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www.aerodefensetech.com August 2018

Welcome to
your Digital Edition of
Aerospace & Defense Optical Seeker

Technology
for Munitions Systems
Designing a High-Speed Decoy
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
In-Flight Real-Time Avionics
Adaptation
Using Turbine Flow Meters

August 2018
for Aerospace Test and
Measurement Applications

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Overcome antenna crosstalk
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Visualization of the electric field norm and 3D far field due to a transmitting
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www.aerodefensetech.com August 2018

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for Munitions Systems
Designing a High-Speed Decoy
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
In-Flight Real-Time Avionics
Adaptation
Using Turbine Flow Meters
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Aerospace & Defense Technology

Contents
FEATURES ________________________________________ TECH BRIEFS _____________________________________
Test & Simulation 45 Hydraulic Testing of Polymer Matrix Composite 102mm Tube
Section
4 Designing a High-Speed Decoy Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
46 Permeation Tests on Polypropylene Fiber Materials
Aerospace Alloys 49 Inter-Laboratory Combat Helmet Blunt Impact Test Method
12 Using Thermoplastics in Aerospace Applications Comparison
Avionics
16 In-Flight Real-Time Avionics Adaptation DEPARTMENTS ___________________________________
52 Application Briefs
Fuel Systems
56 New Products
22 Using Turbine Flow Meters for Aerospace Test and
Measurement Applications 60 Advertisers Index

RF & Microwave Technology ON THE COVER ___________________________________


28 Communicating from Space: The Front End of Multiscale
Modeling BAE Systems’ cost-effective optical seeker for preci-
sion-guided munitions is designed to improve navi-
31 Laser-Based System Could Expand Space-to-Ground gation, as well as automate target location and hom-
Communication ing, for different types of munitions that are used in
GPS-denied and other contested environments. To
learn more, read the applications brief on page 52.
(Photo courtesy of BAE Systems)

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Designing a
High-Speed Decoy
Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle (UAV) Figure 1.
A baseline high-speed
decoy design CAD model

D
rone aircraft and their uses The mid-wing configuration was se- ence was calculated as 26%. Therefore,
have been evolving quickly, lected because it had the properties of for the calculated Wo, the aircraft length
supported by a great deal of high- and low-wing; it also had the low- was calculated as approximately 9.03 ft.
ongoing research. One area of est drag from wing-body interference. Another important parameter for fuse-
increasing interest is the decoy drone, The wing incidence angle was 0 degrees lage design is the slenderness ratio value
designed to mimic the radar and heat for this decoy design because the wing in- (f). This is the ratio of fuselage length to
signature of an actual aircraft. These cidence angle is generally set at 0 degrees the maximum diameter of fuselage:
drones are intended to confuse or mis- for mid-wing jet fighter aircraft. The as- fuselage
lead anti-aircraft defense systems. If op- pect ratio (AR) of the high-speed decoy f =
erating as designed, one or more drones wing was 5, and taper ratio value was 0.36 d
are launched from an actual aircraft as it from other successful aerial target designs. A slenderness value was chosen as 11
enters airspace monitored by anti-air- If an aircraft’s maximum speed is less from previous successful aerial target
craft systems. The system picks up the than 0.3 Mach, wing sweep is not rec- designs with similar design require-
signature of the drones and attacks ommended. However, wing sweep angle ments. Slenderness value of 11 is also
them while the actual aircraft can be is used for high-speed aircraft. Wing close to jet fighter designs.
hidden with the swarm of drones. sweep helps to protect from shock for-
In this study, computational fluid dy- mation by increasing the critical Mach Tail Geometry
namics (CFD) embedded in CAD software number. The leading-edge sweep angle The tail has three main functions: sta-
was used to optimize the aircraft design value increases as the aircraft maximum bility, control, and trim. Trim refers to
and test the aircraft performance during speed increases. After considering the generation of the lift force; by acting
different operations such as cruise, ma- decoy’s maximum speed requirement, through some tail moment arm about the
neuverability, and maximum speed. The leading edge sweep angle was chosen as center of gravity, it balances some other
mission requirements for the high-speed 30 degrees. moment generated by aircraft. Different
decoy were a maximum altitude of 15,000 Wing dihedral angle gives lateral sta- tail configurations were considered. The
feet with maximum speed of 450 knots bility to an aircraft; however, too much T-tail configuration was selected because
and an endurance of at least one hour. reduces rolling controllability. Wing of its simplicity. T-tail provides a wake-free
The highly agile decoy UAV with high sweep and high-wing configuration gives horizontal tail and a heavy vertical tail
maneuverability capability was designed naturally positive dihedral, whereas, low structure to carry the horizontal tail.
to launch from a pneumatic catapult and wing gives naturally negative dihedral ef- A horizontal tail generates aerody-
land via a parachute. This aircraft design fect. Considering aircraft wing sweep se- namic force to trim the aircraft longitu-
had a 6-g sustained and 9-g instanta- lection, wing configuration and aerial dinally; in other words, it is responsible
neous load factor. The required payload target requirements of the dihedral angle for balancing the moment by the wing.
capacity was 22 lb, consisting of a smoke was 0 degrees for this design. The horizontal tail chosen was a mov-
dispenser, a passive radar cross section able tail. Leading-edge sweep was 35 de-
augmenter (luneberg lens), a chaff and IR Fuselage grees, which was 5 degrees more than
Background Image: mexrix/Shutterstock.com

dispenser, and a miss distance indicator. For an initial guess, fuselage length was the wing sweep to ensure the critical
initially estimated by using the following Mach number would not lose elevator
Wing Geometry formula assuming jet fighter coefficients: control from shock formation. The
After considering the catapult, ma-
neuver, and cruise constraints, the wing
fuselage = aW0c thickness ratio of the airfoil (t/c) section
was thinner than the wing t/c to reduce
loading at takeoff condition was calcu- where a is the speed of sound, and Wo the flow Mach number at the tail sec-
lated as 23.209 lb/ft2, which is the max- is the maximum takeoff weight. tion. The aspect ratio (AR) of the hori-
imum that it should experience. From However, the actual length of the aer- zontal tail was lower than the wing to
this, the advantages and disadvantages ial targets is longer compared to the cal- improve the stall characteristics. Hori-
of high-wing, mid-wing, and low-wing culated values. Examining other aerial zontal tail AR was estimated to be two
configuration types were considered. target designs, the average length differ- thirds of the wing aspect ratio.

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Testing & Simulation

Vertical tail generates aerodynamic handling qualities, and overall aerody- sulted in the best aerodynamic perform-
force to trim the aircraft directionally. namic efficiency. The airfoil can be de- ance. Baseline design and other configu-
Rather than (yawing) directional stabil- fined as the 2D profile of the wing. Op- rations were created according to their
ity, the rudder is a movable part of the timum pressure distribution can be vertical wing and tail geometry designs.
vertical tail. Therefore, directional con- achieved on the upper and lower sur- All models were created in a CAD envi-
trol and maneuvering of the aircraft is faces by choosing the right airfoil. The ronment and analyzed for different flow
done by the vertical tail. The vertical right airfoil can be chosen if the design regimes and envelopes. Finally, configu-
tail and horizontal tail combination lift coefficient Cl(ideal), Cl(max), oper- ration was selected based on various de-
should be designed so that at least a ating Reynolds number (RE), and design sign and performance criteria.
third of the rudder should be out of the Mach number, are known. Once the baseline design of the UAV was
wake for spin recovery. The NACA 63-412 airfoil was selected. created in CAD, nine variations were gen-
Like a horizontal tail, the vertical tail NACA 63-412 airfoil has a maximum erated with the different wing/tail design
also should have a high sweep angle to thickness at 34.9% of the chord and is combinations as shown in Figure 2. CFD
increase Mcrit and avoid problems from 2.2% maximum camber at 50% of the analyses of each of these combinations
shock formation. The vertical tail airfoil chord. For the horizontal and vertical were executed to find the optimum combi-
section t/c ratio was selected the same tail, a symmetric airfoil NACA 0009 nation that would best meet the mission
as the horizontal tail to reduce the ver- smoothed was selected. requirements of the drone. Nine design
tical tail Mach number. A high lift curve variations were compared from three wing
slope airfoil was selected because the di- CFD Analysis and three tail options. The following design
rectional stability derivative is directly Because the aim of this study was to aspects were considered in the analyses:
related to the lift curve slope of the air- design an optimized high-speed decoy • Wing vertical location affects the per-
foil of the vertical tail. that surpasses its predecessors, the formance directly; it alters the C.G. of
Airfoil affects the aircraft perform- FloEFD CFD tool was used to achieve the the aircraft and therefore, the stability.
ance such as cruise speed, stall speed, high-speed decoy configuration that re- • Baseline high-speed decoy UAV was
designed as mid-wing because of rea-
sons stated previously.
• Low wing has less ground clearance
and is not as laterally stable, but en-
ables better lateral control. It also pro-
duces less lift and induced drag. It has
less downwash on the tail, thereby
making the tail more effective, and fi-
nally, it is structurally lighter than a
LowWing-ConventionalTail LowWing-CruciformTail LowWing-Ttail high wing configuration.
• High wing has the most ground clear-
ance and is the most stable laterally,
though it has less lateral control. It
also tends to produce more theoretical
lift and, therefore, more induced drag.
Plus, it is structurally the heaviest of
all the designs.
• Mid-wing, as the name implies, is in be-
tween both the high and the low design
with their associated characteristics.
MidWing-ConventionalTail MidWing-CruciformTail MidWing-Ttail
• Conventional tail has a vertical tail
that is the lightest structure of all
three tail combinations because the
vertical tail does not need to carry the
horizontal tail. The wing wake can
disturb the horizontal tail in this con-
figuration, especially with the high
wing combination.
• T-tail offers the advantage to have a
wake-free horizontal tail because it is
HighWing-ConventionalTail LowWing-CruciformTail LowWing-Ttail positioned the furthest distance verti-
cally from the wing in any configura-
Figure 2. Drone test configurations tion. The downside is that it requires a

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Testing & Simulation

heavy vertical tail structure to support The cruciform tail enables a lighter ver- compared with the tail configuration
the horizontal tail. tical tail and helps prevent deep stall. kept as T-tail. CFD analysis showed that
• Cruciform tail is the combination of For the initial analyses, high wing, mid the fuselage effect negatively affected the
the T-tail and the conventional tail. wing and low wing configurations were low wing and forced the flow to separate,
High wing Configuration High wing Configuration

Mid wing Configuration Mid wing Configuration

Low wing Configuration Low wing Configuration

Figure 3. Pressure contours 0.13m from centerline for high wing, mid-wing and Figure 4. Mach number contours 0.13m from the centerline for high wing, mid-
low wing angled at 6° wing, and low wing angled at 14°

High wing Configuration


T-tail Configuration

Mid wing Configuration


Cruciform Tail Configuration

Low wing Configuration Conventional Tai Configuration

Figure 5. Pressure contours 0.13m from the centerline for high wing, mid-wing, Figure 6. Mach number contour cut plots 0.231m from centerline of T-tail, cru-
and low wing angled at 14° ciform tail, and conventional tail at a 14° angle

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Testing & Simulation

making the low wing prone to the stall similar performance but the high wing had lowest drag and highest lift-to-
and reducing its lift efficiency — the was better for high angles of attack. drag (L/D) values. Whereas for higher
worst wing position among all configura- FloEFD revealed that for low angles angles of attack, the high wing config-
tions. High wing and mid-wing showed of attack, the mid-wing configuration uration yields the lowest drag coeffi-
cient, highest maximum lift coeffi-
T-tail Configuration
cient, and gave highest L/D values.
Unexpectedly, the high wing configu-
ration model yielded the lowest drag at
higher angles of attack compared to
other configurations. Therefore, the
high wing design was selected for the
wing configuration.
Three different tail configurations
were then analyzed while holding the
Cruciform Tail Configuration
high wing configuration constant. This
showed that the T-tail seemed to be
wing wake free and provided the most
lift. Because deep stall is an important
phenomena, the stall angle of 16°
needed to be analyzed in more detail to
prove that deep stall would not occur.
To see the occurrence of the stall phe-
nomena completely, 3D flow trajecto-
Conventional Tai Configuration
ries were plotted; 200 pipe lines were
used to show the flow trajectories
through the wing. 3D flow trajectories
confirm that the T-tail configuration’s
horizontal tail tips were not signifi-
cantly affected by the stall wing wake.
Finally, the decoy UAV was tested
with the CFD tool at maximum, corner,
and cruise velocities. The results
Figure 7. Pressure contour cut plots 0.231m from centerline of T-tail, cruciform tail, and conventional tail showed that the aircraft design would
at a 16° angle be able to fly at the required maximum
velocity without a strong shock occur-
rence. Optimum cruise velocity was
226.548 0.38 M in the drag polar curves. Then,
210.366
194.184 optimum corner velocity was found
178.002 from the CFD result CL max. Wind tun-
161.820
145.638
nel testing is considered indispensable
129.456 for getting the most accurate aerody-
113.274 namic performance. However, creating
97.092
80.910 prototypes of every configuration and
64.728 testing them in a wind tunnel is too
48.546
time consuming and expensive for a de-
32.364
16.182 signer. The FloEFD CFD tool embedded
4.488e-004 in CATIA was helpful to reduce the
Velocity [m/s] number of prototypes.
Cut Plot3: contours Z This article was written by Umut Bay-
Cut Plot6: contours cara, Aeronautical Safety Assistant Expert,
Flow Trajectories 1
Middle East Technical University (Ankara,
Turkey) and Mike Croegaert, Senior Indus-
try Manager of Military and Aerospace
Technology, Mentor Simulation and Test
Solutions (Wilsonville, OR). For more infor-
mation, visit http://info.hotims.com/
Figure 8. 3-D flow trajectories of the T-tail configuration at a 16° angle 69509-503.

