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CIRCULAR MOTION

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Physics Division

Center for Foundation Study of Sciences

University of Malaya

Topics of Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)

Period, Frequency, and Rotational

Velocity (Speed)

2. Kinematics of UCM

Velocity and acceleration in UCM

3. Dynamics of UCM

Vertical Applications of UCM

Horizontal Applications of UCM

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)

Dynamics

What is dynamics?

forces (included masses) and their

relation primarily to the motion but

sometimes also to the equilibrium of

bodies

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Intro: What does centripetal force, Fc mean?

We know that centripetal acceleration (in kinematics of UCM) is

necessary to keep the object stay moving in a circle.

Thus, the centripetal force is the net force acting on the

object that moves in the circular path and its directed toward

the center around which the body is moving.

We have centripetal acceleration,

𝑣2

𝑎𝑐 = .

𝑟

The formula of centripetal force

(based on 2nd Newton’s Law) :

𝑣2

𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐 𝐹𝑐 = 𝑚

𝑟

• SI Unit 𝑁 Vector? YES

Intro: What does centripetal force, Fc mean?

Its not a new type of force. Just like we use Fnet generally to

describe the forces that accelerate an object linearly. The Fc is just

“Fnet in circular situations”.

RECALL !!

The regular forces, 𝐹𝑔 , 𝐹𝑇 , 𝐹𝑁 , 𝐹𝑆 .

Gravitational force, 𝑭𝒈 = W = mg: downward to the ground

Normal force 𝑭𝑵 : perpendicular to the surface

Tension force 𝑭𝑻 : along the cord and away from object

Static friction force 𝑭𝑺 : fs = µsN

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Intro:

• The concept of circular

motion can be used for 𝑎𝑐

an object moving along

any curved path , as a

small segment of the

path will be

approximately circular.

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Intro (misinterpreted): This

happens.

Centrifugal Force ... doesn’t exist!

• Centrifugal force is an “apparent” This

force that we mistakenly think pulls an does

object away from the center of the NOT

circle. There is no force pulling the happen

ball outward.

Force on ball

• If you’re holding on to the string exerted by

attached to the ball while it goes in a string

circle, it’s true that your hand feels an Force on hand

outward pull: this is due to Newton’s exerted by

3rd Law (your hand pulls on the ball string

to keep it moving in a circle, the ball Newton’s 3rd Law

pulls back on your hand).

Review Questions

1. When an object experiences uniform circular motion,

the direction of the net force is:

B. in the opposite direction of the motion of the

object.

C. is directed toward the center of the circular path.

D. is directed away from the center of the circular

path.

Review Questions

2. An object is moving in uniform circular motion with a

mass m, a speed v, and a radius r. Which of the

following will quadruple the centripetal force on the

object?

B. Cutting the speed to one half.

C. Cutting the radius to one half.

D. Cutting the radius to one fourth.

Review Questions

Explanation for #2:>

Doubling the speed will quadruple the centripetal force

on the object.

𝒗𝟐 For a constant mass and radius,

𝑭𝒄 = 𝒎 the Fc is directly proportional to

𝒓

the speed2.

So 2X the speed

means 4X the force

(that's from 22).

= four times

𝑭 𝒄 ~ 𝒗𝟐 greater than the

original force.

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

How do we use Free Body diagrams and Newton’s Laws to

solve circular motion problems?

TIPS:

Remember that the FC (net force) on the object is ALWAYS directed

towards the center of the circle, no matter where the object is

located in its circular path.

𝑣2

Two ways to solve by using FBD and 2nd Newton’s Law, 𝐹𝑐 = 𝑚 :

𝑟

1. Put ’+ve’ sign for all the forces that having direction towards

the center and ‘–ve’ sign for forces that outside the circle.

