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May 2018

Welcome to
your Digital Edition of New Technologies Tackle UAV Challenges
Robotic Applique Kits Leverage Existing Assets

Aerospace & Defense Protecting Critical Data on Unmanned Underwater Platforms


Educating UGVs

Technology
May 2018
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Cov ToC
Overcome antenna crosstalk
issues with simulation.

Visualization of the electric field norm and 3D far field due to a transmitting
antenna. Antennas are intentionally large in this tutorial model.

Multiple antennas are needed to create more complex


communication systems on airplanes. But this arrangement of
transmitters and receivers can cause aircraft operation issues
due to crosstalk, or cosite interference. Simulation helps you
analyze the crosstalk effect on an aircraft and in turn find the
best antenna placement.
The COMSOL Multiphysics® software is used for simulating
designs, devices, and processes in all fields of engineering,
manufacturing, and scientific research. See how you can apply
it to antenna simulation.
comsol.blog/antenna-crosstalk

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-802

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www.aerodefensetech.com February
May 2018

New Technologies Tackle UAV Challenges


Robotic Applique Kits Leverage Existing Assets
Protecting Critical Data on Unmanned Underwater Platforms
Educating UGVs

From the Publishers of

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Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-804

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Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-761

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Aerospace & Defense Technology

Contents
FEATURES ________________________________________ 32 GPS Enabled Semi-Autonomous Robot
34 Development of a Vision-Based Situational Awareness
4 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology Capability for Unmanned Surface Vessels
4 New Technologies Tackle UAV Challenges
12 Robotics Technology
12 Robotic Applique Kits Leverage Existing Assets DEPARTMENTS ___________________________________
18 Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology 36 Application Briefs
18 Educating UGVs 44 New Products
48 Advertisers Index
22 Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Technology
22 Protecting Critical Data on Unmanned Underwater Platforms
ON THE COVER ___________________________________
TECH BRIEFS _____________________________________ Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are playing a vital
role in military operations. This is forcing systems
26 Advancements Made to the Wingman Software-in-the-Loop engineers to deal with an increasing variety of
issues such as thermal management, power budget-
(SIL) Simulation: How to Operate the SIL
ing, EMI emissions and susceptibility, weight, size,
28 Soldier–Robot Team Communication: An Investigation of cabling, connectors, antenna management, and
Exogenous Orienting Visual Display Cues and Robot Reporting command/control functions. To learn how they’re
Preferences solving these problems, read the feature article on
page 4.
30 Soft Robotic Fish Swims Alongside Real Ones in Coral Reefs
(Image courtesy of Pentek, Inc.)

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New Technologies
Tackle UAV
Challenges

(Photo: U.S. Army)

U
nmanned vehicles for air, the ground and powered down for sus- usually well documented as storage
land, and water represent an tained periods of time between mis- temperature specifications, which can
increasingly-important capa- sions. Primary design concerns here are help predict survivability on mid-winter
bility for virtually all mili- non-operational effects of mechanical airstrips in Alaska and mid-summer
tary services worldwide. Because each stress and packaging integrity. These are runways in the mid-East.
new generation of device technology
promises capabilities and higher levels
of overall performance for unmanned
vehicles of all types, military customers
expect these benefits in the latest UAV
offerings. To meet these expectations,
systems engineers must deal with in-
creasingly difficult problems of thermal
management, power budgeting, EMI
emissions and susceptibility, weight, size,
cabling, connectors, antenna manage-
ment, and command/control functions.
Several new technologies and innovative
packaging concepts now provide better
solutions to these issues.

Thermal Management Solutions


Since unmanned vehicles have no re-
quirements for human occupants, SWaP
penalties for life-support systems and
crew or pilot quarters are eliminated.
The downside for system designers is
that UAVs are therefore expected to op-
erate over temperatures ranging from
-50°C to +75°C. Often unappreciated is
Figure 1. VITA 66 optical connector blocks for a 3U VPX module (top) and backplane (bottom) are installed
the fact that these limits can be more in place of electrical RT connectors (black). Each holds an MT ferrule with 24 fiber cables. (Courtesy: TE
difficult to meet when the vehicle is on Connectivity Ltd.)

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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

There are numerous operational tem- exchanger coupled to the outside sur- ing systems and initiates operational
perature issues. If the unit is not pro- face of the vehicle or to outside air. power to the UAV systems when ready.
vided with a standby heating system, Methods of moving the heat include
starting up from -50°C often requires a heat pipes, carbon nanotubes, circulat- Open Packaging Standards
warm-up delay and the use of heaters or ing air or liquid, refrigerators, Even though each UAV targets a spe-
partially powering up some equipment thermionic coolers, and some promising cific class of applications and missions,
to heat the more temperature-sensitive new nano-technology cooling engines. systems designers can reap significant
equipment. Notorious for problems at Once the UAV is operational, these benefits by exploiting the latest open
low temperatures are crystal oscillators, same structures can continue to regu- standards for the many internal subsys-
batteries, capacitors, and some semicon- late internal temperatures, often con- tems. An outstanding example is the
ductor devices like A/D converters. suming relatively little energy because VITA OpenVPX standard, now also
At high start-up temperatures, similar of self-heating of the payload systems adopted by ANSI. It defines numerous
care must be taken to cool down the and the normally cold skin temperature mechanical and electrical profiles for
equipment before applying full power. of the vehicle once it reaches opera- circuit boards, backplanes, chassis, con-
Otherwise, components like processors tional altitude. nectors, as well as cooling and power
and FPGAs can sustain permanent dam- Often a simple, independent vehicle distribution methods, all capable of
age, completely disabling critical subsys- thermal management processor capable withstanding severe military environ-
tems within the vehicle. Cooling strate- of operating across the entire tempera- mental conditions.
gies must transfer heat to a heat ture range controls the heating and cool- Particularly appropriate for UAVs are
the numerous cooling methods for
OpenVPX defined in the VITA 48 stan-
dard, which includes conduction, liquid
flow-through, air flow-through, air flow-
by, and variants. Designers can select the
most appropriate cooling technique for
a given UAV by surveying vendors for
availability of VPX solutions sharing a
common VITA 48 cooling method. This
can greatly simplify the overall thermal
design of the vehicle.
Another important benefit of open
standards is improved life cycle support,
especially for military programs looking
for multi-year acquisition and installa-
tion phases, followed by ten or more
Figure 2. VITA 67 RF connector blocks for a 6U VPX module (top) and backplane (bottom) are installed in place years of operational life, that can be
of electrical RT connectors (black), and support eight coaxial connectors. (Courtesy: TE Connectivity Ltd.) fully supported with maintenance and
repairs. Obsolescence of critical compo-

FMC+ FPGA JadeFX


ADC Model 5983
ADC Kintex 3U VPX OpenVPX
VITA Ultra VITA 65
PCIe Gen 3 x8
DAC 57.4
DAC Scale
RF I/O FMC+
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Front or Synth Site
DDR4
VITA 67 Timing SDRAM
VITA 49
PPS 10 MHz Dual 10/40
GPS 12 GB /sec GbE Optical
ANT 10/40 VITA 66
GPS Optical I/F
Reciever GbE

Figure 3. Pentek Model 5983 3U OpenVPX Kintex UltraScale FMC+ Carrier supports numerous VITA standards for new DoD initiatives for software radio embedded
systems. (Courtesy: Pentek, Inc.)

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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Peak Value
nents like memories, processors, or
G-FORCE

FPGAs is all too common and quite dif-


ficult to predict. In some cases, redesign
of modules or subsystems is the only so-
lution, and compliance with a well-de-
fined standard helps ensure success.
Peak Value
Upgrades become far easier when an
older module can be replaced with a
new one that exploits the latest tech-
nology and delivers new performance
levels, but yet still complies with the
0s 1s 2s 3s OpenVPX infrastructure to minimize
TIME system integration efforts.

Making Good Connections


No Foam Foam A peek inside a military UAV reveals a
staggering array of wires, cables, har-
nesses, and connectors, accounting for
a significant share of vehicle weight,

S H O W G R AV I T Y
and having a major impact on both op-
erational costs and mission endurance.
Because UAVs are loaded with sen-

WHO’S BOSS sors, antennas, processors, cameras,


telemetry systems, radios, radars, navi-
gation systems, jammers, power sup-
When things crash it helps to decelerate before impact, plies and cooling systems, the necessary
interconnects are often highly special-
like an airbag. Our Packaging Engineers figured this out ized to match the link.
20 years before airbags were even in use, and named it the Some new power systems distribute
Cushioning Curve. Simply put, we use foam or suspension higher voltages using smaller diameter
wires to minimize weight. Many new
cradles to “stretch time” so impact forces are dampened classes of POL (point-of-load) switching
before they reach sensitive equipment. We have a lot more regulators drop the nominal 24 or 48
tricks, including custom foam and cut and weld cases, for VDC distribution bus to lower local
voltages required for each subsystem,
simple to complex projects. Count on Pelican™ Custom Case
while maintaining high efficiency
Solutions to respond to anything gravity throws your way. across a wide range of supply voltages
and load currents. More complex de-
vices can maintain regulation across
high pulse current loads to support
radar and countermeasure equipment.
Parallel digital lines for high-speed

LEARN
data connections are being replaced by
gigabit serial links at virtually every level

MORE. of embedded systems. The benefits are


fewer wires, smaller space, and higher
rates. Within board-level products, giga-
bit serial links join processors, FPGAs,
data converters, network interfaces, and
pelican.com/custom storage interfaces. Within a chassis,
these same serial links stretch across the
backplane for connecting boards and for
bringing I/O signals to bulkhead con-
©2018 Pelican Products, Inc. All trademarks are registered and/or unregistered
nectors. UAV subsystems are now ex-
trademarks of Pelican Products, Inc., its subsidiaries and/or affiliates. ploiting these serial links to replace fat,
parallel data cables to save space and
weight. Two of the most popular gigabit

8 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-766 Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

protocols in UAVs are PCIe and Ethernet


at speeds of 1, 10, and 40 GB/sec.

Switching to Light
A major trend for high-capacity data
links is replacing copper cables with op-
tical cables that offer many compelling
benefits.
Optical cables are completely free
from EMI (electromagnetic interfer-
ence) emissions. This not only elimi-
nates unwanted radiation that can in-
duce signals in other cables and
sensitive equipment, it also prevents
unauthorized interception of sensitive

DON’T LAUNCH
information by cable “sniffers”. The
same trait makes optical cables immune
to interference and contamination from
generators, antennas, and other noise
sources. WITHOUT THESE
Optical cables also offer less weight;
smaller diameter; lower cost per foot;
immunity to water, salt, and corrosion;
B OI N G Y T H I N G S
as well as greater tensile strength. Con-
nectors do require care in cleaning, in- Of course to us they’re not “boingy things”, they’re wire rope
stallation, and handling, but once in- isolators. And they’re vitally important because a lot can go
stalled, are quite reliable. wrong on the way to the launch pad. Our Packaging Engineers
All these benefits of optical cables are
vitally important to UAVs, where many determine the correct isolator so impact forces are dampened
different subsystems, sensors, and an- before they reach your sensitive equipment. We have a lot more
tennas are crowded together in very tricks up our sleeves, from custom foam to cut and weld cases,
close proximity.
Over the course of several years, the
for simple to complex projects. Count on Pelican™ Custom Case
VITA 66 group has spawned several vari- Solutions to respond to anything gravity throws your way.
ations of optical interfaces between VPX
modules and backplanes. The most re-
cent ones use industry-standard MT fer-
rules, each typically containing 12 or 24
optical fibers. Metal housings on the
modules and backplane replace the elec-
trical RT connectors, and provide preci-
LEARN
sion engagement and spring-loading of
the mating MT ferrules for reliably align-
MORE.
ing the polished ends of each fiber when
the module is inserted. (Figure 1)
Several component vendors are offer-
ing new compact, power-efficient opti-
cal/copper interface devices directly
compatible with the gigabit serial ports
on FPGAs and processors. Their prod-
ucts are competing for design wins for pelican.com/custom
VITA 66 systems, which helps advance
performance levels and lower costs.
©2018 Pelican Products, Inc. All trademarks are registered and/or unregistered
Taming RF Signals trademarks of Pelican Products, Inc., its subsidiaries and/or affiliates.
RF signals to and from antennas tra-
ditionally require bulky coaxial cables

Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-803 9

Cov ToC
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
First-Class
Material
Handling not only to minimize signal loss, but for UAV radar and EW systems, where
also to protect against interference mechanical steering is often impractical.
when passing near and between power
generators, switching power regulators, Observing Protocol
and transmit antennas. With so many diverse subsystems
New major U.S. DoD initiatives like within the typical UAV, orchestrating
SOSA (Sensor Open System Architec- them to conduct a coordinated mission
ture), MORA (Modular Open RF Archi- is a daunting task. One major initiative
tecture), and CMOSS (C4ISR/EW Modu- is the new VITA 49.2 Radio Transport
lar Open Suite of Standards) share a Protocol approved within the last year.
common goal of digitizing RF and IF It defines standardized methods for de-
signals as close to the antenna as possi- livering control, status, and payload
ble, and then delivering digital streams data for digital software radio subsys-
via gigabit serial network links. The tems so that information streams to and
To keep your manufacturing and same applies to transmit signals, which from different types of radios, radars,
assembly operations humming, are sent as digital streams to transmit- EW, and SIGINT systems share common
ters, where they are converted to ana- formats.
add our battery-powered
log, power amplified, and delivered to This allows signals acquired by one
Automated Guided Vehicles the local antenna. And, tracking the mi- radio head to be delivered across
(AGVs) and Transporters to gration to optical, these standards call switched optical networks to one or
your production floor. for optical interfaces for the high speed more consumers, so signals can be
links. shared for different purposes. VITA 49
This new architecture brings many adds one more degree of consistency,
benefits. RF circuitry, amplifiers, data not only between vendors, but also for
converters, FPGAs, and network inter- upgrades and maintenance.
faces can all be incorporated within Figure 3 shows a recently announced
compact subsystems directly behind the 3U VPX software radio module target-
antennas. These “radio heads” are con- ing the new DoD architectures like
nected via network switches to the ap- SOSA and MORA. Front end data con-
propriate equipment, neatly eliminat- verters operating at 3 GS/sec capture
ing coaxial cables and RF switches, and and generate wideband analog RF sig-
traditionally hard-wired sources and nals, matching requirements for emerg-
destinations. ing radar, EW and communications
Not surprisingly, these new DoD ini- bandwidths required for advanced UAV
tiatives incorporate OpenVPX as the subsystems. It also incorporates 10 or 40
hardware platform, capturing the many GbE interfaces to transfer VITA 49 digi-
With the ability to safely move benefits listed earlier. To facilitate de- tal IF/RF signals across VITA 66 optical
signs of radio heads, VITA 67 standards backplane links to an OpenVPX signal
parts and components at speeds
define several generations of RF back- processing system.
up to 150 ft. per minute, we help plane interfaces to simplify system inte-
you achieve higher productivity gration. Mating metal housings on the Looking Forward
with greater workflow efficiency. modules and the backplane contain The expanding role of UAVs in mil-
multiple coaxial connectors that are in- itary operations, coupled with the
By giving you multiple steering stalled in place of some of the VPX elec- rapid evolution of new device tech-
and control options, we make trical RT connectors. This eliminates the nology ensures a vigorous pursuit of
it comfortable to optimize need for front panel coaxial cables, extending UAV capabilities and per-
which greatly complicate service and formance levels to meet new require-
efficiency. maintenance operations. ments. It is clear that open standards
Some of the earlier VITA 67 standards are becoming increasingly important,
supported four or eight connections, as not only to help integrate these new
PHILLIPS PRODUCTS shown in Figure 2. But the new smaller technologies, but also to help secure
Part of the Industrial Sales Group
of Irwin Car and Equipment Nano RF connector variants now under customer adoption of next generation
discussion provide up to 26 coaxial con- vehicles.
Contact: Dave Felt — dfelt@irwincar.com nections, which help support phased- This article was written by Rodger Hosk-
array antennas that require one RF signal ing, Vice President, Pentek, Inc. (Upper Sad-
for each element. These electronically- dle River, NJ). For more information, visit
IRWINCAR.COM steered arrays are particularly well suited http://info.hotims.com/69506-500.

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Robotic Applique Kits
Leverage Existing
Assets

The Highly Dexterous


Manipulation System (HDMS)
designed by RE2 Robotics.
(Photo: RE2 Robotics)

W
hen it comes to modern and pilots. According to the Depart- burgh-based RE2 Robotics, a Carnegie
military operations, ro- ment of Defense, it takes 1½ to 2½ years Mellon University spinoff, using a Di-
botic technology provides for a pilot to become fully operational rect to Phase Two Small Business Inno-
a tremendous tactical ad- and mission-ready. The cost of basic vative Research contract, is working
vantage. Drones, ground robots and au- flight training was estimated by the with the Air Force Research Labora-
tonomous vehicles are routinely used DOD in 1999 at $1-million per pilot, tory’s (AFRL) Center for Rapid Innova-
for missions such as intelligence-gather- while it can cost more than $9-million tion on a robotic system named “Com-
ing, surveillance and reconnaissance to train a pilot for specialized missions mon Aircraft Retrofit for Novel
(ISR), allowing military personnel to — and, at last count, the Air Force has Autonomous Control (CARNAC),” in
conduct operations from a safe dis- more than 12,500 pilots on active duty. which a robot would replace a seat in a
tance. And yet, despite these technolog- To help the military bridge the tech- normally manned aircraft’s cockpit. By
ical advances, the vast majority of vehi- nological and economic gaps between expanding upon existing autopilot
cles in use by the military — whether in traditionally manned vehicles and au- technology, the system is designed to
the air or on land — still require a tonomous ones, robotics companies are fully operate an aircraft, from takeoff,
human operator. researching and developing “drop-in” through performance of a mission, to
Undoubtedly, the use of unmanned applique kits that allow legacy vehicles landing. Through the use of human -
systems by the military will continue to to be rapidly converted into au- oid-like robotic manipulation capabili-
surge. Still, it would be both impractical tonomous, robotically controlled ones. ties, dedicated custom actuation, vi-
and exorbitantly expensive for the mili- Since these retrofit kits do not require sion-based flight-status recognition,
tary to replace all of its current and still- modifications to existing vehicles, they and cognitive architecture-based deci-
reliable vehicles with autonomous ones. can enhance the system performance of sion making, the system will interface
The Air Force has invested in more than existing platforms, reduce costs, and en- with the same physical controls that a
40 distinct types of aircraft that cost able new operations, including missions human pilot uses, including a cockpit’s
anywhere between several hundred that dictate a high level of risk for mili- rudder pedals and yoke. Dedicated ac-
thousand and hundreds of millions of tary personnel and, therefore, are com- tuators and robotic arms that can
dollars to build. On land, articulated patible with the implementation of mimic human dexterity will manipu-
front-loaders, such as those deployed to highly adaptable robotic systems devel- late controls and respond to standard
clear airfields after an attack, cost up- oped at lower costs than that of new ro- onboard gauges. Camera, range, and
wards of $250,000 each. botic vehicles. tactile sensors will be mounted to the
These costs, of course, don’t take into One applique kit in development is robotic arm’s end effector, allowing the
account the expenses and amount of the use of autonomous robotics sys- system to perceive and process the
time required to train military operators tems to control existing aircraft. Pitts- state of controls and modify that state

12 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

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Robotics

CARNAC System Diagram

Cameras/Sensors Operator Interface

Perception Decision-Making Module

Manipulation Control

Manipulation & Aircraft


Control System

Manipulation & Simulation

RE2 Robotics CEO, Jorgen Pedersen (left), and CTO, Keith Gunnett, display one of the manipulator arms
used in their innovative CARNAC robotic applique kits. (Photo: RE2 Robotics)

into the cockpit of an existing airplane development of a purpose-built au-


without making any modifications to tonomous aircraft.”
the aircraft, relying upon onboard “Unmanned flight operations utiliz-
power, or connections to a fly-by-wire ing traditionally manned airplanes offer
system. The drop-in pilot can be just as an increase in mission planning flexibil-
easily removed, allowing for quick con- ity for a large set of missions and re-
version back to a traditional, manned duced cost while leveraging existing tra-
aircraft. While the technology is being ditionally manned airframes," said Dr.
tested on a simulated Piper Seminole, Alok Das, AFRL Senior Scientist and
the overarching goal is to design an ap- leader of the AFRL Center for Rapid In-
Information is passed between system compo- plique kit that could easily be config- novation. "Non-invasive approaches to
nents using interfaces and communication stan-
dards defined in the CARNAC architecture (top). ured for use in a variety of aircraft, both robotically piloted aircraft using exist-
The CARNAC system builds on technologies from civilian and military. ing commercial technology and compo-
industry leaders to create a fully autonomous “Development of robotic applique kit nents offer the benefits of unmanned
flight control system to fly a small general aviation
aircraft after initial development with a flight sim- pilots will enable a whole range of new operations without the complexity and
ulator (bottom). missions for the military that can lever- upfront cost associated with the devel-
age the significant number of manned opment of new unmanned vehicles.
when necessary. The system would aircraft available, both civilian and mil- Unmanned, low cost cargo transporta-
allow the aircraft to be completely un- itary," said CARNAC principal investiga- tion, resupply, refueling, and ISR mis-
manned, with no crew aboard. tor Dr. Andrew Mor of RE2 Robotics. sions are envisioned applications of this
While autonomous flight systems "These missions will cover the range technology.”
and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are from extremely long-duration missions
already being developed for the Air that are not viable with a pilot in the Enhancing Safety During Rapid
Force, those systems typically require ei- cockpit to missions that are too danger- Airfield Recovery
ther a completely new build, or exten- ous to execute with a manned aircraft. Like UAVs, unmanned ground vehi-
sive and irreversible modifications to an And since these missions will be per- cles have a long history with the U.S.
aircraft. CARNAC will be the first truly formed with existing aircraft, the military, and many are already in use by
“plug-and-play” system in which a ro- cost/benefit ratio is improved signifi- the military to deliver supplies, com-
botic pilot could be quickly installed cantly, especially in comparison to the plete dangerous missions or conduct re-

14 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

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Ultra Lights

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Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-770

Cov ToC
Robotics

connaissance. As autonomy and artifi- efficiently is critically important, as it drops a full load of 45 cluster bombs,
cial intelligence technology progress, affects the continued execution of op- each of which produces 650 submuni-
the military will continue to research erations. tions, could produce approximately
and develop systems that serve to pro- Following an enemy strike, the goal of 1,462 unexploded bombs that must be
tect troops and reduce their cognitive the U.S. Air Force is to repair an airfield cleared quickly by Air Force personnel.
and physical burdens. Another of these in 8 hours or less. This timeframe in- While technology components, such as
systems currently in development at cludes the clearing of UXOs, which can the laser-driven Recovery of Airbases
RE2 is the Rapid Airfield Damage Recov- be found in spalls and cracks or under Denied by Ordnance, or RADBO, exist
ery-Teleoperated (RADR-T) program, debris, and which could detonate unex- to assist military personnel in this
which will enable the Air Force to use pectedly during the clean-up process. process, there is no system that is 100
existing construction ground vehicles as Typically, trained explosive ordnance percent autonomous.
robotic vehicles during clean-up efforts disposal personnel handle the clearance The RADR-T program would allow
after an airfield strike. and safe detonation of UXOs. However, the Air Force to leverage existing assets
Unexploded ordnances (UXOs) cre- following an attack, a large number of to reduce the risk of severe injury or
ate a significant hazard during cleanup airbase personnel perform RADR duties death to personnel during damage as-
of a stricken airfield. According to a re- by hand, including the identification of sessment and cleanup. Similar to the
port published by the Air Land Sea Ap- possible UXOs, as well as the position- CARNAC system, RADR-T will employ a
plication Center in 2001, U.S. military ing of them for neutralization. drop-in robotic driver that can provide
personnel have been killed or injured Typically, the Air Force deploys man- real-time switching between manned
by UXOs in almost every conflict in ually driven front-loaders to help clear and unmanned operation. The objec-
which the United States has partici- debris from the airfield. Taking into ac- tive is to develop a viable in-cab telep-
pated. The clearing of UXOs is one of count an average “dud rate” of 5-per- resence solution that will rapidly adapt
the most hazardous occupations in the cent for UXOs, this is an extraordinarily to a variety of operational require-
military, and yet doing so quickly and dangerous job. For instance, a B-52 that ments, depending upon the type of ve-

I actually thought the


robot wouldn’t stand it.
Juan Puente, thermal spray supervisor, Aircraft Tooling Inc. (ATI)

)OH[LEOHOLJKWZHLJKWFRERWͧWVLQVPDOOVSUD\FHOOVZLWKRXW Easy in-house programming meant robot was up and running


the need for safety guarding. in only 4 hours.