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Using Thermoplastics
in Aerospace
Applications

I
n August 2017, Qantas Airlines laid What is the reason behind this drastic imide (PEI), and polyetherketoneketone
down the challenge to both Boeing shift from aluminum and steel to ther- (PEKK) provide a reliable and cost-effec-
and Airbus to offer an aircraft that moplastics like PEEK, PPSU, PEI, and tive way to reduce weight. More impor-
can cross one of aviation’s “last other polymer materials? As it turns tantly, they add value beyond weight
frontiers.” That “last frontier” was an out, there’s more than one explanation. reduction for many applications due to
aircraft capable of flying an economical unique properties advantageous to
passenger load non-stop for over 20 Weight Reduction metallic components where their supe-
hours. This would allow Qantas to offer With fuel costs representing the high- rior corrosion and fatigue resistance,
direct service from Sydney to London or est of all operating costs for aircraft, it’s tensile strength, and durability can lead
New York. Weight reduction through not surprising that the demand for them to outperform metal.
the use of thermoplastics and other lighter aircraft has risen with it. To put
technologies would be the key to any this in perspective, it is interesting to Extreme Resistances
chance of success in this endeavor. note that years ago MIT researchers esti- High-performance thermoplastics meet
Aluminum, steel, and titanium used mated that for each passenger to carry a more stringent flame, smoke, and toxicity
to reign supreme in the world of aero- cell phone, it cost Southwest Airlines (FST) standards due to their inherent
space manufacturing, taking up 70% of and additional $1.2m annually in fuel flame resistance or, in some cases, flame
the average aircraft. Yet as demands for costs. If the passengers each carried a retardancy. A few standouts are PPSU
weight reduction and fuel efficiency in- laptop then the cost jumped to $21.6m! (RADEL), PEI (ULTEM), PPS (RYTON), and
crease, metals are losing ground to the Polymer and composite materials PEEK (VICTREX 450G), which have UL94
new kid on the block – thermoplastic meet the challenge of helping reduce V-0 flammability ratings without any
polymers and composites. You need aircraft weight by being up to ten times flame-retardant additives.
only consider the latest generation of lighter than metal. This sharply lowers It shouldn’t be surprising then to know
modern aircraft to see the impact these lifetime fuel costs, reduces emissions, that thermoplastics can survive in ex-
materials are having on aerospace man- and extends flight range. By and large, treme temperatures. Two striking exam-
ufacturing. the most efficient airframes contain ples are polyimide (PI) (VESPEL) and poly-
For example, look at the A350 XWB. large amounts of carbon-fiber rein- benzimidazole (PBI) (CELAZOLE), which
Over 50% of this fuel-efficient aircraft is forced polymers and composites. These can operate uninterrupted from cryogenic
built from carbon-reinforced plastic airframes and components can be re- temperatures to over 550°F, with intermit-
composites, while its competitor, the sponsible for reducing aircraft weight tent exposure to over 900°F. This, com-
Boeing 787, is also roughly 50% com- by as much as 20%. bined with resistance to high wear and
posite materials. Notably, this trend isn’t For this reason, the market for ma- friction, gives PI and PBI impressive
limited to Airbus and Boeing; other chining components from lightweight, longevity in hostile environments.
companies such as Bombardier, BAE Sys- high-performance thermoplastics is Hostile environments aren’t always
tems, Raytheon, GE Aviation, and Lock- growing, especially for aerostructure ap- made so by temperature, though. Resist-
heed Martin have also leaned into using plications. Aerospace-grade polymers ance is key for aerospace applications
thermoplastics and composites in their such as polyetheretherketone (PEEK), which involve exposure to harsh chem-
aircraft and defense related systems. polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), polyether- icals. The high chemical resistance of

12 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


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Aerospace Alloys

Insulation and Radar-Absorption


While metallic components require
extensive and costly secondary process-
ing and coating to achieve their insulat-
ing properties, polymers and compos-
ites are inherently thermally and
electrically insulating.
A perfect example of this is PEI, which
has one of the highest dielectric strengths
of any thermoplastic material. Its low rate
of thermal conductivity makes it a fre-
quent choice for aircraft galley equip-
ment, while its UL94 V-O flame rating
makes it ideal for aircraft interior compo-
nents. In fact, ULTEM 2300 – a 30% glass-
reinforced grade of ULTEM PEI – is often
used as a direct replacement for alu-
minum due to its similar coefficient of
thermal expansion to 6061-T6.
Thermoplastics can be machined to extremely tight tolerances up to 0.002mm, which can be critical for Along with their insulation proper-
aerospace. ties, polymer components have the ad-
ditional benefit of being radar-ab-
sorbent. This makes thermoplastics
useful for stealth military aircraft appli-
cations, where evading radar detection
is mission-critical. Metals, on the other
hand, tend to be strong reflectors of elec-
tromagnetic waves, making them easy to
detect by radar.

Manufacturing and Design Flexibility


One reason aluminum had been so fre-
quently used for aerospace is that it was
considered easy to manufacture into air-
craft components. A misconception is
that thermoplastics don’t share that qual-
ity. Advances in thermoplastic manufac-
turing and processing have allowed for
great flexibility in both manufacturing
Wing Flex on a Boeing 787 in Flight and design. One major thermoplastic and
composite manufacturing misconception
thermoplastics like PPS means it can op- wards using thermoplastic composite is that plastic parts cannot be easily ma-
erate even when submerged in a severe fuselages, metallic structural brackets chined. On the contrary, thermoplastic
chemical environment, where metals and other associated causes of galvanic components have been machined into
are prone to dissolving. PPS’s dimen- corrosion are being replaced, creating geometrically complex mission critical
sional and density stability has also overall safer aircraft. components over the past few decades.
made it a favorite for aircraft compo- Both the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 Thermoplastics can be machined to ex-
nents, whether for interior, mechanical, XWB offer composite fuselages which tremely tight tolerances up to 0.002mm,
or exterior. are able to operate at a higher-pressure which can be critical for aerospace appli-
Another crucial feature for aerospace differential, which in turn results in a cations. Processes such as rapid thermo-
is corrosion resistance. This is some- cabin altitude lower than with previous forming, autoclave processing, tape and
thing that thermoplastics excel at, espe- aluminum fuselages. The composite fiber placement techniques and press
cially when compared to aluminum and materials allow for higher strength, forming are also all possible with thermo-
steel. One of the primary causes of lower fatigue and no corrosion, allow- plastic polymers and composites.
structural failure for aircraft is galvanic ing for a lower cabin altitude with Many thermoplastics also have better
corrosion between dissimilar materials. higher humidity resulting in a less fa- fatigue properties than metals do, and
As aerospace manufacturing leans to- tigued passenger upon arrival. they tolerate larger deflections without

14 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


Aerospace Alloys

Polymer and composite materials help reduce aircraft weight by being up to ten
times lighter than metal.

deforming. To prove this fact, just look at the wing flex on a Boe-
ing 787 in flight as shown in the accompanying illustration.
PEEK is one thermoplastic that has fast become a popular
replacement for metal in aerospace. It’s a natural choice since
PEEK’s lightweight nature, mechanical strength, creep and fa-
tigue resistance, and ease of processing all give it great versa-
tility. PEEK’s diversity of applications includes flight control,
fuel systems, aircraft interiors, and engine and aerodynamic-
related components.

Conclusion
There are numerous types of thermoplastics gaining ground
in aerospace, many more than are named in this article. Yet it’s
important to remember that each thermoplastic, though shar-
ing broad characteristics, has its own unique strengths that
make it better suited for some applications over others. It’s not
unexpected that an aircraft engine has different needs than a
RADEL aircraft galley bezel or a landing gear component.
When determining thermoplastic solutions, it’s crucial to prac-
tice due diligence and partner with an experienced aerospace
plastics manufacturer. They should be able to offer material con-
sultancy as part of their expertise and discuss the pros and cons
of each selection, as well as display experience in manufacturing
it. Take a careful look at their industry standards and certifica-
tions, like the ISO9001:2015 AS9100D, to be sure that they under-
stand the regulatory requirements for aerospace applications.
Most importantly, look at the supplier’s experience in manufacturing
mission critical thermoplastic aerospace components, as many
times the actual machining talent and experience is the difference
between a failed or successful thermoplastic component.
In a field as mission-critical as aerospace, success often relies
on choosing the material best suited for an application. In-
creasingly, that material is thermoplastic.
This article was written by John Macdonald, President, AIP Pre-
cision Machining (Daytona Beach, FL). For more information, visit
http://info.hotims.com/69509-501.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-784 15


In-Flight
Real-Time
Avionics
Adaptation

Andrei Agape/Shutterstock.com
vionics is a very restricting Embedded Simulator on the system and test which one is the
domain for obvious safety Methodology most efficient to handle specific scenar-
reasons. Along with minia- Figure 1 presents the basic methodol- ios. This could help the system to per-
turization comes the idea of ogy. We consider an avionic architecture form dynamic reconfiguration when it
integration. More functionality on one featuring core processing modules (CPM) comes upon critical situations.
spot requires a good management of implementing several applications and To achieve this goal, the SystemC[4]
privacy and congestion on shared plat- generating data traffic and avionics language was chosen as an appropriate
forms. This is why determinism is one switch modules (ASM), which route data candidate to model both software (appli-
of the keywords of avionics works. This packets to their destination CPM. cation) and hardware system (processors
led to protocols like ARINC653[1] assur- As an example, CPM1 in Figure 1 fea- and communication modules) under
ing that multitask embedded programs tures three partitions, each one hosting time constraints defined by ARINC653
respect a predictable policy applied by an application dedicated respectively to and ARINC664.
the operating system (OS). Another key GPS, speed, and angle estimation.
protocol is ARINC664, which guaran- Through an ARINC664 communication SystemC
tees that multiple communicating sys- End System, data generated by these ap- SystemC is a C++ class library based
tems efficiently share the network. plications are sent through several Virtual on an object-oriented design concept
These two protocols are pillars of the In- Links (VL) of the data network. While (OOD) providing common Hardware
tegrated Modular Architecture (IMA) performing data traffic management, the Description Language (HDL) features.
concept[2]. ASM also implements a simulator that As such, it allows hardware description
IMA concept consists of a multitask runs a timed model of the expected com-
module hosting ARINC653 OS, inter- munication traffic, considering the OS
connected with an ARINC664 data net- and network parameters. The ASM is the Begin
work. Compared to federated avionics privileged place to implement a simula-
architecture, it considerably reduces the tor since its CPU only manages message
overall weight and power consumption traffic and has available time.
for aircraft. IMA also reduces the devel- The simulator performs two types of
opment expenses, the design cycle verification: temporal consistency, which Initialisation
times and the maintenance costs. With checks whether communication occurs at
the intention to step forward with this the expected time, according to the sys-
concept, the CORAC (The Council for tem scheduling, and data consistency,
Civil Aeronautics Research) has devel- which analyzes N consecutive data values Evaluation
oped a technological demonstration to determine if their evolution is coherent
platform (PDT) called Extended Modu- or if we can assume an error has occurred.
lar Avionic (AME) [3] . This paper ex- The simulator can also be used as an
plains a project dedicated to monitoring architecture exploration tool. It can Update
the system. model different application mappings

CPM 1
System C Module
Partition 1 Physical Link Data Analysis
GPS VL1 GPS
Data Analysis
CPM 2 Time Elapse
VL2 Speed Partition 1
Partition 2
OS End
Data Analysis Application 1
Speed Angle
System
End Partition 2
Partition 3 VL3
Switch Module OS
System Application 2
Angle
End
Partition 3
Application 3

Figure 1. Embedded Simulation Methodology Figure 2. SystemC Flow

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Avionics

along with software development. ule behavior by processes, which can be is initiated by the sc_start method,
Hardware behavior concurrency is sim- described as functions triggered by the which is a function of the simulator. Fi-
ulated by the way simulation time is update of ports or signals that are regis- nally, the cleanup phase ends simula-
being managed by the simulator. tered in a sensitivity list. A SystemC pro- tion, by cleaning objects and structures.
Hardware components are modeled gram usually consists of an elaboration The role of a SystemC simulator is to
using the sc_module class and are inter- phase where all the elements of the de- manipulate the timestamp to simulate
connected to each other with sc_port scribed system are declared and assem- the concurrency of hardware behavior.
class objects. Module internal registers bled, and where all processes are listed. It determines in which order processes
are represented by sc_signals, and mod- Then comes the simulation phase, which must be executed, and when values of
ports and signals must be updated. The
TRANSMISSION PART RECEPTION PART
Accelera Systems Initiative (ASI) pro-
Application 1 vides an event driven simulator with
GPS
Application 2
SYSTEM C MODULE the language library.
END SYSTEM FRAME ANALYSER
Software POK OS APPLICATION Speed ARINC664 Virtual Link (Data and temporal
consistency)
The simulation phase features three
Application 3
Angle
steps: Evaluation, in which the simulator
checks which processes must be exe-
cuted, according to their sensitivity list.
The simulator then executes these
CPM 1 processes. When this is done, the second
Partition 1 System C Module step, Update, updates the values of
Data Analysis
GPS GPS
ports/signals according to the previous
Mixte Data Analysis

Hardware Partition 2 End


Speed execution of processes. If signal or ports
POK System Data Analysis
software Speed
OS
Angle updates trigger a process sensitivity list
POK OS
Partition 3 ASM
again, then we go back to the evaluation
Angle step. When no process is triggered any-
more, the simulation timestamp is up-
dated in the Time Elapse step (Figure 2).
PowerPC QORIQ
T2080
The ASI simulator, as it is implemented,
Hardware Dev Board PowerPC QORIQ features memory dynamicity, which
T2080
Dev Board avionic constraints don’t allow. Further-
more, process scheduling at each time-
stamp is dynamic and non- determinis-
Figure 3. T2080 Demonstrator tic[5]. This doesn't affect the result of the
simulation, but can be an issue in an
avionic context, considering execution
time.

GPS software Flight mgmt Servo control Servo control


SystemCASS
runtime runtime runtime runtime SystemCASS (SystemC Accurate Sys-
ARIN C653 kernel
tem Simulator)[6] is a SystemC simulator
that establishes a static scheduling of
processes, which is made at the start of
Servo Throttle
speed simulation. To do so, SystemCASS re-
GPS latitude quires describing all component models
longitude as CFSM (Communicating Finite State
angle
Machine) using a CABA (Cycle Accurate
Servo yaw Bit Accurate) abstraction level. Further-
Flight Management more, a single clock must drive all mod-
ules. SystemCASS modules can include
the following types of processes:
Transition: triggered by the clock ris-
ing edge, it sets the new values of regis-
Memory segment Memory segment Memory segment Memory segment
ters, depending on their actual values
and the input port values.
Moore/Mealy Generation: triggered
by the clock falling edge, these
Figure 4. POK Flight Management Application processes set the new values of output

18 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


Avionics

ports, depending on register values only


(Moore) or register and input port val-
ues (Mealy). TASK TASK TASK

When calling the sc_start method,


SystemCASS creates depending graphs
that generate the static scheduling of TASK TASK TASK

processes, which will be used through-


out the simulation phase. This imple-
mentation ensures a deterministic be- TASK TASK TASK

havior of the simulation.


