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SECRETS of PAWN aanpaeaenes FOREWORD BY JOHN Secrets of Pawn Endings Karsten Miller and Frank Lamprecht Translated by Marc Becker Foreword by John Nunn EVERYMAN CHESS Published by Everyman Publishers, London First published in 2000 by Everyman Publishers ple, formerly Cadogan Books ple, Gloucester Mansions, 140A Shaftesbury Avenue, London WC2H 8HD, in association ‘ith Gambit Publications Ltd, 69 Masbro Road, London W14 OLS. Copyright © 2000 Karsten Miller and Frank Lamprecht English language translation © 2000 Mare Becker ‘The right of Karsten Miller and Frank Lamprecht to be identified as the authors of this ‘work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyrights, Designs and Patents Act, 1988. Al rights reserved. No pan of tis publication may be reproduced, stored ina retrieval ‘system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, ‘ape, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission in ‘writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data ‘ACIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 1 85744 255 5 Distributed in North America by The Globe Pequot Press, 6 Business Park Road, P.O. Box 833, Old Saybrook, Connecticut 06475-0833. ‘Telephone 1-800 243 0495 (tol free) All other sales enquiries should be directed to Everyman Chess, Gloucester Mansions, 140A Shaftesbury Avenue, London WC2H 8HD. tel: 0171 539 7600 fax: 0171 379 4060 EVERYMAN CHESS SERIES (formerly Cadogan Chess) Chief Advisor: Garry Kasparov Series Editor: Murray Chandler Edited by Graham Burgess and typeset by Petra Nunn for Gambit Publications Ltd Printed in Great Britain by Redwood Books, Trowbridge, Wis. Contents Foreword by John Nunn Preface Intreduction Crash course ‘The Nunn Convention Other Signs and Symbols 1 King and Pawn(s) vs King Exercises Solutions 2. King and Pawn vs King and Pawn ‘A) Pawns on the Same File B) Pawns on Adjacent Files Exercises Solutions 3. __ Race of the Passed Pawns ‘A) Both Sides Queen a Pawn B) Queen against Pawn(s) ) Transition into a Pain Ending Enercises, Solutions 4 Small Number of Pawns ‘A) Blocked Pair of Pawns and a Passed Pawn 'B) Protected Passed Pawn, ©) Backward Pawn D) Others B) Doubled Pawns Exercises Solutions 5 Unique Features of the Rook’s Pawn 'A) Blocked Pair of Pawns and a Passed Pawn Al) Bar's Rule ‘A2) Bishop's Pawn and Rook's Pawn vs Rook's Pawn 'B) Protected Passed Pawn, © Others 38 38 40 3 49 49 st 52 36 38 6 BESAaa 4 Secrets of Pawn Endings D) Doubled Pawns. Exercises Solutions 6 _ Fortresses, Stalemates and Underpromotion A) Simple Fortesses 'B) Direct Applications (©) Stalemates D) Blockade ) Underpromotion Exercises Solutions 7. Pawns on One Wing ‘A) Fixed Pawn-Structure B) Flexible Pan-Structure (©) Passive Defence D) Active Defence / Counterattack B) Extra Pawn Exercises Solutions 8 Passed Pawns ‘A) Preliminary Considerations B) Batlle between Different Passed Pawns BI) Several Passed Pawns on Both Sides 'B2) Protected Passed Pawn vs Two Passed Pawns 'B3) Protected Passed Pawn vs One Passed Pawn B4) Outside Passed Pawn © Passed Pawn vs Candidate Exercises Solutions 9 Breakthrough ‘A) Far-Advanced Pawns 'B) Breakthrough ofthe Majority ©) Creation of Two Passed Paw 'D) Breakthrough Possibilies forthe Defence Exercises Solutions 10 __ Pawns on Both Wings A) Bxtra Pawn B) Majority vs Central Passed Pawn © Spread Majonities D) Even Distribution of Pawns na na 116 116 1s 120 Im 127 30 134 134 136 138 138 12 4s 145 149 150 155 Contents Exercises Solutions AL __ Fight for Tempi and Manoeuvres A) Typical Manoeuvres with an Even Distribution of Pawns B) “Don't Touch Me! ©) King:-March and Fight for Temp Exerises Solutions 12 __ Corresponding Squares A) Corresponding Squares in Former Examples 'B) Bishop's