Maintenance-free UR cobots operate continuously in harsh environment


#KTETCHV6QQNKPIC6GZCUDCUGFCXKCVKQPTGRCKTEGPVGTYCUVJTKNNGFVQƒPFQWVLWUVJQYFWTCDNG7PKXGTUCN4QDQVUCTG6QWIJ74EQDQVU
CTGUGCNGFCICKPUVFWUVTCVGFHQTJKIJVGORGTCVWTGUCPFYQTMLWUVCUYGNNKPGZVTGOGGPXKTQPOGPVUNKMGOGVCNRQYFGTCPFRNCUOC
URTC[RTQEGUUGUCUKPCENGCPTQQO74EQDQVUJCXGDGGPKPQRGTCVKQPCV#6+HQT[GCTUYKVJQWVDTGCMFQYPQTUGTXKEGTGSWKTGOGPVU

They were surprised. We’re not.


See why: urrobots.com/ATI

16 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-771 Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
Robotics

The Piper Seminole flight simulator from Redbird Flight Simulations that is
being used to develop and test RE2’s CARNAC robotic applique kit. (Photo: RE2
Robotics)

hicle. As with CARNAC, RADR-T will require no special mod-


ifications to existing vehicles.
“By creating the capability to easily turn construction vehi-
cles into robotic systems without losing the integrity of the
original man-drive vehicle, the personnel responsible for con-
ducting the dangerous mission of airfield damage recovery
will soon have the ability to perform their jobs at a safe dis-
tance, when necessary,” says Jorgen Pedersen, CEO of RE2 Ro-
botics.

Leverage Existing Assets


Moving forward, the development of drop-in robotic kits
will allow the U.S. military to take advantage of advance-
ments in unmanned systems while maintaining its fleet of ex-
isting vehicles and leveraging an even larger fleet of existing
commercial vehicles. Applique kits such as those in develop-
ment at RE2 Robotics will initially provide military personnel
with the opportunity to utilize existing assets to conduct mis-
sions from safe, remote locations. Eventually, these retrofit
kits will offer greater autonomy, including the ability to self-
direct high-level tasks, such as driving a ground vehicle or fly-
ing an aircraft.
As artificial intelligence and machine-learning methods ad-
vance, fully autonomous, unmanned systems are expected to
become an integral aspect of military training exercises and
operations. By enhancing operational capabilities, advances
in system autonomy will help to ensure that the U.S. military
maintains its strategic advantage during global conflicts and
warfare.
This article was written by Jennifer Brozak, Marketing Commu-
nications Manager, RE2 Robotics (Pittsburgh, PA). For more infor-
mation, visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-503.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-772 17

Cov ToC
Educating UGVs
Implementing AI Advancements in
Thermal Image Training Data Sets

FLIR is developing attribute detectors that utilize


special networks to distinguish things like cloth-
ing type, whether someone is carrying a weapon,
and many other elements of interest.

A
dvancements in the field of mouth, and other features. These fea- nies like Google and Facebook — built
artificial intelligence (AI) are tures, in combination, are then used to large image training libraries using their
accelerating as the technol- create object detectors. customers' data to create a series of ob-
ogy matures from being re- Leading research institutions — in- ject detectors that could intelligently
search-orientated to being deployed in a cluding Stanford University and compa- identify people, pets, and other familiar
wide range of products and services,
such as autonomous vehicles. While
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs)
were first described in the 1950s, the
technology remained an academic con-
cept until the availability of large train-
ing data sets and powerful Graphics
Processor Units (GPUs), a processor ar-
chitecture ideal for the heavy math
computational demands associated 90% SUV
with neural network processing. Once
scientists had low-cost and high-perfor-
mance platforms, the technology ex-
ploded for many commercial uses. Mil-
itary use is more challenging due to the
lack of large data sets, but that is chang- 10% Sedan
ing too as areas including thermal im-
agery are starting to be used.
CNNs, shown in Figure 1, are a form
TRAINING INPUT FIRST LAYER HIGHER TOP LAYER OUTPUT
of machine learning that mimic the LAYER
way our brain processes incoming
senses like sight. A collection of “neu- A curated library Video of images Image details like In subsequent The top layer The network
rons” are arranged in layers with con- of annotated are processed by edges are layers, neurons uses complex predicts what the
images of the trained determined respond to structures to object is, based
nections between the layers. The term vehicles (10,000s) network through structures such determine the on the neural
“deep” refers to the number of layers, or is processed to processing. as wheels. type of object network training,
teach a neural (wheels + and lists a
depth. The process basically breaks network to headlights + probability of
down an image into edges and as the in- recognize cars. windsheild = detection.
car).
formation is transferred to deeper and
deeper layers, elements are created like Figure 1. CNNs break down an image into edges and as the information is transferred to deeper layers, ele-
the shapes of wheels, eyes, nose, ments are created like the shapes of wheels.

18 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
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Cov ToC
Unmanned Ground Vehicles

market penetration, and enabling na-


ture to work with partners to create im-
Add New Images
agery for even the most difficult sce-
nario, resulting in the ability to
generate thousands of images of nearly
Collect Annotate Train Test and
Release
any object from any vantage point and
Video/Images and Curate Network Optimize train networks to detect targets of inter-
est. This has led to the creation of
datasets that included weather, chang-
Back ing light conditions, and even odd sys-
Propagation tem noise, resulting in superior system
performance.
Figure 2. Development of training datasets or image libraries is required for algorithm development. It is worth noting that deep learning
only processes single images so each
frame from incoming video is processed
Processor Comparison one frame at a time. The demands on
CNN Hardware Myriad X [Edge] TX2 [Server] 1080Ti [Server] the resulting frame rate dictate the pro-
Intel NVIDIA NVIDIA cessing power needed to achieve the de-
sired system response.
Relative CNN 15X1 30X 300x CNNs process images at fixed resolu-
Performance tions. Popular networks like Inception
process images at either 300 x 300 or
CNN Frames/s 901 201 2100 512 x 512 pixel resolution. Does that
Cores 512@0.7 256@1.3 3584@1.4 mean much of the resolution coming
from today’s high-resolution sensors is
Power 1.2W 15W 250W thrown away? FLIR has a unique ap-
GLOPS/$11 471 3.32 282 proach to maximizing pixels on target
by running the images through a CNN
1Myriad II refence
2Integrated
called a single shot detector (SSD) that
module price and performance, not discrete chip.
looks for objects of interest in the image
Figure 3. Example CNN hardware and then extracts the object and pushes
it to the object detection classifier that
objects. Many companies have gone on as visible images, and applying deep processes 512 x 512 images. The bene-
to extend deep learning to vision, learning techniques to create solutions fits of this approach are significant.
speech recognition, and other data-cen- for challenging defense applications Speed is maintained and the ability to
tric applications. While developers such as drone detection, intrusion detec- put as many pixels on a target improves
have access to the underlying technol- tion, vehicle tracking, and many others. system accuracy. This is especially im-
ogy from academics and large technol- Thermal imagery offers many desir- portant in surveillance applications
ogy companies, object detectors for mil- able characteristics. It is totally passive, aimed at identifying objects at as great a
itary applications are not open source generates good image quality in all am- standoff distance as possible.
and must be created. The process is as bient lighting conditions, is effective in There are many difficulties in apply-
follows and is illustrated in Figure 2: seeing through obscurants, and is ex- ing vision systems in military applica-
1. Collect Images, tremely effective at detecting people tions. In applications where the opera-
2. Annotate Images, and vehicles at very long standoff tor is directly viewing or watching a
3. Train Network, ranges. The challenge has been how remote monitor the concerns over fa-
4. Test and Optimize, best to generate the hundreds of thou- tigue or simply not turning on these
5. Release Algorithm. sands of images necessary to train net- systems leads to potentially dangerous
Most deep learning developers use works to create accurate object detectors gaps in situational awareness. Comput-
open source training sets like ImageNet processing thermal images. The logistics ers never tire, and cameras are very reli-
and MS COCO because they have over of going out into the field and gather- able, so this combination can offer both
one million images and over 1,000 anno- ing thermal image data of all the objects operator relief and increased awareness.
tated object classes. However, these of interest in all the environments of in- One major area of concern is the
training sets have neither the relevant terest and from various perspectives is threat that weaponized drones present
images, nor object classes, to create AI ca- simply too time consuming and costly. to military planners. Commercial
pabilities for military use cases. FLIR has In addition, there are objects and sce- drones are fast and very small, making
been focused on creating training data narios that are very hard to reproduce them difficult to detect and track. Accu-
sets containing thermal images, as well in the real world. FLIR uses its scale, rate detection at ranges that enable

20 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
Unmanned Ground Vehicles

We are there
when innovation
leads to an edge.
Extreme temperature changes,
accelerations and vibrations –
our sensors, modules and cus-
tomer-specific systems meet
the exceptional requirements
for reliability and resilience in
the aerospace industry.
Thermal imagery is extremely effective at detecting people and vehicles at very long standoff ranges.

countermeasures is an important capa- and a probability of detection is calcu-


bility both military and public safety lated. To meet “real-world” require-
stakeholders are working to develop. ments, false alarms must be minimized
FLIR is developing a drone detection ca- to a small fraction of instances, which
pability that uses radar to detect small requires fine tuning of the training set.
UAVs at long range that automatically Optimization is accomplished by sim-
points long-range visible and thermal ply adding more images to the training
cameras at the drone. Images are data set and using techniques including
processed through FLIR’s drone detec- hard negative mining and back propa-
tion object detector for classification. gation. The network processes images of
Positive detections are relayed to the what it is told are not the objects it is
system for appropriate mission re- being trained to detect. An example is
sponse. Once the target is classified the training the network that a fire hydrant
target can be tracked at update speeds is not a person (they have a similar as-
much higher than most radar systems pect ratio) by adding images of fire hy-
can deliver. drants and labeling them as such.
Expanding from an object detector, In a period of only a few years deep
FLIR is developing attribute detectors, learning has established itself as a pow-
which utilize specialized networks to erful technology and new research into
create attribute detection including ever more capable networks is happen-
clothing type, identifying carried bags, ing at a furious pace. The next major ad-
weapons, and many other elements. In vancements will be made in hardware.
addition, there are networks for “fine GPUs originally developed for gaming
grain” classifiers that can distinguish have become the processors running
subtle object variations including make CNNs, however industry is rushing the
and model of a car, or a person’s gender development of purpose-built CNN
or race. processors. Within the next 2–3 years,
The training set is created and the im- we will see ten- to thirty-times more ef-
ages are processed in real time. Process- ficient processors that enable more edge
ing is typically performed on a dedi- CNN computing. Autonomous military
cated computer with powerful GPU platforms operating at the edge will be
cards like those from NVIDIA. It can critical to bringing AI to the field and
take multiple days for the computer to utilizing all its power to the benefit of
process a training data set. After pro- the warfighter.
cessing is complete, the object detection This article was written by Arthur Stout,
algorithm is available for run-time test- Director of Business Development, FLIR In-
ing. Video, live or recorded, is run dustrial Business Unit (Wilsonville, OR).
through the computer. The perform- For more information, visit http://info.
ance of the object detector is evaluated hotims.com/69506-501.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com www.first-sensor.com