As a result, SystemCASS is more suit- PARTITION 1 PARTITION 2 PARTITION 3
Speed Angle
able to avionic constraints than a dy- GPS

namic event driven simulator. As we use


gcc compiler, SystemCASS original im-
plementation featured dynamic mem- T7 P1-SEQ3 P2-SEQ3
T9 P3-SEQ3
T8
ory allocation during the creation of the
depending graph after the elaboration Queuing Port
phase, and right before the simulation T4 P1-SEQ2 T5 P2-SEQ2 T6 P3-SEQ2 or
phase. To remove these dynamic alloca- Sampling Port
tions, we first used a static version of
gcc compiler and then identified in run- T1 P1-SEQ1 T2 P2-SEQ1 T3 3-SEQ1

time all the encountered dynamic


memory allocations and replaced it
with static memory allocations. Figure 5. Data Generation and Space Partitionning

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-786 19


Avionics

To identify dynamic allocation, we toother CPM modules. The second dows of communication in ARINC664,
used gdb debug tool and a script that put board assumes the role of an ASM mod- one can predict part of the aircraft data
breakpoints on malloc call. This script is: ule. It performs data reception and runs traffic. Some verification within the
the embedded SystemCASS simulator. communication protocol already exists
set logging file trace.txt Each QorIQ T2080 board hosts the concerning the integrity of the data
set logging on PolyORB Kernel (POK) operating system. transport, but none can analyze the con-
break malloc POK is a partitioned operating system tent itself to determine whether one or
Command compliant with ARINC653 avionic stan- another application is really supposed to
Bt dard [7]. POK ensures enforcement of send a value, or if a communication dis-
Continue safety and security requirements at run- appeared, or if a value is simply incoher-
End time. It also provides some example of ent. Obviously, simulating the whole
Break main avionics applications. One of these appli- communication flow to determine if it is
Command cations is Flight Management (Figure 4). coherent would be too time-intensive.
Continue This application was run on the CPM The idea is to target specific applications,
End QorIQ board. POK OS handles the flight or specific suspect behaviors (missing
Run management application (GPS, Speed material, erroneous values) that could be
Set logging off and Angle) and at the same time handles monitored during the flight. We could
Quit the ARINC 664 End System module. On then create a simplified functional timed
the ASM QorIQ board, POK handles the model of applications as communication
Implementation SystemCASS simulator to perform data providers. On the basis of ARINC664 and
To validate the system, a demonstra- monitoring or architecture exploration. ARINC653 configuration values (major
tor was designed based on two QorIQ frame, bandwidth allocation gap ...), we
T2080 design boards, each featuring a Use Cases could predict communication by simula-
PowerPC E6500 processor (Figure 3). The Data Monitoring tion and compare it with the real traffic
first board assumes the role of a CPM Considering the predictability and de- to verify temporal and the data consis-
module, running test applications terminism of applications software ruled tency.
which are supposed to transmit data by the protocol ARINC653 and their win- The application is implemented as
follows: on the CPM QorIQ board, POK
MAF MAF MAF runs the Flight Management applica-
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 tion, which features three partitions
(speed, angle and GPS) and generates
P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3
the application data (Figure 5). POK’s
ARINC653 properties guarantee space
Figure 6. Partitionning Scheduling partitioning (meaning that memory of
partition is protected) and also guaran-
tees time partitioning (meaning that
BAG VL1 only one partition at a time is executed).
BAG VL2
BAG VL3 The execution of each partition is
P1-SEQ1 P2-SEQ1 P3-SEQ1 P1-SEQ2 P2-SEQ2 P3-SEQ2 P1-SEQ3 P2-SEQ3 P3-SEQ3 handled by a static scheduler (Figure 6)
Frame Frame Frame and is defined by the system integrator.
Size Size Size
VL1 VL2 VL3 Each partition (P1, P2 and P3) has a set
of execution windows (T1, T2, T3) and
Figure 7. ARINC 664 Frame at the Output of the End System this set of windows is repeated in time
(T4, T5, T6 and so on…) and at the same
order, which guarantees that each parti-
MAF
tion has access to the system resources
MAF
once in a MAF (Major Frame).
P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 Once that data is generated by POK,
Check that the sequencing number of they are put in the Queuing Port or Sam-
Check that the execution order of partitions is respected
pling Port and are then sent to the End
the partitions is respected
System with the order defined by the
scheduler. Queuing Port can be seen as a
buffer and the Sampling Port as a FIFO.
The End System then encapsulates the
P1-SEQ0 P2-SEQ0 P3-SEQ0 P1-SEQ1 P2-SEQ1 P3-SEQ1 P1-SEQ2 P2-SEQ2 P3-SEQ2 data in an ARINC664 frame with the spec-
ification of the Virtual Link (BAG, Frame
Figure 8. Temporal Consistency Verification Size, Jitters) that has been defined by the

20 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


Avionics

system integrator (Figure 7). A Virtual Link defines a unidirec-


tional logical connection from one source End-system to one or
several destination End-System(s). Each partition has a dedicated
Virtual Link (VLi is dedicated to the data of the Partition i).
On the ASM QorIQ board, POK runs the embedded simula-
We are there
tor. SystemCASS runs a SystemC module that analyzes the
ARINC664 frames coming from the CPM board, performing
when innovation
data and temporal consistency.
Data consistency involves analyzing the payload of the leads to an edge.
ARINC664 frame that contains data for each application (GPS,
speed, angle). In order to do so, a verification of the physical
variation law between two data values T and T+1 for each ap-
plication is performed. Extreme temperature changes,
On the other hand, temporal consistency involves verifying accelerations and vibrations –
that the execution order of each partition is consistent with our sensors, modules and cus-
the scheduling defined by the transmitter part (Figure 8).
tomer-specific systems meet
Architecture Exploration the exceptional requirements
Embedded simulation can also be used to help decide in real for reliability and resilience in
time how the system should be configured (i.e. what is the most the aerospace industry.
efficient application mapping configuration) when critical situ-
ations occur and processing resources should only focus on the
most essential applications.
To do so, a predefined set of application mapping configu-
rations should be stored in a library. When the system detects
some incoherent execution or some major misbehavior (based
on the data monitoring simulation, or other verification
mechanisms), a reconfiguration procedure can be started. The
embedded simulator then runs the stored configurations to
get performance profiles. A decision motor selects the most
appropriate configuration (whether it’s the one that reaches
the best performance, or simply the first configuration that
meets a predefined performance requirement). The system
can then be dynamically reconfigured to remap the applica-
tion according to the simulated scheme.
This article was adapted from SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-2169.
To obtain the full technical paper and access more than 200,000 re-
sources for the aereospace, automotive, and commercial vehicle indus-
tries, visit the SAE MOBILUS site at: http://saemobilus.sae.org.

References
1. Spitzer C. R., Ferrell U., Ferrell T., and Prisaznuk P. J., “ARINC
Specification 653, Avionics Application Software Standard
Interface,” in Digital Avionics Handbook, Third Edition, CRC
Press, 2014, pp. 625-632.
2. Paul J. P., “ARINC 653 role in integrated modular avionics
(IMA),” in 27th Digital Avionics System Conference
Proceedings, 2008, vol. 1.
3. “CORAC,” COnseil pour la Recherche Aéronautique Civile. .
4. Initiative O. S., “IEEE standard SystemC language reference
manual,” IEEE Comput. Soc., pp. 1666-2005, 2006.
5. Schumacher C., Weinstock J. H., Leupers R., and Ascheid G.,
“SCandal: SystemC analysis for nondeterminism anomalies,”
in Specification and Design Languages (FDL), 2012 Forum on,
2012, pp. 112-119.
6. Buchmann R., Petrot F., and Greiner A., “Fast cycle accurate
simulator to simulate event-driven behavior,” in Electrical,
Electronic and Computer Engineering, 2004. ICEEC’04. 2004
International Conference on, 2004, pp. 35-38.
7. Delange J. and Lec L., “POK, an ARINC653-compliant
operating system released under the BSD license,” in 13th www.first-sensor.com
Real- Time Linux Workshop, 2011, vol. 10.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-787 21


Using Turbine Flow Meters
for Aerospace Test
and Measurement
Applications

T
urbine flow meters have long the flow against its vanes causes the de- tional advantages offered by turbine
been a preferred technology for vice to rotate at a rate proportional to flow meter technology. Turbine meters
obtaining precise measure- flow velocity. A sensor/transmitter is now have unprecedented mechanical
ments of fluid flow in the aero- used to detect the rotational rate of the linearity, resulting in minimizing, or
space industry. In addition to their high rotor; when the fluid moves faster, more negating, temperature-induced viscos-
accuracy, they are recognized for excep- pulses are generated. The transmitter ity influence. Meters equipped with so-
tional turndown, repeatability and processes the pulse signal to determine phisticated electronics also provide
speed of response. the flow of the fluid in either forward or total compensation to enhance meas-
With recent design enhancements, reverse direction. urement accuracy, while extending lin-
instrumentation manufacturers have earity over their repeatable range.
expanded the advantages turbine flow Common Flow Applications The following improvements enable
meters offer in a host of demanding Available in compact and lightweight turbine meters to satisfy application re-
aerospace applications. Indeed, the tur- packages with rugged materials of con- quirements in ways once considered in-
bine remains one of the most accurate struction, turbine flow meters are used feasible:
and reliable transducers for today’s crit- to measure diverse fluids ranging from • Dual-rotor designs
ical flow measurements. aircraft fuel to hydraulic fluid, lubri- • Hydraulically coupled rotors
In the aerospace and defense indus- cant, cryogenic fluid and coolant. • Helical rotors
try, testing of fuel system components is Common turbine meter applications • Embedded processors
key to ensuring final vehicle or aircraft include: • Ceramic bearings
performance. By pairing a flow meter • Fuel management • Secured internals
with a flow computer or smart transmit- • Fuel ballast With the latest advancements in tech-
ter, aerospace equipment manufacturers • Flight testing nology, turbine flow meter accuracy has
can perform precise metering of fuel • Hydraulic system verification improved. Increased sensitivity allows
flow in engine test cells. • Product R&D for the precise measurement of even ex-
Experience has shown that turbine • Qualification and acceptance testing tremely low flow rates in some models.
flow meters are the sensor-of-choice for • Performance evaluation Manufacturers also continue to develop
test and measurement applications re- • Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul blade and rotor materials that are highly
quiring the best accuracy available with (MRO) sensitive, durable and less vulnerable to
the benefits of high resolution, ex- From monitoring the fuel consumption drag and other factors that have tradi-
tended turndown across wide flow of rotary and fixed wing aircraft, missiles tionally decreased accuracy.
ranges, fast speed of response, proven and drones, to evaluating the perform-
reliability, and compact size. These me- ance of hydraulic fluid and lubricants on Important Application Considerations
ters also feature a small footprint for test stands, aerospace applications place Today’s versatile turbine flow meter
ease of installation on both fixed and high demands on flow sensing. systems can be configured to achieve
portable test stands. the best solution to measure liquid or
Turbine flow meters incorporate a Latest Technology Advancements gas in the most challenging environ-
time-tested measuring principle. They In recent years, instrumentation ments. For instance, flow meter sup-
contain a freely suspended rotor, and manufacturers have expanded the tradi- pliers provide an assortment of electri-

22 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


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Fuel Systems

cal pickoffs to meet temperature and choose from four basic configurations, temperature monitoring in place of an
signal transmission distance require- depending on their requirements: embedded pickoff temperature sensor.
ments, which are complemented by an • Low-flow axial meters
assortment of electronic processors • Precision single-rotor meters End Connections: End connections are
and indicators. And, selecting from ei- • Dual-rotor meters determined by the pipeline size and
ther standard or custom end connec- • Original Equipment Manufacturer pressure, ease of removal, and other spe-
tion designs can optimize meter instal- (OEM) specialty meters cific application criteria. Equally as im-
lation. portant is the adjoining pipe and end
For users with demanding fuel system Electrical Pickoffs: Be cause test and connection pressure rating. High tem-
measurement requirements, the follow- measurement applications vary so perature will reduce the pressure rating
ing application consideration guide- greatly, most turbine flow meter manu- on all fittings.
lines will make turbine flow meter con- facturers offer multiple electrical pickoff
figuration simple, while presenting choices to meet specific end user re- Flow Straighteners: Flow straighteners
alternatives to maximize accuracy and quirements. A pickoff is mounted on are recommended on single-rotor tur-
minimize cost. the meter body and is used to take the bine flow meters to negate swirl from
output of the device. influencing the accuracy of the meter.
Fluid Parameters: Fluid properties Some flow straighteners employ a
vary from one flow measurement appli- When specifying a pickoff, there bladed insert to prevent swirl and mini-
cation to another and need to be defined are many factors to consider. The fol- mize pressure drop. In addition, they
in order to properly develop the correct lowing list outlines the consideration can be paired pressure and temperature
meter configuration and calibration process: taps.
specification. Fluid parameters include: 1. RF carrier pickoff (requires carrier am- When flow straighteners are impracti-
1. Fluid Type plifier) cal due to space limitations, a turbine
• Affects the flow meter’s wetted 2. Magnetic pickoff (no power required) meter can be calibrated in the same pip-
parts 3. Pickoff fluid temperature ranges ing as found in the installation to com-
• Defines filtration requirements 4. Embedded temperature sensor (RTD pensate for fluid swirl. Generally, dual-
• Determines water, solvent or oil or Thermistor) rotor meters can be used without flow
blending calibration 5. Transmission distance (when amplified) straighteners.
• Provides fluid density information, 6. High-vibration pickoff coils
required for inferred mass flow 7. FM, CSA, CE and ATEX approvals for Packaging: Turbine flow meter pack-
2. Operating Fluid Temperature (mini- EMI, explosion-proof and intrinsi- aging options are available to allow
mum and maximum) cally safe applications for integral or remote mounting. Re-
• Defines fluid viscosity range In some cases, an RTD thermowell mote mounting provides a solution
• Identifies the number of calibrations temperature probe can be inserted when space is limited or when envi-
required to develop a Universal Vis- into a flow straighetner to pro- ronmental temperatures are exces-
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RF & Microwave Technology

Communicating
Figure 1. The far-field radiation
pattern of a two-arm helical
antenna in axial mode.
from Space:
The Front End of
Multiscale Modeling

A
s satellites and astronauts travel further out in A helical antenna is known for its spiral geometry, which
space, the more communication challenges they features one or more conducting wires wound in a helix. It is
face. NASA launched the InSight Mission on May essentially a miniaturized monopole antenna with an input
5, 2018 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Califor- impedance mismatched to a typical reference impedance of
nia. InSight was designed to collect data on Mars quakes and 50 ohm. A helical antenna is much smaller than a traditional
the processes that shaped the rocky planet to help us better half-wave dipole and a quarter-wave monopole antenna. The
understand how it formed. Getting the information back to smaller size of the antenna is achieved by turning the wire
the scientists here on Earth required a variety of antennas obliquely along the rotational axis, decreasing its input re-
on the spacecraft. sistance. One way to compensate for the lowered resistance
without adding a large matching network next to the antenna
The Helical Antenna: An Upward Spiral is by utilizing the folded dipole antenna design that has four
Helical antennas have been deployed for communication times the resistance compared to that of a half-wave dipole
with orbiters in applications such as global positioning sys- antenna. The input impedance can then be enhanced by turn-
tems (GPS) and NASA’s InSight mission. Helical antennas are ing the single helical wire to a two arm-helical structure.
used to transfer data through the electromagnetic wave in
the range of ultra-high frequency (UHF).

