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TEMPOS VERBAIS DA LÍNGUA INGLESA E SEUS USOS:

PERFECT
SIMPLE CONTINUOUS PERFECT (SIMPLE)
(CONTINUOUS)
Present Ações habituais, Ações em progresso no Ações que Ações em progresso
rotina, verdades momento da fala; aconteceram no que começaram no
universais e fatos planos futuros (quando passado sem passado e se estende
científicos; acompanhado da especificar quando até o presente,
expressão de tempo aconteceu; ações podendo continuar
indicando futuro) passadas que tem no futuro (enfatiza-se
ligação com o a duração da ação)
presente.

Past Ações que Ações em progresso em Ações que Ações em progresso


aconteceram e determinado tempo no aconteceram antes antes de outra ação
terminaram no passado. de outra no passado no passado (enfatiza-
passado. (passado do se a duração da ação)
passado)

Future* Previsões; decisões Ações que estarão em Ações que estarão Ações em progresso
imediatas progresso em completas antes de que estarão
determinado tempo no outra ação no completas antes de
futuro. futuro. outra ação no futuro
(enfatiza-se a
*Exceção: BE Planos futuros duração da ação)
GOING TO
(Future)

FÓRMULAS, VERBOS AUXILIARES E EXEMPLOS

SIMPLE TENSES:

 SIMPLE PRESENT: SUJEITO + VERBO (S)


Os verbos auxiliares do Simple Present são: DO e DOES e são utilizados de acordo com o sujeito da frase.
DOES é utilizado somente para os pronomes pessoais HE, SHE e IT (terceira pessoa do singular) ou quando o
substantivo/nome está no singular e DO é usado para todos os outros pronomes ou quando
substantivos/nomes estão no plural. Estes verbos auxiliares são utilizados somente nas frases negativas
(doesn't ou don't) e interrogativas (sempre antecedendo o sujeito).
Nas frases afirmativas ocorrerá uma mudança nos verbos quando estes estão conjugados na terceira pessoa
do singular. Alguns terão a letra S acrescentada a eles e outros terão ES ou IES de acordo com sua
terminação:
 A maioria dos verbos acrescenta-se apenas S: work- works / read - reads
 Verbos terminados com s, sh, ch, x, o, z acrescenta-se ES: fix - fixes / reach - reaches / crash - crashes
/ go - goes
 Verbos terminados em y mas são precedidos por uma consoante, acrescenta-se IES: cry - cries / fly -
flies
 Exceção: Have - has

Obs: nas frases negativas e interrogativas da terceira pessoa do singular, o verbo principal será
sempre usado no infinitivo.

Conjugação Simple Present Tense - Verbo STUDY:


AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA
I study English. I don't study English. Do I study English?
You study English. You don't study English. Do you study English?
He studies English. He doesn't study English. Does he study English?
She studies English. She doesn't study English. Does she study English?
It studies English. It doesn't study English. Does it study English?
We study English. We don't study English. Do we study English?
You study English. You don't study English. Do you study English?
They study English. They don't study English. Do they study English?

Alguns advérbios de tempo / frequência utilizados com o Simple Present: every day, always, usually,
sometimes, never, once a week, etc.

 SIMPLE PAST: SUJEITO + VERBO NO PASSADO


O verbo auxiliar do Simple Past é o DID. Ele é utilizado para todos os pronomes. Este verbo auxiliar é
utilizado somente nas frases negativas (didn't) e interrogativas (sempre antecedendo o sujeito).
Existem dois tipo de verbos: REGULARES e IRREGULARES. Os verbos regulares são aqueles que recebem a
terminação ED quando conjugados no passado ou particípio passado. Os irregulares são aqueles cuja forma
no passado e particípio são, ou totalmente modificados não havendo uma regra ou, em alguns casos,
possuem a mesma forma tanto no infinitivo quanto no passado e particípio.
Os verbos regulares podem terminação em ED, D ou IED de acordo com a sua terminação:
 A maioria dos verbos acrescenta-se apenas ED: work- worked / play - played
 Verbos terminados com consoante + vogal+ consoante (CVC) acrescenta-se a ultima consoante da
mesma + ED: shop - shoppped / plan - planned
 Verbos terminados em y mas são precedidos por uma consoante, acrescenta-se IEd: cry - cried /
study - studied
 Os verbos terminados em e recebem apenas a letra D: change - changed / love - loved

Obs: nas frases negativas e interrogativas da terceira pessoa do singular, o verbo principal será
sempre usado no infinitivo.