Cov ToC
Protecting Critical Data on
Unmanned Underwater
Platforms

E
merging mission requirements risk of mission data falling into an adver- ments for the mission computer and net-
from global defense forces are sary’s hands. Even better, supporting the work switch LRUs. The processor systems
driving new programs and appli- NAS with Netbooting (NetBoot) tech- required low-power multi-core Intel CPU
cations for Unmanned Underwa- niques, further reduces SWaP by eliminat- architectures supported with a large num-
ter Vehicle (UUV) platforms. Like their ing the need for multiple storage devices ber of Ethernet, serial, and digital I/O in-
airborne counterparts, UUVs are ideal for and increases data security. terfaces, together with a VxWorks real-
deploying Intelligence, Surveillance and In one recent example, a platform de- time operating system (RTOS). The
Reconnaissance (ISR) mission payloads. veloper defined a common reference sys- managed Ethernet switches, used to net-
To speed the development of these au- tem architecture for a new family of work the computers with onboard sensors
tonomous vehicles, system designers are Larger Diameter UUVs (LDUUV) using and storage devices, required advanced
turning to small form factor (SFF) Com- small form factor COTS mission proces- Quality of Service (QoS) traffic prioritiza-
mercial off the Shelf (COTS) technologies sors, network switches, and NAS line re- tion and IEEE-1588 Precision Timing Pro-
previously proven in Unmanned Aerial placement units (LRU). To support the tocol (PTP) support to enable time stamp-
System (UAS) deployments. These low- various control, monitoring, and network ing with nanosecond accuracy.
power SFF subsystems, including minia- functions of the UUV platform, the devel- For the platform’s mission computer
ture network switches and mission com- oper specified robust technical require- and network switch requirements,
puters, are ideal for use in UUVs for which needed to be able to meet the
which any additional weight or power program’s rigorous technical, cost, and
consumption can have significant detri- schedule requirements, the UUV devel-
mental effects on mission distance and oper selected multiple Curtiss-Wright
duration. By selecting proven rugged SFF COTS-based systems. The LDUUV’s
COTS solutions, already tested and quali- mission computer processing is pro-
fied to the extreme demands of MIL-STD- vided by two Parvus DuraCOR 311
810G, MIL-STD-461, MIL-STD-704 and/ units, one of the smallest rugged mis-
or RTCA/DO-160G standards for envi- sion processors on the market. Network
ronmental, power, and EMI compliance, switch functionality is provided by a
UUV system developers have found that miniature “pocket-sized” Parvus Du-
they can greatly accelerate their program raNET 20-11 8-port Gigabit Ethernet
integration and reduce overall risk. switch, which weighs a mere half a
The Data Transport System 3-Slot (DTS3) is a
Another important concern for UUV rugged Network Attached Storage (NAS) file pound (0.23 kg). The fully managed
platforms is how to protect the critical server for use in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 10/100/1000Base-T switch provides car-
data that they capture during an ISR mis- (UAV), Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV), rier-grade network management to-
and Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance
sion. To protect sensitive data-at-rest (ISR) aircraft. Easily integrated into network cen- gether with IEEE-1588v2 precision tim-
(DAR), size, weight and power (SWaP) op- tric systems, the DTS3 is a turnkey, rugged net- ing capabilities. Both the mission
timized COTS solutions, such as Network work file server that houses three Removable computer and network switch were pre-
Memory Cartridges (RMC) that provide quick off-
Attached Storage (NAS) devices that sup- load of data. (Image: Curtiss-Wright Defense qualified to a very comprehensive range
port data encryption, can mitigate the Solutions) of MIL-STD-810, DO- 160, MIL-STD-

22 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
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Cov ToC
Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

704, and MIL-STD-461 tests for extreme


environmental and EMI conditions.
To protect the onboard mission data,
the platform developer required a NAS
device that could encrypt DAR to na-
tional standards using Government Off
the Shelf (GOTS) Type 1 devices or com-
mercial encryption methods able to meet
NSA guidelines. Hosting the Operating
System (OS) software for the LDUUV’s
embedded computers on a NAS server,
instead of on local media, would enable
the elimination of multiple Direct-At-
tached Storage (DAS) devices, which de-
livers the benefits of significantly reduc-
ing SWaP and simplifying maintenance
and future software upgrades.
The NAS device also needed to sup-
port NetBoot of network clients. The
combination of encryption and Net-
The Parvus DuraCOR 311 is an ultra-small form factor (USFF) rugged embedded computer/controller based Boot would ensure that the runtime
on a low-power, quad-core Intel Atom 3845 (Bay Trail-I) processor equipped with a rugged flash disk and software used to boot all of the plat-
PCIe-Mini Card I/O expansion slots. Featuring a fanless IP67 design with MIL-performance connectors and form’s embedded computers was secure.
extended temperature operation (-40 to +71°C), this miniature multi-core rugged Commercial Off the Shelf
(COTS) processor is an ideal ×86 mission computing solution for size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) Without encryption, if the UUV was
sensitive applications. (Image: Curtiss-Wright Defense Solutions) captured, the deployed software on
each module or system could be suscep-
tible to intrusion, potentially enabling
it to be reverse-engineered. By using a
single NAS server that encrypts all of its
data, the likelihood of malicious access
is eliminated or greatly reduced. The use
of NetBoot can limit the potential
points of intrusion to the single point of
an encrypted server protected with
higher levels of security.
To fulfill the LDUUV’s data storage
needs, the system developer selected a
Data Transport System 3-slot (DTS3)
COTS-based rugged NAS file server previ-
ously field-proven in mobile vehicles,
field ground stations, and aircraft. The
NAS features three high-density remov-
able memory cartridges (RMC) that en-
able data to be quickly off-loaded after a
mission. The RMC supports SSD memory
and features a 100,000-insertion cycle
connector that includes a SATA interface.
It enables Ethernet-based mission storage
from the mission computer’s clients and
other devices. Also, because the NAS sys-
tem supports PXE Booting, a form of Net-
BOOT, it enables the platform’s x86 net-
work clients to boot directly from the
The Parvus DuraNET 20-11 is an ultra-small form factor (SFF) rugged Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) 8- NAS instead of needing to boot from each
port Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) switch optimized for extremely demanding size, weight and power (SWaP) con- individual LRU.
strained vehicle and aircraft platforms exposed to harsh environmental and noisy electrical conditions (e.g.
high altitude, extreme shock and vibration, extended temperatures, humidity, dust and water exposure, With PXE Boot, multiple network
noisy EMI, and/or dirty power). (Image: Curtiss-Wright Defense Solutions) clients can be centrally managed and

24 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

• Precision Metal Stamping


(High and Low Volume)
• Welded & Mechanical Assemblies
• Complex CNC Machining
• Close Tolerance Grinding
• Tooling, Fixtures and Gages
• Laser Cutting and Welding
• Rapid Prototyping
Protecting the critical data a UUV has collected is a major concern should the platform fall into an adver-
sary’s hands. • Wire EDM

updated from a single location. For data sion. By using a modular, open architec-
security, the NAS appliance uses two ture COTS-based design, the system de-
separate hardware and software encryp- veloper “future proofed” the LDUUV’s
tion layers, meeting the program’s en- architecture, easing the need for any
cryption requirements. An AES-256 bit later integration of expanded mission
FIPS-certified ASIC encryptor on-board payloads as more sensors are inevitably
the NAS provides the first layer in the integrated onto the platform. Cost-ef-
form of hardware full disk encryption, fective processing, networking, and
while a FIPS certified AES-256 bit algo- storage LRUs are ideal for unmanned
rithm provides software full disk en- maritime platform use, ensuring that
cryption for the second layer. Because SWaP is reduced as much as possible,
this two-layer encryption approach fol- missions are optimized and critical data
lows the NSA’s guidelines set forth in is protected. Use of these types of small,
their DAR Capability Package it was able compact subsystems will help enable fu-
to meet the LDUUV system designer’s ture deployment of new capabilities by
DAR security requirements. naval forces for a multitude of potential
These SFF COTS systems delivered the UUV missions.
CPU performance needed to support This article was written by Mike South-
the LDUUV’s vehicle control and data worth, Product Manager, Small Form Fac-
processing, along with the fast network- tor Systems, Curtiss-Wright Defense Solu-
ing and specialized I/O interfaces tions (Ashburn, VA). For more information,
needed to support its current ISR mis- visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-502.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/695056-776

Cov ToC
Tech Briefs

Advancements Made to the Wingman Software-in-the-Loop


(SIL) Simulation: How to Operate the SIL
New features include the creation of virtual environments that match real-world gunnery test courses.
Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

T he US Army Research Labora-


tory (ARL), US Army Tank Auto-
motive Research Development and ANVEL
Robotic Sensor Data
RTK
(Teleop, Waypoint Plan, Etc.)
Mobility
(ROS) Operator
Engineering Center (TARDEC), Simulation Vehicle Commands Vehicle Status Map Data WMI
DCS Corp., and Naval Surface War-
fare Center Dahlgren Division Key
(NSWCDD) worked together to ad- Shared Vehicle Existing Software
Localization/
Environment Commander Connection
vance the capabilities of a software- Mesh
Transform
WMI Added From
Topics
in-the-loop (SIL) simulation envi- Jan-June 2017
ronment in support of the larger RWS Video Feed/ Shared Box Color Indicates
TARDEC–Wingman Joint Capabili- Target/Camera/RWS Data Target Data
Robotic
Shared Computer Hardware
Unity ARES
ties Technology Demonstration Gunner
Simulation Weapon Move/Fire Commands (ROS) Weapon/Target Commands
(JCTD). WMI
The Wingman program began in Robot Vehicle Localization Topics
fiscal year 2014 to provide robotic
H.264 Video Stream of Drive Cameras
technological advances and experi-
mentation to increase the au-
tonomous capabilities of manned Wingman SIL’s detailed software connections
and unmanned combat-support ve-
hicles. A major goal of this program as a ciency by delivering fire on target(s) ANVEL was developed as a simula-
whole is to advance manned–un- and qualifying under the Table VI qual- tion tool for studying robotic assets in
manned teaming initiatives by itera- ification guidelines on gunnery-target various environments with a variety
tively defining and decreasing the gap ranges as described in the US Army of sensors. Integration with the
between autonomous vehicle control Training and Doctrine Command’s RTK vehicle-mobility software was
and required level of human interac- Training Circular 3-20.31 (TRADOC achieved using ANVEL’s plugin inter-
tion. Outcomes of these joint research 2015). Future advancements from this face and supports rapid testing of cur-
efforts for development of this SIL sup- program foresee the single manned ve- rent and potential mobility capabili-
port the design of a robotic system user hicle working cooperatively with multi- ties with minimal integration effort.
interface and enhance communication ple unmanned vehicles supporting The Unity3D Game Engine was inte-
among manned–unmanned team mem- manned–unmanned teaming (MUM-T) grated into the SIL because it provides
bers, which are critical to achieve Train- initiatives in complex, uncertain envi- a customizable, realistic virtual envi-
ing and Doctrine Command 6+1-re- ronments. ronment that supports complex inter-
quired capabilities for robotics and The current software includes the Ro- actions with terrain and dynamic
autonomous systems. botic Technology Kernel (RTK) for au- events that stimulate the ARES sensors
The Army’s Robotic Wingman pro- tonomous mobility, the Autonomous (e.g., camera and LRF data), actuates
gram currently has a single manned Remote Engagement System (ARES) ARES output (e.g., weapon com-
M1151 High Mobility Multipurpose supporting the autonomous targeting mands), and simulates physical effects
Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) working and weapons systems control, and the such as wind effects and bullet fly-
with a single unmanned robotic Wingman’s Warfighter Machine Inter- outs. All software, including video
M1097 HMMWV operating in a joint face (WMI) providing individualized, output from the simulation systems,
gunnery task. The manned-vehicle customized interactive displays for the is used to update information on the
crew comprises a driver, commander, Wingman commander, robot-vehicle different WMI displays.
gunner (also responsible for target de- driver, and robot-vehicle gunner. The The combination of simulation soft-
tection and lasing for the unmanned accompanying figure provides a visual ware allowed the SIL to utilize the
vehicle), robot-vehicle operator to depiction of the detailed software con- strengths of each program without the
monitor or control mobility, and nections and required integration with need for developing additional capabili-
robot-vehicle gunner to monitor and two simulation systems: the Unity3d ties. ANVEL’s main strength lies in its
assist with target acquisition and fir- Game Engine and Quantum Signal’s Au- ability to accurately simulate the dy-
ing. Currently, the project’s main goal tonomous Navigation and Virtual Envi- namics of the robotic vehicle and all of
is to attain direct-fire weapon profi- ronment Laboratory (ANVEL). the robotic sensors in real time. Unity’s