Figure 2. Helical and horn


antennas are present on
InSight for RISE. (NASA)

28 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


RF & Microwave Technology

The helical antenna provides two The axial mode is the one used to normal mode. With the higher-gain
resonant modes: normal and axial. In a reach the orbiters. When the antenna far-field radiation, the same limited
normal-mode antenna, the radiation operates in an axial mode, it behaves amount of energy used in the normal
pattern resembles the far-field pattern like an end-fire ring array and gener- mode can be transferred over a longer
of a monopole antenna that is omnidi- ates a directional beam pattern, so the distance. Additionally, the antenna po-
rectional around the azimuthal angle. antenna gain is higher than that at the larization becomes circular due to the
nature of the geometry. Compared to
the linear polarization, the circular po-
larization is less sensitive to the multi-
path fading effect, so it is less vulnera-
ble to environmental fluctuations,
making it an ideal candidate for space
communication.

From Helical to Horn Antennas


In conventional satellite communica-
tion applications, a large aperture or re-
flector antenna is preferred since it pro-
vides the high-gain output without
building a complicated antenna struc-
ture. Medium-gain x-band horn anten-
nas are also present on the InSight for
Rotation and Interior Structure Experi-
ment (RISE) to find the geometrical sta-
bility of the North Pole of Mars through
the revolution that Mars makes around
the Sun by tracking its location.
The geometry of a horn antenna is
relatively simple; however, when it
comes to simulating the electromagnet-
ics, its computational cost can be ex-
Figure 3. A dish reflector antenna with a feed horn and its far-field radiation pattern in dB scale. pensive due to the large electrical size
scaled by the operating wavelength. To
address the increased computational
costs when computing an electromag-
netic (EM) wave propagation and reso-
nance analysis, the horn antenna can
be designed using 2D axisymmetric
modeling that reduces the computation
time by orders of magnitude.
A simulation of the x-band circular
horn antenna deployed on the In-
Sight spacecraft would benefit from
the 2D axisymmetric modeling ap-
proach. When improving the per-
formance of a circular horn antenna, a
dielectric lens and corrugated antenna
interior are used to enhance the radia-
tion characteristic and refine the cir-
cular waveguide polarization to ap-
pear more linear by combining two
waveguide modes. In Figure 4, a coni-
cal horn antenna is fed by a circular
waveguide. And thanks to the corru-
gated surface throughout the cone,
there is a lower cross-polarization at
Figure 4. The far-field radiation pattern and aperture electric field results of a corrugated horn antenna. the aperture. Cross-polarization oc-

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com 29


RF & Microwave Technology

user inputs such as array size, arith-


metic phase progression, and angular
resolution are taken into account to
describe, for example, the 3D far-field
of the entire array. The two-dimen-
sional antenna array factor has been
implemented to include the transla-
tional phase shifts and array element
weighting coefficients needed to deter-
mine the radiation pattern of the en-
tire array.

Fast and Accurate Results


Efficient modeling techniques with
low computational cost and fast com-
putational speed are critical for mod-
ern-day design and simulation engi-
neers in the millimeter-wave industry.
The purpose of simulation is to de-
scribe real-world devices and compo-
nents as close as possible through
mathematical representation. When
simulating and analyzing axisymmet-
ric objects such as spheres, conical
Figure 5. The user interface of the antenna array simulation app, built using the Application Builder with-
in COMSOL Multiphysics, with an 8 x 8 virtual array, electric field distribution, and 3D far-field radiation dish antennas, and circular wave-
pattern view. guides, the 2D axisymmetric modeling
approach offers orders of magnitude
curs when the electromagnetic fields the Internet of things (IoT), SatCom, faster computation time compared to
are polarized opposite than what was and the Internet of Space (IoS). As such, a full 3D model.
intended; for example, if the fields the AESA has become more popular not Simulating a simple shape structure
from an antenna are meant to be hor- only in traditional military applications, may appear to be easy and fast without
izontally polarized, the cross-polariza- but also in consumer electronics. The considering the impact of the electrical
tion occurs vertically. If an antenna antenna array size is often smaller than size of the model in terms of wave-
has a great degree of cross-polariza- that found on reflector and aperture an- length. It is feasible to simplify the
tion, the signal is likely to interfere tennas; however, the design process of simulation process without losing ac-
with nearby channels, which is not a an antenna array could be memory-in- curacy with the support of the 2D ax-
desired outcome. tensive because it remains electrically isymmetric modeling approach while
large in terms of wavelength. sustaining the integrity required to an-
Deploying High-Gain Antennas The computational cost for simula- alyze electrically large real-world com-
The deployment of these high-gain tion can be reduced by using efficient ponents.
antennas is sometimes quite limited modeling techniques. An antenna array
due to their large size and weight or an- application available in the COMSOL Summary
gularly restricted visibility from a sharp Multiphysics RF module application li- Using a variety of antennas, such as
radiation pattern with a high directiv- brary — the Slot-Coupled Microstrip the InSight, is the most effective way to
ity. Actively electronically scanned Patch Antenna Array Synthesizer appli- ensure that communication from space
array (AESA) antennas offer not only a cation — shows how the simulation can arrives back to Earth in a timely fashion.
high-gain radiation pattern with a con- be compressed at the prototyping stage. Making sure those antennas are ready
formal shape of a smaller antenna, but It simulates an FEM model of a device for space travel requires multiphysics
also beam-steering capabilities so the that is fabricated on a multilayered, low- simulation that allows you to scale your
shortcomings from a large dish reflec- temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) model to ensure efficient use of compu-
tor and aperture antennas won’t be sig- substrate, and extends the results to the tational resources while maintaining
nificant. These benefits come at a com- user-specified array configuration. high accuracy.
putational cost due to the large electrical Here we use the analysis of a single This article was written by Jiyoun Munn,
wavelengths it produces. antenna to describe the behavior of the Technical Product Manager, RF, at COM-
The necessity of high-speed commu- entire array. First, an accurate 3D full- SOL Inc., Burlington, MA. For more infor-
nication and beam-steering capability wave simulation of a single microstrip mation, visit http://info.hotims.com/
has grown with emerging trends such as patch antenna is performed. Then, 69509-541.

30 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


RF & Microwave Technology

Laser-Based System Could Expand Space-to-Ground Communication

A new research project announced re-


cently as a collaboration between
the Georgia Institute of Technology and
satellite communications provider Xen-
esis could help open the bottleneck that
now limits the flow of data from Earth-
orbiting satellites to ground stations.
The project will miniaturize, space-
qualify, and test a laser communica-
tions transceiver that could dramati-
cally expand the bandwidth available
for downlinking information from the
growing number of satellites — and fu-
ture constellations of space vehicles —
in low Earth orbit. Xenesis licensed the
technology from NASA’s Jet Propulsion
Laboratory (JPL), and will work with
Georgia Tech and JPL to mature it for
use as a primary communication system
for satellites as small as CubeSats. Georgia Tech aerospace engineering graduate student Byron Davis (left) shows Xenesis CEO Mark
LaPenna a RANGE CubeSat scheduled to go into orbit later this fall. (Allison Carter, Georgia Tech)
The NASA Technology
The JPL-developed system is a com-
pact, low-cost laser communications
transceiver that surpasses the severe
spectrum-allocation and bandwidth
limitations of conventional radio-fre-
quency communication systems. The
innovative design reduces complexity,
size, mass, and cost by using readily
available flight-grade parts for the com-
pact optics assembly and high-capabil-
ity electronics assembly. JPL’s laser com-
munications transceiver can uniquely
and inexpensively satisfy the high-
bandwidth communications needs of
Earth-orbiting spacecraft.
The laser communications transceiver
comprises two primary modules: an optics
module and an electronics/laser mod-
ule. The optics module includes a 5-cm-
diameter telescope; a two-axis, coarse- The compact, reduced-complexity, low-cost laser communications transceiver will enable down-linking of
pointing gimbal; monitoring sensors; data from Earth-orbiting spacecraft, as well as point-to-point communications and private networking.
and thermal control. The electronics
module includes a transmitter, processor, the atmospheric scintillation/turbu- downlink wavelengths fall within the
controllers, and power conditioning. lence effects on the received beam. standard C-band telecom grid of EDFA
Keeping optical uplink rate modest These effects are further reduced with fiber amplifiers (1530 to 1560 nm).
and emphasizing downlink, the high- forward-error correction and deep-in-
bandwidth downlink transmitter uses terleaver codes. Applications
coarse wavelength-division-multiplex- A compact laser communications Mark LaPenna, CEO of Xenesis, com-
ing for operation at four 2.5-Gb/s transceiver with a single transmit/re- pared the benefits of the planned space-
channels (a total data rate of 10 Gb/s). ceive aperture has been built using com- based network to the jump in perform-
Applying this technique enables the ponents with traceability to flight qual- ance from terrestrial dial-up connections
use of larger active-area photodetectors ification (i.e., a flight-qualified version of the 1990s to today’s high-speed
at the ground station, which reduces is commercially available). The transmit broadband services.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com 31


RF & Microwave Technology

“Xenesis recognizes the need for a bution will be to miniaturize the origi- fit from producing a narrow beam that
global communications revolution, and nal JPL technology, update the control can travel farther than comparable radio
we plan to empower space with an opti- software, space-qualify all the hardware, frequency transmissions at the same
cal product called XenHub,” LaPenna and test the improved system from power level. The initial focus will be
said. “Through this architecture, any space — likely from the International space-to-ground communication, though
company, mission, or global operator Space Station. the system could also be used for cross-
on the ground or in space will be able to “With all of the satellites that are linking communication between satel-
compete on a level playing field for the going into space, everything from Cube- lites. The small antenna size is also more
first time since Sputnik.” Sats to major satellites, there is more in- suitable to the small-form satellites envi-
“We expect to significantly add to the formation being generated than can sioned for future constellations that
total bandwidth of information that we ever be downloaded,” said Dennis Pou- may include thousands of spacecraft.
can get down from space, and the more los, chief technology officer at Xenesis. “Once we can show that this works
bandwidth we have, the more informa- “Most of today’s systems depend on from space to ground, that will demon-
tion we can exchange and the more radio frequency downlinks, and there is strate that the technology can survive the
value we can get from satellite net- just a limited amount of bandwidth harsh environment of space and allow us
works,” said Brian Gunter, an assistant available for use.” continue the development of the trans-
professor in Georgia Tech’s Daniel Laser-based systems can expand that ceiver for commercial use,” Gunter
Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engi- bandwidth to beyond 10 gigabits per sec- added. “This has the potential to open up
neering, who will be leading the project. ond, Poulos said. In addition to boosting a range of new capabilities, including the
Gunter’s lab has experience with bandwidth, optical systems can use ability to provide high-volume data serv-
small satellites and will apply that ex- smaller antennas, use power more effi- ices to anywhere in the world.”
pertise to the project with Xenesis, ciently, and provide better data security. For more information, contact John
which signed a $1.2 million contract to Though it is subject to interference Toon at jtoon@gatech.edu; 404-894-
support the work. Georgia Tech’s contri- from clouds, the laser system will bene- 6986.

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Visualization of the electric field norm and 3D far field due to a


transmitting antenna. Antennas are intentionally large in this tutorial
model.

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36 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


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Aerospace Solutions

MW Aerospace Solutions
9501 Technology Blvd. Target Markets
Rosemont, IL 60018
Phone: 847-349-5780 Military/Defense
Fax: 847-349-5779 AUVSI
E-mail: sales@mwaerospacesolutions.com Commercial
www.mwaerospacesolutions.com Aerospace
Transportation

Company Description
Products/Services Offered
MW Aerospace Solutions designs and manufactures springs, fas-
teners, and related products for a wide range of aerospace applica- The MW Aerospace Solutions consist of the following brands:
tions, including components for engines, flight controls, propulsion, Atlantic Spring, Flemington, NJ has become a full-range
landing gear, interiors, avionics, and the most advanced space manufacturer of custom springs, clock springs, flat springs,
exploration vehicles. The brands comprising this group include shaped wire springs, wire forms and assemblies.
Atlantic Spring, Accurate Screw Machine, BellowsTech, Helical BellowsTech, Ormond Beach, FL specializes in edge welded
Products and Servometer, - specializing in springs, stampings, fas- metal bellows with over a hundred die sizes and a wide variety
teners, couplings, flexures, machined springs, edge-welded and of material choices from Titanium to exotic alloys.
electrodeposited bellows and assemblies. Servometer, Cedar Grove, NJ uses a unique and proprietary
“With ISO9001 and AS9100 certification and compliancy, manufacturing process is able to produce flexible, lightweight
MW Aerospace Solutions offers core aerospace capabilities and extremely rugged bellows, couplings, electrical contacts
and experience with our and rigid electroforms in miniature sizes.
ad vanced manufacturing Helical Products, Santa Maria, CA proprietary process creates
techniques and processes a flexure for couplings,
that yield unrivaled inno- machined springs and
vations. Our market bas- one piece custom so-
ket of products and our lutions that integrates
custom solutions are attachments, simplifies
specifically designed and assembly and can be
manufactured for the accomplished in a wide
aerospace industry. Our range of exotic materials.
mission is to enable our Accurate Screw Ma-
OEM and manufacturing chine (ASM), Fairfield,
partners to bring products NJ is a manufacturer
to market more quickly of custom and stock
and cost-effectively. electronic hardware,
fasteners, and preci-
sion machined com-
ponents.

www.mwaerospacesolutions.com

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-798

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com 37


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RAD Torque Systems


30580 Progressive Way, Products/Services Offered
Abbotsford, BC V2T 6Z2, Canada
Phone: 800-983-0044
www.radtorque.com

Company Description

RAD Torque Systems creates extreme-duty torque wrenches


for heavy-duty applications. Recognized worldwide as leaders
in safety, efficiency, power and reliability in the torque industry,
the RAD team is driven to constantly evolve; incorporating and
creating their own technological advancements to improve
their products and keep their customers at the forefront of
their industries.
Innovation within RAD’s tech department means they have
the capability to supply the aerospace industry with lighter,
faster, battery-powered and electric tools, complete with data
collection capabilities to improve efficiency, cut costs and
improve safety wherever they are used.

RAD Torque Systems has worked with major players in the


aerospace industry — including aircraft manufacturers and air-
lines — for more than two decades. Working directly with engi-
neers to design and manufacture high-torque wrenches, offsets,
multipliers and reaction arms, the RAD team creates custom
solutions to solve problems unique to the aerospace industry.
The E-RAD Blu series is considered industry changing. With
torque ranges of 100-11,000 ft. lbs. (135-15,000 Nm) the Torque
Multiplier is credited with taking just an hour to complete a job
that previously required three men working all day.
With a digital display, the portable B-RAD Select battery
series is able to adjust the torque value by two simple buttons.
Suitable for pre-torque and service jobs where electricity or
compressed air are not available.
For applications where tool access to the bolt is limited, the RAD
SDM Low Profile series multipliers can provide a solution. Based
on RAD’s long experience with planetary gear reduction technolo-
gy, the SDM Low Profile gearbox was designed for confined appli-
cations in multiple industries including aerospace. The RAD SDM
Multipliers are to be combined with your chosen nut runner.