Conjugação Simple Past Tense - Verbo STUDY:

AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


I studied English. I didn't study English. Did I study English?
You studied English. You didn't study English. Did you study English?
He studied English. He didn't study English. Did he study English?
She studied English. She didn't study English. Did she study English?
It studied English. It didn't study English. Did it study English?
We studied English. We didn't study English. Did we study English?
You studied English. You didn't study English. Did you study English?
They studied English. They didn't study English. Did they study English?

Alguns advérbios de tempo / frequência utilizados com o Simple Present: yesterday, yesterday morning, last
week, last month, last night, the day before yesterday, three years ago, in 1998, in the twentieth century,
etc.

 SIMPLE FUTURE: SUJEITO + WILL + VERBO (INFINITIVO)


O verbo auxiliar do Simple Future é o WILL. Ele é utilizado para todos os pronomes. Este verbo auxiliar é
utilizado em todas os tipos de frases: afirmativas, negativas (won't) e interrogativas (sempre antecedendo o
sujeito).
Obs: o verbo principal é sempre usado no infinitivo.

Conjugação Simple Future Tense - Verbo STUDY:

AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


I will study English. I won't study English. Will I study English?
You will study English. You won't study English. Will you study English?
He will study English. He won't study English. Will he study English?
She will study English. She won't study English. Will she study English?
It will study English. It won't study English. Will it study English?
We will study English. We won't study English. Will we study English?
You will study English. You won't study English. Will you study English?
They will study English. They won't study English. Will they study English?

Alguns advérbios de tempo / frequência utilizados com o Simple Present: tomorrow, next week, next month,
tonight, etc.

EXCEÇÃO: Há também o tempo verbal futuro BE GOING TO que é conjugado de acordo com o verbo
BE e expressa uma ação futura que foi planejada. A fórmula é BE GOING TO + VERB (Infinitivo).
Ex: They are going to travel next month.

CONTINUOUS TENSES:

 PRESENT CONTINUOUS: SUJEITO + BE + VERBO +ING


O Present Continuous será sempre formado pela conjugação do verbo BE e o verbo principal com a
terminação ING.
 Verbos terminados com consoante + vogal+ consoante (CVC) acrescenta-se a ultima consoante da
mesma + ING: shop - shopping / plan - planning
 Verbos terminados em E retira-se o mesmo e acrescenta-se ING: take - taking / make - making

Conjugação Present Continuous Tense - Verbo STUDY:

AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


I am studying English. I am not studying English. Am I studying English?
You are studying English. You aren't studying English. Are you studying English?
He is studying English. He isn't studying English. Is he studying English?
She is studying English. She isn't studying English. Is she studying English?
It is studying English. It isn't studying English. Is it studying English?
We are studying English. We aren't studying English. Are we studying English?
You are studying English. You aren't studying English. Are you studying English?
They are studying English. They aren't studying English. Are they studying English?

Alguns advérbios de tempo / frequência utilizados com o Simple Present: now, right now, at the moment,
etc.
Obs: o Present Continuous também pode ser usado para expressar um plano futuro, assim como o BE GOING
TO, quando utilizado com o advérbio de tempo expressando futuro.

 PAST CONTINUOUS: SUJEITO + BE (PAST) + VERBO +ING


O Past Continuous será sempre formado pela conjugação do verbo BE no passado e o verbo principal com a
terminação ING.

Conjugação Past Continuous Tense - Verbo STUDY:

AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


I was studying English. I wasn't studying English. Was I studying English?
You were studying English. You weren't studying English. Were you studying English?
He was studying English. He wasn't studying English. Was he studying English?
She was studying English. She wasn't studying English. Was she studying English?
It was studying English. It wasn't studying English. Was it studying English?
We were studying English. We weren't studying English. Were we studying English?
You werestudying English. You weren't studying English. Were you studying English?
They were studying English. They weren't studying English. Were they studying English?

Alguns advérbios de tempo / frequência utilizados com o Simple Present: then, at that time, at that
moment, etc.

 FUTURE CONTINUOUS: SUJEITO + WILL + BE + VERBO +ING


O Future Continuous será sempre formado pelo verbo auxiliar WILL + a forma infinitiva do verbo BE e o verbo
principal com a terminação ING.

