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12/08/2018 UMAT Theory - Nader Abedrabbo, Ph.D.

Nader Abedrabbo, Ph.D.

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UMAT Theory
Selected Papers
UMAT Workshop
Bottomhole Assembly Analysis Theoretical development of the von Mises user material model will be presented here. This
implementation is for the explicit form of the UMAT in LS-Dyna.
Contact 1. Isotropic von Mises Model:
For the plane stress condition, the von Mises yield criterion simplifies to the following as a function of
the stress tensor components:

Where is the flow stress which corresponds to data from uniaxial tensile tests.

2. Flow Stress:

Flow stress represents the size of the yield function during deformation. An appropriate equation
describing changes in the flow stress of the material depends on deformation conditions such as
temperature, strain rate, etc. In this example we will use the Power-Law model which is written as

Where "K" (strength hardening coefficient) and "n" (strain-hardening exponent) are material constants

that are extracted from experimental tensile tests. is the is the effective plastic strain and is a
constant representing the elastic strain at yield which can be either supplied or calculated as follows:

3. Stress Integration:

The von Mises isotropic material model will be implemented as a user material subroutine (UMAT)
into the explicit finite element code LS-Dyna within the framework of rate independent plasticity and
plane stress conditions. An efficient algorithm based on the operator split methodology will be used.
The current analysis is based on incremental theory of plasticity.

In solving nonlinear problems using the finite-element method, stresses at integration points are
usually obtained by integrating nonlinear constitutive equations,given known incremental strains.
There exist many algorithms and procedures for achieving this. One of the most computationally
efficient algorithms was proposed by Simo and Ortiz in the following references:

(1) Simo, J.C., Ortiz, M., 1985. A unified approach to finite deformation elastoplastic analysis based on
the use of hyperelastic constitutive equations. Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 49, 221–245.

(2) Ortiz, M., Simo, J. C., 1986. An analysis of a new class of integration algorithms for elastoplastic
constitutive relations. Int. J. Numerical Methods in Engineering 23, 353-366.

This algorithm, which fall within the class of cutting-plane methods of constrained optimization, was
proposed to bypass the need for computing the gradients of the yield function and the flow rule as
required by the closest point projection iterative methods. The general closest point projection
procedure usually leads to systems of nonlinear equations, the solution of which by the Newton-
Raphson method requires evaluation of the gradients of system equations. While the previous
approach might be applicable to simple plasticity models (e.g. von Mises), its application to complex
yield functions such as Barlat’s YLD96 is not only exceedingly laborious, but also computationally
extensive and makes the FEM code run slower for industrial applications. In the following, the stress
integration algorithm will be presented and the implementation of it as a UMAT into the explicit finite
element code LS-Dyna will be described.

In a displacement finite element formulation, the nature of the FEM code is strain driven. The cutting
plane algorithm falls within the operator splitting methodology in which the strain is decomposed into
two parts: elastic and plastic. The method proposed by Simo et al. (1) and Ortiz et al. (2), however, is
based on the total deformation theory. In this method, the history of total strain and total plastic strain
are saved as history variables for the next step. This adds an unnecessary step, and in some cases
where loading and unloading occurs, it might affect the accuracy of the code. Using the incremental
theory of plasticity eliminates this step.


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12/08/2018 UMAT Theory - Nader Abedrabbo, Ph.D.

In the general commercial codes, e.g. LS-Dyna and Abaqus, the strain increment ( ), the

previous stress state value ( ) and any history variables saved at the previous stress update step
are provided at the beginning of each time step. The new strain increment is then assumed to be
elastic and an elastic predictor stress state “trial stress” is calculated through the customary elasticity
relations. Using the cutting plane algorithm, the actual stress state is then restored (plastic corrector)
and other plastic variables are calculated.

The basic steps in the numerical procedure for iteratively integrating the elastoplastic constitutive
equations for rate independent plasticity with associated flow rule are:

Where , and are the stress, elastic strain and plastic strain, respectively. the fourth order
elastic tensor which is assumed to be a constant. is the plastic multiplier in the associated flow rule
and is the yield function. The yielding criterion check and the loading–unloading conditions are
expressed in the standard Kuhn–Tucker form in which the constraints above are satisfied.

More details and exact implementation of the stress integration algorithm can be found in this paper:
Forming of Aluminum Alloys at Elevated Temperatures –Part 2 in my publications section.

4. Final Notes:

1. It should be noted that the cutting plane algorithm explained here and in the mentioned papers
is general and can be used with any yield function.

2. The von Mises yield function can be explicitly defined in a mathematical form that does not
require return mapping algorithms to locate the stress on the yield surface. A good source on
the subject of elastoplasticity can be found in these two books:

Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures, Volume 1, Essentials

M. A. Crisfield, July 1998, ISBN: 978-0-471-97059-0
Computational Inelasticity, Series: Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, Vol. 7
Simo, J.C., Hughes, T.J.R., 1998., ISBN: 978-0-387-97520-7

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