26 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

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strength lies in its flexibility for adding ment. ANVEL’s physics simulation botic sensors and dynamics; hence, fed-
elements and scenarios to a scene, its would have required extensive modifi- eration was the ideal approach.
quality video rendering for target track- cations to add elements like weapon fire This work was done by Kristin E. Schae-
ing and acquisition, and its ability to in- and the Unity simulation and would fer, Ralph W. Brewer, E. Ray Pursel, Anthony
corporate dynamic and customizable have required developing or integrating Zimmermann, and Eduardo Cerame for the
interactions with the virtual environ- new systems to add the necessary ro- Army Research Laboratory. For more infor-
mation, download the Technical Sup-
port Package (free white paper) at
www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under
the Machinery & Automation category.
Power your ARL-0210

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T he advancement of robot capabili-


ties and functionality has changed
the way in which soldiers perform many
of their operational tasks. The various
unmanned air, ground, and submersible
vehicles currently deployed have signifi-
cantly impacted present-day warfare.
Although many of these systems
have shown to be beneficial and effec-
tive for mission success, traditional
control of these systems is through tele-
operation. While teleoperation may be
necessary and appropriate for situa-
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28 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-778 Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

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Tech Briefs

solution that takes advantage of cur-


rent robot sensing and intelligence
while reducing the cognitive demands Threats: 4
on the soldier, allowing robots to main-
tain awareness of the operational envi- Non-Threats: 2
ronment. However, the implementa- Crtical: 0
tion of autonomous robots within
human teams carries with it concern re-
garding human–robot interaction (HRI)
and, more specifically, human–robot
communication.
Moving beyond teleoperation, mili-
tary HRI has focused on integrating
multimodal communication (MMC)
methods that leverage the natural Example of a robot’s report showing its immediate environment is unsafe. In image format (left) 4 threats
ways in which human–human interac- are bounded in yellow boxes while text report (right) counts the total number of threats.
tion takes place and the commonly
employed functionality for human– In terms of benefits for signal-com- on the soldier’s ability to perform
computer interaction. In a general munication processing, MMC systems task critical operations is not well
sense, MMC is sending and/or receiv- are robust, flexible, efficient, intu- known. Therefore, systematic evalua-
ing information through multiple sen- itive, and redundant. While many tion of the components that comprise
sory systems (e.g., seeing text informa- robot systems are equipped with mul- the transactions between humans
tion that is also presented in an timodal interaction capabilities, the and robots and the way in which in-
audible format). impact of each communication type formation is conveyed is critical prior

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to the deployment of any system to orientation design cues associated with ements of visually displayed robot re-
the field. a visual display in a multimodal inter- ports provided adequate information
There were two major goals for this face to facilitate squad-level communi- about the situational context so the sol-
experiment. The first was to investigate cation within a dismounted soldier– dier could quickly determine the best
the effects on performance and opera- robot team. In particular, this goal course of action the robot should take
tor perception of various exogenous focused on determining whether the el- without being cognitively overloaded.
The second goal was to investigate sol-
diers’ preferences when it came to sta-
tus updates from a robot teammate
(e.g., reporting frequency and format).
Specifically, this aspect of the experi-
PRECISION CHEMICAL ment focused on understanding the re-
lationship between robot-reporting
ETCHING preferences, task performance, and situ-
ation awareness (SA) with a soldier pop-
ulation.
Delivering the best This work was done by Daniel J. Barber,
Julian Abich IV, Andrew B. Talone, Eliza-
photo-etched beth Phillips, and Florian Jentsch of the
metal components University of Central Florida; and Rodger
Pettitt and Linda R. Elliott for the Army Re-
search Laboratory. For more informa-
Print-to-prototype tion, download the Technical Support
Package (free white paper) at
part in 1 day! www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under
Machinery & Automation. ARL-0211

Custom and COTS


part fabrication Soft Robotic Fish
Swims Alongside
Over 35 Metals Used, including: Real Ones in Coral
Stainless Steel & Titanium
Reefs
Extended Temperature Resistance Parts
Massachusetts Institute of Techno-
Forming, Plating, Cleaning, & more logy, Cambridge, Massachusetts

team from MIT’s Computer Sci-


Technical Sales team ready to provide a Quote!
A ence and Artificial Intelligence
Laboratory (CSAIL) unveiled “SoFi,” a
soft robotic fish that can independ-
Visit www.fotofab.com for our FREE Design Guides! ently swim alongside real fish in the
ocean. During test dives in the Rain-
bow Reef in Fiji, SoFi swam at depths
of more than 50 feet for up to 40 min-
utes, nimbly handling currents and
taking high-resolution photos and
videos using a fisheye lens.
Using its undulating tail and the
ability to control its own buoyancy,
www.fotofab.com SoFi can swim in a straight line, turn,
(773) 463-6211 or dive up or down. The team also used
Fotofab, LLC.
sales@fotofab.com a waterproofed Super Nintendo con-
3758 W. Belmont Ave.
troller and developed a custom acous-
Chicago, IL 60618
tic communications system that en-

30 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-780 Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

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Tech Briefs
INTERCONNECT SOLUTIONS
FOR UNMANNED SYSTEMS

abled them to change SoFi’s speed and have it make specific


moves and turns.
Existing autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have tra-
ditionally been tethered to boats or powered by bulky and ex-
pensive propellers. In contrast, SoFi has a much simpler and
more lightweight setup, with a single camera, a motor, and
the same lithium polymer battery that’s found in consumer
smartphones. To make the robot swim, the motor pumps
water into two balloon-like chambers in the fish’s tail that op-
erate like a set of pistons in an engine. As one chamber ex-
pands, it bends and flexes to one side; when the actuators
push water to the other channel, that one bends and flexes in
the other direction. These alternating actions create a side-to-
side motion that mimics the movement of a real fish. By
changing its flow patterns, the hydraulic system enables dif-
ferent tail maneuvers that result in a range of swimming
speeds, with an average speed of about half a body length per
second.
The entire back half of the fish is made of silicone rubber
and flexible plastic, and several components are 3D-printed,
including the head, which holds all of the electronics. To re-
duce the chance of water leaking into the machinery, the
team filled the head with a small amount of baby oil, since
it’s a fluid that will not compress from pressure changes dur- LEMO’s interconnect
ing dives.
One of the biggest challenges was to get SoFi to swim at solutions for harsh
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Using its undulating tail and a unique ability to control its own buoyancy, SoFi
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DelPreto, MIT CSAIL)

Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-781 31

Cov ToC
Tech Briefs

just the pitch of the fish for up and The project is part of a larger body of have to worry quite as much about hav-
down diving. To adjust its position work at CSAIL focused on soft robots, ing to avoid collisions.
vertically, the robot has an adjustable which have the potential to be safer, The team feels that a robot like this
weight compartment and a buoyancy sturdier, and more nimble than their can help explore the reef more closely
control unit that can change its den- hard-bodied counterparts. Soft robots than current robots, both because it can
sity by compressing and decompress- are in many ways easier to control than get closer, more safely for the reef and
ing air. rigid robots, since researchers don’t because it can be better accepted by the
marine species.
For more information, contact
Adam Conner-Simons at 617-324-
9135, aconner@csail.mit.edu

GPS Enabled
Semi-Autonomous
Robot
Combining GPS signals with
acoustic and encoder data
gives a robot the ability to
determine its location and
orientation within a
reference frame.
Naval Postgraduate School,
Monterey, California

T he primary objective of this re-


search is to integrate GPS and local
sensory data to allow a robot to oper-
ate semi-autonomously outside of a
laboratory environment. The Pioneer
3-AT, a robust platform capable of op-
erating in the outdoors, is utilized in
this project. The P3-AT has acoustic
sensors that can calculate distances to
obstacles and encoders that calculate
how much each wheel has turned. In a
laboratory environment, sensory and
encoder information can be used to
triangulate position or measure dis-
tance and direction traveled from a
known starting point. Operating out-
doors limits the effectiveness of both
systems as the obstacles are not known
and wheels can often slip and slide on
different surfaces. This necessitates ex-
ternal data to determine the location
of the robot. GPS was chosen to pro-
vide that data. GPS, acoustic, and en-
coder data were integrated within
MATLAB and provided control signals
to the robot.

32 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-782 Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

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Tech Briefs

Additonal Monitor,
Keyboard, and Mouse

BU-353S4 GPS Receiver


Wireless Router and Access Point

SlimPro SP675P

Microsfot SurfacePRO

GPS-enhanced robot mobile test station

One of the core tenets of robotics is localization: the abil-


ity of a robot to determine its location and orientation
within a reference frame. Without knowing where it is in
space, a robot is useless. It will be unable to navigate to a
goal as it will not know in which direction to travel or even
whether to stop should it stumble upon the goal by chance.
In wheeled robotic platforms, localization is conducted
with encoders. Encoders measure how much each wheel
turns. From a known starting point, a robot’s position and
orientation can be calculated through this measurement;
however, localization based on encoders is susceptible to
error outside of a laboratory environment. In a natural en-
vironment, the robot’s wheels roll across various different
surfaces. Wheel slippage encountered when operating on
gravel, dirt, grass, or other mediums introduces localization
error. To operate effectively in such mediums, additional
information is required.
GPS is a 24-hour-a-day, all-weather navigation system. It
provides navigation information accurate to within a few
meters. By determining the goal in GPS coordinates and
utilizing a GPS receiver (BU-353S4) onboard the robot, we
see that the system can counter the encoder error and
achieve accurate outdoor navigation.
On its own GPS is not enough. At slow speeds GPS has
difficulty calculating directional change, and a refresh rate
of one Hz leaves time between updates for the robot to
move and not know where it is. By combining the two sys-
tems — GPS and encoders — the advantages of each are
used to counter the other’s weaknesses.
The design and testing of the control platform takes
place in three steps. First, the GPS signal provided by the
BU-353S4 is analyzed using a laptop computer as a test
platform. The mobility of the laptop computer is a require-
ment as there is no GPS signal within the laboratory. Once
the signal has been analyzed and a MATLAB platform has
been developed to extract the specific information needed
for this project from the signal as a whole, that platform is
transferred to the SlimPRO SP675P microcomputer

Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-783 33

Cov ToC
Tech Briefs

mounted on the P3-AT. The second comparing the user-defined goal and to make decisions and avoid obstacles
step in the process is to use the the robot's current position to deter- on its way to the goal.
SP575P to provide control inputs to mine the distance and direction be- The platform developed for this
the P3-AT and to demonstrate an abil- tween the two. Once the robot is able project provides a foundation for fu-
ity to navigate to a goal defined in to navigate to a goal, the third and ture research. Incorporating additional
GPS coordinates within an environ- final step is to implement potential sensory components such as a magne-
ment free of obstacles. This requires field path planning to allow the robot tometer or laser range finder creates a
robot capable of much more accurate
navigation and obstacle avoidance.
This work was done by Connor F. Bench

Innovation
for the Naval Postgraduate School. For
more information, download the
Technical Support Package (free white
That’s paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/
tsp under the Machinery & Automa-
Mobile. tion category. NPS-0003

Development of a
Vision-Based
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34 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-784 Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

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Tech Briefs

An autonomous navigation capability This research adopts a systems engineer- to identify the functions required for
needs to be incorporated into future ing approach for identifying the capa- the USV to perform autonomous navi-
USVs to fully exploit the advantages of bility gap in today’s USV and the factors gation. A computer vision–based tech-
operating them. To achieve this desired that drive the need for a USV with au- nique is used to implement one of the
outcome, the USV must have situa- tonomous navigation capability. A functions identified through the func-
tional awareness of its surroundings. functional decomposition is completed tional decomposition.
The algorithm, developed in MAT-
LAB, converts the video into individual
frames before enhancing them for fur-
ther processing. The images undergo
processing using edge detection and
morphological structuring techniques
before information is derived from the
processed images. The algorithm was
tested with images from color video
sources as well as infrared (IR) video
sources.
This work was done by Ying Jie Benjemin
Toh for the Naval Postgraduate School. For
more information, download the Tech-
nical Support Package (free white
paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp
under the Machinery & Automation
A prototype of the Republic of Singapore Navy’s MCM USV undergoing sea trials in Singapore. category. NPS-0004

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Application Briefs

Robotic Paint Removal System


Air Force Research Laboratory Three areas were of concern because this is a thermal process:
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH Cadmium embrittlement (the formation of intermetallics on
+1 937-255-0017 the material); thermal damage to the material itself; and thirdly,
www.wpafb.af.mil any relaxation of residual stress due to thermal effects.
Paint removal is a common maintenance procedure for

A FRL Materials Integrity engineers recently played a key


role in enabling the safer and more efficient removal of
paint from F-16 aircraft through the newly-adopted Robotic
military aircraft and is performed for a variety of reasons,
most notably for inspections and for repainting purposes.
Typically, it is performed manually, with maintenance
Laser Coating Removal System. crews applying a chemical solution, performing media
At the request of the Air Force Life Cycle Management Cen- blasting, or by meticulously scraping or sanding off the
ter Engineering Division, the research team, part of the Mate- paint. These procedures are time-consuming and create a
rials and Manufacturing Directorate, contributed technical ex- large amount of potentially hazardous waste material. It is
pertise in the form of test coupon analysis, test procedure also labor-intensive, requiring teams of maintainers
development and execution, and many forms of guidance and equipped with multiple types of safety gear.
consultation throughout a seven-year effort that completely The laser de-paint process is much safer, significantly re-
reimagined paint removal for certain types of metallic aircraft ducing the environmental hazards posed by chromium-
surfaces. Through this novel process, a laser-equipped robotic based paint products. The fully-automated process does
arm—mapped individually and specifically to each aircraft—is not require maintenance crews to be in the paint stripping
moved over the vehicle surface, essentially vaporizing paint area. And since the process is contained, waste is automat-
layer by layer. The process is completely contained, meaning ically removed to a collection area, requiring very little
all waste materials as well as potentially harmful chemicals are cleanup by human maintainers. As an added plus, the
vacuumed into the tool. A vision system recognizes when the process is also faster, saving significant labor hours and as-
stripping reaches the appropriate stopping point. sociated costs.
It’s a completely automated process that removes the di- Although not every surface material is suitable for laser
rect human element, both in terms of error and exposure. paint removal, the system is approved for use with specific
Instead, operators guide the effort from a computer console types of aluminum and graphite epoxy composites with a
in a nearby control room. service temperature greater than 350 degrees Fahrenheit.
Because the paint is removed with a laser, as opposed to These materials constitute the outer moldline of the F-16.
traditional mechanical or chemical methods, the AFRL team The system is currently being investigated for a number of
had to take into consideration a whole new set of factors other materials and air platforms as well, and AFRL will play
when developing test plans and evaluating the structural a continuing role in these efforts.
soundness of test specimens. For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-550

The newly-approved Robotic Laser Coating Removal System vaporizes paint in a self-contained process that significantly reduces environmental hazards to maintainers.
(Photo courtesy of University of Dayton Research Institute/Dale Jackson)

36 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
Application Briefs FLIGHT CRITICAL
MISSION VITAL
M E TA L C O M P O N E NTS
FO R A E ROS PAC E
Automated Flight System Software
Kittyhawk
San Francisco, CA
+1 415-598-7757
https://kittyhawk.io

K ittyhawk recently announced new features to its flight


system software platform. Kittyhawk is adding an auto-
mated flight system to its Flight Deck feature set to work in
conjunction with its recently released secure live streaming
feature.
The new automation features allow operators to plan mis-
sions in the Kittyhawk mobile application and then execute
the entire flight from takeoff to landing with unlimited way-
points. Like all Kittyhawk features, great care has been taken
to create a safe and useful user experience. The app has in-
corporated safety features to ensure that operators are not
able to initiate an automated
flight to a place beyond the range Our state-of-the-art U.S.
of the radio and drone – for exam-
manufacturing facilities
ple, like trying to launch a mis-
sion in California when you’re and engineering expertise
currently in New York. The Kitty- ensure fast delivery of the highest
hawk software uses the geoloca- quality parts time after time.
tion of the operator to show only
flights that are possible to com- Applications:
plete – avoiding potentially ex-
pensive and dangerous mistakes. • Instrumentation • Fuel Injection
Working in conjunction with • Suspension • Flight Controls
select enterprise customers, Kitty- • Interiors
• Landing Gear
hawk’s automated flight system • Airframes
is the perfect compliment to • Propulsion
their recently released multi-
channel secure live video and
audio streaming feature. For ex-
ample, a law enforcement cus- The newly-approved Robotic
tomer can set the drone to fly the Laser Coating Removal System
vaporizes paint in a self-con-
perimeter of a scene and their en- tained process that significant-
tire team can securely access a ly reduces environmental haz-
video feed right from their mo- ards to maintainers. (Photo
courtesy of the University of
bile devices and give audio feed- Dayton Research Institute/Dale
back to the operator in real time. Jackson)
A filmmaker can set a path per-
fectly parallel to a bridge and get that perfect shot with an
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These new features join the long list of pre-flight, in-
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Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-786 37

Cov ToC
Application Briefs

Series
360
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H arsh, wet and dusty environments pose serious reliability


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The unit is totally self-contained with the microprocessor,
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system is configurable based on required features and channel
count, including variable sampling rates up to 500k sps/chan-
nel. The 3-channel sensor input layers stack up to 24 chan-
nels, which can be daisy-chained for higher channel counts.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-551.

Predator Drone Application

Autonomous Helicopters
Northrop Grumman Corporation
Falls Church, VA
+1 703-280-2900
www.northropgrumman.com/firescout

F ire Scout is a combat proven, autonomous helicopter sys-


tem that provides real-time Intelligence, Surveillance, Re-
connaissance, and Target-acquisition (ISR&T), laser designa-
tion, and battle management to tactical users without relying
on manned aircraft or space-based assets. Fire Scout has the

38 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-788 Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
Application Briefs

ability to operate from any air-capable ship Grumman’s autonomous systems architec-
or land base in support of persistent ISR&T ture, Fire Scout meets customer require-
requirements. ments for a ship-based and land-based au-
There are two Fire Scout variants. The tonomous system. It also has the ability to
smaller MQ-8B Fire Scout has deployed on autonomously take-off and land on any avi-
multiple frigates and is currently deployed on ation-capable ship and from prepared and
a Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). MQ-8B Fire unprepared landing zones. This enhance-
Scout has also deployed to Afghanistan to ment significantly increases range and en-
support counter- improvised explosive device durance (more than double) and payload
(IED) operations. This system has completed capacity (more than triple).
more than 16,600 flight hours over 6,200 sor- The U.S. Navy and Northrop Grumman
ties. The Navy has integrated a multi-mode recently worked to enhance Fire Scout’s ca-
maritime radar on MQ-8B and tested an on- pability, concepts of operations (CONOPS)
board weapons capability, the Advanced Pre- and mission sets by demonstrating target-
cision Kill Weapon System (APKWS). The ing capabilities at-sea, over land, teaming
MQ-8B Fire Scout has also demonstrated the with manned assets, and integrating new
ability to operate concurrently with other technologies. For the first time, Fire
manned aircraft while operating at-sea. Scout’s manned/unmanned teaming
The MQ-8C Fire Scout is the Navy’s next (MUM-T) capabilities proved station-to-
generation autonomous helicopter. The MQ-8C Fire Scout (Photo by Northrop station hand offs of two Fire Scouts and
MQ-8C Fire Scout’s airframe is based on the Grumman) the ability to stream organic intelligence,
commercial Bell 407, a mature helicopter surveillance, reconnaissance and targeting
with more than 1,600 airframes produced and over 4.4 mil- (ISR&T) data to an Amphibious Readiness Group/Marine
lion flight hours. Combined with the maturity of Northrop Expeditionary Unit.

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-789 39

Cov ToC
Rod Ends and Application Briefs
Spherical
Bearings designed
and manufactured to
Aurora’s exacting
standards for quality
and durability. With a radar already integrated onto the MQ-8B, the U.S.
Navy has also started integrating an active, electronically
scanned array radar onto the MQ-8C. The addition of this ad-
vanced radar to the long range, longer endurance MQ-8C will
greatly enhance any surface action group’s ability to strike at
Registered and Certified distance and increase situational awareness over broad mar-
itime and littoral environments.
to ISO_9001 and AS9100. Another important milestone was achieved when the Fire
From economy commercial Scout payload, the AN/DVS-1 Coastal Battlefield Reconnais-
sance and Analysis (COBRA), airborne mine detection sys-
to aerospace approved, tem completed the first phase of its initial operational test
we’ve got it all! and evaluation. The alternate Fire Scout sensor payload can
detect beach zone mines in the daytime, provide reconnais-
sance for amphibious landing forces and provide precision
navigation to amphibious vehicles coming ashore. This en-
 hanced mission capability will enable the mine countermea-
sure variant of LCS to grow its mission capability.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-553.
Aurora Bearing Company
901 Aucutt Road
Montgomery IL. 60538

complete library of CAD drawings and 3D models available at:


Inertial Measurement Unit
w w w. a u r o r a b e a r i n g . c o m
Silicon Sensing Systems Ltd.
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-790
Plymouth, UK
+44 0 1752 723330
www.siliconsensing.com

S ilicon Sensing Systems Ltd’s latest DMU30 inertial meas-


urement unit (IMU) has been chosen to provide highly ac-
curate ship’s attitude data to the autopilot that will navigate
Optical Fiber and Cable Solutions for the ground-breaking Mayflower Autonomous Ship (MAS 400)
AEROSPACE & DEFENSE as it travels the world.
APPLICATIONS The mission of the MAS 400 project is to build an au-
tonomous vessel capable of conducting scientific research,
Optical Fibers, Fiber Optic Cables, Modules
with the endurance and reliability to operate remotely in
all corners of the globe. The vessel is to be powered by re-
newable energy and, where necessary, compliant with mar-
itime regulations. The vessel’s maiden voyage, unmanned,
across the Atlantic, will form part of Plymouth, England’s
‘Mayflower 400’ celebrations in 2020 - commemorating the

Avionics LIDAR Directed Sensing Navigation


Energy

Speak with the experts!


