Você está na página 1de 64

## Sem 1 , Session 2017/2018

CIRCULAR MOTION
Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

## Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin

Physics Division
Center for Foundation Study of Sciences
University of Malaya

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 1

Topics of Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)

## 1. Introduction – Circular Motion

 Period, Frequency, and Rotational
Velocity (Speed)

2. Kinematics of UCM
 Velocity and acceleration in UCM

3. Dynamics of UCM
 Vertical Applications of UCM
 Horizontal Applications of UCM

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 2

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 3

Dynamics
What is dynamics?

## • A branch of mechanics that deals with

forces (included masses) and their
relation primarily to the motion but
sometimes also to the equilibrium of
bodies

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 4

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
Intro: What does centripetal force, Fc mean?
 We know that centripetal acceleration (in kinematics of UCM) is
necessary to keep the object stay moving in a circle.
 Thus, the centripetal force is the net force acting on the
object that moves in the circular path and its directed toward
the center around which the body is moving.
 We have centripetal acceleration,
𝑣2
𝑎𝑐 = .
𝑟
 The formula of centripetal force
(based on 2nd Newton’s Law) :
𝑣2
𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐 𝐹𝑐 = 𝑚
𝑟

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 5

• SI Unit 𝑁 Vector? YES

## Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Intro: What does centripetal force, Fc mean?

 Its not a new type of force. Just like we use Fnet generally to
describe the forces that accelerate an object linearly. The Fc is just
“Fnet in circular situations”.

RECALL !!
 The regular forces, 𝐹𝑔 , 𝐹𝑇 , 𝐹𝑁 , 𝐹𝑆 .
 Gravitational force, 𝑭𝒈 = W = mg: downward to the ground
 Normal force 𝑭𝑵 : perpendicular to the surface
 Tension force 𝑭𝑻 : along the cord and away from object
 Static friction force 𝑭𝑺 : fs = µsN

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 6

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Intro:
• The concept of circular
motion can be used for 𝑎𝑐
an object moving along
any curved path , as a
small segment of the
path will be
approximately circular.

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 7

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
Intro (misinterpreted): This
happens.
Centrifugal Force ... doesn’t exist!
• Centrifugal force is an “apparent” This
force that we mistakenly think pulls an does
object away from the center of the NOT
circle. There is no force pulling the happen
ball outward.
Force on ball
• If you’re holding on to the string exerted by
attached to the ball while it goes in a string
circle, it’s true that your hand feels an Force on hand
outward pull: this is due to Newton’s exerted by
3rd Law (your hand pulls on the ball string
to keep it moving in a circle, the ball Newton’s 3rd Law

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 8

Review Questions
1. When an object experiences uniform circular motion,
the direction of the net force is:

## A. in the same direction as the motion of the object.

B. in the opposite direction of the motion of the
object.
C. is directed toward the center of the circular path.
D. is directed away from the center of the circular
path.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 9

Review Questions
2. An object is moving in uniform circular motion with a
mass m, a speed v, and a radius r. Which of the
following will quadruple the centripetal force on the
object?

## A. Doubling the speed.

B. Cutting the speed to one half.
C. Cutting the radius to one half.
D. Cutting the radius to one fourth.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 10

Review Questions
Explanation for #2:>
Doubling the speed will quadruple the centripetal force
on the object.
𝒗𝟐 For a constant mass and radius,
𝑭𝒄 = 𝒎 the Fc is directly proportional to
𝒓
the speed2.
So 2X the speed
means 4X the force
(that's from 22).
= four times
𝑭 𝒄 ~ 𝒗𝟐 greater than the
original force.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 11

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
How do we use Free Body diagrams and Newton’s Laws to
solve circular motion problems?