2. .Upward as ’+ve’ sign and downward as ‘–ve’ sign … but this

might be confusing in certain situations

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Applications of Vertical and Horizontal UCM

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Applications of Vertical and Horizontal UCM

T cos

T sin

FN cos

FN

aC

aC

FN sin

Applications: Vertical of Circular Motion

Vertical Uniform Circular Motion

Considered a block that being whirled Top

on the end of a string in a vertical

circle.

aC

The free body diagrams of the forces

acting on the block at two special

positions – usually at the top and the aC

bottom of the circle.

The Tension (FT) and Weight (Fg = mg) Bottom

are the forces causing the

acceleration.

Care should be taken with the sign −𝒎𝒈

(+/-) of the tension force, FT as its

Remember the TIPS :

direction changes throughout the

Put + sign for all the forces

motion. that having direction towards

the center and vice versa.

Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 16

Apparent Weight in Circular Motion

Have you ever been driving in a car or a bus that

went over a bump, or into a dip?

Do you remember feeling slightly more light or

heavy than usual? You probably felt a funny feeling

in your stomach...

rides over a hill or into a dip, the normal force from

the surface is effected by centripetal motion, and it

changes how heavy you feel!

We sometimes call this 'feeling' of heaviness or lightness an object's

apparent weight.

Normal Force.

Example: Car on a hilly road

Apparent Weight in Circular Motion

1. A car is traveling at a velocity of 20 m s-1. The driver of the car

has a mass of 60 kg. The car is located at the bottom of a dip

in the road. The radius of the dip is 80 m.

What is the apparent weight of the driver (the normal force

supplied by the seat of the car to support him) at the bottom

of the dip?

Given:

v = 20 m s-1

m = 60 kg

r = 80 m

Example: Car on a hilly road

y

When a car goes

REMEMBER !!

through a dip, we can FC must ALWAYS FN

consider it to be in toward to the center

circular motion. of the circle r

Its acceleration is aC

towards the center of

x

the circle, which is up.

𝑭𝒄 = 𝒎𝒂𝒄

Use a FBD and

Newton's 2nd Law to 𝑣2 mg

derive an equation for 𝐹𝑁 + (−𝐹𝑔 ) = 𝑚

𝑟

the forces that exerted

on the car 𝑣2

𝐹𝑁 − 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚 --------- (1)

𝑟

Example: Car on a hilly road

FN On the flat road the driver's weight (the

normal force from the seat) is just mg.

FN = mg

FN = (60 kg)(9.81 m s-2 ) = 588.6 N

mg Bottom of dip : Apparent Weight

𝑣2

From eq (1), 𝐹𝑁 = 𝑚 + 𝐹𝑔

v = 20 m s-1 𝑟

m = 60 kg 60 𝑘𝑔 20 𝑚𝑠 −1 2

r = 80 m 𝐹𝑁 = + 60 𝑘𝑔 9.81 𝑚𝑠 −2

80 𝑚

= 300 + 588.6 = 𝟖𝟖𝟖. 𝟔 𝐍

The gravitational force on the driver (mg) doesn't change,

but her apparent weight (FN) does.

Is there a situation where she will appear weightless?

Car on a hilly road

FN

When a car goes over a REMEMBER !!

hill, we can also FC must ALWAYS

consider it to be in toward to the

center of the

circular motion.

circle

Its acceleration is aC

towards the center of r

the circle, which is mg

down. 𝑭𝒄 = 𝒎𝒂𝒄

Apply a free body

diagram and Newton's

2nd Law to derive an

equation for the normal

force on the car.

or 𝑣2

−𝐹𝑁 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚

𝑟

Buckets and Rollercoasters

Apparent Weight in Circular Motion

𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

The minimum speed of

−𝐹𝑁 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

the car (so that the girl can

feel weightless), normal 𝑣2

0 + 𝑚𝑔 = 𝑚

force becomes zero; FN = 0. 𝑟

𝑣2

𝑔=

The minimum speed does 𝑟

not depend on mass.

𝑣 = 𝑔𝑟

Buckets and Rollercoasters

a vertical circle without the water spilling out,

even at the top of the circle when the bucket is

upside down.