Conjugação Future Continuous Tense - Verbo STUDY:

AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


I will be studying English. I won't be studying English. Will I be studying English?
You will be studying English. You won't be studying English. Will you be studying English?
He will be studying English. He won't be studying English. Will he be studying English?
She will be studying English. She won't be studying English. Will she be studying English?
It will be studying English. It won't be studying English. Will It be studying English?
We will be studying English. We won't be studying English. Will we be studying English?
You will be studying English. You won't be studying English. Will you be studying English?
They will be studying English. They won't be studying English. Will they be studying English?

Alguns advérbios de tempo / frequência utilizados com o Simple Present: at this time tomorrow, next
Sunday in the morning, in a while, within some hours, etc.

PERFECT TENSES:

 PRESENT PERFECT: SUJEITO + HAVE/HAS + PARTICÍPIO PASSADO VERBO


Os verbos auxiliares do Present Perfect é HAVE ou HAS de acordo com o sujeito da frase. HAS é utilizado
quando o sujeito for a terceira pessoa do singular e HAVE nos outros casos. O verbo principal é conjugado
no particípio passado. A negativa é hasn't ou haven't.

Conjugação Present Perfect Tense - Verbo STUDY:

AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


I have studied English. I haven't studied English. Have I studied English?
You have studied English. You haven't studied English. Have you studied English?
He has studied English. He hasn't studied English. Has he studied English?
She has studied English. She hasn't studied English. Has she studied English?
It has studied English. It hasn't studied English. Has it studied English?
We have studied English. We haven't studied English. Have we studied English?
You have studied English. You haven't studied English. Have you studied English?
They have studied English. They haven't studied English. Have they studied English?

Alguns advérbios de tempo / frequência utilizados com o Present Perfect: recently, lately, just, ever, never,
always, yet, so far, before, etc.

Obs: o Present Perfect se refere a uma ação no passado cujo tempo não é definido, diferentemente do
Simple Past, que se refere a uma ação no passado com tempo definido.

 PAST PERFECT: SUJEITO + HAD + PARTICÍPIO PASSADO DO VERBO


O verbo auxiliar do Past Perfect é o HAD . O verbo principal é conjugado no particípio passado. A negativa é
hadn't.

Conjugação Past Perfect - Verbo STUDY:

AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


I had studied English. I hadn't studied English. Had I studying English?
You had studied English. You hadn't studied English. Had you studying English?
He had studied English. He hadn't studied English. Had he studying English?
She had studied English. She hadn't studied English. Had she studying English?
It had studied English. It hadn't studied English. Had it studying English?
We had studied English. We hadn't studied English. Had we studying English?
You had studied English. You hadn't studied English. Had you studying English?
They had studied English. They hadn't studied English. Had they studying English?

Alguns advérbios de tempo / frequência utilizados com o Simple Present: when, by the time, as soon as,
after, before, etc.

 FUTURE PERFECT: SUJEITO + WILL + HAVE + PARTICÍPIO PASSADO DO VERBO


O Future Continuous será sempre formado pelo verbo auxiliar WILL + a forma infinitiva do verbo HAVE e o
verbo principal no particípio passado.

Conjugação FuturePerfect Tense - Verbo STUDY:


AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA
I will have studied English. I won't have studied English. Will I have studied English?
You will have studied English. You won't have studied English. Will you have studied English?
He will have studied English. He won't have studied English. Will he have studied English?
She will have studied English. She won't have studied English. Will she have studied English?
It will have studied English. It won't have studied English. Will it have studied English?
We will have studied English. We won't have studied English. Will we have studied English?
You will have studied English. You won't have studied English. Will you have studied English?
They will have studied English. They won't have studied English. Will they have studied English?

Alguns advérbios de tempo / frequência utilizados com o Simple Present: when, by the time, as soon as,
after, before, etc.

PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSES:

As formas continuas do Present Perfect são utilizadas nos lugar das formas simples para enfatizar a duração
das ações. As fórmulas são:
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: SUJEITO + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + VERBO + ING
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS: SUJEITO + HAD + BEEN + VERBO + ING
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS: SUJEITO + WILL + HAVE + VERBO + ING

São utilizadas as conjunções FOR e SINCE para expressar o tempo necessário para a ação.
FOR + período de tempo. Ex: for 5 years.
SINCE + ponto de início. Ex: since last year.

Por: FELIPE ROGEL SILVA