Você está na página 1de 40

Workplace Safety in Malaysia

HIRARC
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Contents in HIRARC-DOSH
1. What is HIRARC?
2. Terms & Definitions
3. Purpose of HIRARC
4. Process of HIRARC
5. Control Measures
6. Documenting HIRARC
7. Consultation
8. Training
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

What is HIRARC?
 Systematic & objective approach for
assessment of HAZARDS & RISKS in the
workplace

 Developed by DOSH as guideline and can be


used by all economic sectors (manufacturing,
construction, others)

 One of the general duties prescribed under


the OSHA 1994 for the employer to provide a
safe workplaces to their employees and
other related person
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Terms and Definitions

HAZARD a source or a situation


with a potential for harm in terms of
human injury or ill health, damage to
property, environment or a
combination of these
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Examples of Workplace Hazards


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Examples of Workplace Hazards


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Examples of Workplace Hazards


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Examples of Workplace Hazards


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Examples of Workplace Hazards


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Examples of Workplace Hazards


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Examples of Workplace Hazards


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Examples of Workplace Hazards


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Ir. Dr. Parthiban, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Terms and Definitions

HAZARD CONTROL
the process of implementing
measures to reduce the risk
associated with a hazard

HIERARCHY OF CONTROL
the established priority order for
the types of measures to be used
to control risks
Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Terms and Definitions

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
• A process used to identify
possible situations where
people may be exposed to
injury, illness or disease, the
type of injury or illness that
may result from these and the
way in which work is organized
and managed
Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Terms and Definitions
RISK
• The chance/likelihood/possibility of a hazard actually causing injury
or disease
• It is a combination of likelihood and severity of a specified hazardous
event
• Can be expressed by the equation:

RISK = LIKELIHOOD X SEVERITY


Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Terms and Definitions
LIKELIHOOD & SEVERITY
• Likelihood – an event likely to occur within the specific period/
circumstances
• Severity – outcome from the event (severity of injury/health/
damage)
Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Terms and Definitions
RISK ASSESSMENT
• the process of evaluating the risks with regards to safety and
health arising from hazards at workplace
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Terms and Definitions

RISK MANAGEMENT
• the total procedure associated
with identifying a hazard,
assessing the risk, putting in
place control measures, and
reviewing the outcomes.
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Purpose of HIRARC

• To identify all the factors (HAZARDS) that may cause harm to


employees and others

• To consider what the chances (RISKS) are of that harm


actually be falling anyone in the circumstances of a particular
case and the possible severity that could come from it

• To enable employers to plan, introduce and monitor


preventive measures (CONTROL) to ensure that the risks are
adequately controlled at all times
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

HIRARC activities shall be plan and conducted:

A. For situation –
• where hazard appear to pose significant threat
• uncertain whether existing controls are adequate
• before implementing corrective or preventive measures.

B. By organization –
• intending to continuously improve OSH Management
System
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Process of HIRARC
• Classify work activities
• Identify HAZARD
• Conduct RISK ASSESSMENT
i. Likelihood of occurrence
ii. Severity of hazard
• Decide if risk is tolerable and apply control measures
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Flow chart of HIRARC Process


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Classify Work Activities

Classification based on similarities:

• Geographical or physical areas within/outside premises


• Stages in production/service process
• Not too big (e.g. car manufacturing process0
• Not too small (e.g. fixing a small item)
• Defined task e.g. loading, packing, mixing, fixing the door
Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Hazard Identification Technique
The employer shall develop a hazard identification & assessment
methodology taking into account the following documents and
information –
• Any hazardous occurrence investigation reports
• First aid records and minor injury records
• Workplace health protection programs
• Any results of workplace inspections
• Any employee complaints and comments
• Any government or employer reports, studies and tests concerning
the health and safety of employees
• Any reports made under the regulation of OSHA 1994
• The record of hazardous substances
• Any other relevant information
Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Analyze & Estimate Risk
 Risk analysis can be Qualitative, Semi Quantitative &
Quantitative.
• Qualitative Analysis describe the magnitude of potential
severity and likelihood of its occurrence
• Semi-Quantitative Analysis, qualitative scales are given
certain numerical value. Doesn’t give realistic values but
provide more expanded ranking scale for the risk assessment
• Quantitative Analysis provides numerical value for severity
and likelihood using previous accidents’ data and scientific
research
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Estimate Risk
• Based on workers’ experience, analysis or measurement

• Likelihood ranges from “most likely” to “inconceivable”

• For example,
 a small spill of bleach when filling a spray bottle is
most likely to occur during every shift
 the diesel leakage from a secure holding tank is less
probable to occur
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Risk Estimation: Likelihood of an Occurence

Table A indicates Likelihood using the following values


Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Risk Estimation: Likelihood of an Occurence

Table B indicates Severity using the following values


Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Risk Estimation: Likelihood of an Occurence
Table C indicates Level of Risk using the following values

Risk (R) = Likelihood (L) x Severity (S)


Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Risk Estimation: Likelihood of an Occurence
Table D indicates Level of Risk, Description and Action Required
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Control
• Control is the elimination or inactivation of a hazard in a
manner such that the hazard does not pose a risk to workers
who have to enter into an area or work on equipment in the
course of scheduled work
• Control should be closer to the hazard, referred to as
applying engineering controls
• Hazards can also be controlled along the path to the worker,
between the source and the worker, referred to as applying
administrative controls
• If this is not possible, hazards must be controlled
at the level of the worker through the use of
personal protective equipment (PPE)
Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Workplace Safety in Malaysia
Documenting HIRARC
Responsibility and Accountability
Individual or team who identified the hazard must ensure
proper communication of the hazard to the appropriate
workplace authority. Each HIRARC must be fully documented.
The HIRARC FORM must be completed by the HIRARC team
and signed by the in charge personnel of the area. Departments
responsible for the hazards and their control are required to
maintain all records of assessments for at least 3 years

Management or employer must endorse and approve the


HIRARC results. Employer must communicate all HIRARC to
employees, monitor the follow up action and keep the records
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

HIRARC Form
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Consultation

If practicable, there must be consultation with the relevant


health and safety representative(s) when identifying, assessing
and controlling risks. Consulting directly with employees and
drawing on their experience and knowledge is more effective in
reducing risk.
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Training
Information, instruction and training
provide employees with the skills and
knowledge to perform their work in a
manner that is safe and without risks to health

It enables them to –
• Follow health and safety procedures
• Use risk controls set in place for their protection
• Have an appreciation of the nature of the hazard, the risks
associated with their use, and the reason why risk controls
are used
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Exercise 1

Scenario 1: Wood Panel Cutting Process

A team of two workers operates a cross-cut saw machine. Their


work includes loading wood panel onto the machine, cutting the
wood and unloading the cut wood. They also need to repair and
maintain the machine regularly as well as to change the blades
of the machine.
Workplace Safety in Malaysia

Exercise 2
Scenario 2: Wall exterior plastering work

A group of three workers was instructed to do plastering work


at exterior wall at first floor of the building. Their work includes
erecting working platform, wall plastering with concrete and do
clearing work.