Pawn and Rook's Pawn vs Rook's Pawn ©) Complicated Cases Exercises Solutions 13 Thinking Methods to Find the Right Move ‘A) The Method of Exclusion B) The Opponent’ Possibilities (C) Fighting Methods D) Balance of Risks B) Rules of Thumb 14 Complicated Cs A) Out of Life B) At the Highest Level ©) CD. Analyses Exercises Solutions 15 Simplifications A) Correctly Assessing Various Endgames B) Good Technique © Combination Exercises Solutions 16 Exercises A) Easy Exercises B) Difficult Exercises (©) Judge the Position ‘Solutions Sources Index 138 160 165 165 169 1 7 180 188 191 193, 196 198 204 205 a 212 213 213 217 230 21 Foreword ‘The extraordinary complexity of chess is familiar to every player. When most of the pieces areon the board, the number of legal moves i relatively large, and so the tee of analysis expands very quickly the deeper one looks into the position. Hu- mans only look ata tiny part ofthis tree, bbuteven soa complex piece of tactics can take a long time to calculate; moreover, the result may not be especially accurate, Computers may be more accurate and {aster when it comes to tactical analysis, ‘but they have problems when it comes to planning and long-term strategic deci sons. Of course, this complexity is what ‘makes chess gameratherthan a calcula- tion if it were possible to evaluate each position definitely, chess would lose its appeal. However, iis fascinating to look ata subset of chess positions which are ‘more amenable to definite analysis. This book is concemed with such a subset — kking and pawn endings. At first sight such endings should be quite simple. AIL the complexity caused by knights, bish- ‘ops and rooks has disappeared, and {queens only put in an appearance in a small percentage of cases. Yet, oddly, this results in a paradox. It is certainly true that the number of legal moves is much less than in a typical middlegame position, and so both computers and hu- ‘mans find it possible to look further into the position. However, this is a dou- ble-edged sword: many king and pawn endings are capable of concrete evalua- tion, so the shades of assessment used for ‘middlegame positions tend to evaporate. Nolongercan one get away witha ‘slight advantage for White’, oF an ‘unclear’, Instead, the player oF analyst has to con tinue his work until he can state “Wi ‘Loss’ or ‘Draw’. To reach such a con: clusion may require exceptionally deep analysis, and prove more troublesome than evaluating a middlegame position. Because king and pawn endings are ‘susceptible to concrete analysis, it might seem that they ae the ideal area for com- puter assistance. However, until recently this has not been the case, and itis only ‘now that some tools are appearing which are of value for the analysis of king and pawn endings, Several years ago dat bases wre created for many five-man ‘endings (my own series of endgame books was based on these) but until very recently there was no database available for the ending +24 v +8, One reason for thisis that in order tocreate such a da- tabase, itis first ofall necessary to create databases for all the endgames which ‘might result after promotion (or underpro- ‘motion) of one or more pawns. Clearly, this is a substantial task. However, the appearance of Hiares 7.32, with the companying Nalimov tablebases, has provided an easily accessible database for +28 v 48. The appearance of this, toot led to. furry of checking by the au- thors at alate stage in the production of this book; in most cases the database up- held the authors’ analysis, but a few er rors were revealed which had to be corrected. ‘Another interesting tool for analysing king and pawn endings isa program writ- ten Lars Rasmussen of Denmark. This, program requires you to feed in a pawn, structure, then it generates