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08-16-18

IP3

POLICE

TO: Geoff Fruin, City Manager


FROM: Jody Matherly, Police Chief
RE: 2016 and 2017 St. Ambrose Traffic Study
DATE: August 11 , 2018

The Iowa City Police Department has collected demographic data on traffic stops since 1999. The
first analysis was in 2004 titled "Traffic Stop Practices of the Iowa City Police Department:
January 1 - December 31 , 2002." The research team was from the University of Louisville and this
report was frequently referred to as the Louisville study.

In 2006, ICPD hired Dr. Christopher Barnum, Associate Professor of Sociology and Criminal
Justice and Director of Graduate Studies Masters in Criminal Justice at St. Ambrose University,
to conduct an in-depth analysis to better understand operational trends in the department. The goal
was to reduce the traffic stop disproportionality and gain the confidence and trust of our
community, especially the minority community. Dr. Barnum conducted an analysis on data from
2005 to 2012 and presented the results to the Iowa City City Council on June 16, 2014. He
presented the 2015 data analysis results on April 19, 2016.

Dr. Barnum met with some ICPD officers in 2014 and 2016 to explain the methodology and results
of the findings. According to then ICPD Chief Sam Hargadine, "the officers asked concerned
questions and were genuinely interested in the results of the analysis. Concerns nationwide about
police misconduct and the perceptions of police by the entire community do weigh heavily on the
minds of the officers. It is my belief that ICPD officers continually strive to improve the ways in
which they serve."

In 2015 and 2016, ongoing professional development included training specifically on race based
traffic stops, implicit bias and diversity. In 2016, ICPD officers received training in diversity,
discrimination and cultural competency. Titles of some of the classes were Affordable Housing
Conference and Working Together in a Diverse World. All officers received training in Fair and
Impartial Policing and Biased-Based Policing via online courses.

In January 2017, Police Chief Matherly was hired and immediately implemented a strategy to
address DMC. It consists of three components 1) Education and Training: courses in cultural
competency increased from 257 hours in 2016 to 1132 hours in 2017. A $450,000 grant was
obtained to address gender bias in investigations. 2) Community Outreach: while ICPD continues
a tradition of successful community policing strategies, the department has enhanced its problem-
oriented policing and increased involvement in social organizations and community groups. The
goal is to educate the public and continually reassess what the community wants and expects from
their police agency. 3) Deployment of Resources: we continue to develop robust intelligence
systems so crime trends can be quickly identified and communicated to patrol officers. To simply
saturate minority neighborhoods, stop drivers for minor violations, arbitrarily search vehicles for
weapons and drugs does not statistically produce more results than stopping white drivers. Such
tactics do nothing more than erode trust with the minority community. Instead, officers are
encouraged to conduct traffic enforcement in areas where high crash rates occur and address
residents' traffic complaints.

In late 2017, an ICPD committee was formed to develop strategies to reduce DMC, increase
community trust, improve internal communication/education regarding DMC, and develop
creative and supportive ways for our officers to be more effective at their jobs. One of the
committee's initiatives is the B.U.L.B.S. program, a partnership with local repair shops to help
those who cannot afford to repair burnt out lights on their vehicles by replacing the bulb for free.
Such a program can have a positive impact and alleviate fear that drivers may get stopped for
defective equipment and have their vehicle searched.

Emphasis has also been placed on the recruitment of minority candidates for police officer
positions to more accurately reflect the racial demographics of the Iowa City community.

There is more work to do in addressing disproportionality in traffic stops according to the St.
Ambrose study results in 2016 and 2017. However, in 2017 there was a significant reduction in
the disproportionality in outcomes such as citations and searches, which is encouraging. The ICPD
will continue to identify where disparity exists that we have influence over and address it in a fair
and consistent manner.
Iowa City Police Traffic Study
Brief Summary

Prepared by:
Chris Baruum

St. Ambrose University

July, 2018
Iowa City Police Traffic Study

For several years now, the City oflowa City has partnered with St. Ambrose University
to develop and implement an analysis of the Iowa City Police Department's traffic stop activity.
The current investigation focuses on evaluating stops made by the ICPD between January 1st,
2016 and December 31st 2017. These analyses center on evaluating two broad categories of
discretionary police conduct: (i) racial disparity in vehicle stops-instantiated as racial
differences in the likelihood of being stopped by the ICPD and (ii) dissimilarities across racial
demographics in the outcome or disposition of a stop.
To evaluate the racial demographics of stops, our research team utilized driver-population
benchmarks fashioned from roadside observations and census data. A benchmark should be
thought of as the proportion of minority drivers on the roads in a given location. In plain terms,
the benchmark is a standard that can be used to judge the percentage of minority drivers that
should be stopped by the police when no bias is occurring. In Iowa City, the population
characteristics of the city was divided up into one-square-mile units called observation zones'
(see figure one below).

