message in question (for in- for instance of the speed at which their con-
stance, engine speed). This identifier has a tents change, or their significance with re-
length of 11 bits (standard format) or 29 bits spect to safety. There are never two (or
(extended format). more) messages of identical priority in the
With content-based addressing each sta- bus.
tion must itself decide whether it is inter- Each station can begin message transmis-
ested in the message or not (“message filter- sion as soon as the bus is unoccupied. Con-
ing” Fig. 3). This function can be performed flict regarding bus access is avoided by ap-
by a special CAN module (Full-CAN), so plying bit-by-bit identifier arbitration (Fig.
that less load is placed on the ECU’s central 4), whereby the message with the highest
microcontroller. Basic CAN modules “read” priority is granted first access without delay
all messages. Using content-based address- and without loss of data bits (nondestruc-
ing, instead of allocating station addresses, tive protocol).
makes the complete system highly flexible so The CAN protocol is based on the logical
that equipment variants are easier to install states “dominant” (logical 0) and “recessive”
and operate. If one of the ECUs requires (logical 1). The “Wired And” arbitration
new information which is already on the principle permits the dominant bits trans-
bus, all it needs to do is call it up from the mitted by a given station to overwrite the re-
bus. Similarly, provided they are receivers, cessive bits of the other stations. The station
new stations can be connected (imple- with the lowest identifier (that is, with the
mented) without it being necessary to mod- highest priority) is granted first access to the
ify the already existing stations. bus.

3 Addressing and message filtering (acceptance check) 4 Bit-by-bit arbitration (allocation of bus
access in case of several messages)


Figure 3 Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 4
Station 2 transmits, 1
Bus line
Station 1 and 4 accept Provision
Accept Accept
the data. 1
Station 1
Selection Send Selection Selection
message 1
Figure 4 Station 2
Station 2 gains first
access Reception Reception Reception 1
Station 3
æ UAE0284-1E

(Signal on the bus = sig- 0

æ UAE0742E

nal from Station 2) Station 1 Station 3

Bus loses the loses the
arbitration arbitration
0 Dominant level
1 Recessive level
Robert Bosch GmbH

Data transfer between electronic systems Serial data transfer (CAN) 85

The transmitters with low-priority messages reserved for future extensions. The remain-
automatically become receivers, and repeat ing 4 bits in this field define the number of
their transmission attempt as soon as the data bytes in the next data field. This enables
bus is vacant again. the receiver to determine whether all data
In order that all messages have a chance of has been received.
entering the bus, the bus speed must be ap-
propriate to the number of stations partici- The “Data field” contains the actual message
pating in the bus. A cycle time is defined for information comprised of between 0 and
those signals which fluctuate permanently 8 bytes. A message with data length = 0 is
(e.g. engine speed). used to synchronise distributed processes. A
number of signals can be transmitted in a
single message (e.g. engine rpm and engine
Message format temperature).
CAN permits two different formats which
only differ with respect to the length of their The “CRC Field” (Cyclic Redundancy
identifiers. The standard-format identifier is Check) contains the frame check word for
11 bits long, and the extended-format iden- detecting possible transmission interference.
tifier 29 bits. Both formats are compatible
with each other and can be used together in The “ACK Field” contains the acknowledge-
a network. The data frame comprises seven ment signals used by the receiver stations to
consecutive fields (Fig. 5) and is a maximum confirm receipt of the message in non-cor-
of 130 bits long (standard format) or 150 rupted form. This field comprises the ACK
bits (extended format). slot and the recessive ACK delimiter. The
ACK slot is also transmitted recessively and
The bus is recessive at idle. With its domi- overwritten “dominantly” by the receivers
nant bit, the “Start of frame” indicates the upon the message being correctly received.
beginning of a message and synchronises all Here, it is irrelevant whether the message is
stations. of significance or not for the particular re-
ceiver in the sense of the message filtering or
The “Arbitration field” consists of the mes- acceptance check. Only correct reception is
sage’s identifier (as described above) and an confirmed.
additional control bit. While this field is be-
ing transmitted, the transmitter accompa-
nies the transmission of each bit with a
check to ensure that it is still authorized to 5 CAN message format

transmit or whether another station with a

higher-priority message has accessed the Start of Frame
Bus. The control bit following the identifier Arbitration Field
Control Field
is designated the RTR-bit (Remote Trans- Data Field
mission Request). It defines whether the CRC Field
message is a “Data frame” (message with ACK Field
End of
data) for a receiver station, or a “Remote Frame
frame” (request for data) from a transmitter Inter
station. Space
IDLE 1* 12* 6* 0...64* 16* 2* 7* 3* IDLE
æ UAE0285-1E