a database Foreword 1 ‘based on that pawn structure and all de rivative structures resulting from pawn moves and/or captures. This program has some limitations the main one being that it is currently unable to evaluate any queen endings which might result. Thus it works best in postions which are un- likely to lead toa queen ending (e.g. end ings with all the pawns on one side). Its great advantage is that whereas the Nali- ‘moy databases can only cope with three pawns, the Rasmussen program will work With up to seven. I was able to check ‘many of the positions in this book with ‘the Rasmussen program. Once again, I found the authors’ analysis to be funda- mentally sound, and most of the correc- tions were quite minor. ‘While computer assistance can be of help for many basic king and pawn end- ings, the analyst is more or less on his ‘own when it comes to more complex sit uations. In te past, analysts and authors hhave tended to avoid tackling such messy positions and have preferred to concen- trate on the basic positions, or on postions ‘with blocked paw structures, which are far easier to analyse. However, the authors ‘of this book are players rather than theo reticians, and they have ambitiously tackled a large mumber of complex prac tical examples with many pawns. The re sulting analysis has been an eye-opener {or me, and shows how difficult many Practical king and pawn endings are. ‘This point is reinforced by the number of errors by leading grandmasters (includ {ng resigning ina drawn position) which the authors point out. Even Garry Kaspa- roy is shown giving away half a point on 223, Tf the authors were ambitious in ack- ling such positions, their decision 10 write the book using the Nunn conven- tion shows extraordinary bravery. [must ‘admit that would never have dared todo this myself. The authors explain this con- vention in more detail on p.12, but basi- cally it requires the author to indicate precisely which moves throw away half ‘point, and which are ‘only’ moves. I introduced this convention in my own seties of endgame books, in order to dis- play a great deal of information ina com- pact form. However, in those books Thad 1 database to hand, so in most cases I ‘could obtain the necessary information, directly from the database. By contrast, in the vast majority of cases Karsten Maller and Frank Lamprecht had to use their own brains for the same purpose, Readers may wonder ifking and pawn endings are really so important, but the answer is undoubtedly that they are. Looking through this book, you will see that alot ofthe examples are from recent tournament play and involve leading players the frequency of king and pawn, ‘endings is higher than one might imag- ine. Even in cases where a king and pawn ‘ending does not actually arse, the possi- bility of one often has a profound influ- cence on the play. In many other types of ending, a possiblity to exchange the last Pieces arises. The question is whether it {s better to exchange of to avoid the ex- ‘change. The subject of liquidation is an important one in over-the-board play, fand the authors quite rightly devote a whole chapter to it, giving examples of ‘both correct and misguided liquidations. ‘This book scores a numberof ‘frsts* for king and pawn ending books. tis the first to use the latest computer tools for checking the analysis, where possible. There will undoubtedly stil be errors, as much of the analysis could not ‘be checked in this way, but the extra level of checking, applied to what was already very accurate analysis, should have fur- ther reduced the error rate. The strong emphasis on practical examples and 8 Secrets of Pawn Endings ‘over-the-board play is another ‘frst’, and ‘makes this book an exceptionally valu- able contribution tothe