TIPS:
 Remember that the FC (net force) on the object is ALWAYS directed
towards the center of the circle, no matter where the object is
located in its circular path.
𝑣2
 Two ways to solve by using FBD and 2nd Newton’s Law, 𝐹𝑐 = 𝑚 :
𝑟
1. Put ’+ve’ sign for all the forces that having direction towards
the center and ‘–ve’ sign for forces that outside the circle.
2. .Upward as ’+ve’ sign and downward as ‘–ve’ sign … but this
might be confusing in certain situations

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 12

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
Applications of Vertical and Horizontal UCM

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 13

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
Applications of Vertical and Horizontal UCM

T cos 

T sin 
FN cos 
FN

aC
aC

FN sin 

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 14

Applications: Vertical of Circular Motion

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 15

Vertical Uniform Circular Motion
 Considered a block that being whirled Top
on the end of a string in a vertical
circle.
aC
 The free body diagrams of the forces
acting on the block at two special
positions – usually at the top and the aC
bottom of the circle.
 The Tension (FT) and Weight (Fg = mg) Bottom
are the forces causing the
acceleration.
 Care should be taken with the sign −𝒎𝒈
(+/-) of the tension force, FT as its
Remember the TIPS :
direction changes throughout the
Put + sign for all the forces
motion. that having direction towards
the center and vice versa.
Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 16
Apparent Weight in Circular Motion
Have you ever been driving in a car or a bus that
went over a bump, or into a dip?
Do you remember feeling slightly more light or
heavy than usual? You probably felt a funny feeling

## This is not a trick of the mind... when an object

rides over a hill or into a dip, the normal force from
the surface is effected by centripetal motion, and it
changes how heavy you feel!
We sometimes call this 'feeling' of heaviness or lightness an object's
apparent weight.

Normal Force.

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 17

Example: Car on a hilly road
Apparent Weight in Circular Motion
1. A car is traveling at a velocity of 20 m s-1. The driver of the car
has a mass of 60 kg. The car is located at the bottom of a dip
What is the apparent weight of the driver (the normal force
supplied by the seat of the car to support him) at the bottom
of the dip?

Given:
v = 20 m s-1
m = 60 kg
r = 80 m

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 18

Example: Car on a hilly road
y
 When a car goes
REMEMBER !!
through a dip, we can FC must ALWAYS FN
consider it to be in toward to the center
circular motion. of the circle r
 Its acceleration is aC
towards the center of
x
the circle, which is up.
𝑭𝒄 = 𝒎𝒂𝒄
 Use a FBD and
Newton's 2nd Law to 𝑣2 mg
derive an equation for 𝐹𝑁 + (−𝐹𝑔 ) = 𝑚
𝑟
the forces that exerted
on the car 𝑣2
𝐹𝑁 − 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚 --------- (1)
𝑟

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 19

Example: Car on a hilly road
FN On the flat road the driver's weight (the
normal force from the seat) is just mg.
FN = mg
FN = (60 kg)(9.81 m s-2 ) = 588.6 N
mg Bottom of dip : Apparent Weight
𝑣2
From eq (1), 𝐹𝑁 = 𝑚 + 𝐹𝑔
v = 20 m s-1 𝑟
m = 60 kg 60 𝑘𝑔 20 𝑚𝑠 −1 2
r = 80 m 𝐹𝑁 = + 60 𝑘𝑔 9.81 𝑚𝑠 −2
80 𝑚
= 300 + 588.6 = 𝟖𝟖𝟖. 𝟔 𝐍
The gravitational force on the driver (mg) doesn't change,
but her apparent weight (FN) does.
Is there a situation where she will appear weightless?

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 20

FN
 When a car goes over a REMEMBER !!
hill, we can also FC must ALWAYS
consider it to be in toward to the
center of the
circular motion.
circle
 Its acceleration is aC
towards the center of r
the circle, which is mg
down. 𝑭𝒄 = 𝒎𝒂𝒄
 Apply a free body
diagram and Newton's
2nd Law to derive an
equation for the normal
force on the car.
or 𝑣2
−𝐹𝑁 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚
𝑟

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 21

Buckets and Rollercoasters
Apparent Weight in Circular Motion

## At the top of the circle:

𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐
The minimum speed of
−𝐹𝑁 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐
the car (so that the girl can
feel weightless), normal 𝑣2
0 + 𝑚𝑔 = 𝑚
force becomes zero; FN = 0. 𝑟
𝑣2
𝑔=
The minimum speed does 𝑟
not depend on mass.
𝑣 = 𝑔𝑟

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 22

Buckets and Rollercoasters

## Explain how a bucket of water can be whirled in

a vertical circle without the water spilling out,
even at the top of the circle when the bucket is
upside down.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 23

Buckets and Rollercoasters
REMEMBER !!
 A bucket on a string FC must ALWAYS
toward to the
moving in a vertical center of the circle
circle is also in circular FT
aC
motion.
 When it is at the
bottom of the circle,
mg
it is in the same or
situation at a car going
through a dip. 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

𝐹𝑇 + (−𝐹𝑔 ) = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 24

Buckets and Rollercoasters

##  A bucket on a string moving in a vertical circle is also

in circular motion.
 When it is at the top of the circle, there is no force
upward.
 The tension and weight are both down.

𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐
aC
FT 𝐹𝑇 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐
REMEMBER !! 𝑣2
mg FC must ALWAYS 𝐹𝑇 + 𝑚𝑔 = 𝑚
toward to the 𝑟
center of the circle
July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 25
Buckets and Rollercoasters

## At the top of the circle:

The minimum velocity for a bucket to make it around the
circle is achieved when the tension in the string becomes
zero; FT = 0 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎 𝑐

𝐹𝑇 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐
𝑣2
FT = 0 aC 𝑚𝑔 = 𝑚
𝑟
mg REMEMBER !! 𝑣2
FC must ALWAYS 𝑔=
toward to the 𝑟
center of the circle 𝑣 = 𝑔𝑟
July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 26
Buckets and Rollercoasters
 A roller coaster car going around a loop works exactly like a
bucket on a string.
 The only difference is that instead of tension, there is a normal
force exerted on the car. At TOP
aC
FN
aC mg FC must
ALWAYS
toward to the
aC center of the
FN circle
aC

At BOTTOM
mg
July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 27
Example : Vertical UCM
2. Sphere of fear:

The basic design consist of a metal cage in the shape of a sphere that
is big enough to allow a motorcycle or two to ride around inside. If the
rider goes fast enough they can even ride upside–down or around the
side of the sphere without falling.

## Given that motorcycles racing at 65 km/h within 4.5 m diameter cage

of metal mesh and the mass of the motorcycle and rider is 150 kg.

a) Find the force exerted by the steel cage on the motorcycle at the
top and bottom of the cage.

## b) What would be minimum speed required at the top of the cage

to successfully complete the loop?

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 28

Solution : Sphere of fear
a) REMINDER: convert km/h to m/s
and the radius, not the diameter
At TOP 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

𝑣2
𝐹𝑁 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚
𝑟
aC 𝑣 2
FN 𝐹𝑁 = 𝑚 − 𝐹𝑔
𝑟
mg 150 𝑘𝑔(18.1𝑚𝑠 −1 )2
𝐹𝑁 = − 150 𝑘𝑔(9.8)
2.25 𝑚
𝐹𝑁 = 2.03 × 104 N
aC 𝑣2
FN 𝐹𝑁 − 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚
𝑟
2
𝑣
𝐹𝑁 = 𝑚 + 𝐹𝑔
𝑟
At BOTTOM 150 𝑘𝑔(18.1𝑚𝑠 )2−1

mg 𝐹𝑁 = + 150 𝑘𝑔(9.8)
2.25 𝑚
𝐹𝑁 = 2.32 × 104 N

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 29

Solution : Sphere of fear

## b) to successfully complete the loop, the minimum speed required at

the top of the cage when normal force equal to zero.

At TOP
𝑣2
𝐹𝑁 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚
𝑟
2
𝑣
𝑚𝑔 = 𝑚
𝑟
2
𝑣 = 𝑟𝑔
𝑣 = 𝑟𝑔 = 4.7 𝑚𝑠 −1

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 30

Review Questions
1. A roller coaster car is on a track that forms a circular
loop in the vertical plane. If the car is to just maintain
contact with track at the top of the loop, what is the
minimum value for its centripetal acceleration at this
point?

A. g downward
B. 0.5g downward
C. g upward
D. 2g upward

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 31

Review Questions
2. A roller coaster car (mass = M) is on a track that forms
a circular loop (radius = r) in the vertical plane. If the
car is to just maintain contact with the track at the top
of the loop, what is the minimum speed required at
that point to successfully complete the loop?
A.
B.

C.