Buckets and Rollercoasters

REMEMBER !!

A bucket on a string FC must ALWAYS

toward to the

moving in a vertical center of the circle

circle is also in circular FT

aC

motion.

When it is at the

bottom of the circle,

mg

it is in the same or

situation at a car going

through a dip. 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

𝐹𝑇 + (−𝐹𝑔 ) = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

Buckets and Rollercoasters

in circular motion.

When it is at the top of the circle, there is no force

upward.

The tension and weight are both down.

𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

aC

FT 𝐹𝑇 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

REMEMBER !! 𝑣2

mg FC must ALWAYS 𝐹𝑇 + 𝑚𝑔 = 𝑚

toward to the 𝑟

center of the circle

July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 25

Buckets and Rollercoasters

The minimum velocity for a bucket to make it around the

circle is achieved when the tension in the string becomes

zero; FT = 0 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎 𝑐

𝐹𝑇 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

𝑣2

FT = 0 aC 𝑚𝑔 = 𝑚

𝑟

mg REMEMBER !! 𝑣2

FC must ALWAYS 𝑔=

toward to the 𝑟

center of the circle 𝑣 = 𝑔𝑟

July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 26

Buckets and Rollercoasters

A roller coaster car going around a loop works exactly like a

bucket on a string.

The only difference is that instead of tension, there is a normal

force exerted on the car. At TOP

aC

FN

aC mg FC must

ALWAYS

toward to the

aC center of the

FN circle

aC

At BOTTOM

mg

July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 27

Example : Vertical UCM

2. Sphere of fear:

The basic design consist of a metal cage in the shape of a sphere that

is big enough to allow a motorcycle or two to ride around inside. If the

rider goes fast enough they can even ride upside–down or around the

side of the sphere without falling.

of metal mesh and the mass of the motorcycle and rider is 150 kg.

a) Find the force exerted by the steel cage on the motorcycle at the

top and bottom of the cage.

to successfully complete the loop?

Solution : Sphere of fear

a) REMINDER: convert km/h to m/s

and the radius, not the diameter

At TOP 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎𝑐

𝑣2

𝐹𝑁 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚

𝑟

aC 𝑣 2

FN 𝐹𝑁 = 𝑚 − 𝐹𝑔

𝑟

mg 150 𝑘𝑔(18.1𝑚𝑠 −1 )2

𝐹𝑁 = − 150 𝑘𝑔(9.8)

2.25 𝑚

𝐹𝑁 = 2.03 × 104 N

aC 𝑣2

FN 𝐹𝑁 − 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚

𝑟

2

𝑣

𝐹𝑁 = 𝑚 + 𝐹𝑔

𝑟

At BOTTOM 150 𝑘𝑔(18.1𝑚𝑠 )2−1

mg 𝐹𝑁 = + 150 𝑘𝑔(9.8)

2.25 𝑚

𝐹𝑁 = 2.32 × 104 N

Solution : Sphere of fear

the top of the cage when normal force equal to zero.

At TOP

𝑣2

𝐹𝑁 + 𝐹𝑔 = 𝑚

𝑟

2

𝑣

𝑚𝑔 = 𝑚

𝑟

2

𝑣 = 𝑟𝑔

𝑣 = 𝑟𝑔 = 4.7 𝑚𝑠 −1

Review Questions

1. A roller coaster car is on a track that forms a circular

loop in the vertical plane. If the car is to just maintain

contact with track at the top of the loop, what is the

minimum value for its centripetal acceleration at this

point?