Figure 1
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Once the boundaries of the observation zones were determined, roadside surveyors were
deployed to monitored traffic at several locales within selected zones. The observers watched
traffic at various times of the day ranging from 7:00am until2:00 am. To date, observers have
logged more than 65,000 observations from locations across the city. Results show a high degree
of inter-rater consistency between observers across all zones. The observational benchmarks are
currently being updated with additional observations in several zones.

The process of comparing police data to benchmarks is straight forward. It centers on


identifying differences between the demographic percentages from ICPD traffic stop data and
benchmark information. Any positive difference between benchmark values and police data
signifies disproportionality or an over representation of minority drivers in the data. Although,
disproportionality can indicate bias or discrimination, it does not necessarily do so. It is possible
for disproportionality to occur for a number of legitimate reasons, including differences between
racial groups in driving behavior, vehicle condition, drivers' license status and so forth.
Our methodology makes it possible to track disproportionality by area, by time of day, by
duty assignment and by individual officer. While this method serves as a useful tool in assessing
disproportionality, please keep in mind that the method is only an estimate of disproportionality
in police activity, not a certainty. This stems from the fact that the analyses are predicated on
differences between stops and benchmarks, and that benchmarks are formed from samples of the
drivers on the roads in a given area and time. Consequently, like any sample, a benchmark may
be associated with a degree of sampling error.

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2016 Analyses

Figures 2 and 3 below give the number of2016 ICPD traffic stops by observation zone
for days and nights. The information indicates that for each time frame, most ICPD traffic stops
were made in the downtown area (zone 21) followed by the Broadway-Wetherby areas (zone
29).

Figure 2
Number of Stops per Zone Days

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Figure 3
Number of Stops per Zone. Nights

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Figures 4 and 5 below give the percentage of minority drivers stopped and corresponding
benchmark values for observation zones for both days and nights. In the figures below, any
positive difference between the percentage of minority drivers stopped and benchmark values
signifies disproportionality. In general, the information suggests that levels of disproportionality
tended to be lowest in areas where the most stops were made and the highest levels of
disproportionality were found in locations where relatively few stops were made.

Figure 4.
Percent of Minority Drivers Stopped and Benchmarks Days

0
0 13 20 21 22 27 28 29 30
,_ Stops Percentage - Benchmark Percentage I

Figure 5
Percent of Minority Drivers Stopped and Benchmarks. Nights

0
0 13 20 21 22 27 28 29 30
, _ Stops Percentage - Benchmark Percentage I

Officer Level Analysis:


We calculated a disparity index for each officer making more than twenty-five stops
during 2016. The index consists of two ratios and was calculated by comparing the ratio of
minority stops to minority benchmarks divided by whites stops to white benchmark values. A
disparity index value equaling 1.00 indicates no disproportionality in stops, while values greater
than 1.00 suggest disparity. The disparity index values can be interpreted as fractions or ratios.
For instance, a disparity index value equaling 2.0 indicates that the odds were twice as likely that
the officer would stop a minority driver as a non-minority driver (given the benchmarks). An

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index value of 4.0 suggests the odds were four times as likely that the officer would stop a
minority driver as non-minority driver, and so on.
Figure 6 gives the disparity index values and number of stops for ICPD officers making
at least 25 traffic stops in 2016. The blue horizontal line in figure 4 indicates 100 stops, the red
dashed line shows the median for the department and the black dashed line gives the 90th
percentile for the department. The information in figure 6 suggests that a single officer's
disparity index value is notably higher than other officers making traffic stops in 2016.

Figure 6
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2017 Analyses
Figures 7 and 8 below give the number of ICPD traffic stops by observation zone and
once again indicate that most ICPD traffic stops were made in the downtown area (zone 21)
followed by the Broadway-Wetherby areas (zone 29).

Figure7
Number of Stops by Zone ·· Days

Zone
Figure 8
Number of Stops by Zone .. Nights

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Figures 9 and 10 below give the percentage of minority drivers stopped and corresponding
benchmark values for observation zones for both days and nights. As before, any positive
difference between the percentage of minority drivers stopped and benchmark values signifies
disproportionality. The information once again suggests that levels of djsproportionality tended
to be lowest in areas where the most stops were made and higher in areas where relatively fewer
stops were made.

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Figure 9
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Figure 10
Police Stops v Benchmarks -- Nights

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2017 Officer Level Analysis:
We again calculated a disparity index for each officer making more than twenty-five
stops. Figure 11 gives the disparity index values and number of stops for ICPD officers making
at least 25 traffic stops in 2017. The blue horizonta1line in figure 4 indicates 100 stops, the thick
red dashed line shows the median for the department and the thin red dashed line gives the 90th
percentile for the department. The information in figure 11 shows that a single officer's disparity
index value is notably higher than other officers making traffic stops in 2017. Please note that
this is not the same officer depicted in the 2016 chart.

Figure 11
Officer Index Values

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2016 and 2017 Stop Outcome Results

Stop Outcomes Results: We used an examination of stop outcomes to assess disproportionality


in citations, warnings, arrests and consent searches. As the name implies, a stop outcome gives
information about the consequence of a stop. An example is whether or not a driver received a
ticket as a result of the stop. In what follows we measure disproportionality using an estimator
called an odds ratio. This estimator is a measure of effect size and association. It is useful when
comparing two distinct groups and summarizes the odds of something happening to one group to
the odds of it happening to another group.