The “Control field” contains the IDE bit 0

Data frame Figure 5
(Identifier Extension Bit) used to differenti- 0 Dominant level,
Message frame
ate between standard format (IDE = 0) and 1 Recessive level.
extended format (IDE = 1), followed by a bit * Number of bits
Robert Bosch GmbH

86 Data transfer between electronic systems Serial data transfer (CAN)

The “End of frame” marks the end of the tion erases these opposite-polarity bits after
message and comprises 7 recessive bits. receiving the message. Line errors can be de-
tected using the “bitstuffing” principle.
The “Inter-frame space” comprises three bits
which serve to separate successive messages. If one of the stations detects an error, it in-
This means that the bus remains in the re- terrupts the actual transmission by sending
cessive IDLE mode until a station starts a an “Error frame” comprising six successive
bus access. dominant bits. Its effect is based on the in-
tended violation of the stuffing rule, and the
As a rule, a sending station initiates data object is to prevent other stations accepting
transmission by sending a “data frame”. It is the faulty message.
also possible for a receiving station to call in
data from a sending station by transmitting Defective stations could have a derogatory
a “remote frame”. effect upon the bus system by sending an
“error frame” and interrupting faultless
Detecting errors messages. To prevent this, CAN is provided
A number of control mechanisms for de- with a function which differentiates between
tecting errors are integrated in the CAN pro- sporadic errors and those which are perma-
tocol. nent, and which is capable of identifying the
faulty station. This takes place using statisti-
In the “CRC field”, the receiving station cal evaluation of the error situations.
compares the received CRC sequence with
the sequence calculated from the message. Standardization
The International Organization for Stan-
With the “Frame check”, frame errors are dardization (ISO) and SAE (Society of Auto-
recognized by checking the frame structure. motive Engineers) have issued CAN stan-
The CAN protocol contains a number of dards for data exchange in automotive appli-
fixed-format bit fields which are checked by cations:
all stations.
 For low-speed applications up to
The “ACK check” is the receiving stations’ 125 kbit/s: ISO 11519-2, and
confirmation that a message frame has been  For high-speed applications above
received. Its absence signifies for instance 125 kbit/s: ISO 11898 and SAE J 22584
that a transmission error has been detected. (passenger cars) and SAE J 1939 (trucks
and buses).
“Monitoring” indicates that the sender ob-  Furthermore, an ISO Standard on CAN
serves (monitors) the bus level and com- Diagnosis (ISO 15765 – Draft) is being
pares the differences between the bit that has prepared.
been sent and the bit that has been checked.

Compliance with “Bitstuffing” is checked by

means of the “Code check”. The stuffing rule
stipulates that in every “data frame” or “re-
mote frame”, a maximum of 5 successive
equal-priority bits may be sent between the
“Start of frame” and the end of the “CRC
field”. As soon as five identical bits have been
transmitted in succession, the sender inserts
an opposite-priority bit. The receiving sta-
Robert Bosch GmbH

Data transfer between electronic systems Prospects 87

Prospects ing interfaces and functional contents. The

CARTRONIC® from Bosch is the answer to
Along with the increasing levels of system- these stipulations, and has been developed
component performance and the rise in as a priority-override and definition concept
function integration, the demands made on for all the vehicle’s closed and open-loop
the vehicle’s communication system are also control systems. The possible sub-division of
on the increase. And new systems are con- the functions which are each controlled by a
tinually being introduced, for instance in the central coordinator can be seen in Fig. 1.
consumer-electronics sector. All in all, it is to The functions can be incorporated in vari-
be expected that a number of bus systems ous ECUs.
will establish themselves in the vehicle, each
of which will be characterized by its own The combination of components and sys-
particular area of application. tems can result in completely novel func-
tions. For instance, the exchange of data be-
In addition to electronic data transmission, tween the transmission-shift control and the
optical transmission systems will also come navigation equipment can ensure that a
into use in the multimedia area. These are change down is made in good time before a
very-high-speed bus systems and can trans- gradient is reached. With the help of the
mit large quantities of data as needed for au- navigation facility, the headlamps will be
dio and video components. able to adapt their beam of light to make it
optimal for varying driving situations and
Individual functions will be combined by for the route taken by the road (for instance
networking to form a system alliance cover- at road intersections). Car radios, sound-
ing the complete vehicle, in which informa- carrier drives, TV, telephone, E-mail, Inter-
tion can be exchanged via data buses. The net, as well as the navigation and terminal
implementation of such overlapping func- equipment for traffic telematics will be net-
tions necessitates binding agreements cover- worked to form a multimedia system.