literature of king and pawn endings. There is even a chap- ter on decision-making in king and pawn endings, which is of particular relevance today as many such endings will arise in 4quick-play finishes. Finally, there is a high percentage of original analysis, The usual basic positions are here, of course, but these are presented less as an end in themselves and more as stepping-stones tothe real content of the book. hope this book will give other read ers as much pleasure and instruction as it has given me, and provide them with fur- ther insight into the subtle beauty of pawn endings. John Nunn Chertsey, November 1999 Preface Pawn endings don’t occur quite as often as rook endings but nevertheless every amt tious chess-player should make himself familiar with them. The ability to assess them ‘quickly and correctly plays an especially important role in the case of simplifications. ‘But don't deceive yourself, though the board may be almost empty, pawn endings are full of taps and tricks, as you wil certainly have already noticed yourself. When you {deal with them in more detail you wil even discover a special litte chess word with a beauty all ofits own, The magician of this world is without doubt Nikolai Dmitrievich Grigoriev, who enchants us with his masterpieces. It is no accident that we have in- cluded rooks’ pawns due to the many special cases (Chapter Sis dedicated 10 them). In the following we mostly deal ‘with the opposition. But sometimes this restricted way of looking at itis not suli- cient and we have to use the more general theory of corresponding squares in antic ‘pation of Chapter 12. A) Blocked Pair of Pawns and a Passed Pawn Here the attacker usually wins by sacri- ficing his passed pawn in order to caprure the last of the opponent's pawns. This deflection of the defending king is only ‘unsuccessful if a counter atack is threat- ened ofthe pawns are very close to each other. We start with a straightforward ex ample: a A A wR ‘White just sacrifices the g-pawn and queens the b-pawn: 12f2 deg 2 ed hed 3edd doxgd 4 sheS Sta 5 sexbs es 6 des + Ifthe passed pawn is only «wo files away from the blocked pawns, the win is ‘more difficult or even impossible: uy a Bae ew 402 ae If White is to move, be isin zugzwang. because the black pawn controls the dé square, and Black is saved by a counter- attack against the white c-pawn: 1803 1 ed?) cota! = L..sedd! 2 deft xed! 3 5 eb3t It should be noted that Black only achieved a draw here because he had a bishop’s pawn. White would win if all ploces were moved by one file. ‘With Black to move, White wins eas- 06 2 fal $46 3 e5+! eT 4 seed! she 5 shds +=) 4 151 50 Secrets of Pawn Endings 2175 e641 eT 6eS! eB 7 a6 a8, Bibxes +. Drawn positions also occur when the defender’s pawnis blocked onits starting point a @ am 4 8 8. Bae a ae om mA Se ee 403 ~ ‘H.Westerinen - V.Smyslov Stolk 1975 Even though the black king gets the ‘opposition in front of his pawn, Black isn’t able to win: 1 sbe3 eed 2 ea2t ‘White has to defend the key squares Bande. sod 3 tee2! ot 4 a2! e373! 5 he2 (5 hed a2! —+) 5..cie2! 6 el (6 e3 Hd117 F3 est +) 6..d03! 7 dl He3 8 Bel e419 sof haat +, It e3 6 eS! er! 7 8.243 9 dl! 3 10 Gel! €2 stale mate (#2). ‘The following study illustrates typical problems with a passed pawn that is not far advanced (see next diagram Here the active black king causes dif- ficulties. Fora better understanding itis N.Grigoriev K novoi armii, 1920 erations. White wins easily to move in the starting position. Black has to lose control over e2 and White's king gets 03, which enables him to win ja way that is familiar from 4.02; Black thas a knight's pawn! e2, €3 and obvi- ‘ously also dé are therefore key squares From the starting position we see that Black has to answer 242 with. order