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Food Sci. Biotechnol.

19(2): 449-455 (2010)

DOI 10.1007/s10068-010-0063-5

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Development of Banana Peel Jelly and Its Antioxidant and Textural


Properties
Eun-Hye Lee, Hye-Jung Yeom, Mi-Sun Ha, and Dong-Ho Bae

Received: 28 September 2009 / Revised: 4 December 2009 / Accepted: 6 December 2009 / Published Online: 30 April 2010
© KoSFoST and Springer 2010

Abstract The principal objectives of this study were to antioxidants (1), which are rich in compounds with free
develop a functional jelly product that possesses radical scavenging activity. Fruit peels harbor a fairly large
antioxidant activity and contains dietary fiber, utilizing quantity of non-nutritional antioxidants, including flavonoids,
banana peel, a common banana byproduct, and to evaluate flavones, and polyphenols (2). Flavonoids, a large group of
its physicochemical and antioxidant properties to verify the plant phenolics, function as natural antioxidants (3).
maintenance of its antioxidant property even after cooking Phenolic compounds, including phenolic acid and flavonoids,
for jelly-production. The jelly was produced under the have been previously recognized for their health-related
identical conditions of cooking time, temperature, and properties, which include anticancer, antiviral, and antioxidant
sugar contents with ordinary jellies, except the addition of activities (4).
banana peel powder (BPP). The hardness, chewiness, and Banana peel is an underutilized source of phenolic
springiness of the produced jellies increased with addition compounds. The peel accounts for 40% of the total weight
of supplementary banana peel powder. Antioxidant of fresh bananas or plantains (5), and these peels are
activities of BPP and the produced banana peel jellies were currently either used as fertilizer or discarded in many
compared through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) countries (6). According to the criteria established by the
assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo thiazoline, 6-sulphonic National Cancer Standard Institute (7), banana peel extract
acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging test, and nitrite scavenging is classified as non-toxic to normal human cells; therefore,
activity assay. The antioxidant activities also remained in it can be safely utilized as a natural source of antioxidants.
the jelly after cooking during jelly production. The textural Additionally, the dietary fiber and pectin contents of
properties, the contents of total dietary fiber, phenolics, and banana peels are higher than those of other fruit peels in all
flavonoids, and the antioxidant activities of the jellies were stages of maturity (8). High dietary fiber content of banana
correlated positively with the amount of BPP added for the peels (50% of banana peel) makes them promising for a
jellies. variety of applications in the health-care food industry.
Although the banana peel harbors sizeable quantities of
Keywords: banana peel, jelly, phenolic, antioxidant phenolics and dietary fiber, it is only very rarely consumed
activity, textural property as a food ingredient, due to its poor flavor and texture.
However, banana peels are also rich in pectins (9-22%) (8);
therefore, it may be possible to produce jelly without the
Introduction incorporation of any gel additives. Jelly is a favorite dessert
among all age groups, owing primarily to its digestibility
The peels of a variety of plants and fruits are currently the and good texture. Since Korean Food & Drug Administration
focus of a great deal of attention as a natural source of (KFDA) expanded legal shapes of health-care foods in
2008, consumer’s taste needs to be considered in the
Eun-Hye Lee, Hye-Jung Yeom, Mi-Sun Ha, Dong-Ho Bae ( ) production of health-care foods.
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul Therefore, the principal objectives of this study were to
143-701, Korea develop a functional jelly product that possesses
Tel: +82-2-450-3756; Fax: +82-2-456-7011
E-mail: donghoya@konkuk.ac.kr antioxidative activity and contains dietary fiber, utilizing
450 E. -H. Lee et al.

banana peel, a common banana byproduct, and to evaluate


its physicochemical and antioxidant properties to verify the
maintenance of the antioxidant properties after jelly
production.

Materials and Methods

Preparation of banana peel powder (BPP) and jelly


Bananas in the yellow-green stage of ripening, which were
imported from the Philippines by the Dole Co. were
purchased from a local market. The bananas were washed
3 times with fruit detergent. The banana peels were then
freeze-dried (Eyela FD-1,000; Rikakika Co., Tokyo, Japan)
for 48 hr, and ground with a commercial grinder (FM-
909T; Hanil Co., Seoul, Korea) into 60 mess size and
stored at −18ºC in airtight polypropylene plastic containers
for a week.
The jelly formulation consisted of 80 g of sugar, 1 g of
citric acid, and BPP (10-30 g). Distilled water (60 mL) was
added to the BPP and warmed up to 80ºC in a water bath
for 10 min to extract pectins (Fig. 1). Sugar previously
dissolved in boiling water with citric acid was added to the
BPP dispersion (pectin extract) after 20 min of heating at Fig. 1. Flow diagrams for production of banana peel powder
121ºC. The dispersion was then heated again for jelly.
approximately 30 min at 80ºC. In order to obtain a
desirable gel consistency, the end point was judged as the jellies (width 1 cm, length 2 cm, and thickness 1 cm) were
point at which the total soluble solids of the viscous compressed by 6 mm with a crosshead speed of 20 mm/
dispersion reached 72ºBx, as determined by a hand min. Each test was replicated 5 times.
refractometer (N3; Atago, Tokyo, Japan). The dispersion
was then poured into a rectangular mold (1.5 × 2.5 cm) and Preparation of extracts for phenolics and antioxidant
cooled for 48 hr at room temperature to produce a jelly. assays The BPP and jelly (2 g) were weighed and extracted
The produced jelly was then freeze-dried, subsequently twice at room temperature with continuous stirring for 1 hr,
ground into a fine powder using a grinder to a size of 60 respectively; first with 100 mL of a methanol: water
mess, and stored at −18ºC in an airtight polypropylene mixture (80:20 v/v), and next, with 100 mL of an acetone:
plastic container for analysis. water mixture (70:30 v/v) with intermittent centrifugation
(4,000 × g, 15 min). The supernatants were transferred into
Proximate analysis and determination of pectin and volumetric flasks and 80% methanol was added to the
dietary fiber contents The BPP and jelly samples were samples to a total volume of 200 mL. According to Keinanen
analyzed for moisture (method 925.09), crude protein (11), this extraction method enables the collection of a
(method 950.48), crude fat (method 969.24), and ash broad range of phenols, including: simple phenols,
(method 923.03) using AOAC methods (9). Available flavonoid glycosides, procyanidins, and certain oligomeric
carbohydrates were calculated as 100% (% of moisture+ and polymeric proanthocyanidins from diverse sample
ash+fat+protein+crude fiber). types.
The total pectin content was determined via the method
of Yu et al. (10). Determinations of total phenolics and total flavonoids
Dietary fiber content (method 991.42) was determined contents The total phenolic contents of the sample were
via an enzymatic-gravimetric method (9). assessed via the Folin-Ciocalteu method (12). A solution
containing 1 mL of extract or standard solution of gallic
Determination of texture properties Texture profile of acid (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was mixed with
the developed jelly was analyzed with a texture analyzer 1 mL of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (Merck Co., Darmstadt,
(TA plus; Lloyd Instruments, Segensworth East, Fareham, Germany). After 3 min, 10 mL of 7% sodium carbonate
England). The test involved a 2-cycle compression. The solution was added to the mixture. The mixture was