D.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 32

Review Questions
3. A ball of mass = M rolls over the top of a hill of radius,
R with speed S. At the top of the hill, what is the
magnitude of the normal force exerted on the ball by
𝑆2
A. 𝑀𝑔 + 𝑀 At TOP
𝑅
𝑆2 FC
B. 𝑀𝑔 − 𝑀 Solution:
𝑅
a
C. 𝑀𝐺 mg
𝑣2
𝑆2 𝐹𝑐 = 𝑚𝑎 = 𝑚 FC must
D. 𝑀 𝑟
𝑅
𝑆2 ALWAYS
−𝐹𝑁 + 𝑀𝑔 = 𝑀 toward to the
𝑅
𝑆2 center of the
𝐹𝑁 = 𝑀𝑔 − 𝑀 circle
𝑅

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 33

Review Questions
A Ferris wheel with a diameter of 18.0 meters rotates 4 times in 1
minute.
a) Calculate the velocity of the Ferris wheel.
b) Calculate the centripetal acceleration of the Ferris wheel at a point
along the outside.
c) Calculate the centripetal force a 40 kg child experiences.
2r 2(3.14)9
a) vc    3.77 m/s
T 15
v2 v2
b) ac    1.58 m/s/s
r 9
mv 2 (40)v 2
c) Fc    63.17 N
r 9
or Fc  mac  (40)(ac )  63.17 N
July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 34
Applications:
Horizontal of Uniform Circular Motion

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 35

Banked and Unbanked Curves
 When a car goes around a curve, there
must be a net force towards the center
of the circle of which the curve is an arc.
 An outside force must act on the car to
keep it on the road (that is turning),
hence cause the centripetal
acceleration.
 If the road is flat, that force is supplied
by static friction.
 If the frictional force is insufficient, the
car will tend to move nearly as the skid
marks straight line show.
 The frictional force which can be
supplied by the contact between the
road and the wheels of a car is variable,
depending on the conditions of the road
and the tires of the vehicle.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 36

Banked and Unbanked Curves

## 1. The kinetic frictional force is smaller than the static.

2. The static frictional force can point towards the
center of the circle, but the kinetic frictional force
opposes the direction of motion, making it very
difficult to regain control of the car and continue
around the curve.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 37

Unbanked Curves
Front View
Top View (the car heading towards you)
Free Body Diagram
2
radial  mv ; Fs   s FN
component:
F s
r
FN y component:
ac

Fs
Substitute the formula in
v both components:
Fg 𝑚𝑣 2
𝜇𝑠 𝑚𝑔 =
𝑟
𝒗𝟐
𝝁𝒔 =
𝒈𝒓
𝒗 = 𝝁𝒔 𝒈𝒓

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 38

Example 1: Unbanked Curves

## A 1000 kg car on a flat road is traveling at 14 ms-1 on a curve of radius

50 m.
a) Draw a free-body diagram for the car.
b) How much centripetal force will be necessary to keep the car on
c) If the µ static for this road is 0.60, will the car make the turn?
d) If the µ static for the road is 0.20, will the car make the turn?
e) What is the maximum speed the car can have and still make the
turn with µ=0.6?

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 39

Example 1: Unbanked Curves
a)
Solution:  The car needs static
Firstly, draw FREE BODY friction to keep it on the
hence cause the
FN centripetal acceleration.
 Thus, in free-body
Fs diagram, the static friction
force must point in the
direction of the
Fg
acceleration, direction of
the net force

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 40

Example 1: Unbanked Curves
Solution:
b) Determine the necessary value of centripetal force to keep the car on the

 Fc  r
2
mv

## (1000kg)(14 ms-1)2  3920N

Fcentripetal 
50m
c) If the µ static for this road is 0.60, will the car make the turn?

; where Fs  FN  F  ma
2
Fs  mv
y y
r2
mg  mv FN  Fg  0
r
FN  Fg  mg
2 (14 ms-1)2
 v   0.40;
rg 50 m • 9.8 ms-2 Yes, the car will make the turn.
July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 41
Example 1: Unbanked Curves
Solution:
d). If the µ static for the road is 0.20, will the car make the turn?

0.20  0.40; No, the car will not make the turn.