The odds ratio values shown in table I indicate that in 2016 Iowa City officers were
slightly more likely to issue a citation to minority drivers than others but were also significantly
more likely to arrest minority drivers and to ask for consent to search their vehicles. In 2017 the
same trend continued, however officers did not make enough search requests for analyses to be
performed (there were only 12). This information suggests that officers significantly decreased
requests to search vehicles in 2017.

Table I d~artment outcomes and univariate odds ratios b~ ~ear


Odds Ratio
2005 2006 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Citations -1.4 -1.5 -1.2 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.07
Arrests 2.5 2.8 2.6 3.1 3.2 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.5 1.82
Search 2.5 3.4 5.6 2.7 3.9 2.4 1.9 1.5 1.9 2.1
Hits -1.6 1.2 -2.9 -2.3 -1.3 -1.2 1.1 -1.1 1.1 1.1

The information in table I also suggests that the odds ratios for search requests and hit rates have
generally remained constant since 2013 indicating that levels of disproportionality did not
change much for these outcomes during this period of time. The odds ratios for citations
decreased recently, from 1.4 in 2016 to 1.07 in 2017. The information for arrests shows generally
a decreasing trend in the level of disproportionality since 2013. Here, in comparison to white
drivers, the odds that a minority member would be arrested during a traffic stop decreased from
2.3 in 2013, to 1.5 in 2016, however the odds did increase slightly to 1.82 in 2017.

Conclusions
This study examined the traffic stop behavior of the Iowa City Police Department using traffic
stop data from 2016 and 2017-more than 24,000 stops. The investigation focused on two broad
categories of discretionary police conduct: (i) racial disparity in vehicle stops and (ii) disparity in
the outcome or disposition of a stop. Findings from the examination of disproportionality in
vehicle stops show an increase in disproportionality from stops made in 2015. Additionally, the
results of the analyses for stop outcomes indicate some racial disproportionality in certain
outcomes-including moderate amounts in arrests and search requests (lesser amounts in
citations). Future analyses should focus on assessing disproportionality found in certain
observation zones. This work should include updating observational benchmarks in these areas.

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This work is currently being done.

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08-16-18
IP4
CITY OF IOWA CITY
MEMORANDUM
Date: August 16, 2018

To: City Council

From: Ashley Monroe, Assistant City Manager

Re: Mid-Year Budget Work Session and Participatory Budget Exercise Summary

Staff is responding to City Council's desire to provide additional opportunities for the community to
weigh in on public expenditures. A memo from Simon Andrew in the April 19, 2018 Information Packet
identified options for participatory budgeting exercises and noted the success of the "Breakfast on a
Budget" event held in January 2018 in conjunction with the January Budget Work Session. Taking
direction from these efforts, an idea for an educational forum plus engagement activities evolved.
Participants would be provided a summary of budget considerations and a picture of overall City
Financial health, and then actively help prioritize community objectives at the start of the budgeting
process. It was vital, during this activity, to communicate the connection between community
participation and projects, programs, and services being prioritized in the City budget and strategic plan.

The 'Chip In' event held at City Hall on August 6, 2018 engaged approximately fifty residents in
prioritizing current strategic plan goals and sharing ideas for what efforts should be prioritized in the
City budget. Participants viewed posters with examples of projects and services that would align with
each of the seven Strategic Plan goals. They were asked to use ten counting chips to vote in jars below
the seven Strategic Plan goals to signify how they might "budget" their priorities. A vote with a single
red chip identified their top priority goal. Residents could also label a map to choose areas that need
improvement and were able to write-in specific ideas and suggestions. Staff were on hand to respond to
resident questions and comments. Childcare, provided by Parks and Recreation, was also available for
participants to encourage further participation from families.

To facilitate alternative methods of participation, residents were also able to take a survey closely
aligned with the in-person engagement activities. Nearly 600 survey responses (590) were received
during the week-long survey period. Approximately half of these respondents submitted comments and
suggestions for budgeting priorities.

The following summary provides the results of the in-person meeting and online participation. With the
understanding that this information may not be fully representative of all perspectives in Iowa City, it is
the largest focus upon budgetary priorities in recent memory. Council may choose to use this
information to identify suggestions for inclusion in the Fiscal Year 2020 Budget. Full survey results and
all meeting results and comments are attached for reference.

Top Strategic Plan Goal Priority Online In-Person Total


#1: Promote a Strong and Resilient Local Economy 117 8 125
#2: Encourage a Vibrant and Walkable Urban Core 58 6 64
#3: Foster Healthy Neighborhoods throughout the City of Iowa City 144 6 150
#4: Maintain a Solid Financial Foundation 79 2 81
#5: Enhance Community Engagement and Intergovernmental Relations 23 9 32
#6: Promote Environmental Sustainability 94 4 98
#7: Advance Social Justice and Racial Equity 133 19 152
648 54 702