1 CARTRONIC®: Design schematic

Vehicle coordination Mobile

Vehicle Bodywork and On-board

Drive electrical
movement interior system

æ UAE0674-3E
Robert Bosch GmbH

88 Actuators Electropneumatic Transducers

Actuators convert the electrical output sig- The swirl can be modified by the swirl con-
nals from the ECU into mechanical quanti- troller (flap or slide valve) near to the intake
ties (e.g. for setting the EGR valve or the valve.
throttle valve).
Intake-manifold flap
Electropneumatic On the passenger-car UIS, the intake-mani-
transducers fold flap cuts off the supply of air when the
engine is switched off so that less air is com-
EGR valve pressed and the engine stops smoothly. The
With exhaust-gas recirulation (EGR) a por- flap is controlled by an electropneumatic
tion of the exhaust gas is led back into the valve.
engine’s intake tract with the object of re-
ducing toxic emissions. Throttle valve
The quantity of exhaust gas directed back The throttle valve is controlled by an elec-
to the engine is controlled by an electrop- tropneumatic valve, and in the diesel engine
neumatic valve situated between the exhaust its function is very different to that in the
tract and the intake tract. In future, electric gasoline engine. On the diesel engine it
valves will be used for this purpose. serves to increase the EGR rate by reducing
the overpressure in the intake manifold.
Boost-pressure actuator Throttle-valve control is only operative in
In order to provide for high engine torque at the lower speed range.
low engine speeds, the exhaust-gas tur-
bocharger is designed to generate high boost
pressure in this rotational-speed range. To
prevent the generation of excessive boost
pressure at high engine turbocharger speeds,
the boost-pressure control’s actuator diverts
some of the exhaust gas around the exhaust-
gas turbocharger’s turbine by means of a so-
called wastegate (Fig. 1).
Instead of the wastegate, turbines with
variable turbine geometry (VTG) can be
used to adapt the turbocharger’s output. In 1 Boost-pressure control with boost-pressure actuator
the case of VTG, an electrical or electrop-
neumatic valve varies the angle of the tur- 9
bine blades in the exhaust-gas passage.

Swirl controller
In the passenger car, swirl control is applied
Figure 1 6
1 Boost-pressure ac-
to influence the swirl motion of the intake
tuator air in the cylinder. The swirl itself is usually 3 8 4
2 Vacuum pump generated by spiral-shaped intake ports.
3 Pressure actuator Since it determines the mixing of fuel and 5
4 Exhaust-gas tur- air in the combustion chamber, it has con-
bocharger siderable influence upon combustion qual-
æ UMK1551-9Y

5 Bypass valve
ity. As a rule, a pronounced swirl is gener- 1 2
6 Exhaust-gas flow
7 Intake-air flow
ated at low speeds, and a weak swirl at high
8 Turbine speeds.
9 Compressor
Robert Bosch GmbH

Actuators Continuous-operation braking systems 89

Continuous-operation stream of the gearbox and is thus also effec-

tive when passing through neutral during
braking systems gear changes. There are two different sys-
These braking systems are used for reducing tems:
the speed of heavy trucks without causing
wear of the conventional braking compo- Hydrodynamic retarder
nents. They cannot stop the vehicle though. Comprises a rotatable turbine wheel (brake
Since, in contrast to service brake systems rotor) and at the opposite end a fixed tur-
with friction wheel brakes, they adequately bine wheel (brake stator). The rotor is me-
dissipate the braking heat even when they chanically connected to the vehicle drive.
are applied over a long period, continuous- When the brakes are applied, the blade
operation braking systems are most suitable chambers in the stator and rotor fill with oil.
for slowing down the vehicle on extended This oil is accelerated by the (rotating) rotor
downhill gradients. As a result, the friction and decelerated by the (fixed) stator. In the
brakes are used less and remain cool so that process, the kinetic energy is converted to
they can be applied to full effect in an emer- heat and dissipated to the engine coolant.
gency. The continuous-operation braking The quantities of oil entering the rotor and
system is controlled by the engine-manage- stator chambers can be used for infinite
ment ECU. variation of the braking effect.