Target Markets
www.radtorque.com
North America, Asia, Australia, Europe.
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-799

38 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


Advertisement

ThermoElectric
Cooling America
Corporation

ThermoElectric Cooling America Corporation customer service. We are committed to using premium compo-
4048 W. Schubert Ave. nents from original source manufacturers and their certified
Chicago, IL 60039 distributors. Suppliers are a crucial factor of TECA quality. Their
Phone: 773-342-4900 performance is measured and controlled to ensure on-time,
Fax: 773-342-0191 acceptable deliveries.
E-mail: teca@thermoelectric.com
www.thermoelectric.com

Company Description

TECA Corporation developed the first commercially available


thermoelectric enclosure cooler in 1978. A privately held com-
pany since 1984, TECA remains the market innovator of ther-
moelectric thermal management products for industry, mili-
tary, and laboratories. We manufacture a range of thermoelec-
tric products for climate and process control. We serve all envi-
ronments: NEMA-12/4/4X, Shock & Vibration, CID2, and CID1.
Our products are built in our Chicago factory and ship directly
to our customers worldwide. We adhere to strict consistency in
the factory and transparency with our customers.

Target Markets

TECA Corporation serves a broad range of industries by pro-


viding best-in-class thermoelectric cooling/heating devices.
Our enclosure air conditioners lead the market and include the
only collection of large-capacity thermoelectric air conditioners
ranging 3,200-6,000 BTU/HR. Our premium components and
finely honed American manufacturing practices are required by
demanding environments within industries such as aerospace,
military, automation, and satellite communications. Contact
TECA and let our experience and quality serve your unique cli-
mate control needs.

Products/Services Offered

The fundamental purpose of TECA is to serve its customers


by providing world-class products of the best possible quality.
Without sacrificing health, safety, or the environment in which www.thermoelectric.com
we live, we prioritize our efforts to ensure product quality and

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-800

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com 39


Advertisement

Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC)


300 N. Washington Square Target Markets
Lansing, MI 48913
Phone: 888-522-0103 Aerospace companies that are interested in growing their
E-mail: (contact page) business within a manufacturing-rich state.
https://www.michiganbusiness.org/about-medc/contact-medc/
www.michiganbusiness.org/industries/aerospace/
Products/Services Offered

Company Description The state that revolutionized the automotive industry is now
one of the top places in the country for aerospace business.
The Michigan Economic Development Corporation assists Michigan offers a strong business climate, competitive tax
companies in their expansion strategies and fosters growth of a structure and significant shared synergies and capabilities
vibrant aerospace industry. The foundation of this success is between the automotive, defense and aerospace industries.
found in 9 of the 10 largest aerospace/defense R&D firms with Services offered/benefits include:
a presence in Michigan; a top 10 ranking for aerospace supply • Comprehensive aerospace ecosystem (ranked No. 2 in the
chain expansion; and, a talent pipeline that includes the highest nation by PwC).
concentration of mechanical, industrial, and aerospace engi- • Talent pipeline including electrical and mechanical engineers
neers of any state, the No. 2 ranked undergraduate aerospace and industrial designers.
engineering program in the country (UofM) and 17 universities • Financing opportunities including incentives, grants and
and technical schools with dedicated curriculum for the aero- loans.
space and aviation industry. • Site location assistance.
The MEDC also supports key industry initiatives, including • Procurement and networking opportunities.
two lightweight materials institutes: the Lightweight
Innovations for Tomorrow (LIFT), and the Institute for
Advanced Composite Manufacturing Innovation (IACMI) in the
state. Work being done at these facilities will help create lighter,
better materials for the next generation of aircrafts.

https://www.michiganbusiness.org/industries/aerospace/

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-826

40 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


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Products/Services Offered

Traditional approaches to acoustic testing often involve sig-


nificant costs in both capital equipment and labor. And with the
GRAS Sound & Vibration aerospace industry moving toward returning to supersonic
2234 East Enterprise Parkway, Twinsburg, OH 44087 commercial flight, you need even more accuracy and flexibility
Phone: 330-425-1201 / 800-579-GRAS in your test equipment. Only GRAS can offer you the right
Fax: 330-425-1235 acoustic sensors so you can collect high quality data while
E-mail: sales@gras.us reducing test labor costs.
www.gras.us Shorter time-to-market requirements, new and complex tech-
nologies, and more pressure to ”get it right the first time” in the
testing phase, only makes your selection of acoustic sensors
Company Description even that much more important. From standard microphones,
customized sensors, flyover arrays or microphones for extreme
sound pressures, GRAS has
GRAS is a leading global provider of high quality, durable and the right acoustic sensors to
reliable test microphones and is dedicated to finding new and help you develop tomor-
better ways to measure acoustics. We design and manufacture row’s flying machines today.
state-of-the-art sensors for industries where accurately meas- For more information
uring acoustics is critical in R&D, QA and production. about how GRAS can help
At GRAS, we have developed a wide range of acoustic sen- with your aerospace and
sors and rugged measurement microphones designed to help defense industry acoustic
our customers obtain reliable data the first time, and every testing, please contact us
time. Our world-class equipment is suitable in all types of aero- today.
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propulsion, launch vehicles/payload, wind tunnels, UAV/eVTOL.
www.gras.us

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standard and custom products, providing you with quality solu-


tions at competitive prices and best in class lead-times. Our
technical support and customer service teams will help you pick
the best product for your needs.

GAGE BILT Inc.


44766 Centre Ct.
Products/Services Offered
Clinton Twp., MI 48038
Phone: 586-226-1500
Gage Bilt’s continued dedication to create innovative designs
Fax: 586-226-1505
focused on safety, productivity, ergonomic and FOD control has
E-mail: solutions@gagebilt.com
led to a wide range of products. We have improved upon and
www.gagebilt.com
developed new technologies from lockbolt collar feeders to
automated riveting systems, high-production power units to
specialized noses. We take pride in working closely with our
Company Description customers to find
solutions for spe-
Gage Bilt, located in cial applications,
Clinton Township, MI, has such as tight
been manufacturing a full clearances, faster
range of Commercial and cycles, and FOD
Aerospace blind rivet and control. These, and
lockbolt tools since 1956. many other inno-
We have a complete fas- vative products,
tener installation product have proven in-
line that is interchange- valuable to our
able and equivalent with customers.
the competition. Our prod-
uct line includes: Tools,
Nose Assemblies, Power Units, Accessories and Spare parts.
www.gagebilt.com
Gage Bilt is committed to manufacturing innovative and robust,

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-802

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com 41


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Target Markets

Aerospace, Defense, Automotive, Medical

First Sensor, Inc.


5700 Corsa Avenue #105 Products/Services Offered
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone: 818-706-3400 We offer a broad range of
Fax: 818-889-7053 technologies which in-
Email: us@first-sensor.com clude thick-film tech-
www.first-sensor.com nology as well as all
microelectronic
packaging techno-
Company Description logies from the
processing of bare
First Sensor is one of the world's leading suppliers in the field dice, mounting of
of sensor systems. Our company develops and manufactures active or passive
both standardized and custom made sensor solutions for the electronic compo-
detection of light, radiation, pressure, flow, level and acceleration. nents up to the en-
capsulation and seal-
ing in hermetic hous-
ings. EN 9100 certified.
Products include photo di-
odes, pressure sensors and inertial sensors.

www.first-sensor.com

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-803

Target Markets

Aerospace, Medical, Automotive, Industrial, Power


Generation, Electronics, Oil & Gas, Consumer Products
Ulbrich Stainless Steels & Special Metals, Inc.
153 Washington Avenue, North Haven, CT 06473
Toll-free: 800-243-1676 Products/Services Offered
Local: 203-239-4481
Fax: 203-239-7479 Ulbrich has been providing high-
E-mail: information@ulbrich.com quality precision rolled alloys in the
www.ulbrich.com form of strip, foil, round, flat and
shaped wire to the aerospace
industry since the beginning of
Company Description commercial jet travel and space
exploration. We continue that tradi-
Ulbrich creates meaningful tion today, offering our products in
relationships with our cus- nickel based alloys, cobalt based
tomers through superior devel- alloys, titanium and titanium alloys,
opment and supply chain strate- and stainless steel. Applications
gies. We have unique capabili- include turbine engine seals, heat
ties built into our manufacturing exchangers, titanium graphite composites, structural titanium
process, which allows us to roll honeycomb, stator vanes, fasteners, composite erosion protec-
products with custom material tion shielding and a variety of other critical applications. Our
characteristics. By aligning our extensive metallurgical staff is available to assist you in design-
customers’ needs and expecta- ing lighter, stronger, hotter and faster applications.
tions with our 90+ years of
exceptional customer service,
we provide a precision product www.ulbrich.com
that fulfills our customers’ requirements.
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-804

42 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


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Target Markets

Automotive and Military & Aerospace


Transportation Sensors
Magnet Applications, Inc. Consumer Products Permanent Magnetic
12 Industrial Drive Industrial and Commercial Motors
DuBois, PA 15801 Medical Equipment
Phone: 814-375-9145
Fax: 814-375-9146
E-mail: sales@magnetus.com Products/Services Offered
www.buntingmagnetics.com
Magnet Applications, Inc. is the
only North American manufacturer
Company Description of compression bonded, injection
molded and hybrid magnets. In
Magnet Applications, Inc. offers customers turnkey solutions addition, we provide sintered
for magnetic assemblies, each designed and built around our neodymium magnets and magnetic
core magnets. Magnet Applications, Inc. is the only North assemblies. Our neodymium mag-
American manufacturer of compression bonded, injection nets can be designed to any size,
molded and hybrid magnets. Our plant is ISO 9001:2008 certi- shape or strength thanks to a com-
fied and ITAR registered. plete range of presses from 4-ton
to 200-ton. Magnet Applications,
Inc. also offer customers turnkey solutions for magnetic assem-
blies, each designed and built around our core magnets. With all of
our projects – from a two-piece assembly to a complex product
that demands precision.

www.magnetapplications.com
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-805

Target Markets

Aerospace, Space Exploration, Auto Industry, Oil & Gas,


Agriculture, Defense, Firearms, and a variety of other indus-
Superior Tool Service tries.
722 E Zimmerly St
Wichita, Kansas 67211
Phone: 800-428-8665 Products/Services Offered
Fax: 316-945-8490
E-mail: sales@stsincusa.com We produce Solid Carbide Tapered Drill Reamers and
https://SuperiorToolService.com/ Composite Tip Drills for Composites. Custom Ground Reamers,
Countersinks, End
Mills, Drills, and Step
Company Description Drills.
Our services in-
Get your custom tools clude the Manufac-
in 10-12 days, not 10-12 ture, Resharpening
weeks. STS manufactures, and PVD Coating of
services and offers all all cutting tools,
types of industrial cutting Distribution, Supply,
tools. With regrinds serv- Vending Solutions &
ices, thousands of prod- Stock Programs.
ucts through STS Supply,
and now in-house PVD
Coating Services, STS is a https://superiortoolservice.com/
one-stop shop for cus-
tomers around the world.

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-806

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com 43


Advertisement

Target Markets

Aircraft/ Aerospace Agriculture


Medical Automotive
Seastrom Mfg. Co., Inc Electronics Machinery & Process
456 Seastrom Street Communications Equipment
Twin Falls, ID 83301 Defense Distribution
Phone: 800-634-2356 Energy
Fax: 208-734-7222
E-mail: info@seastrom-mfg.com
www.seastrom-mfg.com Products/Services Offered

Seastrom manufactures high precision


Company Description hardware with precision stamping, CNC
machining, screw machining, four-slide,
Seastrom is a leading waterjet and laser part marking capabili-
ISO 9001:2015 and ties in metallic, non-metallic and exotic
AS9100-D certified U.S. materials. All backed up with an engineer-
manufacturer with capabil- ing and tool & die departments. Seastrom
ities in precision stamping, also is one of the premier stocking manufacturers of washers of
four-slide, CNC, screw all types including round flat washers, spring washers, shoulder
machining, and waterjet washers, spherical washers and lock washers. Assembly hard-
fabrication. Seastrom uti- ware, including spring clips, spacers, clamps, brackets, expansion
lizes most metallic and plugs and flexible grounding straps, as well as, AN, MS and NAS
non-metallic materials, military hardware are available on our website. Seastrom has a
including Cobalt, Inconel, Titanium, and Hastelloy. Seastrom 90 year tradition of producing quality precision products.
products meet DFARS, RoHS and REACH requirements. Approved
supplier for aerospace and commercial manufacturers.
www.seastrom-mfg.com/default.aspx
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-825

Target Markets

Hoffer’s key markets include custody transfer of cryogenics


via truck mounted systems as well as industrial plant cryogenic
Hoffer Flow Controls, Inc. flow applications. Key markets also include industrial flow
107 Kitty Hawk Lane measurement in oil and gas, subsea, power generation, aero-
Elizabeth City, NC 27909 space, government and military, pharmaceutical, food and bev-
Phone: 800-628-4584 erage.
Fax: 252-331-2886
E-mail: info@hofferflow.com
www.hofferflow.com Products/Services Offered

Hoffer designs turbine flowmeters and


Company Description electronics for the measurement of clean
liquid and gas applications. Hoffer is noted
Hoffer Flow Controls has been designing and manufactur- for its ability to provide customers with high-
ing quality turbine flowmeters and accompanying electronics ly engineered solutions which has led the
for forty-nine years and is located in Elizabeth City, NC. company into many new markets and appli-
Hoffer sells its flow products in more than 60 countries cations in its history. Hoffer’s applications
worldwide. are many but include industrial flow for oil
Hoffer also and gas, subsea, aerospace, government and military, power
performs flow- generation, pharmaceutical, food and beverage and cryogenic
meter calibra- truck mounted systems. Hoffer also performs flowmeter cali-
tion and re- bration and recalibration services on varying styles and sizes of
c a l i b ra t i o n flowmeters including field calibrations for cryogenic customers.
services on
varying styles
and sizes of www.hofferflow.com
flowmeters.

