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## 8.1 Discovery Lab: Gas Laws

Purpose
To discover the relationships between temperature, pressure, volume and how they influence gas
laws.

As you complete the following experiments try to determine the relationships between two of the
following: temperature, pressure, and volume. Do not worry about getting everything right just
make observations and be able to explain your decisions. You have about five minutes for each
station.

Materials
 Erlenmeyer flask Safety Precautions
 Balloon  Do not eat or drink anything in the lab
 Syringe  Wear eye protection
 Marshmallow  Be VERY careful with the hot plates
 Soda Can and the boiling water!
 Hot Plate

Experiments

Balloon Station

Procedure Observations
Add about 20mL of water to a 125mL
Erlenmeyer flask. Place a small balloon over
the opening of the flask and place the flask on
the hot plate until the water boils. When the
balloon performs its trick, remove flask WITH
Balloon filled with air
TONGS soon after so that you do not get
scalded with hot water!

a) What happens to the balloon? The balloon filled with air when the flask was heated.

b) Circle the variables you are dealing with: temperature pressure volume
c) Complete these phrases:
As Pressure _____increases__ Temperature ____increases____ (increases or
decreases).→ Directly Proportionate
As Temperature ___increases_____ Volume ___increases___ (increases or decreases).
→Directly Proportionate
d) Mark the above relationships as inversely or directly proportionate.

Marshmallow Station

Procedure Observations
Place a marshmallow in a syringe. Push and
pull the syringe while sealing the end of the Include a picture.
syringe by putting your finger on it. Observe Pushed= wrinkly marshmallow
what happens to the marshmallow. Pulled= puffed up marshmallow

a) When I push the syringe, the marshmallow the marshmallow shrinked (like a raisin).
b) When I pull the syringe, the marshmallow the marshmallow expanded.
c) Circle the variables you are dealing with: temperature pressure volume
d) Complete this phrase: As Pressure ____increases__ Volume __decreases__ (increases or
decreases).
e) The relationship between these variables is _inversely_ proportionate. (inversely/directly)

## Soda Can Station

Procedure Observations
Add a small amount of water to the soda can
and place it on a hot plate until the water is
The water in the can boiled.
boiling. Then place the tongs firmly around the
When it was turned over into the ice tub, the
can and quickly flip it into the ice water
can was crushed.
bucket.

## a) What happened to the can? The can was crushed.

b) Circle the variables you are dealing with: temperature pressure volume
c) Complete these phrases:
As Pressure _increases_ Volume _decreases__ (increases or decreases).→ INVERSELY
As Temperature _increases_ Volume _increases_ (increases or decreases).→DIRECT
As Pressure _increases_ Temperature _increases_ (increases or decreases).→ DIRECT

## Observe the following experimental data concerning a container of gas.

The data was obtained by making measurements of the pressure, volume and temperature of a
sample of a gas. Several different kinds of gases were used and all had identical results. The
variable that was not changed was the amount of gas present. The number of moles of gas
always remained the same during these trials.
Trial Pressure (P) Units: Volume (V) Units: L Temperature (T)
kPa (kilopascals) (liters) Units: K (Kelvin)
A 120 3.2 324.3
B 135 2.5 285.0
C 195 2.3 378.7
D 150 2.0 254.4
E 135 4.2 480.8
F 100 3.0 254.4
G 225 3.2 608.0
H 262 2.8 620.4

1. Verify that this equation is true when the volume is unchanged: P1/T1 = P2/T2
(Hint: You must use two sets of data where the volume does not change. I.E. Trial A and G. In the equation,
subscript 1 refers to the pressure and temperature for the first trial you select and the subscript 2 refers to the
pressure and temperature for the second trial you select.)

2. Scientists often look for relationships between variables. If you want to see how the
volume and pressure are related you would need to compare data from different trials
when the temperature does not change. Why?
If you are changing three variables at the same time it is impossible to compare two variables.
You cannot analyze the cause and effect between pressure and volume if temperature is also a
factor. How would you be able to tell what caused the change?

3. Find two sets of data in the table that have constant temperature. Which of the following
mathematical relationships is true (there may be more than one) when the temperature
remains unchanged? This relationship is known as “Boyle’s Law,” named after the
person that first discovered it.
a. P1/V1 = P2/V2

b. (P1)(V1) = (P2)(V2)
c. P1 + V1 = P2 + V2
d. P1/P2 = V1/V2
4. At constant pressure, which of the following equations is/are true? This relationship is
known as “Charles’s Law,” named after the person who first discovered it.
a. V1/T1 = V2/T2

b. (T1)(V1) = (T2)(V2)

c. P1 + V1 = P2 – V2

5. Complete the following. You may want to consider the equations from your last three questions.

## c. At constant pressure, as the temperature increases, the volume always _increases_.

6. If the volume was not constant, is the statement in 5a always true? Justify your answer
by citing experimental data from the data table.

No. If the volume was not constant, then no, pressure would remain the same and volume would
increase.
7. If the temperature or pressure is not constant are your statements in 5b and 5c correct?

No. If the temperature or pressure are not held constant than the other two variables cannot be
directly compared because there are too many factors influencing the changes making it
impossible to tell which is causing the change.

8. Would the equations you discovered still be true if the temperature was measured in
degrees (ºC) instead of Kelvin (K)? Justify your answer. (Hint: K = ºC + 273)

## No. Temperature must be in Kelvin.

9. Which of the following quantities does not change when you use the data from different
trials?

a. PV/T

b. PV + T

c. PT/V

10. Based on your answer from question 9, verify that this equation is true: P1V1/T1 =
P2V2/T2. This equation is called the “Combined Gas Law.” Notice that it contains all of
the equations combined into one.

.
11. What needs to remain constant in order for the “combined gas law” to be true? (You may
need to refer to the information given above the data table)

The number of moles must be constant in order for the “combined gas law” to be true.

12. Prove that when the temperature remains constant, the combined gas law becomes
Boyle’s law.

13. Prove that when the pressure remains constant, the combined gas law becomes Charles’s
law.

14. You have discovered new mathematical relationships among gases. Now is your chance
to practice using these equations.

a. At constant pressure, the volume of a gas expands from 4.0L to 8.0L. If the initial
pressure was 120kPa and the initial temperature was 35C, what is the final
temperature? (Hint: PV=nRT and number of moles is constant.
R= 8.314L kPa K−1 mol−1)

## P1=120 kPa P2=120 kPa

V1=4.0 L V2=8.0 L

## T1= 35°C+273=308 K T2=???

b. At constant pressure, a gas is heated from 250K to 500K. After heating, the
volume of the gas was 12.0L. What was the initial volume of the gas?

## P1=Constant Pressure P2= Constant pressure

V1=??? L V2=12.0 L
T1= 250 K T2=500 K

c. The volume of a gas was originally 2.5L; its pressure was 104kPa and its
temperature was 270K. The volume of the gas expanded to 5.3L and its pressure
decreased to 95kPa. What is the temperature of the gas?

## P1=104 kPa P2=95 kPa

V1=2.5 L V2=5.3 L
T1= 270 K T2=???