to defend the key squares. We call such a pair of squares corresponding. squares, Also c3 and e3 are correspond- ing squares since Black has to defend d. Since White can move from c2 to either «2 or c3,f4 isthe corresponding square since from here Black can get either £3 fore3. If we examine the adjacent squares ‘we notice that the squares 62 and b3 (White threatens £3 or $2) only cor- respond with the (3-square. Because Black can’t stay at 3, we have found the 144? tet! 2 sbe3 1513 a3 wt) is adraw, 2s 13 3.802 ‘Small Number of Pawns 31 Black is in zugzwang, Buch d deat ‘Now White occupies the correspond ing squares: dks 4.903 § sea2! te 6 be2! shes 7 Be3i + transposes to the main line at move’. Sait 5 ba27 sas, S205 6 weed shad 7 eda! eS 8 ‘bea! as 9 da! ded 10 ea! xb 11 5! es L1.a3 1246! + (Gee 3.06) LL.sbas 405 + 125 ba 13 d6! 06 14 e6b3 15.47! sbe7 16 e7! +. _ gs 2 dod B15 3 er ota 4 03 12. BeS! bs 13 d6! Seb 14 debt D3 ed 5c5 x03 6.61 +. 15 d71b2 168 DIW 17 Webel + 2d2 ed 3 her hes 4abb3 Hes 5 If you are now keen to deal with the ead $6 6 wb ses 75 ea corresponding squares in deal, we ean 7.87 8 hes + fefer youto Chapler 12, where weexam- BEDS! +— ine this position again (12.02. If you move 4.0 10 the left, White cannot win (see 4.07 or A404). B) Protected Passed Pan ‘The following position is also won ‘The biggest advantage of a protected passed pawn is (as the description im- plies) that it can't be captured. Therefore ‘the attacking king is free to manoeuvre and that’s why most positions are won, but even here there are a few important ‘exceptions. In example 4.05 White is only able to win by penetrating with his king on the ueenside. Black is helpless against that ‘because his king has to stay in the square ofthe protected passed c4-pawn and he doesn't have access tothe bS-square. 12 Here, in contrast to 4.05, White cannot White is not able to advance on the penetrate on the side of the protected Kingside: 1 p29! dp 2 i £4193 passed pawn because Black is always sen tS 4 oh 4, able (o answer dad with ..2b6, Sul, 105 Black can't hold the position because he 52 Secrets of Pawn Endings ‘has to stayin the square of the BS-pawn and be cant prevent White from advane- ing to the key square ofthe c5-pawn. ‘Note: if one key square is not in the square ofthe passed pawn, the postions fost 103 a6 1526 +, 2 td es 3 died has 4 sbES and ‘White win. ‘The following example shows a typi cal drawn position: ‘After Walker, 1892 ‘This position i, in contrast 10 4.06, a draw since Black can either prevent the White king from penetrating or he can create sufficient counterplay against the pawn: Tedd a5 2:He3 hes! 31381514 bys bes “4. Sbgs!? eS (5. hd? 605! hxc} Tho! ded? 8 7! c3 9 BW c2 10 Who! edt 11 213! 4 G.09)) 6 8517 ‘beat 7 sbf6 eds! 8S sxe3! 966 02! 107 c31 11 BSW c2! = (3.09) Sob chet [Note that all the Key squares of the ct-pawn are in the square of the pro- tected passed pawn, C) Backward Pawn In this case the chances for a successful defence increase: fe A.Philidor, 1747 If Whites to move, he can’t win be: ‘ause he doesn’t manage to get the oppo- sition 1 sba31? a7 Distant opposition, 1..sbe? 2 sbe3 shaT! = 1.5? 2 dhe3i a6 3 aa! Heb 4651 bres BU 5.641 06.6 bot hes 767 47 8 hes bac 9 es! += 201) Scbxe5! + (A104), 2ibed es = ‘Vertical opposition. 2..he8 (distant postion 3 bes (3s ba7! = dago- nal opposition) 3..e7! 4 as a7! with a draw. If Black is to move, he has to give up the opposition, and loses: 1sbe7 “ie6 2 051 +. 2best ‘This gets the diagonal opposition, ‘which s then transformed into a winning near opposition: 2.847 3 $5! eT 4 es! +— ‘Small Number of Pawns 33 White has reached one of the key squares ofthe b6-pawn and would now wineven without the e4-pawn (see 2.0). Ione moves 4.08 one file tothe lef, the position would be drawn even with Black fo move because bé-bS wouldn't be a ‘winning idea due tothe remaining rook's awn, "This was discussed in the worldcham- pionship match in 1894 ina slighty dif ferent form: ~EmLasker ‘New York Weh (6) 1894 1 shes ber! 1. cbg7? 