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-827

44 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


Tech Briefs

Hydraulic Testing of Polymer Matrix Composite 102mm


Tube Section
Research could lead to development of a composite material that can be processed at a low tempera-
ture and still be used at 1000°F.
Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, New York

T he objective of this research was to


hydraulically pressurize the inter-
nal diameter of one 102mm Polymer
loops, which cause noise in the test
data. Polyethylethylketone (PEEK) ma-
terial was utilized for this purpose.
The entire assembly was placed in-
side a counterbore in the top and bot-
tom enclosures. Located at the bottom
Matrix Composite (PMC) over- 1080 series steel piano wire of 0.040" of the counterbores was a disc of PEEK
wrapped cylinder up to 25,000 pounds in diameter was silver soldered to cylin- material separating the silver soldered
per square inch (psi) and during pres- drical 4340 steel connector pin hous- assembly from the enclosure. O-ring
surization, in real time, collect and ings. Harris brand “Stay-Clean” liquid seals were used between the connec-
store pressure and strain data simulta- flux and “Stay-Brite” silver solder was tor pin and the inside diameter of the
neously. Strain data must be captured used by bringing the wire and pin PEEK material. Another o-ring was
from the inside diameter of the oil housing to 500°F and soldering the two used for sealing pressure between the
filled metallic cylinder and from the together. The silver soldered sub-assem- outside diameter of the PEEK material
outside diameter of the composite bly was placed inside the cylindrical and the counterbore in the top and
over-wrap material. shaped PEEK insulating seal. bottom enclosure.
To do this, the test speci- All wires for the respec-
men was machined to a 15" tive internal strain gages
height with seal pockets on were connected to piano
each end. The seal pockets wires. As a result, there
house the top and bottom were six wires running
enclosures. A 12" undercut through the top and bot-
was machined on the out- tom end closures in order
side diameter for PMC to successfully read the
over-wrapping. The test four internal strain gages.
specimen evaluated had an Placed over the top and
average OD of 5.1366" bottom end closures were
which resulted in a nomi- cover plates, which accept
nal composite wall thick- and protect the strain gage
ness of 0.2183". wires. The set-up enables
Four strain gages were the wires to be connected
placed 90 degrees apart to the computerized data
from each other on the test acquisition system, located
specimen bore to measure outside the test cell.
strain in the hoop direc- For testing conducted in
tion. Axial location of the 2005 for similar compos-
interior strain gages was in ite cylinders, strain data
the center of the test speci- was successfully collected
men. On the exterior sur- on the interior strain
face of the test specimen, gages and correlated well
four rosette strain gages with the exterior gages.
were placed in the same ra- This test was conducted
dial and axial location on several times around the
the outside PMC material. 2002 - 2005 timeframe as
Each interior hoop direc- a screening test for differ-
tion strain gage contained ent polymer composite
a three-wire set-up for ease overwrapped cylinders,
of balancing the bridge. but the data was never
Each internal strain gage published. The goal of the
wiring system was insu- test was to see if there was
lated from the test speci- a lag between the internal
men due to grounding Composite Cylinder Testing Conducted in 2004 and external strain gages.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com 45


Tech Briefs

Any lag between the gages would indicate that there was a
gap between the steel substrate and the composite over-
wrap.
The cylinder under study this time was produced under
the Phase I of the “Low-Cost Low Temperature Processed
Polyorganosiloxane Armament Composites with High Tem-
perature Durability” SBIR, the goal of which is to develop a
composite material that can be processed at a low tempera-
ture and still be used at 1000°F. Normally a composite can-
not be used above its cure / melt temperature. This causes is-
sues as thermoset composites become soft during cure and
don’t assume their final shape until after cure and they have
a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compared
to metals. So, during cure of a thermoset composite over a
steel substrate, the steel would expand as the temperature
increased, the composite would soften allowing the expan-
sion, and then set its final shape at the cure temperature. As
the steel cools it shrinks, but the composite doesn’t, forming
a gap. The material developed under this ILIR can be mois-
ture cured at room temperature so the difference in CTE be-
tween the steel and composite should not result in a gap
forming after cure.
This work was done by Lucas B. Smith and Andrew G. Littlefield
for the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center.
For more information, download the Technical Support
Package (free white paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp
under the Test & Measurement category. ARDEC-0002

Permeation Tests on
Polypropylene Fiber
Materials
Study attempts to determine if polypropylene
nanofiber materials can be used in air filtration
systems to remove toxic vapors.
Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC

T he Toxic Industrial Chemical/Toxic Industrial Material


(TIC/TIM) Task Force MFR#1 published in February 2009
focuses on inhalation hazards in an operational environ-
ment and provides a list of compounds prioritized based on
toxic hazard and the likelihood of an encounter. With
these types of vapor threats, cartridge-based air purifying
respirators are used to protect the warfighter against chem-
ical exposure. Traditional air purification materials often
rely on porous carbons such as activated carbon or activated
charcoal. Ongoing efforts seek to improve the performance
of carbon materials in air purification applications as well as
provide alternative materials.
For this study, polypropylene nanofiber materials pro-
vided by Apollo NanoTech Inc were evaluated for their po-
tential use in removing vapor phase targets. A Thermolyne

46 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-807 Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


Tech Briefs

A B C

Images of as received nanofiber materials: hydrophilic (A), hydrophobic (B), and sheet type (C) variations.

incubator (Compact Series 5000) was terial was sealed with parafilm (water instrument was used to evaluate per-
modified to conduct water vapor 1.27 cm from sample surface). The meation of water through the various
transport studies based on guidance sample was weighed and placed in the functionalized fabrics.
provided by the ASTM E 96 protocol. incubator. Drierite was used to lower The temperature in the custom envi-
Water vapor transport through a mate- the humidity in the incubator and a ronmental chamber was controlled
rial is determined by measuring the dry nitrogen stream was flowed across using a probe inside the chamber that
rate of water loss through the material the surface of the sample (250 sccm). adjusts an Air-Therm ATX heater. Mass
over a period of time. Weight measurements were collected flow controllers, regulated by an inline
A scintillation vial (20 mL) was at 30 to 45 min intervals using an an- Vaisala humidity probe, governed the
filled with 16.9 mL deionized water alytical balance. The temperature of ratio of humid to dry air entering the
(± 0.1 mL) over which the sample ma- the incubator was 25°C (±1°C). This chamber. An Aerosol Vapor Liquid As-

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-808 47


Tech Briefs

sessment Group (AVLAG) test cell was tions. The FID used Peak Simple, six- bis (trimethyoxysilyl)ethane (BTE) were
used for these evaluations. channel data acquisition software mixed with 16g ethanol at room tem-
The AVLAG cell was set up for single (SRI) for signal capture and peak inte- perature with a magnetic stir bar in a
flow diffusive penetration testing gration. Excess flow from the direct sealed container. At this point, 6.07g
using a single air or nitrogen stream. line (above 50 mL/min) was filtered 0.1 M HNO3 was added dropwise, and
The “headspace” above the swatch was through a carbon scrubber. stirring continued for 6h. The TEOS
stagnant, and the differential pressure Microwave modification of fabrics treated fabric was dipped into the pre-
above and below the swatch was zero. was used for modification of the pared sol at a rate of 270 mm/min. The
A sample (2.54 × 2.54 cm) was sand- polypropylene sheets. The initiation so- sample was hung to dry in a 60°C oven
wiched between two supports with lution was prepared by mixing 5 mL for 24h followed by drying in a vac-
0.64 cm 2 circular openings. The sam- ammonium hydroxide (28 – 30%) with uum oven at 60°C for an additional
ple assembly was placed in the AVLAG 92 mL of isopropanol. To this solution, 24h. The fabric sample was then im-
cell and equilibrated to the desired hu- 3 mL tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was mersed in ethanol at 60°C for 48h to
midity for 2h. Target was introduced added to the ammonium hydroxide so- extract surfactant.
by placing liquid drops on top of glass lution. The fabric substrate was fully The sample was rinsed with addi-
wool using a repeating dispenser. submerged in the TEOS mixture and re- tional ethanol and dried overnight at
Challenge was applied to the surface moved to a glass, microwave safe dish. 60 – 65°C. To functionalize the sorbent
of the sample in the static region of The sample was microwaved using material with primary amine groups,
the AVLAG cell; therefore, evaporation 1,200W for 30s. This process was re- the fabric was submerged in a solution
was not a significant consideration. A peated for a total of three cycles. Treated of 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane
direct line from the permeation cell to fabric was dried at 100°C for 30 min. (APS) in toluene at 0.5% volume/vol-
a dedicated FID allowed for continu- To prepare the sol, 1.9g Pluronic ume for 1h. Samples were then rinsed
ous monitoring of target concentra- P123, 0.5g mesitylene, and 2.12g 1,2- thoroughly with toluene and dried at

48 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-809 Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


Tech Briefs
VERSION 10
Better
100°C. The porphyrin was added to this sample by submerg-
ing in a solution of 0.6 mg/mL porphyrin in 0.1 M 2-(N-
Electromagnetic
morpholino) ethansulfonic acid (MES) buffer pH 5.5 with 5
mg 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC).
Samples were incubated overnight before rinsing thor-
Designs
oughly with water and drying at 100°C overnight.
Samples were evaluated using the permeation system
with 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (half mustard; CEES), di-
methyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and methyl salicylate
(MES) as the targets. Evaluations used 1 μL of the targets.
The total exposed area in the AVLAG system was 0.64 cm2
providing surface exposure concentrations of 16.7 g/m2 for
CEES; 18.0 g/m2 for DMMP; and 18.3 g/m2 for MES.
This work was done by Brandy J. White, Martin H. Moore,
and Brian J. Melde for the Naval Research Laboratory. For more
information, download the Technical Support Package
(free white paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under
the Test & Measurement category. NRL-0074

Inter-Laboratory Combat
Helmet Blunt Impact Test
Method Comparison
Ensuring consistent test methods could reduce GOING BEYOND THE TRADITIONAL
the risk of head injuries.
MULTIPHYSICS APPROACH
Natick Soldier Research, Development and
> New “Smart Workspace”
Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts
> Search based design simulation
>
A s the medical community learns more about brain in-
jury, the importance of blunt impact mitigation be-
comes more apparent. As such, it is critical to make sure
>
Program your own applications with API
Precise field calculations using our
that research labs are not only capable of performing testing proprietary BEM and FEM solvers
in this field, but also show inter-laboratory consistency and > Intuitive and easy-to-use interface
reproducibility. This study is a comparison between the two
validated blunt impact testing labs (Aberdeen Test Center
UNMATCHED SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR
(ATC) and National Technical Systems (NTS) Chesapeake
Testing Services (CTS)), and Natick Soldier Research Devel- OUTSTANDING ELECTROMAGNETIC DESIGNS
opment and Engineering Center (NSRDEC). ASK FOR AN ONLINE DEMONSTRATION
NSRDEC has acquired new blunt impact test equipment
including the Cadex uniaxial monorail drop tower, which
has become the unofficial standard for military blunt impact “ The BEM solver makes it quick and easy to set up
testing. The primary objectives of this study were to validate a problem. It’s efficient and enables us to better
and verify that NSRDEC’s new equipment and personnel are
conforming to the current standard operating procedure and define complex surfaces than the FEM method.”
to ensure that inter laboratory data are similar. – Jim McGinn, Staff Scientist, FEI
Each laboratory was provided with 8 Advanced Combat
Helmets (ACHs) of each size (small, medium, large and
X large) for a total of 32 helmets. This provided each test
laboratory with the six required helmets of each size for the
test and two contingency helmets of each size.
The purchase description CO/PD 05 04 for the ACH spec- (+1) 204.632.5636 | integratedsoft.com
ifies the use of DOT FMVS218 with some exceptions. This

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-810 49


Tech Briefs

160 160

Test Impact #1
140 Test Impact #2 140

120 120
Peak Acceleration (g)

Peak Acceleration (g)


100 100

80 80

60 60

40 40

20
20
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
0
0
Crown Front Rear L Side R Side L Nape R Nape
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02
Time (s)

Figure on the left depicts a typical acceleration response. A first and second impact can be seen on the rear location of a hot conditioned ACH. Most impact loca-
tions result in a single, mostly parabolic, response as shown. Variations from impact to impact are seen due to geometry and pad interaction dependent on the
impact location. Figure on the right depicts a complete data set of peak accelerations for a single “hot conditioned” ACH in the test method. The column on the
left denotes the first impact at each impact location and the column on the right of each impact location denotes the second impact, tested 60 to 120s later. The
second impact generally results in a higher peak acceleration.

test method leaves a lot of room for in-


terpretation and the variation in test
results can be seen in historical data.
The recently developed Internal Oper-
ating Procedure (IOP) from ATC incor-
porates all requirements from the ACH
purchase description, while removing
a significant amount of user interpre-
tation from the test method. This ef-
fectively improves the reproducibility
of the procedure. All tests and col-
lected data for this effort complied
with ATC’s IOP.
Head form acceleration and drop ve-
locity data were collected for each im-
pact. Velocity immediately preceding
impact is collected as a single data point
through a laser time gate while acceler-
ation is collected continuously through-
out the event. The Cadex data acquisi-
tion system collects data at a frequency
of 33 kHz and filters the data through
the CFC 1000 filter. The CFC 1000 is a
4 pole 1650 Hz low pass Butterworth fil-
ter specified for head impact accelera-
tion data by Instrumentation for Impact
Test, SAE standard J211-1. Although the
entire curve is collected, the interest for
this project lies solely in the peak or
maximum acceleration the head form
experiences during impact. The Test
Laboratories followed the official test

50 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-811 Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


Tech Briefs

procedure (ATC-MMTB-IOP-029-Blunt seven different locations, twice. The that is left out for more than 5 min-
Impact Testing). helmets impact a hemispherical anvil, utes must undergo the full condition-
Six helmets of each size were prepared apex to apex. The seven locations were ing process again prior to continuing
prior to testing. The helmets had to be impacted in order as follows: crown, the test.
weighed, labeled and the Team Wendy front, rear, left side, right side, left All impacts were conducted at a ve-
pads had to be placed into their corre- nape, and right nape. The second im- locity of 10 ft/s (3.048 m/s) with a tol-
sponding locations as specified in the pact occurred between 60 and 120 sec- erance of ±0.3 ft/s (±0.091 m/s). A laser
procedure. Two of each size helmet had onds after the first. gate velocity detector was used to
to be placed into a cold ( 10 ± 3 °C) en- The helmet was fitted onto its corre- record the velocity at every impact
vironmental chamber and two of each sponding Department of Transporta- and a uniaxial accelerometer (verti-
size helmet had to be placed into a hot tion (DOT) head form incorporating a cally located at the head form’s center
(54.4 ± 3 °C) environmental chamber for foam chin. The front straps were of gravity) was used to record accelera-
at least 12 hours. The last two helmets tightened halfway and the back straps tion during impact. Only the peak ac-
had to be conditioned at ambient (21 were tightened until the helmet was celeration was evaluated.
± 10 °C) for at least 12 hours. snug. The helmet was positioned to This work was done by Tony J. Kayhart,
On test day, just prior to the test, what is known as Helmet Position Charles A. Hewitt, and Jonathan Cyganik
the Cadex drop tower was verified by Index (HPI), a measured distance be- for the Natick Soldier Research, Develop-
using a calibration check procedure. tween the brim of the helmet and the ment and Engineering Center. For more
The Cadex software was programmed first line on the DOT head form. The information, download the Technical
for the test plan with correctly identi- hot and cold conditioned helmets Support Package (free white paper) at
fied test sample nomenclature. shall not be left outside their respec- www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under
The helmets were tested in groups tive environmental chambers for the Test & Measurement category.
by size. Each helmet was impacted in more than 5 minutes. Any helmet ARL-0213

