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14.4 The Law of Cosines.

Chapter 13
FUNCTIONS 15.1 Terms.
13.1 Trigonometry. 15.2 Vector Representation.
13.2 Ratios in Similar 15.3 Equality of Vectors.
Triangles. 15.4 Vector
13.3 Definitions from Addition—Graphical or
Triangle Ratios. Geometrical Method.
13.4 Definitions from 15.5 Vector
Coordinates. Addition—Analytical
13.5 Trigonometric Tables. Method.
13.6 Trigonometric 15.6 The Negative of a
Functions of Special Vector.
Angles. 15.7 Subtraction of Vectors.
13.7 Calculating 15.8 Vector Resolution or
Trigonometric Functions Decomposition.
with a Calculator. 15.9 Relationships Between
13.8 Cofunctions. a Vector and Its
13.9 Signs of Trigonometric Components.
Functions. 15.10 The Components of
13.10 Trigonometric Vector Sums.
Identities. 10.11 Vector Sum from
Chapter 14 SOLUTION OF
14.1 Right Triangles—One MEASURE
Known Side and One 16.1 Definition.
Known Acute Angle. 16.2 Basic Equation.
14.2 Right Triangles—Two 16.3 Relationship Between
Known Sides. the Radian and Degree
14.3 The Law of Sines. Measures.

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16.4 Evaluating Concepts.

Trigonometric Functions of
an Angle Using a Chapter 18 NUMBERING
Calculator. SYSTEMS
16.5 Angular Speed. 18.1 The Binary, Octal, and
16.6 Angular Velocity. Hexadecimal Systems.
16.7 Angular and Linear 18.2 Numerical Values in a
Speeds. Positional Systems and
16.8 Trigonometric Their Decimal Equivalents.
Functions of Small Angles. 18.3 Conversion of Decimal
16.9 Applications. Number to Other Bases.
16.10 Periodicity. 18.4 Conversion Between
Hexadecimal and Binary
16.11 Graphs of and
18.5 Rules for Forming
16.12 Graph of .
Numbers in Any System.
16.13 Graphs of Other
Trigonometric Functions. Chapter 19 ARITHMETIC
Chapter 17 CONIC
19.1 Review of Basic
17.1 The Ellipse—Basic
Concepts of Arithmetic.
19.2 Addition and
12.2 How to Draw an
Subtraction of Binary
17.3 How to Determine a
19.3 Addition and
Tangent to an Ellipse.
Subtraction of
17.4 The Circle.
Hexadecimal Numbers.
17.5 The Parabola—Basic
19.4 Representing
Nonnegative Integers in a
17.6 Focusing Property of a
19.5 Computer Addition.
17.7 The Hyperbola—Basic
19.6 Representing Negative

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Integer Numbers in a Events.

Computer. 21.7 Conditional
19.7 The Sign-Magnitude. Probability.
19.8 One’s Complement.
19.9 Two’s Complement. Chapter 22 STATISTICS
19.10 Multiplication and 22.1 Descriptive Versus
Division of Binary Inferential Statistics.
Numbers. 22.2 Population and
Samples. Parameters and
Chapter 20 COUNTING Statistics.
METHODS 22.3 Quantitative and
20.1 Fundamental Counting Qualitative Data.
Principle. 22.4 Frequency
20.2 Factorial of a Number. Distributions and
20.3 Permutations. Graphical Representation
20.4 Arrangements with of the Data.
Duplicate Elements. 22.5 Bar Charts.
20.5 Circular Permutations. 22.6 Pie Charts.
20.6 Combinations 22.7 Frequency Distribution
of Large Data Sets.
Chapter 21 PROBABILITY 22.8 Determining the Class
21.1 Probability and Sample 22.9 Class Relative
Spaces. Frequency.
21.2 Probability of Success 22.10 Cumulative
and Failure. Frequency.
21.3 Odds. 22.11 Histograms.
21.4 Probability of 22.12 Measurements of
Independent and Central Tendency.
Dependent Events. 22.13 Average or Arithmetic
21.5 Probability of Exclusive Mean.
Events. 22.14 Weighted Mean.
21.6 Probability of Inclusive

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22.15 Median. Areas under the Standard

22.16 Mode. Normal Curve from 0 to z.
22.17 Measures of Hewlett-Packard Graphing
Dispersion. Calculator 386.
22.18 Sample Range. Texas Instrument Graphing
22.19 Variance Calculator TI-82.
22.20 Standard Deviation.
22.21 Random Variable. INDEX
22.22 Normal Distribution.
22.23 Empirical Rule.
22.24 Converting Values
into Standard Units.
22.25 Finding Areas Under
the Normal Curve.

Mathematical Symbols.
Metric Unit Prefixes.
Mathematical Constants.
Greek Alphabet.
Squares and Square Roots.
Common Logarithms.
Natural Trigonometric
Units and Conversion
Miscellaneous Useful
Formula Summary.
Binomial Theorem.
Physical Constants.
Astronomical Constants.

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extended so that the digits

represent tenths, hundredths,
thousandths, etc. A number with
Chapter 1 one or more digits beyond the
units place is called a decimal
Decimal fraction or simply a decimal. The
Fractions integer digits are separated from
the decimal digits by a period
called the decimal point.
The Meaning of Decimals
A number which has digits
on both sides of the decimal
1.1 THE point is called a mixed decimal.
DECIMAL EXAMPLE 1.1. The number
SYSTEM 528.35 means

Our number system is called .

the decimal system because it is
based on the number 10. 1.3 POSITION
The value of a digit in a DIAGRAM
number depends on its position.
For example, in 528 the digit 5
has a value of 500 or 5 × 100; the DECIMALS
digit 2 stands for 20 or 2 × 10.
The positional values of
1.2 DECIMAL some of the digits in the decimal
system are shown in Fig. 1-1.
The positional system of
writing numbers can be

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Fig. 1-1. Positional values in the decimal point. The decimal

the decimal system point is read as “and”. Then read
the digits after the decimal point
1.4 and add the place name of the
last digit.
EXAMPLE 1.2. 273.16 is read
E OF as two hundred seventy-three
DECIMAL and sixteen hundredths.

FRACTIONS EXAMPLE 1.3. 1.609 is read as

one and six hundred nine
Calculations are greatly thousandths.
simplified by the use of decimal
If the decimal has no
fractions. Scientists use the
integral part, then read the digits
metric system, which is decimal,
after the decimal and add the
and it is very likely that this
place name of the last digit.
system will become universal.
EXAMPLE 1.4. 0.39 is read as
Reading and Writing
thirty-nine hundredths.
EXAMPLE 1.5. 0.00245 is read
1.5 READING as two hundred forty-five one
To read a mixed decimal,
first read the part to the left of

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real numbers obey the three

1.6 WRITING basic laws of arithmetic.
I. Commutative laws
II. Associative laws
The writing of decimal
numbers is based on the EXAMPLE 1.9.
knowledge of the positional
value of the digits as shown in
Fig. 1-1.
III. Distributive laws
EXAMPLE 1.6. Expressed in
decimal form, the number thirty-
seven and four tenths is 37.4.

EXAMPLE 1.7. Expressed in

decimal form, the number four
hundred twenty-five and
seventy-three thousandths is

Operations with Decimals


Decimal numbers like all

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