Exhaust brake Electrodynamic retarder

The injection of fuel into the engine is cut This comprises an air-cooled soft-iron disk
off when the exhaust brake is switched on, which rotates in a controllable electromag-
and intake air which is drawn into the cylin- netic field generated by the vehicle battery.
der is forced out again without having The resulting eddy currents brake the disk,
mixed with fuel. An electropneumatic valve and with it the vehicle wheels. The braking
operates a rotary valve or a flap in the ex- effect is infinitely variable.
haust pipe which serves as an obstacle to the
intake air attempting to leave the engine Engine-fan control
through the exhaust pipe. The resulting air
cushion generated in the cylinder brakes the As a function of coolant temperature, the
piston in the compression and exhaust engine ECU switches the engine's fan on
strokes. With the exhaust brake, there is no and off as required using an electromagnetic
means of varying the degree of braking in- clutch.
tensity. Electrically powered fans are being used
increasingly. Since they are not driven by the
Auxiliary engine brake engine V-belt, this permits innovative solu-
When the engine is to be braked, an electro- tions regarding their location in the engine
hydraulic valve-lifting device opens the ex- compartment.
haust valve at the end of the compression
stroke. The compression pressure collapses
as a result and energy is removed from the
system. Lube oil is used as the hydraulic
switching medium.

The retarder is an auxiliary braking system
which is completely independent of the en-
gine. It is installed in the drivetrain down-
Robert Bosch GmbH

90 Actuators Start-assist systems

Start-assist systems injection system’s supply pump delivers fuel

to the flame plug through a solenoid valve.
Compared to gasoline, diesel fuel is far more The flame plug’s connection fitting is pro-
easily ignited. This is why the warm diesel vided with a filter, and a metering device
engine starts immediately when cranked. which permits passage of precisely the right
The DI (direct injection) diesel engine even amount of fuel appropriate to the particular
starts immediately at temperatures down to engine. This fuel then evaporates in an evap-
0 °C. When starting, the 250 °C auto-ignition orator tube surrounding the tubular heating
temperature is reached when the engine is element and mixes with the intake air. The
cranked at its starting speed. Prechamber en- resulting mixture ignites on the 1000 °C
gines (IDI – indirect injection) engines need heating element at the flame-plug tip. The
some form of start-assist system when start- heating power is limited since the heater
ing “cold”. DI engines on the other hand only flame must not consume more than a frac-
need assistance when starting below 0 °C. tion of the oxygen needed for subsequent
The cylinders of prechamber and swirl- combustion in the engine cylinder.
chamber engines are equipped with a
sheathed-element glow plug (GSK) in their Electrical heating
auxiliary combustion chamber which func- A number of heater elements in the air-intake
tions as a “hot spot”. On small DI engines system are switched on and off by a relay.
(up to 1 l/cylinder), this “hot spot” is located
on the combustion chamber’s periphery. Sheathed-element glow plug
Large DI truck engines on the other hand The sheathed-element glow plug’s (GSK)
have the alternative of using air preheating in glow element is so firmly pressed into the
the intake manifold (flame start), or special, glow-plug shell (Fig. 1, Pos. 3) that a gas-
easily ignitable fuel (Start Pilot) which is tight seal is formed. The element is a metal
sprayed into the intake air. Today, sheathed- glow tube (4) which is resistant to both cor-
element glow plugs are used practically with- rosion and hot gases, and which contains a
out exception in start-assist systems. heater (glow) element embedded in magne-
sium-oxide powder (6). This heater element
Intake-air pre-heating comprises two series-connected resistors:
Flame glow plug the helical heating wire (7) in the glow-tube
The flame glow plug burns fuel in the intake tip, and the control filament (5). Whereas
tract to heat the incoming air. Normally, the the helical heating wire maintains virtually