Flow Measurement
For Critical Systems
That’s what we do.
Hoffer Flow Controls is proud to have been selected by the Satellite
Servicing Projects Division of NASA to design and build the hydrazine
fuel flow meter and transmitter for the Restore-L spacecraft’s autonomous
satellite refueling mission. With Restore-L the US takes a major step
forward towards improving the security and sustainability of the
satellite fleet and to support deep space missions for both manned
and unmanned programs in the future.
“Specializing in flow measurement solutions
for the aerospace industry”

TM

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-812 51


Application Briefs

Maritime Unmanned Aircraft


System
AeroVironment, Inc.
Monrovia, CA
626-357-9983
www.avinc.com

A eroVironment, Inc., a specialist in unmanned aircraft sys-


tems (UAS) for both defense and commercial applica-
tions, and ESG Elektroniksystem- und Logistik-GmbH, a sys-
tem and software house in Germany for development and
service, recently announced that the German Navy has ac- An optional under-wing transit bay easily integrates third-
quired the AeroVironment Puma™ maritime unmanned air- party payloads such as communication relay, geo-location, or
craft system. The Puma systems will include the Mantis i45 laser marker. Operated from AeroVironment's battle-proven
sensor and pocket Remote Video Terminal (p/RVT). AeroVi- ground control station (GCS), the GCS allows the operator to
ronment partnered with ESG to satisfy the requirement of the control the aircraft manually or program it for GPS-based au-
Bundesamt fur Ausrustung, Informationstechnik und tonomous navigation. Puma AE can deliver 3.5+ hours of
Nutzung der Bundeswehr (BAAINBw) for an urgent opera- flight endurance while versatile smart battery options support
tional requirement. diverse mission requirements. A plug-and-play power adapter
AeroVironment originally developed the Puma system to also makes for easy integration of extended endurance op-
win a 2008 United States Special Operations Command (US- tions such as solar wings.
SOCOM) competitive program of record and subsequently The Navy procured Puma AE systems for use aboard Patrol
supplied the system to the U.S. Navy Expeditionary Combat Craft and also deployed them on a U.S. Navy Expeditionary
Command Coastal Riverine Forces, the U.S. Army for convoy Fast Transport (T-EPF) ship in support of counter organized
and ground troop support and the U.S. Marine Corps. Capable crime operations in the Caribbean. The Puma system is also
of both ground and water landings, Puma AE's innovative being deployed by multiple international partners. German
fuselage provides an operational flexibility never before avail- Navy adoption of the Puma system marks another step in the
able in the small UAS class. growing need for and fielding of UAS for the international
Equipped with both an electro-optical (EO) and infrared (IR) surface combatant and coastal craft market.
camera and illuminator, Puma AE keeps the operator's "eyes on The United States Department of Defense established the
target" while the precision navigation system with secondary designation RQ-20B for the block 2 Puma AE small UAS. The
GPS insures positional accuracy up to its 20 km range. The block 2 Puma AE system includes a more powerful and lighter
Mantis i45 gimbal is backward compatible, fully waterproof propulsion system, lighter and stronger airframe, long-en-
and provides nighttime and low light capabilities ranging from durance battery, precision inertial navigation system and an
Near-Infrared (NIR) to Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) imagery. improved user interface. The all-environment Mantis i45 gim-
During flight operations, the i45 gimbal provides full lower bal sensor suite for Puma AE delivers a dramatic leap in small
hemisphere coverage, continuous pan and is packaged to pro- UAS image resolution and ISR capability.
vide reliable operation in extreme environments. For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-550

Optical Seeker for Munitions BAE Systems tested the seeker during the first phase of
Systems DARPA’s Seeker Cost Transformation (SECTR) program. The
SECTR seeker integrates with a wide range of weapon plat-
BAE Systems forms that use munitions and can operate in day or night. It
Nashua, NH enables autonomous precision guidance via passive electro-
603-885-4321 optical and infrared sensors in environments where GPS nav-
www.baesystems.com igation is unavailable or unreliable.
The seeker’s open architecture enables highly accurate,

T he U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency


(DARPA), through the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, has
awarded BAE Systems a $13.1 million contract to demonstrate a
competitive, low-cost munitions to be capable of navigat-
ing and locating targets in limited-access and denied en-
vironments. It provides these munitions with quick-reac-
new, cost-effective optical seeker for precision-guided munitions. tion capabilities while meeting stringent cost, size,
The seeker is designed to improve navigation, as well as auto- weight, and power requirements. The open architecture
mate target location and homing, for different types of munitions also enables rapid seeker integration into current and new
that are used in GPS-denied and other contested environments. weapon systems.

52 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


Application Briefs

BAE Systems has extensive experi-


ence in developing precision guidance
systems for munitions. Their APKWS®
laser-guided rocket is a mid-body guid-
ance section that transforms a standard
unguided 70 mm rocket into a preci-
sion laser-guided rocket. Their Long
Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM) seeker
technology is capable of autonomously
detecting and identifying targets. The
M982 Excalibur GPS-guided, 155 mm
artillery shell can defeat threats at
ranges up to 60 kilometers, impacting
at a radial miss distance of less than 2
meters from the target. And their Silver
Bullet Precision Guidance Kit can trans-
form a standard artillery shell into a
precision-guided munition.
This phase of the DARPA program
will conclude in July 2019 with multi-
ple test firings on several precision-
guided munition platforms.
BAE Systems’ cost-effective optical seeker for precision-guided munitions is designed to improve naviga-
tion, as well as automate target location and homing, for different types of munitions that are used in GPS- For Free Info Visit http:/info.hotims.com/
denied and other contested environments. 69509-551

Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-813 53


Rod Ends and Application Briefs
Spherical
Bearings designed
and manufactured to
Aurora’s exacting
standards for quality
and durability. 3D Printed Spacecraft Parts
Stratasys Ltd.
Eden Prairie, MN
952-937-3000
www.stratasys.com/
Registered and Certified
aerospace
to ISO_9001 and AS9100.
From economy commercial Phoenix Analysis
and Design
to aerospace approved, Technologies (PADT)
we’ve got it all! Tempe, AZ
The Orion spacecraft leverages a variant of new
1-800-293-PADT Stratasys Antero 800NA to build an intricately-
www.padtinc.com connected 3D printed docking hatch door.


S tratasys Ltd., a company that specializes in applied additive
technology solutions, and Phoenix Analysis & Design Tech-
nologies, Inc. (PADT) have teamed up with Lockheed Martin
Aurora Bearing Company Space to deliver next-generation 3D printed parts for NASA’s
901 Aucutt Road
Montgomery IL. 60538
Orion deep-space spacecraft. Key to the project are Stratasys ad-
vanced materials – including an ESD variant of the new An-
complete library of CAD drawings and 3D models available at: tero™ 800NA, a PEKK-based thermoplastic offering high per-
w w w. a u r o r a b e a r i n g . c o m formance mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties.
Orion is NASA’s spacecraft that will send astronauts to the
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-814
Moon and beyond. Orion’s next test flight, dubbed Explo-
ration Mission-1 (EM-1), will be the first integration mission
with the world’s most powerful rocket, the Space Launch
www.hunterproducts.com System, where an un-crewed Orion will fly thousands of
miles beyond the Moon during an approximately three-
week mission.
The following flight, EM-2, will also go near the Moon, but
with astronauts on-board, a first since 1972. That mission will
enable NASA to prepare for increasingly complex missions in
deep space. The mission will use more than one hundred 3D
printed production parts on-board, engineered in conjunc-
tion with Lockheed Martin, Stratasys and PADT.
The production-grade, thermoplastic 3D printed parts for
NASA’s Orion vehicle are produced at the Additive Manufac-
MICRO-METALLIZER PLATING PENS MIL & QQ turing Lab at Lockheed Martin in conjunction with PADT,
Standards GOLD 14K, 18K, 24K, SILVER, RHODIUM, which now employs the latest in Stratasys 3D printers and
PALLADIUM, NICKEL, COPPER, TIN, BLACK materials. Using advanced materials such as ULTEM 9085™
NICKEL, AND CHROME COLOR PENS AVAILABLE. resin and the new Antero material incorporating critical
electro-static dissipative (ESD) functionality, NASA could
Environmentally friendly, these low-cost disposable applicators meet key requirements for 3D printed parts to perform in
permit instantaneous selection from a variety of plating the extremes of deep space. Antero is ideally suited to meet
possibilities without the preparation of solutions. Specially NASA’s requirements for heat and chemical resistance, along
formulated compounds and can be used for contact repair, with the ability to withstand high mechanical loads.
prototype development work, electronic instrument repair, The Lockheed Martin, Stratasys and PADT-engineered col-
medical instrument repair etc.
laboration is differentiated by an ability to create consistency
and repeatability in mass scale across the entire additive
+XQWHU3URGXFWV,QF manufacturing part production process. Lockheed Martin is
3DUWULGJH'ULYH32%R[ also one of the first customers leveraging Stratasys’ Antero,
%ULGJHZDWHU1- using the new thermoplastic for a critical part situated just
‡)D[ outside of Orion’s docking hatch. The complex part consists
VDOHV#KXQWHUSURGXFWVFRP of six individual 3D printed components locked together to
form a ring on the craft’s exterior.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-553

54 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-815 Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


Application Briefs

Diesel Frigate Engines stroke. It produces 6,840 kWm at 1,050


rpm. To date there are more than 840 en-
Fairbanks Morse gines in operation throughout the world.
Beloit, WI “The proposed sale will provide Saudi
1-800-356-6955 Arabia with an increased ability to meet
www.fairbanksmorse.com current and future maritime threats from
enemy weapon systems. The Multi-Mis-

F airbanks Morse - an EnPro Industries sion Surface Combatant ships will provide
company - has been awarded a con- Artist’s concept of a Lockheed Martin Multi- protection-in-depth for critical industrial
Mission Surface Combatant similar to the type
tract to deliver eight FM | Colt-Pielstick that will be used by the Royal Saudi Navy. (US infrastructure and for the sea lines of com-
diesel engines to power four frigates for Navy) munication,” reads a U.S. State Depart-
the Royal Saudi Navy. The purchase is a ment notification.
part of the Saudi Naval Expansion Program II which has been Each engine will be built at the Fairbanks Morse manufac-
in the works for over a decade with a cost of about $20 billion. turing facility in Beloit, Wisconsin. The company has a long
The frigates that the engines will be powering are based on history of designing and building maritime powerplants. For
the Freedom-class Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) used by the U.S. over 70 years they've been supplying the U.S. Navy and Coast
Navy. The two 16-cylinder FM | Colt-Pielstick PA6B STC diesel Guard with diesel engines for marine propulsion and ship
engines per ship will deliver over 12 MW of propulsion power service systems. Fairbanks Morse, in fact, is the leading
and are among the largest medium speed diesel engines man- provider of propulsion diesel engines to the U.S. Navy.
ufactured in the United States. The engines will begin to be Fairbanks Morse also announced today a multi-year $17.3
manufactured in early 2019 with delivery scheduled for Sep- million contract to provide services to the U.S. Navy’s Military
tember 2020. Sealift Command (MSC) which will service military ships at sea
The 16-cylinder FM | Colt-Pielstick PA6B STC is a 20.32L, 4- and create jobs at their U.S.-based service centers.
stroke diesel with a 280 mm cylinder bore and 330 mm piston For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-552

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-816 55


New Products

Barometric Memory and Data Exchange System


Pressure The Memory Division of Kaman Precision Products, Inc.
Sensor (Middletown, CT) recently announced the AMADEUS – the
Bosch Sen- Advanced Memory and Data Exchange Universal System. The
sortec (Reutlin- AMADEUS includes the Model 9740 Multi-Port® data transfer
gen, Germany) unit which includes four removable memory cards (RMC)
has introduced and a mini-Ground Station Adapter (GSA). The Model 9740
a new high per- provides simultaneous data interface over 10GB Ethernet,
formance baro- Mil-Std 1553, RS-232/422 as well as options to record multi-
metric pressure ple SMPTE 292 and NTSC (RS-170) video/audio channels.
MEMS sensor, the BMP388. The BMP388 delivers outstanding Each Kaman RMC boasts a capacity of 2TB with AES 256 en-
altitude stabilization in drones, where accurate measurement crypted data-at-rest. This
of barometric pressure provides the essential altitude data for small card is packaged in
improving flight stability and landing accuracy. The new rugged and hermetically
barometric pressure sensor is part of Bosch Sensortec’s com- sealed stainless steel. The
prehensive sensor solution for drones, which includes the pocket-sized GSA facili-
BMI088 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for accurate steer- tates expeditionary oper-
ing and the BMM150 geomagnetic sensor for the provision of ations and enables the
heading data. operator to connect with
The BMI088 is a 6-axis IMU, consisting of a triaxial 16-bit virtually any computer
acceleration sensor and a triaxial automotive-proven 16-bit via USB 3.0. AMADEUS is engineered to align with Future Air-
gyroscope. The BMM150 is a low power and low noise triaxial borne Capability Environment (FACE™) and flawlessly per-
digital geomagnetic sensor designed for compass applications. form in the harshest military, aerospace, and industrial envi-
Due to its stable performance over a wide temperature range, ronments.
this geomagnetic sensor is especially suited for determining For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-524
accurate heading for drones.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-521 Digital Oscilloscope
RIGOL Technologies (Beaverton, OR) has announced a sig-
3U VPX I/O nificant addition to its oscilloscope portfolio with the intro-
Boards duction of the New 7000 Series Digital Oscilloscope. With 10
The first two GSa/sec sample rate
products in Con- and up to 500M
current Technolo- record length, the
gies’ (Johnstown, 7000 Series can de-
PA) new range of liver 20X oversam-
3U VPX™ I/O pling on a 500 MHz
boards include a signal providing un-
multi-channel serial board and a multi-channel Gigabit Eth- matched signal reso-
ernet board. Both boards require a single 3U VPX™ slot and lution while still cap-
are available for both air and conduction-cooled applications. turing a full 50 ms.
BA 2TR/501 supports up to eight serial communications The core of the 7000 Series Oscilloscope is RIGOL’s new Ul-
ports for applications that require multiple serial ports within traVision II architecture and its Phoenix chip-set. Two custom
a single slot. Up to five ports are available on the VPX connec- ASICs provide analog front end and signal processing per-
tor for rear communication and three are available on the formance. These chips are surrounded by a high-performance
front panel in the air-cooled variants along with optional ca- hardware design including Xilinx Zync-7000 SoC, Dual Core
bles (with screw locking connectors). The serial ports can be Arm-9 Processors, Linux +Qt Operating System, High Speed
configured to support RS232, RS422 or RS485 standard inter- DDR System Memory and QDRII Display memory. This archi-
faces. tecture enables a high waveform capture rate of 600,000
BA 2TR/502 supports a quad-port Gigabit Ethernet con- wfms/sec, color graded intensity display, and outstanding
troller for applications that require additional network inter- time-base accuracy and jitter performance.
faces within a single VPX slot. Up to four Gigabit Ethernet The 7000 Series comes with a next generation user inter-
ports are available on the VPX connector for rear communica- face giving the customer five unique ways to interact with
tion; alternatively the four ports can be routed to the front their instrument. A vivid 10.1" (1024 ¥ 600) display sup-
panel via standard RJ45 connectors for use in air-cooled appli- ports a responsive and intuitive touch navigation. The 7000
cations. Both BA 2TR/501 and BA 2TR/502 link to a host Series is available in 8 Models (100MHz, 200MHz, 350MHz,
processor board via PCI Express. and 500Mhz) with or without the Logic Analyzer (MSO).
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-526 For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-529