A. g downward

B. 0.5g downward

C. g upward

D. 2g upward

Review Questions

2. A roller coaster car (mass = M) is on a track that forms

a circular loop (radius = r) in the vertical plane. If the

car is to just maintain contact with the track at the top

of the loop, what is the minimum speed required at

that point to successfully complete the loop?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Review Questions

3. A ball of mass = M rolls over the top of a hill of radius,

R with speed S. At the top of the hill, what is the

magnitude of the normal force exerted on the ball by

the road? F N

𝑆2

A. 𝑀𝑔 + 𝑀 At TOP

𝑅

𝑆2 FC

B. 𝑀𝑔 − 𝑀 Solution:

𝑅

a

C. 𝑀𝐺 mg

𝑣2

𝑆2 𝐹𝑐 = 𝑚𝑎 = 𝑚 FC must

D. 𝑀 𝑟

𝑅

𝑆2 ALWAYS

−𝐹𝑁 + 𝑀𝑔 = 𝑀 toward to the

𝑅

𝑆2 center of the

𝐹𝑁 = 𝑀𝑔 − 𝑀 circle

𝑅

Review Questions

A Ferris wheel with a diameter of 18.0 meters rotates 4 times in 1

minute.

a) Calculate the velocity of the Ferris wheel.

b) Calculate the centripetal acceleration of the Ferris wheel at a point

along the outside.

c) Calculate the centripetal force a 40 kg child experiences.

2r 2(3.14)9

a) vc 3.77 m/s

T 15

v2 v2

b) ac 1.58 m/s/s

r 9

mv 2 (40)v 2

c) Fc 63.17 N

r 9

or Fc mac (40)(ac ) 63.17 N

July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 34

Applications:

Horizontal of Uniform Circular Motion

Banked and Unbanked Curves

When a car goes around a curve, there

must be a net force towards the center

of the circle of which the curve is an arc.

An outside force must act on the car to

keep it on the road (that is turning),

hence cause the centripetal

acceleration.

If the road is flat, that force is supplied

by static friction.

If the frictional force is insufficient, the

car will tend to move nearly as the skid

marks straight line show.

The frictional force which can be

supplied by the contact between the

road and the wheels of a car is variable,

depending on the conditions of the road

and the tires of the vehicle.

Banked and Unbanked Curves

bad in two ways:

2. The static frictional force can point towards the

center of the circle, but the kinetic frictional force

opposes the direction of motion, making it very

difficult to regain control of the car and continue

around the curve.

Unbanked Curves

Front View

Top View (the car heading towards you)

Free Body Diagram

2

radial mv ; Fs s FN

component:

F s

r

FN y component:

ac

Fs

Substitute the formula in

v both components:

Fg 𝑚𝑣 2

𝜇𝑠 𝑚𝑔 =

𝑟

𝒗𝟐

𝝁𝒔 =

𝒈𝒓

𝒗 = 𝝁𝒔 𝒈𝒓

Example 1: Unbanked Curves

50 m.

a) Draw a free-body diagram for the car.

b) How much centripetal force will be necessary to keep the car on

the road?

c) If the µ static for this road is 0.60, will the car make the turn?

d) If the µ static for the road is 0.20, will the car make the turn?

e) What is the maximum speed the car can have and still make the

turn with µ=0.6?

Example 1: Unbanked Curves

a)

Solution: The car needs static

Firstly, draw FREE BODY friction to keep it on the

DIAGRAM road (that is turning),

hence cause the

FN centripetal acceleration.

Thus, in free-body

Fs diagram, the static friction

force must point in the

direction of the

Fg

acceleration, direction of

the net force

Example 1: Unbanked Curves

Solution:

b) Determine the necessary value of centripetal force to keep the car on the

road?

Fc r

2

mv

Fcentripetal

50m

c) If the µ static for this road is 0.60, will the car make the turn?

; where Fs FN F ma

2

Fs mv

y y

r2

mg mv FN Fg 0

r

FN Fg mg

2 (14 ms-1)2

v 0.40;

rg 50 m • 9.8 ms-2 Yes, the car will make the turn.

July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 41

Example 1: Unbanked Curves

Solution:

d). If the µ static for the road is 0.20, will the car make the turn?

0.20 0.40; No, the car will not make the turn.