1 Sheathed-element glow plug GSK2

Figure 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 Electrical connector
2 Insulating washer
3 Glow-plug shell
4 Glow tube
5 Control filament
6 Filling powder
æ UMS0685-2Y

7 Helical heating wire

8 Heater-element gas- 10 9 8 1 cm
9 Double gasket
10 Round nut
Robert Bosch GmbH

Actuators Start-assist systems 91

constant electrical resistance regardless of a result leads to the initiation of the com-
temperature, the control filament is made of bustion process.
material with a positive temperature coeffi- In the warm-up phase following a suc-
cient (PTC). On newer-generation glow cessful start, post-glow contributes to fault-
plugs (GSK2), its resistance increases even less engine running (no misfiring) and
more rapidly with rising temperature than therefore to practically smokeless engine
was the case with the conventional S-RSK run-up and idle. At the same time, when the
glow plug. This means that the newer GSK2 engine is cold, pre-heating reduces combus-
glow plugs are characterized by reaching the tion noise. A glow-plug safety switchoff pre-
temperature needed for ignition far more vents battery discharge in case the engine
quickly (850 °C in 4 s). They also feature a cannot be started.
lower steady-state temperature which means The glow control unit can be coupled to
that their temperature is limited to a non- the ECU of the Electronic Diesel Control
critical level. The result is that the GSK2 (EDC) so that information available in the
glow plug can remain on for up to 3 minutes EDC control unit can be applied for opti-
following engine start. This post-glow fea- mum control of the glow plugs in accor-
ture improves both the warm-up and run- dance with the particular operating condi-
up phases with considerable improvements tions. This is yet another possibility for re-
in noise and exhaust-gas emissions. ducing the levels of blue smoke and noise.

Glow control unit 2 EDC-controlled glow system in a direct-injection

(DI) diesel engine
The glow control unit (GZS) uses a power
relay for triggering the glow plugs. It receives
its start pulse from the engine ECU via a
2 3
temperature sensor. Figure 2
The glow control unit controls the glow 1 Sheathed-element
4 5
duration of the glow plugs, as well as having glow plug
safety and monitoring functions. Using their 2 Glow control unit
6 7 3 Glow-plug and
diagnosis functions, more sophisticated
starter switch
glow control units are also able to recognise 1
æ UMS0691-2Y

4 To battery
the failure of individual glow plugs and in- 5 Indicator lamp
form the driver accordingly. Multiple plugs 6 Control line to the
are used as the control inputs to the glow engine ECU
control units. 7 Diagnosis line

3 Typical preheating sequence

Functional sequence
The diesel engine’s glow plug and starter
switch, which controls the preheat and start- 1
Figure 3
ing sequence, functions in a similar manner 1 Glow-plug and
to the ignition and starting switch on the 2 starter switch
gasoline engine. Switching to the “ignition 2 Starter
on” position starts the preheating process 3 3 Indicator lamp
(Fig. 3). When the glow-indicator lamp ex- 4 To battery
tinguishes, this indicates that the glow plugs 5 Glow plugs
æ UMS0667-2E

6 Self-sustained en-
are hot enough for the engine to start, and tV tS tN
gine operation
cranking can begin. In the following starting 5 tV Preheating time
phase, the droplets of injected fuel ignite in 6 Time t
tS Ready to start
the hot compressed air. The heat released as tN Postheating time
Robert Bosch GmbH