2 he! +, 2ibds dts 2.73 gS she7 4 96 ~ revels a fur ther special quality of the ook's pawn (oun, 3 bed shes 3.,dip5 also defends: 4&0 S161 5 bt esi 6 es 6) 480d St6 14 ‘The following example, from the prac- tice of modem grandmasters, is more dif. ficult (se next diagram): Here we have the additional possibil- ity of penetrating with the king on the J-Timman - A-Yasupov “Amsterdam Donner mem 1994 . ‘A4.14 N.Grigoriey, 1936 ‘Since 4.16 was won whoever is to ‘move, White immediately has to get his ing to That teas 2 eet! 2ebe4? des —+ (4.16), 2abper: a) 2.054913 dros deo! 4.3 (4 a3 515 che3 c+) 4. sheds 5 shad ast a b) 2..chds 3 die3 dees +, 2ueS 3 eas! a5 3.6 4 4! abo 5 dc? as 643! eS 4 od! de 503! =, eat c+ 5 eI! he 6 Wed! 67 be3t dot? ‘TaskedS 8 B14 dS 9 be! 8ba2! bs 9 she bas 10 bd1 = Not, of course, 10 $42? because of lo, ead! 11 dead ses! +, 5 Unique Features of the Rook’s Pawn We already know from the fist two chap- ters thatthe chances for defence increase considerably with the existence of rook’s ‘pawns. To sharpen the eye of the reader again we have summarized the special Features of the rook’s pawn ia tis chap- ter, In particular, the win of the rook’s pawn doesn’t necessarily lead to a win, Which leads to Bahr’s Rule, which is ex: plained in 5.04. Further, the reader is en- ‘ouuraged t study 5.08-5.10 carefully A) Blocked Pair of Pawns and a Passed Pawn ‘We start the same way we did in Chapter 5.01 a If the blocked rook’s pawns are in the defender's half ofthe board, the sacrifice of the passed pawn in order to deflect the ‘opponents king usually leads to an easy win sinee the white king can immedi- ately occupy the Key square b7 after he has aken the pawn, Fist however, White has to win an important tempo: Vegst 1 Seb? dexg6! 2 6 8163 6 5 4 06 a6 5 nas shoo = 18 2 16 18 3 6 3 gre) dee! = udeT 4 a6 ngs 5 che 16 6 06 6 7 rast a7 8 07! +— Since the tempo-gain would fil due to stalemate, 5.01 moved one rank up the board would only be a draw. the passed pawn isnot far advanced, ‘one has to look out for a counter-attack like in Chapter 4: If White is to play, he cannot win: 1 444 QbS! 2 bb3 Seas! 3 ded HHO! 4 bd5 eT 5 Ses a8 6 a6 aS! dea 66 Secrets of Pawn Endings If it is Black to move, the edge of the ‘board willbe fatal for hia 1.bS 1 abdS 2 44 a6 3 shea o6 4 45+ shag Sha! a7 6 de5 e77 46+ Sed7 8 abdS! eds 9 dob! eee8 10 debs! dT 11 exag! sbxas 12 807 + bas! bd Black resists... 345! dxaS 4 shes! bt s finally blocked. The white ¢- pawn is oo fast: 4..cbad 5 d4! 23 645! a5 7 d6! 48 7143 9 d8W! a2 10 Wad +— Ifthe blocked pawns areon the middle ranks, White needs one more move 10 reach the key square b7 or, o put it the ‘other way around, Black has one more tempo to reach the saving square c8. So everything depends on how far the passed pawn is already advanced, 4B a) Wet wae Here the pawn is just far enough back tenable White to win: bad Afler 1 154? Black only needs three moves after taking the f-pawn to get to the c8-square: 1.216 2 {4 7 3 she SbeT! 4 ded 6! 