There is not sufficient friction from the road to keep the car on

the circular road.

e). What is the maximum speed the car can have and still make the

turn with µ = 0.6?

v rg

Example 2: Unbanked Curves

A 1500 kg car moving on a flat, horizontal road negotiates

a curve as shown. If the radius of the curve is 35.0 m and

the coefficient of static friction between the tires and dry

pavement is 0.523, find the maximum speed the car can

have and still make the turn successfully.

. 𝐹𝑠 𝐹 𝑁

𝐹𝑠

mg

Example 2: Unbanked Curves

Solution:

The force of static friction directed toward the center of the

curve keeps the car moving in a circular path.

𝑭𝒔 max

𝐹𝑁

𝐹𝑠

ms-2 ms-1 mg

Banked Curves

Surface • The normal force on • The horizontal

• All forces on the the car due to the road component of the

car are vertical, is no longer vertical, so normal force is shown

so no horizontal a component of the in blue in the diagram

force can be normal force acts in the above. This force can

generated. supply a centripetal

horizontal direction.

force to turn the car.

Banked Curves

Top View Front View

(the car heading towards you)

it must have a vertical

FN

horizontal acceleration

to go in a horizontal FN cos

circle. FN sin

ac

radial r

different than for an Inclined

ac r Plane, because the car is not

expected to slide down the

plane. F g = mg

Example 1: Banked Curves

A car moving at the designated speed can negotiate the

curve. Such a ramp is usually banked, which means that

the roadway is tilted toward the inside of the curve.

Suppose the designated speed for the ramp is to be 13.4

ms-1 and the radius of the curve is 35.0 m. At what angle

should the curve be banked?

FN vertical

FN cos

FN sin

ac

radial r

ac r

Fg = mg

Example 1: Banked Curves

Solution:

to find angle of the curve banked

ms-1 FN

FN cos

FN sin

mg Fg = - mg

ms-1

ms-2

Example 2: Banked Curves

Determine the velocity that a car should have while

traveling around a frictionless curve with a radius 250 m

is banked at an angle of 15 degrees.

Solution:

𝑣= 𝑟𝑔 tan 𝜃

= 250 9.8 tan 15

=25.62 ms-1

Additional Example 𝐹𝑁

– Banked curve mg

A 1500 kg car moving on a flat, horizontal road negotiates a curve as shown. If

the radius of the curve is 35.0 m and the coefficient of static friction between

the tires and dry pavement is 0.523, from previous example, we got the

maximum speed =13.4 ms-1 for the car to successfully make a turn.

Next question: FN FN cos

At what angle the road should be banked

(without the need of a friction force) for this

optimum velocity? 𝑣2 FN sin

tan 𝜃 = 𝜇 =

𝑟𝑔 mg Fg = - mg

𝑣2

𝑣2 tan 𝜃 =

tan 𝜃 = =𝜇 OR 𝑟𝑔

𝑟𝑔

(13.4 𝑚𝑠 −1 )2

tan 𝜃 = 0.523 tan 𝜃 =

35 𝑚 (9.8 𝑚𝑠 −2 )

𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 0.523 = 27.61 °

tan 𝜃 = 0.523

𝜃 = 27.61°

July 17 Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 50

Conical Pendulum

horizontal circle of radius r at the end of a cord of length L.

Conical Pendulum

Solve for the acceleration of the

bob, based on the angle θ, by

applying Newton's Second Law x direction y direction

along each axis.

y

θ Note:

T cos

l T The inward

component

θ of tension,

T sin

T sin radial

gives the

ac needed

mg central

force.

Conical Pendulum

An alternative approach is to solve this as a vector equation using

ΣF=ma. (This will work whenever only two forces are present.)

Just translate the original vectors (before decomposing them) to

form a right triangle so that the sum of the two forces equals the

new vector "ma".

Centripetal

y acceleration

L θ

T cos

T mg

θ

T sin radial And to find tension....

ac

Examples

1. A small ball of mass 0.5 kg is whirled at the end of a rope in a

conical pendulum with a radius of 2 m at a speed of 4 ms-1. What is

the tension in the rope?