There is not sufficient friction from the road to keep the car on

e). What is the maximum speed the car can have and still make the
turn with µ = 0.6?

v rg

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 42

Example 2: Unbanked Curves
A 1500 kg car moving on a flat, horizontal road negotiates
a curve as shown. If the radius of the curve is 35.0 m and
the coefficient of static friction between the tires and dry
pavement is 0.523, find the maximum speed the car can
have and still make the turn successfully.
. 𝐹𝑠 𝐹 𝑁

𝐹𝑠

mg

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 43

Example 2: Unbanked Curves
Solution:
The force of static friction directed toward the center of the
curve keeps the car moving in a circular path.

𝑭𝒔 max
𝐹𝑁

𝐹𝑠

ms-2 ms-1 mg

Banked Curves

## A Car on a Flat A Car on a Banked Turn The Centripetal Force

Surface • The normal force on • The horizontal
• All forces on the the car due to the road component of the
car are vertical, is no longer vertical, so normal force is shown
so no horizontal a component of the in blue in the diagram
force can be normal force acts in the above. This force can
generated. supply a centripetal
horizontal direction.
force to turn the car.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 45

Banked Curves
Top View Front View
it must have a vertical
FN
horizontal acceleration
to go in a horizontal FN cos 
circle. FN sin  

ac
different than for an Inclined
ac r Plane, because the car is not
expected to slide down the
 plane.  F g = mg

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 46

Example 1: Banked Curves
A car moving at the designated speed can negotiate the
curve. Such a ramp is usually banked, which means that
the roadway is tilted toward the inside of the curve.
Suppose the designated speed for the ramp is to be 13.4
ms-1 and the radius of the curve is 35.0 m. At what angle
should the curve be banked?
FN vertical
FN cos 
FN sin  

ac
ac r

  Fg = mg

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 47

Example 1: Banked Curves
Solution:
to find angle of the curve banked
ms-1 FN
FN cos 

FN sin 

mg Fg = - mg

ms-1
ms-2

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 48

Example 2: Banked Curves
Determine the velocity that a car should have while
traveling around a frictionless curve with a radius 250 m
is banked at an angle of 15 degrees.

Solution:
𝑣= 𝑟𝑔 tan 𝜃
= 250 9.8 tan 15
=25.62 ms-1

## From Example 2 (on pg 11-12): Unbanked curve 𝐹𝑠

– Banked curve mg
A 1500 kg car moving on a flat, horizontal road negotiates a curve as shown. If
the radius of the curve is 35.0 m and the coefficient of static friction between
the tires and dry pavement is 0.523, from previous example, we got the
maximum speed =13.4 ms-1 for the car to successfully make a turn.
Next question: FN FN cos 
At what angle the road should be banked
(without the need of a friction force) for this
optimum velocity? 𝑣2 FN sin 
tan 𝜃 = 𝜇 =
𝑟𝑔 mg Fg = - mg
𝑣2
𝑣2 tan 𝜃 =
tan 𝜃 = =𝜇 OR 𝑟𝑔
𝑟𝑔
(13.4 𝑚𝑠 −1 )2
tan 𝜃 = 0.523 tan 𝜃 =
35 𝑚 (9.8 𝑚𝑠 −2 )
𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 0.523 = 27.61 °
tan 𝜃 = 0.523
𝜃 = 27.61°
July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 50
Conical Pendulum

## A conical pendulum consists of a mass m revolving in a

horizontal circle of radius r at the end of a cord of length L.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 51

Conical Pendulum
Solve for the acceleration of the
bob, based on the angle θ, by
applying Newton's Second Law x direction y direction
along each axis.

y
θ Note:
T cos
l T The inward
component
θ of tension,
T sin 
gives the
ac needed
mg central
force.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 52

Conical Pendulum
 An alternative approach is to solve this as a vector equation using
ΣF=ma. (This will work whenever only two forces are present.)
 Just translate the original vectors (before decomposing them) to
form a right triangle so that the sum of the two forces equals the
new vector "ma".
Centripetal
y acceleration
L θ
T cos
T mg
θ
T sin radial And to find tension....
ac

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 53

Examples
1. A small ball of mass 0.5 kg is whirled at the end of a rope in a
conical pendulum with a radius of 2 m at a speed of 4 ms-1. What is
the tension in the rope?

