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SOIL MECHANICS

Compressibility of Soil
Introduction
 Stress increase due to structures causes settlement in soil
 Deformation of soil particles
 Relocation of soil particles
 Expulsion of water or air from voids

 Total Settlement
 Elastic settlement
 Primary Consolidation Settlement
 Secondary Consolidation Settlement

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Introduction
 1. Elastic settlement (or immediate settlement), which is caused by
the elastic deformation of dry soil and of moist and saturated
soils without any change in the moisture content.

 2. Primary consolidation settlement, which is the result of a


volume change in saturated cohesive soils because of expulsion
of the water that occupies the void spaces.

 3. Secondary consolidation settlement, which is observed in


saturated cohesive soils and organic soil and is the result of the
plastic adjustment of soil fabrics.

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Elastic Settlement
 Flexible and Rigid Foundations on Saturated Clay

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Elastic Settlement
 Flexible and Rigid Foundations on Saturated Sand

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Elastic Settlement

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Elastic Settlement

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Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Braja M. Das

© 2010 Cengage Learning


8
Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Braja M. Das

© 2010 Cengage Learning


9
Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Braja M. Das

© 2010 Cengage Learning


10
Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Braja M. Das

© 2010 Cengage Learning


11
Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Braja M. Das

© 2010 Cengage Learning


12
Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Braja M. Das

© 2010 Cengage Learning


13
Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Braja M. Das

© 2010 Cengage Learning


14
Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
Example

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Primary Consolidation Settlement

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Primary Consolidation Settlement

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One Dimensional Consolidation Test

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One Dimensional Consolidation Test

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One Dimensional Consolidation Test
 Oedometer Test

 Sample dimensions: 64mm diameter and 25mm height

 Apply load axially and monitor vertical deformation

 Each load increment is placed typically for 24 hrs.

 Load is usually doubled for each increment

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One Dimensional Consolidation Test
Time-Displacement Plots Void ratio – Pressure plots

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One Dimensional Consolidation Test
 Void ratio – Pressure plots/e vs log p plots

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One Dimensional Consolidation Test
 Void ratio – Pressure plots/e vs log p plots

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One Dimensional Consolidation Test
 Void ratio – Pressure plots/e vs log p plots

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Maxima presion efectiva
e vs log P Curve pasada (para d): Presion de
Preconsolidacion

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Normally and Overconsolidated Clays

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One-
Dimensional
Laboratory
Consolidation
Test
NC and OC Clays

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One-Dimensional Laboratory
Consolidation Test

Cc : compression index

Cs is referred to as the swell index


Consolidation Settlement

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Case 1: Consolidation of NC Clay

For NC Clays
Consolidation Settlement
 OC Clays

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Compression Index, Cc
 Skempton (1944)

 Rendon-Herrero (1983)

 Nagaraj and Murthy (1985)

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Compression Index, Cc

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Swell Index (Cs)

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Secondary Consolidation Settlement
 Secondary Compression Index, Cα

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Consolidación Unidimensional:
Consolidación Unidimensional

Condiciones iniciales y de frontera:


Trayectoria de dreanaje
Consolidación Unidimensional
Consolidación Unidimensional
Consolidación Unidimensional
One-Dimensional Laboratory Consolidation
Test
Initial compression is caused by the
soil’s elastic response.

Primary consolidation settlement is


caused by dissipation of the excess
pore pressure.

Secondary compression is caused by


the time-dependent deformation
behavior of soil particles.
Coeficiente de
consolidación, cv