56 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


New Products

IR Camera Core High Voltage


Lockheed Mar- Power Supplies
tin’s (Orlando, FL) TDK Corpora-
new μLAD SW/MW tion (Neptune, NJ)
IR camera core has introduced the
brings big-sensor FLX-HV Series of high voltage programmable AC to DC power
cooled perform- supplies with standard features including USB/LAN digital in-
ance to tiny platforms. Powered by Lockheed Martin Santa terfaces and active power factor correction. The FLX-HV Series
Barbara Focalplane’s large format, small pixel nBn detector covers output voltages of 10,000, 30,000 and 50,000 volts, at
technology, μLAD runs at high operating temperatures, result- power levels of 200, 500 and 1,000 watts. The unit is housed
ing in a compact package ideally suited for applications such in a compact, lightweight 2U rack-mount package that incor-
as missile seekers, weapon sights, remote weapon stations, porates front to back cooling with a variable speed fan for
small gimbal or gimbal-less (e-stab) platforms, and tactical air quiet operation.
and land sensor systems for OEM and military unmanned aer- Standard features include a user-friendly multi-function dis-
ial vehicles (UAVs). play with coarse and fine output voltage and current controls
Lockheed Martin’s dual-band μLAD camera core delivers and integrated LAN and USB digital interfaces. All models
high-definition SW/MW IR imagery at 1280-by-1024 pixels (and power levels) include active power factor correction with
(1.3 megapixels) with the same high-speed digital output (up wide range 110-230 VAC input and a power factor better than
to 10 Gbps) as a single-band MWIR offering. Pixel pitch is 8 0.95 and high efficiency greater than 85 percent. Low output
μm. Integration time is <0.1 μs to 200s. F# is 2.3. Input voltage ripple of 0.1 percent peak to peak. Digital interfaces include
is 5V and 12V, 12W steady state. The camera features a Stirling resettable arc count functionality, programmable fine/coarse
split linear closed-cycle cooler, and command and control is control steps, 16-bit ADC-DAC resolution, detailed unit status
via an RS-422 serial interface over camera link. outputs and many other commands and features.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-510 For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-511

These test conditions don’t get much tougher.


Neither do our microphones.
GRAS acoustic sensors are built tough and durable for Acoustic Sensors
when you’ve got one chance to get it right.

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-817 57


Product Spotlight
MULTIPHYSICS New Products
MODELING,
SIMULATION,
APP DESIGN AND
DEPLOYMENT
SOFTWARE
COMSOL Multiphysics® is an integrated software envi-
ronment for creating physics-based models and simula-
tion apps. Add-on products allow the simulation of elec- Rugged Ethernet Switch and Router
trical, mechanical, acoustic, fluid flow, thermal, and OnTime Networks (Oslo, Norway) is supplying its
chemical applications. Interfacing tools enable its inte-
fully rugged military grade CR-6224F4-MIL series Gi-
gration with all major technical computing and CAD
tools. Simulation experts rely on COMSOL Server™ gabit/10 Gigabit Ethernet switch and router solution
product to deploy apps to their colleagues and cus- for use in a new wheeled (8x8) ground combat vehicle
tomers worldwide. https://www.comsol.com/products program. The Cloudberry CR-6224F4-MIL version is a fully
COMSOL, Inc. rugged layer 2/3 switch combined with a router and an accurate net-
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-818 work time server (IEEE 1588 PTP, NTP, IRIG, 1PPS) for military land, sea and air ap-
plications. The integrated GbE/10GbE switch provides a total of 24 Ethernet ports, of
FIBER OPTIC PRECISION which 20 ports are 10/100/1000 BASE-T ports and 4 ports are 10/100/1000 BASE-SR.
TIMING SIGNAL The CR-6224F4-MIL enables secure managed network routing and GbE switching ca-
TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS pabilities for the vehicle's onboard communications and computing subsystems.
Liteway, Inc. offers a full line of fiber optic The CR-6200 Series router implementation is based on a separate router board
transmission systems deigned to transmit with an Intel Atom processor and can either be equipped with the OnTime Net-
precision timing signals including IRIG
modulated, IRIG unmodulated (DCLS), works router package providing routing speeds of up to 800 Mbps or with the Cisco®
IRIG Converters (modulated to/from 5921 Embedded Services Router (ESR) Advanced Enterprise router package, provid-
DCLS), 5 MHz to 10 MHz precision ing up to 500 Mbps of routing speed. Its modular rugged design, enclosed in a com-
sine waves, distribution amplifiers and GPS NMEA/1
pps systems and all are ready to operate immediately. pletely sealed housing against dust and water ingress (IP68), requires no active cool-
All systems are designed and manufactured in the ing and provides MIL-DTL-38999 connectors.
USA, are sold under the LuxLink® trademark and For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-518
custom systems are available. Visit www.luxlink.com
or call Liteway, Inc. at 1-516-931-2800.
PXI, LXI Switching Solutions
Liteway, Inc. BRIC™ Ultra-High-Density PXI Matrix Modules (model
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-819 40-559) from Pickering Interfaces (Clacton-on-Sea, UK) are
robust 1Amp/20W switching modules, with up to 4,096
EPOXY HAS crosspoints. Constructed with Pickering Electronics’ new
SUPERIOR miniature 4 mm ¥ 4 mm reed relays, these new 1 Amp matri-
DIMENSIONAL ces have similar switch densities compared to 0.25 Amp, 0.3
STABILITY Amp or 0.5 Amp high-density matrix solutions on the market,
Well suited for metal
providing far more robust and reliable switching in the same
bonding especially footprint. The matrices are available in 2, 4, or 8-slot PXI sizes and
roughened titanium, Master Bond EP45HTAN is a two are designed for high-performance matrix requirements. With their high level of switch-
part epoxy paste with superior strength retention at ele-
vated temperatures. It bonds well to a wide variety of sim-
ing density, these PXI matrices allow a complete Functional ATE system to be housed in
ilar/dissimilar substrates such as metals, glass, compos- a single 3U PXI chassis and allow the use of much lower cost 8 or 14 slot PXI chassis.
ites and many plastics. EP45HTAN combines cryogenic Pickering's High-Density Scalable LXI Ethernet Reed Relay Matrix Solution (model
serviceability with high temperature resistance from 4K
60-2xx) combines their latest LXI Chassis with their new plug-in matrices. The range
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Master Bond For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-519

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-820 Secure Intel Xeon-based VME Single Board Computer
Mercury Systems, Inc. (Andover, MA) announced the
A WORLD OF FIBER OPTIC planned availability of the Ensemble ® 4000 Series
SOLUTIONS SBC4510 VME single board computer (SBC) module with
an Intel® Xeon® E3 v6 processor. The new SBC will enable
technology insertion of modern high performance and sys-
tem security engineering solutions into existing VME-based sensor processing systems.
Based on an open systems architecture and targeted for applications supplying
• T1/E1 & T3/E3 Modems, WAN 50W or less, the single-slot SBC is designed to be compatible with all legacy VME64
• RS-232/422/485 Modems and Multiplexers
• Profibus-DP, Modbus systems. Together with support for both Linux and VxWorks, an available secure hy-
• Ethernet LANs pervisor further enables legacy applications to run in their own container independ-
• Video/Audio/Hubs/Repeaters ent of the underlying system software and hardware. Multiple applications can run
• USB Modem and Hub
• Highly shielded Ethernet, USB (Tempest Case) in a virtualized environment to take advantage of the increase in performance of the
• ISO-9001 Intel Xeon processor. The Ensemble Series SBC4510 VME SBC features a PMC/XMC
http://www.sitech-bitdriver.com mezzanine site for I/O expansion and will be available in air-cooled or conduction
S.I. Tech cooled versions at various levels of ruggedization.
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69509-821 For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69509-513

58 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


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Editorial Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Linda L. Bell
Advertiser Page Web Link
Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bruce A. Bennett Accel-RF Instruments Corp. ....................................33 ......................................................................www.accelrf.com
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Accurate Screw Machine ..........................................2..........................................................www.accuratescrew.com
Managing Editor, Tech Briefs TV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kendra Smith American Welding Society ......................................COV III..............................................................aws.org/AERO750
Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Adam Santiago
Applied Avionics, Inc. ................................................19..........................................www.appliedavionics.com/ads-b
Manufacturing Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kevin Coltrinari
Creative Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lois Erlacher Aurora Bearing Co.......................................................54 ......................................................www.aurorabearing.com
Graphic Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Annette Murphy Click Bond, Inc. ............................................................15 ........................................................www.clickbond.com/ad5
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COMSOL, Inc...................................................................34, 58, COV IV................................................www.comsol.com
Digital Marketing Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kaitlyn Sommer
Marketing Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dylan Legarda Crystal Group, Inc. ......................................................11, 35..............................................................crystalrugged.com
Audience Development Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stacey Nelson Cytec Corp. ....................................................................7 ..............................................................................cytec-ate.com
Subscription Changes/Cancellations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ntb@kmpsgroup.com
dSPACE, Inc. ..................................................................9 ........................................................................www.dspace.com
TECH BRIEFS MEDIA GROUP, AN SAE INTERNATIONAL COMPANY First Sensor AG ............................................................21, 42........................................................www.first-sensor.com
261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901, New York, NY 10016
(212) 490-3999 FAX (646) 829-0800 G.R.A.S Sound & Vibration ........................................41, 57 ........................................................................www.gras.us
Chief Executive Officer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Domenic A. Mucchetti
GAGE BILT Inc. ..............................................................41, 53..............................................................www.gagebilt.com
Executive Vice-President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Luke Schnirring
Technology Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oliver Rockwell Herber Aircraft Service Inc. ....................................50........................................................www.herberaircraft.com
Systems Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vlad Gladoun Hoffer Flow Controls, Inc. ........................................44, 51..........................................................www.hofferflow.com
Digital Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Howard Ng
Hunter Products Inc...................................................54 ....................................................www.hunterproducts.com
Digital Media Assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peter Weiland, Md Jaliluzzaman
Credit/Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Felecia Lahey Infinite Electronics/Milestek....................................17 ..............................................................................MilesTek.com
Accounting/Human Resources Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sylvia Bonilla Integrated Engineering Software ........................49 ......................................................www.integratedsoft.com
Accounts Receivable Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nicholas Rivera
Office Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Alfredo Vasquez
International Manufacturing Services, Inc. ..........13, 36 ....................................................www.ims-resistors.com
Konica Minolta Sensing Americas, Inc.................1 ........................................................sensing.konicaminolta.us
ADVERTISING ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES
Liteway Inc.....................................................................58 ......................................................................www.luxlink.com
MA, NH, ME, VT, RI, Eastern Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ed Marecki
(401) 351-0274 Magnet Applications® ..............................................43, 55................................................magnetapplications.com
CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stan Greenfield Master Bond Inc...........................................................58............................................................www.masterbond.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(203) 938-2418
Michigan Economic
NJ, PA, DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John Murray
Development Corporation........................................5, 40 ......................michiganbusiness.org/pure-aerospace
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4685
Southeast, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ray Tompkins Minco ..............................................................................46 ..................................................................................Minco.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(281) 313-1004 Mini-Systems, Inc.........................................................32 ..............................................................mini-systemsinc.com
NY, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ryan Beckman
MW Aerospace Solutions ..........................................25, 37................................www.mwaerospacesolutions.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(973) 409-4687
MI, IN, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris Kennedy Positronic Industries, Inc. ........................................26......................www.connectpositronic.com/adt_aug2018
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(847) 498-4520 ext. 3008 RAD Torque Systems ..................................................23, 38..........................................................www.radtorque.com
MN, ND, SD, IL, KY, MO, KS, IA, NE, Central Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bob Casey
S.I. Tech ..........................................................................58......................................................www.sitech-bitdriver.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(847) 223-5225
Northwest, N. Calif., Western Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Craig Pitcher SAE Mobilus ..................................................................59..........................................................................saemobilus.org
(408) 778-0300 Seastrom Mfg. ..............................................................44, 47 ................................................www.seastrom-mfg.com
S. Calif., AZ, NM, Rocky Mountain States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tim Powers
Superior Tool Services ..............................................43, 48......................................www.superiortoolservice.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(424) 247-9207
Europe — Central & Eastern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sven Anacker TECA, Inc.........................................................................39 ......................................................www.thermoelectric.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-202-27169-11 ThermOmegaTech, Inc...............................................3 ....................................................ThermOmegaTech-adg.com
Joseph Heeg
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-621-841-5702
THK America ................................................................27................................................................https://tech.thk.com
Europe — Western . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris Shaw Ulbrich Stainless Steels &
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44-1270-522130 Special Metals, Inc. ....................................................42 ......................................................................www.ulbrich.com
Integrated Media Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Patrick Harvey W.L. Gore & Associates ..............................................COV II............................................www.gore.com/GORE-FLIGH
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4686
Angelo Danza
Aerospace & Defense Technology, ISSN 2472-2081, USPS 018-120. Periodicals postage paid at
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Reprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jill Kaletha
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(219) 878-6068 August 2018, Volume 3, Number 5

60 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, August 2018


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Overcome antenna crosstalk
issues with simulation.

Visualization of the electric field norm and 3D far field due to a transmitting
antenna. Antennas are intentionally large in this tutorial model.

Multiple antennas are needed to create more complex


communication systems on airplanes. But this arrangement of
transmitters and receivers can cause aircraft operation issues
due to crosstalk, or cosite interference. Simulation helps you
analyze the crosstalk effect on an aircraft and in turn find the
best antenna placement.
The COMSOL Multiphysics® software is used for simulating
designs, devices, and processes in all fields of engineering,
manufacturing, and scientific research. See how you can apply
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