Solution:
Given the values of m = 0.5 kg = 500 g, r = 2 m, v = 4 ms-1

𝑚𝑣 2
𝑇 2 = 𝑚𝑔2 +
𝑟
500 (4)2
𝑇= 500 (9.8)2 +
2
𝑇 = 52020 = 228 𝑁

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 54

Examples
1. A small ball of mass 0.5 kg is whirled at the end of a rope in a
conical pendulum with a radius of 2 m at a speed of 4 ms-1. What is
the tension in the rope?

Solution:
Given the values of m = 0.5 kg, r = 2 m, v = 4 ms-1

𝑇 2 = (𝑚𝑔)2 +
𝑚𝑣 2
2 x 𝑇 = 𝑚𝑔 +
𝑚𝑣 2
𝑟
𝑟

2 0.5 (4)2 2
𝑇= 0.5(9.8) +
2
3. DO NOT Simply REMOVE
𝑇= 4.92 + 42 = 6.33 𝑁 the power of 2 for each of
the component in the
formula

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 55

Examples
2. A small ball of mass m = 5 kg is suspended from a T θ
string of length L = 5 m. The ball revolves with
constant speed v in a horizontal circle of radius r = 2 m.
Find the values of v and a.
mg

1
FBD
2
1
:
2

ms-1
mg ms-2

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 56

Examples
3. A 2 kg mass swings in a horizontal circle at the end of a cord of
length 10 m. What is the constant speed of the mass if the
rope makes an angle of 300 with the vertical?
Solution Find: v=?

  

## To use this formula, we need to find r = ?

Where r = L sin 300 = (10 m)(0.5)= 5 m
v 2  gr tan
𝑣 = (9.8 m/s2 )(5 m) tan300
𝑣 = 5.32 𝑚𝑠 −1

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 57

Review Questions
1. Which of the following is responsible for how a car
stays in place on a frictionless banked curve?

## A. The vertical component of the car's weight.

B. The horizontal component of the car's weight.
C. The vertical component of the normal force.
D. The horizontal component of the normal force

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 58

Review Questions
2. The top speed a car can go around an unbanked curve
safely (without slipping) depends on all of the
following except:

## A. The coefficient of friction.

B. The mass of the car.
C. The radius of the curve.
D. The acceleration due to gravity.

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 59

Review Questions
3. Two banked curves have the same radius. Curve A is
banked at an angle of 37 degrees, and curve B is
banked at an angle of 53 degrees. A car can travel
around curve A without relying on friction at a speed
of 30 m/s. At what speed can this car travel around
curve B without relying on friction?

𝑣 = 𝑟𝑔 tan 𝜃
A. 20ms-1 𝑣𝐴 tan 𝜃𝐴 tan 37
= = = 0.75
B. 30 ms-1 𝑣𝐵 tan 𝜃𝐵 tan 53
𝑣𝐴 30
C. 40 ms-1 𝑣𝐵 = = = 40 𝑚𝑠 −1
0.75 0.75
D. 60 ms-1

## July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 60

Review Questions
Centripetal Force and FBD
Rounding a curve FN Let’s draw an FBD.

Fs

mg
What is the Fc? Fs

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 61

Review Questions
Centripetal Force and FBD
Tether ball

Tcos
T 𝑻 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽

Tsin

mg

## Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 62

Glossary
Newton’s Second Law of Mass
Motion describes what Mass is one of the single most
happen if a net (resultant) force misunderstood concepts in
is applied to a mass. chemistry and physics. It is not the
• Weight same as “weight,” although the two
Weight is a measure of how measurements are related.
strongly earth’s gravity pulls Mass is a measure of the amount of
on a mass. It is a measure of inertia that a body has — it’s a
Force, and written as Fg, or measure of how hard it is to change
sometimes as W, and as with an object’s motion. The more mass
all forces, its SI units are the you have, the more inertia you have,
kg m s-2 (Newton). and the more inertia you have, the
The weight of an object at harder it is to get you moving (if
the surface of the earth is you’re motionless), or to stop your
calculated as follows: motion (if you’re moving).
W = Fg = mg
Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 63
Next class….

Rotational motion