AUVSI XPONENTIAL, April 30 - May 3, Booth #1303

www.ofsoptics.com Artists impression of the MAS 400 autonomous ship. Inset is the new DMU30
IMU, which is just 68.5mm x 61.5mm x 65.5mm

40 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-791 Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
Application Briefs

400th anniversary of the crossing of tion, which took place in southern Is- with exceptional precision was also
the pilgrim fathers in the original rael late last year, proved the tracking demonstrated.
Mayflower from Plymouth UK to Ply- and lock-on capabilities of the system The Hero-400EC features a new elec-
mouth MA, USA. Having completed using a moving vehicle and a human tric motor that delivers high-speed
the crossing, MAS 400 will then go on target in various operational scenar- transit and low-speed loitering with
to travel around the globe. ios as well as its mission-abort capa- much lower acoustic and thermal sig-
Silicon Sensing’s DMU30 is the com- bilities. The ability to strike a target natures, thus improving stealth. The
pany’s latest high performance micro-
electro mechanical system (MEMS)
IMU and is designed for use where
there are exacting motion sensing re-
quirements, as with the MAS 400.
DMU30 is a full 6 degree of freedom
(DoF) IMU that uses the company’s
own gyros and accelerometers to cre-
ate a small, rugged, and cost-effective
unit that offers the high levels of per-
formance more typical of larger, heav-
ier and more costly fiber optic gyro
(FOG)-based devices.
A DMU30 unit has already been de-
livered to MSubs Ltd for use through-
out the trials for the MAS 400 vessel.
Driving the MAS 400 project is MAS
(Mayflower Autonomous Ship) Ltd, ‘a
not for profit company’ comprised of
MSubs Ltd, ProMare (a charitable re-
search foundation) and Plymouth Our misssion crit
itic
i al resistorss know
University. MSubs Ltd provides the
managerial organization while the no bound
no und
da
a
aries!
university provides the intellectual
horsepower, with the project a focus Our resistors have traveled near and far. They are
of undergraduate research. Shuttle- orbiting the Ear th aboard many satellites, driving
worth Design Ltd are designing the
on the surface of Mars aboard NASA’s rovers,
vessel and Qinetiq are providing the
technical expertise necessary to deal delivering spectacular photographs of the Pluto
with the challenges of controlling an system aboard New Horizons spacecraf t, and
autonomous vessel.
helping NASA’s Voyager 1 travel beyond our solar
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.
com/69506-554. system where no Ear th craf t has gone before.
More than 35 years and 20 billion kilometers...
Extended-Range Now tth
hat’s reliability.
Loitering System
UVision Air Ltd
State of the Art, Inc.
Zur Igal, Israel RESISTIVE PRODUC TS
+972 9 749 6823
www.uvisionuav.com

U Vision Air Ltd. — a company that


specializes in lethal aerial loiter-
ing systems of all sizes — has success-
fully demonstrated the Hero-400EC
extended-range loitering system for a
strategic customer. The demonstra- Made in th
the US
SA
A.
Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-793 41

Cov ToC
Application Briefs

unique aerodynamic cru-


ciform design delivers high
precision terminal engage-
ment accuracy against
static and moving targets
or targets in confined ur-
ban environments, thus
reducing collateral dam-
age.
The Hero-400EC is op-
timized for the loitering
munition role, where the
deployable wings allow
for any angle of attack,
and delivers missile-level
pinpoint strike capabili-
ties. The multi-purpose,
10kg warhead (tandem,
high explosive) allows
engagement of a broad
range of targets, includ-
ing fortified positions
and main battle tanks.
UVision Hero 400EC in action The system is 2.1 me-
ters in length, has a
wing-span (tip-to-tip) of 2.4 meters, and has a maximum
take-off weight of 40kg. The 400EC retains a stabilized
www.hunterproducts.com electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) payload, a line-of-sight
two-way data link with a range of 40 km-150 km, a man-
in-the-loop capability, and two-hour endurance. An ad-
vanced abort capability enables automatic reentry into
the loitering mode, mission reassignment or return to
the recovery area using a parachute. Operational altitude
is 18,000ft with loitering/transit speeds of 50-150kts.
Controlled by a single operator, the Hero-400EC can be
either rail-launched or launched from a modular multi-
tube canister that can be integrated on the user’s plat-
form of choice.
MICRO-METALLIZER PLATING PENS MIL & QQ The HERO family includes eight systems designed for as-
Standards GOLD 14K, 18K, 24K, SILVER, RHODIUM, sorted tasks at various ranges. HERO systems enable high-
PALLADIUM, NICKEL, COPPER, TIN, BLACK speed transit flight and low-speed loitering, depending on
NICKEL, AND CHROME COLOR PENS AVAILABLE. the tactical or strategic needs of the mission – handling
moving targets, moving light-duty vehicles, tanks, and
Environmentally friendly, these low-cost disposable applicators other strategic objectives. The HERO systems may be pro-
permit instantaneous selection from a variety of plating vided in the ISR configuration, enabling the use of the plat-
possibilities without the preparation of solutions. Specially form as a means for gathering intelligence – or as a missile,
formulated compounds and can be used for contact repair, enabling precision attacks on targets, using warheads of
prototype development work, electronic instrument repair, various types and weights.
medical instrument repair etc.
The HERO family can carry out pinpoint strikes in
urban areas or remote locations, with minimal collateral
+XQWHU3URGXFWV,QF damage. In cases where an attack is aborted, HERO sys-
3DUWULGJH'ULYH32%R[ tems can be recalled and another target selected. With
%ULGJHZDWHU1- extremely low noise and thermal signature, these systems
‡)D[ integrate highly advanced stabilized Electro-Optics
VDOHV#KXQWHUSURGXFWVFRP day/night cameras and are ideal for deployment from air,
land and sea.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-555

42 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-792 Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
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Sensor Systems New Products

for Commercial,
Space & Military
Applications
Rapid Deployment SIGINT Sensor
VStar Systems (San Diego, CA) announced the addi-
tion of a pod version of its MA-C SIGINT Sensor, the
MA-C MiniPod™. Two active high frequency (HF) an-
tennas allow for intercept and copy of land mobile ra-
dios from both direct Line of Sight (LOS) as well as
Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) signals for Be-
yond Line of Sight (BLOS) communication methods. The MA-C MiniPOD can be
installed on most standard airborne racks/missile launchers for integration on a
wide variety of platforms.
Features include signal demodulation and copy of 160 simultaneous analog
and digital channels, patent-pending buffered copy operation with over 100
buffered channels, and providing frequency coverage in the HF/VHF and UHF
bands. The MA-C MiniPod weighs only 40 lbs., allowing installation without any
support equipment. It also includes VStar’s proprietary AutoTune and SmartDF
Software Algorithms.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-510

Sensor Solutions for: Measurement Software


Laser Communication Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence (North Kingstown, RI) has launched
Fast Steering Mirrors PC-DMIS 2018 R1, the latest edition of their measurement software. PC-DMIS 2018
R1 allows users to easily convert AutoFeatures to points or quickly use the measured
Directed Energy hits for new Constructions and Dimensions, available for Plane, Circle, and Cylin-
Airborne Night Vision Systems der AutoFeatures. By converting each hit to a vector
point, Optimize Path can be used to enhance the
order of point measurement, reducing the number of
probe tip changes and overall measurement time.
New support for Q-DAS Traces enables easier analy-
sis of PC-DMIS data. The new QuickSet control allows
users to use both QuickFeature and GD&T Selection
and still have the ability to modify measurement
strategies. Enhanced speed of QuickFeature measurement enables users to create
multiple circles and cylinders with just one click, optimized for bolt hole patterns or
whenever surfaces contain multiple features of the same size and shape. The latest
edition also introduces improved Flush and Gap AutoFeature workflow for point
cloud inspection. INSPECT has also been improved to include CAD and LIVE views
from PC-DMIS and the ability to create Playlists including one or more routines to
be executed a specified number of times.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-521

Hands-Free Robotic Controls


Charles River Analytics Inc. (Cambridge, MA) has an-
nounced a follow-on contract to build a hands-free human-
For more information about machine interface (HMI) for the US Army. The Supervisory
our full line of products, HMI Enabling Practical Autonomous Robot Direction
(SHEPARD) effort fuses multiple proven robot control tech-
contact us today!
nologies to provide a natural and reliable hands-free HMI
for soldiers operating in diverse environments.
800-552-6267 Unmanned vehicles (UxVs) are vital to military operations, although their wide-
spread integration faces significant barriers. Most current UxV systems require active
measuring@kaman.com
remote control or teleoperation, where a commander orders a trained human oper-
kamansensors.com ator to control the robot to carry out a task. SHEPARD offers more natural and reli-
able communication so commanders can issue instructions directly to UxVs. The
hands-free HMI will combine speech and gestures to enable reliable command and
control of multiple unmanned vehicles. SHEPARD will use smart devices—like a
watch—for easy communication with military robots.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-515

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-805 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
New Products

Shielded
Surface
Mount RF
Inductors
Gowanda
Electronics
(Gowanda,
NY) has ex-
panded its SML32S series of wirewound,
shielded, molded RF surface mount in-
ductors in the “1210” style. This expan-
sion increases the number of individual
parts in the series by more than 20% and
broadens the inductance range by adding
values from 120 μH to 470 μH. The per-
formance range provided by the ex-
panded SML32S series includes induc-
tance from 0.1 μH to 470 μH, DCR ohms
max from 0.15 to 25 and current rating
mA DC from 91 to 1175. There are two
core types in the series (powdered iron
and ferrite). The series operating tempera-
ture range is -55°C to +125°C.
For Free Info Visit
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-794
http://info.hotims.com/69506-525

Hybrid Invar-Composite Molds


Ascent Aerospace (Santa Ana, CA) re-
cently introduced HyVarC®, a patent-
pending Hybrid InVar and Composite
mold. HyVarC com-
bines a thin Invar
backup structure
and facesheet with
a bonded, high-
temperature com-
posite working surface. The resulting tool
is 50% lighter with a 20% shorter lead-
time than a traditional Invar layup mold,
while maintaining the same superior vac-
uum integrity and dimensional precision.
At half the thickness of a traditional
Invar mold, the thin Invar backup struc-
ture takes less time to weld and manufac-
ture. It serves as both the master mold
and the deliverable mold, eliminating the
time and cost of creating a second com-
posite backup structure. The machined
composite working surface offers better
dimensional accuracy than net-mold
composite tooling, while the Invar struc-
ture provides vacuum integrity and dura-
bility. Thin Invar, and the resulting
lighter weight, is easier to handle when
transporting the tool within the facility.
For Free Info Visit
http://info.hotims.com/69506-520

Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-795 45

Cov ToC
New Products

Semi-Autonomous Software Robotic Gas Turbine Blade Polishing


Combat missions are a manual, coordi- AV&R Aerospace (Montreal, Quebec,
nated effort by operators and pilots using a Canada) has commercially launched its
combination of manned and unmanned ve- gas turbine blade’s robotic polishing so-
hicles, sensors, and electronic warfare sys- lution. This solution includes polishing
tems that rely on high-availability networks the gas turbine blade’s foil, platform, and
such as satellite communications and tacti- fillet radius, all according to customer
cal data links. When those networks are in- specified tolerances and surface finish re-
terrupted, it leaves warfighters with the in- quirements.
ability to effectively communicate and avoid threats during their missions. To solve Developed in
this challenge, BAE Systems (Nashua, NH) developed semi-autonomous software in the software
a category called Distributed Battle Management (DBM), which provides timely BrainWave,
and relevant information to operators and pilots when communication is not as- the system al-
sured, so they can better manage and control air-to-air and air-to-ground combat lows an oper-
in contested environments. ator with no
Anti-Access Real-time Mission Management System (ARMS) is a distributed adap- robot programming knowledge to cre-
tive planning and control software that provides near real-time mission capabilities ate parameters related to the robot path.
allowing warfighters to engage air-to-air and air-to-ground targets and search air- In addition, this software allows com-
space. Contested Network Environment Situational Understanding System (CON- plete offline programming.
SENSUS) is a distributed situational understanding software that provides pilots and Several options can be added to an
operators with weapon targeting guidance and mission awareness through a com- AV&R Aerospace polishing machine in-
mon operational picture by fusing raw data from multiple platforms and sensors. cluding: ultra-polishing, creating a
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-512 mirror surface finish; part cleaning
after the polishing operation; an inte-
grated dust collector; and automatic
tool changing.
For Free Info Visit
http://info.hotims.com/69506-513