Solution:

Given the values of m = 0.5 kg = 500 g, r = 2 m, v = 4 ms-1

𝑚𝑣 2

𝑇 2 = 𝑚𝑔2 +

𝑟

500 (4)2

𝑇= 500 (9.8)2 +

2

𝑇 = 52020 = 228 𝑁

Examples

1. A small ball of mass 0.5 kg is whirled at the end of a rope in a

conical pendulum with a radius of 2 m at a speed of 4 ms-1. What is

the tension in the rope?

Solution:

Given the values of m = 0.5 kg, r = 2 m, v = 4 ms-1

𝑇 2 = (𝑚𝑔)2 +

𝑚𝑣 2

2 x 𝑇 = 𝑚𝑔 +

𝑚𝑣 2

𝑟

𝑟

2 0.5 (4)2 2

𝑇= 0.5(9.8) +

2

3. DO NOT Simply REMOVE

𝑇= 4.92 + 42 = 6.33 𝑁 the power of 2 for each of

the component in the

formula

Examples

2. A small ball of mass m = 5 kg is suspended from a T θ

string of length L = 5 m. The ball revolves with

constant speed v in a horizontal circle of radius r = 2 m.

Find the values of v and a.

mg

1

FBD

2

1

:

2

ms-1

mg ms-2

Examples

3. A 2 kg mass swings in a horizontal circle at the end of a cord of

length 10 m. What is the constant speed of the mass if the

rope makes an angle of 300 with the vertical?

Solution Find: v=?

Where r = L sin 300 = (10 m)(0.5)= 5 m

v 2 gr tan

𝑣 = (9.8 m/s2 )(5 m) tan300

𝑣 = 5.32 𝑚𝑠 −1

Review Questions

1. Which of the following is responsible for how a car

stays in place on a frictionless banked curve?

B. The horizontal component of the car's weight.

C. The vertical component of the normal force.

D. The horizontal component of the normal force

Review Questions

2. The top speed a car can go around an unbanked curve

safely (without slipping) depends on all of the

following except:

B. The mass of the car.

C. The radius of the curve.

D. The acceleration due to gravity.

Review Questions

3. Two banked curves have the same radius. Curve A is

banked at an angle of 37 degrees, and curve B is

banked at an angle of 53 degrees. A car can travel

around curve A without relying on friction at a speed

of 30 m/s. At what speed can this car travel around

curve B without relying on friction?

𝑣 = 𝑟𝑔 tan 𝜃

A. 20ms-1 𝑣𝐴 tan 𝜃𝐴 tan 37

= = = 0.75

B. 30 ms-1 𝑣𝐵 tan 𝜃𝐵 tan 53

𝑣𝐴 30

C. 40 ms-1 𝑣𝐵 = = = 40 𝑚𝑠 −1

0.75 0.75

D. 60 ms-1

Review Questions

Centripetal Force and FBD

Rounding a curve FN Let’s draw an FBD.

Fs

mg

What is the Fc? Fs

Review Questions

Centripetal Force and FBD

Tether ball

Tcos

T 𝑻 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽

Tsin

mg

Glossary

Newton’s Second Law of Mass

Motion describes what Mass is one of the single most

happen if a net (resultant) force misunderstood concepts in

is applied to a mass. chemistry and physics. It is not the

• Weight same as “weight,” although the two

Weight is a measure of how measurements are related.

strongly earth’s gravity pulls Mass is a measure of the amount of

on a mass. It is a measure of inertia that a body has — it’s a

Force, and written as Fg, or measure of how hard it is to change

sometimes as W, and as with an object’s motion. The more mass

all forces, its SI units are the you have, the more inertia you have,

kg m s-2 (Newton). and the more inertia you have, the

The weight of an object at harder it is to get you moving (if

the surface of the earth is you’re motionless), or to stop your

calculated as follows: motion (if you’re moving).

W = Fg = mg

Circular Motion - Dr Aisyah Hartini Jahidin (PASUM 2017/2018) 63

Next class….

Rotational motion

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