92 Index of technical terms

Index of Technical Terms

An arrow p indicates a Technical term D
term in italics Data exchange with other
(e.g. p Common Rail A systems, 46, 47, 82f
System) which is a syn- Accelerator-pedal sensor, 32, 33 Data processing (ECU), 38f
onym or related term. Accumulator injection system Diagnosis interface, 80
p Common Rail System (CRS) Diagnosis, 78f
Active surge damping control, 52 Digital input signals, 39
Actuator diagnosis, 80 Distributor injection pumps,
Air-mass meter, 34, 35 –, EDC overview, 15, 16
Altitude compensation, 53 –, EDC triggering (actuators), 64, 65
Analog input signals, 38 –, EDC triggering (high-pressure
Angle-of-rotation sensor (ARS) solenoid valve), 66, 67
(distributor pumps), 27 –, EDC principle of functioning, 7, 8
Arbitration (CAN-Bus), 84 Drive Recorder, 63
ASIC (ECU), 41
Auxiliary coolant heating, 73 E
Electronic control unit (ECU), 38f
B ECU link-up
BIP control, 56 –, Unit injector system, 72
Blower (or fan) triggering, 74, 89 EGR
Boost-pressure control, 74, 88 –, Lambda-based closed-loop
Boot-shaped injection characteristic control, 58
(Unit Pump System), 72 Electronic Diesel Control (EDC),
Broad-band Lambda oxygen sensor, 36 –, Functional overview, 45, 48
–, Functions, 44f
C –, Overview, 12f
Cascade control End-of-Line (EoL) programming, 42
(Lambda closed-loop control), 59 Engine (exhaust) brake, 89
Characteristic data for injection Engine test bench, 62
systems (Overview), 5 Engine-brake function, 53
Closed-loop control, 44 EPROM, EEPROM, 41
Closed-loop start-of-delivery control Exhaust-gas recirculation
(IWZ signal), 7 (EGR), 74, 88
Common Rail System (CRS),
–, EDC triggering, 68f F
–, EDC overview, 17 Flame glow plugs, 90
–, Principle of functioning, 10 Flash-EPROM, 41
Continuous-operation braking Fuel-quantity mean-value adaptation
systems, 89 (Lambda closed-loop control), 59
Controller Area Network (CAN), 82f –, Operating mode: Direct and
Cruise control indirect control, 60
p Vehicle-speed control 49 Full-load smoke limitation
Cylinder shutoff, 53 (Lambda closed-loop control), 60
Cylinder-balance control, 52
Glow control unit, 91

Half-differential short-circuiting-ring
(Rack-travel sensor), 30
Hot-film air-mass meter, 34, 35
Robert Bosch GmbH

Index of technical terms 93

Identifier (CAN addressing), 84 Rack-travel sensor, 30 Vehicle-speed control
Idle-speed control, 50 RAM, 41 (cruise control), 51
Incremental angle/time (IWZ) Real-time compatibility, 43 Vehicle-speed limitation, 51
signal, 55 Recharge, 69
Incremental angle-of-rotation sensor Retarder, 89 W
(ARS) (Distributor injection ROM, 40 Wastegate
pump), 27 p Boost-pressure control, 81, 88
Injected-fuel-quantity limit, 53 S
In-line fuel-injection pumps Sensors, 20f
–, EDC triggering, 63, 64 –, Accelerator-pedal, 32, 33
–, EDC overview, 14f –, Angle-of-rotation, 27
–, EDC principle of functioning, 6 –, Half-differential short-circuiting-
Intake-air pre-heating, 90 ring, 30
Intake-duct switch-off, 73 –, Lambda oxygen, 36, 37
Intake-manifold flap, 88 –, Needle-motion, 31
Intermediate-speed control, 51 –, Phase (camshaft), 28, 29
–, Pressure, 22f
L –, Rotational-speed, 26
Lambda closed-loop control, 57f –, Temperature, 21
Lambda oxygen sensor, 36 Sheathed-element glow plug, 90, 91
p Broad-band Lambda oxygen Single-plunger fuel-injection pumps
sensor, 36 (Principle of functioning), 8
Smooth-running control (SRC), 52
M Solenoid-valve-controlled injection
Main Injection (MI), 68 systems
Max. rpm control, 50 p Common Rail System (CRS)
Memory (ECU), 40, 41 p Distributor injection pumps
Message format (CAN), 85, 86 p Unit Pump System (UPS)
p Unit Injector System (UIS)
N Start-of-injection control
Needle-motion sensor, 31 (Needle-motion sensor), 54
Start-assist systems, 90, 91
O Start quantity, 50
On-Board-Diagnosis (OBD), 81 Substitute functions/Equivalent
Open-loop control, 44 functions, 74
Oxygen pump cell Swirl controller, 88
p Broad-band Lambda oxygen
sensor, 36 T
Throttle valve, 88
P Torque control, 75f
Parameters (engine), 75 Triggering (injection system), 63f
Phase sensor (camshaft), 28, 29
Port-and-helix controlled injection U
systems Unit Injector System (UIS),
p Distributor injection pumps –, EDC triggering, 71, 72
p In-line injection pumps –, EDC overview, 18, 19
Post injection (POI), 68 –, Principle of functioning, 9,
Pre-glow, 90, 91 Unit Pump System (UPS),
Pulse-shaped input signals, 39 –, EDC triggering, 71, 72
Pulse-width-modulated (pwm) –, EDC overview, 19
signal, 42 –, Principle of functioning, 9
Robert Bosch GmbH