3U VPX FMC+
FPGA Carrier
Abaco Systems
(Huntsville,
AL) announced
the VP889 high-per-
formance FPGA process-
ing board, which features Xil-
inx ®’s latest Ultrascale+™ device,
together with Zynq® Ultrascale+ tech-
nology for advanced security. The VP889
delivers a form, fit and function upgrade
for the VP881. With FMC+, the VP889
offers up to 300 Gbits/second digital se-
rial bandwidth to and from modular I/O
devices. The embedded Zynq ARM ®
Processor included on the VP889 elimi-
nates the need for a single board com-
puter in many systems, reducing system
size, cost, and power consumption.
The FMC+ site supports all Abaco FMC
cards as well as third party solutions that
comply with VITA 57. The VP889 can be
populated with I/O capable of greater than
5 GSPS data rate or modules with up to 16
channels per card.
For Free Info Visit
http://info.hotims.com/69506-527

46 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-796 Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
New Products

CAM Software High-Density 4U Chassis


OPEN MIND Technologies AG Mercury Systems, Inc. (Fre-
(Needham, MA) has introduced hy- mont, CA) has introduced
perMILL® 2018.1, a new version of HDslim, a new sub-rack form
its advanced, comprehensive CAM factor for its RES High Density
software. hyperMILL® 2018.1 has a (RES-HD) server product line.
range of new features and enhance- Less than ten inches wide and twenty
ments including greater blending inches deep, the first 4U HDslim chassis is now available.
capabilities, 3D-optimized roughing, global fitting, rotational Only 9.9" (25.1 cm) wide, 20" (52.6 cm) deep, and 4U (17.5
abilities for CAD electrode applications and totally new to the cm) high, the HDslim can be carried aboard commercial air-
industry — virtual machining simulation. liners. The system can be powered by two 1200W AC, two
New hyperMILL ® 2018.1 functionality includes an en- 1100W 48V DC, or two 800W 28V DC power supplies. Typical
hancement to the “soft overlap” feature for blending machin- system weight is 40lbs.
ing marks found between steep and flat areas, or located at the The system can accommodate up to 264 TB of storage
boundaries of rest machining regions. The 3D-optimized with 24 direct attached HDD/SSD drives. The HDslim also
roughing cycle has been enhanced for applications with high accommodates existing and upcoming rear I/O RES-HD
feed cutters. The step-over distance can be calculated from the modules. With six processor, storage, high-speed switch,
scallop height measured against the high feed cutter geome- global fabric extension, and system management modules,
try. A new “global fitting” feature can simplify the definition users can configure and reconfigure the system according to
of complex surfaces or patches of surfaces. hyperCAD®-S Elec- application needs. The unit is designed to operate from 0°C
trode automates the construction and manufacturing of elec- to +50°C, with greater temperature extremes available for
trodes for die-sinking. special configurations.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-519 For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69506-518

MULTIPHYSICS LEMOS FIBER OPTIC PRECISION


MODELING, ULTRA-WIDEBAND TIMING SIGNAL
SIMULATION, POWER AMPLIFIER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
APP DESIGN AND The Lemos PAT-HPA21G is a Liteway, Inc. offers a full line of fiber optic
DEPLOYMENT high performance, low noise, transmission systems deigned to transmit
ultra-wideband amplifier. Based precision timing signals including IRIG
SOFTWARE on GaN technology. Our ampli- modulated, IRIG unmodulated (DCLS),
COMSOL Multiphysics® is an integrated software envi- fier achieves high reliability IRIG Converters (modulated to/from
ronment for creating physics-based models and simula- and high efficiency in a very small form-factor. It’s DCLS), 5 MHz to 10 MHz precision
tion apps. Add-on products allow the simulation of elec- also lightweight which makes it suitable for a wide sine waves, distribution amplifiers and GPS NMEA/1
trical, mechanical, acoustic, fluid flow, thermal, and range of applications. We also offer CUSTOM pps systems and all are ready to operate immediately.
chemical applications. Interfacing tools enable its inte- options and RF Design Services. Please contact at All systems are designed and manufactured in the
gration with all major technical computing and CAD sales@lemosint.com or http://www.lemosint.com USA, are sold under the LuxLink® trademark and
tools. Simulation experts rely on COMSOL Server™ custom systems are available. Visit www.luxlink.com
product to deploy apps to their colleagues and cus- or call Liteway, Inc. at 1-516-931-2800.
tomers worldwide. https://www.comsol.com/products Lemos International Co. Inc.
COMSOL, Inc. Liteway, Inc.
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-797 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-798 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-799

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com 47

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Editorial Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Linda L. Bell
Advertiser Page Web Link
Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bruce A. Bennett Accurate Screw ............................................................2..........................................................www.accuratescrew.com
Digital Editorial Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Billy Hurley
AirBorn, Inc. ................................................................38 ....................................................................www.airborn.com
Associate Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Edward Brown
Arnold Magnetic Technologies ..............................39 ..................................................www.ArnoldMagnetics.com
Managing Editor, Tech Briefs TV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kendra Smith
Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Adam Santiago Atlantic Spring ............................................................37 ......................................www.mwaerospacesolutions.com
Assistant Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kevin Coltrinari Aurora Bearing Co. ....................................................40 ......................................................www.aurorabearing.com
Creative Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lois Erlacher Click Bond, Inc. ............................................................17 ........................................................www.clickbond.com/ad3
Senior Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ayinde Frederick COMSOL, Inc. ................................................................47, COV IV ......................................................www.comsol.com
Marketing Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Debora Rothwell
Cornell Dubilier ............................................................13 ..............................................................................cde.com/HHT
Digital Marketing Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kaitlyn Sommer
Create The Future Design Contest ........................43......................................www.createthefuturecontest.com
Audience Development Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stacey Nelson
Subscription Changes/Cancellations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ntb@kmpsgroup.com dSPACE, Inc. ..................................................................7 ........................................................................www.dspace.com
Electronic Concepts Inc. ..........................................1 ........................................................................www.ecicaps.com
TECH BRIEFS MEDIA GROUP, AN SAE INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901, New York, NY 10016
First Sensor AG ............................................................21 ..............................................................www.first-sensor.com
(212) 490-3999 FAX (646) 829-0800 Fluid Line Products, Inc. ..........................................45....................................................................www.fluidline.com
Chief Executive Officer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Domenic A. Mucchetti Fotofab............................................................................30......................................................................www.fotofab.com
Executive Vice-President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Luke Schnirring
G.R.A.S Sound & Vibration ........................................35 ..............................................................................www.gras.us
Technology Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oliver Rockwell
Gaia Converter US Inc. ..............................................28 ......................................................www.gaia-converter.com
Systems Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vlad Gladoun
Digital Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Howard Ng Gemstar Manufacturing............................................23 ............................................www.gemstarcases.com/LLRC
Digital Media Assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peter Weiland, Md Jaliluzzaman Herber Aircraft Service, Inc. ..................................45........................................................www.herberaircraft.com
Credit/Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Felecia Lahey Hunter Products Inc. ................................................42 ....................................................www.hunterproducts.com
Accounting/Human Resources Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sylvia Bonilla Infinite Electronics/Milestek....................................11................................................................................MilesTek.com
Accounts Receivable Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nicholas Rivera
Irwin Car & Equipment ..............................................10 ..............................................................................irwincar.com
Office Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Alfredo Vasquez
John Evans’ Sons, Inc. ..............................................33................................................................springcompany.com
ADVERTISING ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES Kaman Precison Products, Inc. ..............................44..................................................................kamansensors.com
MA, NH, ME, VT, RI, Eastern Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ed Marecki LEMO U.S.A., Inc. ..........................................................31 ..........................................................................www.lemo.com
(401) 351-0274 Lemos International Co., Inc. ................................47 ..................................................................www.lemosint.com
CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stan Greenfield
Liteway Inc. ..................................................................47 ......................................................................www.luxlink.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(203) 938-2418
Lyons Tool & Die Co. ..................................................25 ........................................................................www.Lyons.com
NJ, PA, DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John Murray
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4685
Master Bond Inc. ........................................................47............................................................www.masterbond.com
Southeast, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ray Tompkins maxon precision motors, inc. ................................32....................................................www.maxonmotorusa.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(281) 313-1004 Mercury Systems ........................................................34..................................................................tms.mrcy.com/mini
NY, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ryan Beckman Michigan Economic Development
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(973) 409-4687 Corporation ..................................................................5 ..............................michiganbusiness.org/pure-aerospace
MI, IN, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris Kennedy MPL ..................................................................................38 ................................................................................www.mpl.ch
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(847) 498-4520 ext. 3008 New England Wire Technologies ............................COV III ......................................................newenglandwire.com
MN, ND, SD, IL, KY, MO, KS, IA, NE, Central Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bob Casey
OFS ..................................................................................40..................................................................www.ofsoptics.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(847) 223-5225
Pelican Products, Inc. ..............................................8, 9..............................................................pelican.com/custom
Northwest, N. Calif., Western Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Craig Pitcher
(408) 778-0300 PI (Physik Instrumente) LP ......................................46............................................................................www.pi-usa.us
S. Calif., AZ, NM, Rocky Mountain States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tim Powers PTI Engineered Plastics, Inc. ..................................3 ................................................................................teampti.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(424) 247-9207 S.I. Tech ..........................................................................47 ........................................http://www.sitech-bitdriver.com
Europe — Central & Eastern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sven Anacker Sierra-Olympic Technologies, Inc. ........................29 ........................................................www.sierraolympic.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-202-27169-11
State of the Art, Inc. ..................................................41......................................................................www.resistor.com
Joseph Heeg
The Lee Company........................................................15....................................................................www.theleeco.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-621-841-5702
Europe — Western . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris Shaw THK America ................................................................27..............................................................................www.thk.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44-1270-522130 Universal Robots USA, Inc. ......................................16 ......................................................................urrobots.com/ATI
Integrated Media Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Patrick Harvey W.L Gore & Associates................................................COV II..........................................www.gore.com/GORE-FLIGHT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4686 WinSystems, Inc. ........................................................19 ..............................................................www.winsystems.com
Angelo Danza
Aerospace & Defense Technology, ISSN 2472-2081, USPS 018-120. Periodicals postage paid at
(973) 874-0271
New York, NY and at additional mailing offices. Copyright © 2018 in U.S. is published in
Scott Williams February, April, May, June, August, September, October, and December (8 issues) by Tech
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Reprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jill Kaletha
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(219) 878-6068
May 2018, Volume 3, Number 3

48 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2018

Cov ToC
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-769

Cov ToC
Overcome antenna crosstalk
issues with simulation.

Visualization of the electric field norm and 3D far field due to a transmitting
antenna. Antennas are intentionally large in this tutorial model.

Multiple antennas are needed to create more complex


communication systems on airplanes. But this arrangement of
transmitters and receivers can cause aircraft operation issues
due to crosstalk, or cosite interference. Simulation helps you
analyze the crosstalk effect on an aircraft and in turn find the
best antenna placement.
The COMSOL Multiphysics® software is used for simulating
designs, devices, and processes in all fields of engineering,
manufacturing, and scientific research. See how you can apply
it to antenna simulation.
comsol.blog/antenna-crosstalk

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69506-802

Cov ToC