5 Wes ext! 6 OS He! 7 sexs aT! 8 6 she8! =, 1..cetS 2 eS deat 3 debs shes 4 ‘sbxaSt a6 5 soho! a7 6 &b7! +— ‘The different pawn formations that are ‘based on this principle made the theorist Bahr in 1936 define rue that is named after him. Itpredicts the outcome ofthese Positions, and we will now take a closer Took ait! A1) Bahr’s Rule Of course one could also evaluate the ‘outcome by pure counting. Whoever pre- fers this can go straight on to the dia- gram, For our formulation of the rule one always has to evaluate the point of inter- section between the diagonal ofthe pawn tothe 8th (Ist) rank and the e-file (if there is no point of intersection then it will be the c8-square; in example 5.03 therefore itis the c7-square. Biihe’s Rule (from the defenders view. pint) states: the position is a draw if the distance between the defender's king and the passed pawn is smaller than the dis- tance between the defender's pawn and the evaluated point of intersection. Oth- exwise the positions lost if no successful counter-attack like in 5.02) is possible. Distance of course means the amount of ‘moves that aking needs to make the jour- ney. For reasons of clarity we again sum smarize the requirements: 1) Theruleis applicable with blocked a-pawns and passed pawns from d- toh file 2) The kings must have conquered the maximum space (look at the win of tempo in 5.01). 3) The attacking king mustn't be able to occupy the key squares of his passed pawn, ‘Alter so mach theory now back tothe practice (see next diagram): ‘The black king is two squares away from the f-pawn; on the other hand the Unique Features of the Rook's Pawn or point of intersection is three squares away from aA. Therefore the position is adrav: I edd tS! 2 hed deaf! 3 bd eS 4 sbxad dd6 5 bs eT = ‘The following position aso illustrates the rule: Zo. a , a ll Ae |e way A wo 505 * Here the point of intersection is €6, ‘and the distances are therefore equal (3 and 2 Whe win 8 fol “erat es ie ths 2 dd! and White queens the er Dobe gs 3 3 gh $ hed dg? 5 hb3 be3 6 baat des 7 kha eas 8 sebst a6 9 dene! sba7 10 07! and White wins, ‘But there are a few exceptions to the rule, when the passed pawn isnot too far advanced. Here one has to calculate pre- cisely whether the counterattack is suc- 5.06 If White is to move, he wins (also with the king on e2), though the evaluation 6-2) predicts a Last 1637 a3} (1. he? 2ebe3! O53 sbddl sbxa5 4 des! ad 5 48! 63 645! 4 (5.02)) 2 hb ad! 3.43 nad! 4 bes et! = 2.10, 237 eS! 3 d+ St is a draw (5.02. Duckdd 3 shed! eS 4 hed! as AEDS 5 ded! bd 6 dS! x05 7 e514 6.02. ‘3d! sbe6 6 shed! hd6 7 d5 hd7 8 bes he7 9 d6+ ds 10 as a7 11 beS as 12 06 + If Black is to move, he draws with 1..sBedt, so the position must be an ex- ception in any case since the rule doesn’t depend on the right to move ‘Farther exceptions are: 8 Secrets of Pawn Endings 1) wibd2 Aas 2; bebdd,Ba6 is with White to move adraw and not won, asthe evaluation (2-2) would predict; 2) wite3,/a6,d2; babeS a7 is won, whoever is to mover 3) 5.02 with White to move is a draw and not won, ‘Of course there are also exceptions when the kings are still further away from the pawns, eg. Motwani - JShaw Scottish Ch 1993 L.sbedtt We have a reciprocal zugzwang with ‘White to move. 5.06A with a pawn at 3, instead of 4 would therefore be won for White after 1.204 24! 4~. In endgame literature Bihe’s Rule is often formulated in the following way (Grom the viewpoint of the attacker): ‘Requicement: the atacking king s next to his passed pawn, and the defending king is in front ofthe pawn, 1) When the blocked rook’s pawn has passed the middle of the board, the at- tacker will win, 2) Ifitis stil in his half of the board, fone has to draw the diagonal of the ddefender’s pawn to the e-file and, from. the point of intersection of the efile, the “order diagonal’ to the first rank of the attacker. Ifthe passed pawn is below oF ‘on the ‘border diagonal’ the position is ‘won; otherwise itis a draw. a a @ a @ i 2 me fad a The diagonals go from a3 to eS and from ¢5 to 12. The passed pawn on h2 is above the border diagonal, therefore the Position is drawn, One can also apply the rule ithe attacking king has conquered more space but is not placed on a key square. Thus withthe kings at g3 and g5 fone has to look atthe diagonals