94 Index of technical terms Abbreviations

Abbreviations F
FGB: p Vehicle-speed limitation
A FGR: p Vehicle-speed control
ABS: Antilock Braking System (Cruise Control)
ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control
A/D: Analog/Digital G
ADF: Atmospheric-pressure sensor GSK: p Sheathed-element glow plug
AGR: p Exhaust-gas recirculation GZS: p Glow control unit
ARD: p Active surge-damping control H
ARF: p Exhaust-gas recirculation HC: Generic term for hydrocarbons
(EGR) HDK: Half-differential short-circuiting-
ARS: Angle-of-rotation sensor ring sensor p Sensors
p Accelerator-pedal sensor HE: Main Injection p MI
ASIC: Application Specific Integrated HFM: (p Hot-film air-mass meter)
Circuit HGB: (p Vehicle-speed limitation)
ASR: Traction Control System (TCS)
AZG: Adaptive cylinder balancing I
IDI: Indirect Injection
B (Prechamber engines)
BIP signal: Signal for Beginning of the ISO: International Organization for
Injection Period (also known as Standardization
Begin of Injection Period) IWZ-Signal: p Incremental angle/time
p (BIP control) signal

CAN: p Controller Area Network KW: Crankshaft (cks)
CO: Carbon monoxide
CO2: Carbon dioxide L
CR System: p Common Rail System LDR: p Boost-pressure control
LLR: p Idle-speed control
D LRR: p Smooth-running control
DI: Direct Injection
DZG: Rotational-speed sensor M
(p Sensors) MAB: Fuel shutoff
MAR: p Smooth Running Control
EAB: p ELAB MI: p Main Injection
ECE: Economic Commission for MIL: Malfuction Indicator Lamp
Europe (diagnosis lamp)
EDC: Electronic Control Unit MMA: p Fuel-quantity mean-value
(p Electronic Diesel Control) adaptation (Lambda closed-loop
EG: European Union control)
ELAB: Electrical shutoff valve MNEFZ: Modified new European
(In-line and distributor pumps) driving cycle (exhaust-gas test)
EMV: Electromagnetic compatibility MSG: Engine ECU
(EMC) MV: Solenoid valve
EOBD: European p On-Board
EOL programming:
p End-of-Line programming
ESP: Electronic Stability Program
EU: European Union
Robert Bosch GmbH

Index of technical terms Abbreviations 95

NBF: Needle-motion sensor VE p Distributor injection
p Sensors pump
NBS: p Needle-motion sensor VP30: Solenoid-valve-controlled axial-
NE: p Post injection p POI piston p Distributor injection
NOX: Generic term for oxides of pump
nitrogen VP44: Radial-piston pump
NTC: Negative Temperature p Distributor injection pump
Coefficient VR pump: Radial-piston-
NW: Camshaft (cms) p Distributor injection pump
VTG: Turbocharger with Variable
O Turbine Geometry
O2: Oxygen
OBD: p On-Board Diagnosis Z
OT: Top Dead Center (TDC) ZDR: p Intermediate-speed control

PDE: p Unit Injector System
PE pump: p In-line fuel-injection
PF pump: p Single-plunger fuel-
injection pumps
PI: Pilot Injection
PLD: p Unit Pump system (UPS)
POI: Post Injection
p Distributor injection pumps
PTC: Positive Temperature Coefficient
PWG: Accelerator-pedal sensor
p Sensors
PWM signal: p Pulse-width-
modulated (pwm) signal

RWG: p Rack-travel sensor

SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers
SRC: p Smooth Running Control

TCS: p (ASR)
TD signal: Rotational-speed signal
TQ signal: Fuel-consumption signal

UIS: p Unit Injector System
UPS: p Unit Pump System
UT: Bottom Dead Center (BDC)