a4-c6-g2. and with kings at g4 and g6 at the diago- nals a5-c7-h2. OF course also for this for- ‘mulation there exist the corresponding ‘exceptions (see, for example the list fol- lowing Av 219). ‘We now want to have look what con- sequences our considerations have for the fight for the critical squares (see fol- diagram): ea? ‘Though this forces the capture of one ‘of the two pawns, itis Black who decides Which one and therefore he can draw. 1.07! Black has to keep the hS-pawn; ther- wise he would lose, due to Bahr’s Rule, Unique Features of the Rook's Pawn Cy be 2 W.Bibr, 1935 Thus he only fights forthe squares e515 and gs eas hte! 3 ast ts 4 shes bes 4, igh? 506 +-. Si2b6 dds 6 duns ties 7 ba eT! 8 a6 eB! 926 08! 10 be6 ba! 11 dG trast 12 e6 b6 13:86 e614 Ey6shd6 15 dxhs de7! 16ep6 48! 18 Ther area great many studies con- cering ths issue (Se for example ECE 243-68), For instance: wel, Abs, bd; bbe8 ADS (Capablanca, 1921, ECE 254); whoever is to move wins, &-g 1 e2! 8 2 as! e733 + Fur thermore, one must be aware that al: thoughitis generally best forthe attacker to have the pawn fa-advanced, there i & danger of the king being blocked in atthe edge ofthe board In 1936 Bahr demon- strated this in an extraordinary way: wb a2 3; bids, Aa3,4 (ECE 264). ‘Whitehas to defend the key squares ofthe ‘n3-pawn and block the black king in the comer after .23a2, thus 1 et = ‘A2) Bishop's Pawn and Rook's Pawn vs Rook's Pawn Like in Chapter 4, we also face some problems here because of the proximity ofthe blocked pawns: ~S.Alapin, 1917 IF Black were to move, he would be in zugewang and would have to allow the ‘white king to 6. However, its White to move and it seems as if he is in zug ‘wang. This is not true though, because ‘behind him he has more space available than Black, who always has to answer ‘bd5 with ..2e8 and he can only move toc7 after eS. Therefore e4 or d4 and, ‘b8(€8) are further corresponding squares (én Chapter 12 we will deal with the theory of corresponding squares in moce detail), Since c4 and d are next to each other but b8 and d8 are not, a so-called tuiangulation leads to victory: 1cbdSt cB 2 hdd has 3 eden bast eT 4,248 5 26! 8 6 718677 se! ha 8 hob +— (8 c8W7? stalemate; 8 8B, & or D+ 4+; the subject of under- promotion willbe covered in Chapter 6). ‘Scbest This produces the starting position with Black to move. ‘S.dc8 6 BD6I 1-0 Die to 6..2b8 7 sbxa6! se7 8 bs! ‘An exercise forthe indefatigable: try to figure out whether the c-pawn fits into ur formulation of Buhr’s Rule 70 Secrets of Pawn Endings If the rook’s pawn of the defender is sill on its starting square then the win- ning method we have just sen isn’t prac- ticable, But ifthe attacker's rook’s pawn, has also not been moved, then he still ‘wins without difficulty. As, for example, ‘Aron Nimzowitsch (in section 4.7 of My System) explains brilliantly in his own, ‘way, the f-pawn can just be advanced and then be queened: QZ 2 2 a y len est2en el e313 DanaRoshahss che! OF ‘The black h-pawn sill has the double step so that he can always react accord- ingly: 3Bel (2+ 4 fl 315 3 (Sha 16 6S de3 —¥) 5.5 6 hd se —+. Play isa lot more complicated if the rook’s pawn has already moved (see dia- gram 5.10): ‘White can draw in a study-tike way because he manages to prevent Black fom sting th oponon a ‘he erred by 1 $0g37h5! 2 somiiapagiaan ant see deat sia dust We att and Whe ee 50 =e ‘R.Vaganian - JSunye Neto Rio de Janeiro IZ 1979 resigned, The reader should try to memo- ‘ize the postion after 7..h3!! (D), for only it can explain the nuances of the main variation (see 12.05-12.08 for a detailed discussion ofthe corresponding squares). Me a) 8 corp dz! 93 (9 ett e3! 10 shel £411 ett eos! 4) 9. ee 10sbe3 (UOskg3 she? 11 exh £4—4) 10,4111 bis dpi! 12sbg3 e441 13e3). 2..