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Título original: Fixed Point Theorem for Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space

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Article

Fixed Point Theorem for Neutrosophic Triplet Partial

Metric Space

Memet Şahin 1, *, Abdullah Kargın 1 and Mehmet Ali Çoban 2

1 Department of Mathematics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep 27310, Turkey; abdullahkargin27@gmail.com

2 Department of Computer Programming, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep 27310, Turkey;

coban@gantep.edu.tr

* Correspondence: mesahin@gantep.edu.tr

Received: 4 June 2018; Accepted: 19 June 2018; Published: 25 June 2018

Abstract: Neutrosphic triplet is a new theory in neutrosophy. In a neutrosophic triplet set, there is a

neutral element and antielement for each element. In this study, the concept of neutrosophic triplet

partial metric space (NTPMS) is given and the properties of NTPMS are studied. We show that both

classical metric and neutrosophic triplet metric (NTM) are different from NTPM. Also, we show that

NTPMS can be defined with each NTMS. Furthermore, we define a contraction for NTPMS and we

give a fixed point theory (FPT) for NTPMS. The FPT has been revealed as a very powerful tool in the

study of nonlinear phenomena. This study is also part of the “Algebraic Structures of Neutrosophic

Triplets, Neutrosophic Duplets, or Neutrosophic Multisets” which is a special issue.

Keywords: neutrosophic triplet set (NTS); partial metric spaces (PMS); fixed point theory (FPT)

1. Introduction

Neutrosophy was first studied by Smarandache in [1]. Neutrosophy consists of neutrosophic logic,

probability, and sets. Actually, neutrosophy is generalization of fuzzy set in [2] and intuitionistic fuzzy set

in [3]. Also, researchers have introduced neutrosophic theory in [4–6]. Recently, Olgun and Bal introduced

the neutrosophic module in [7], Şahin, Uluçay, Olgun, and Kılıçman introduced neutrosophic soft lattices

in [8], and Uluçay, Şahin, and Olgun studied soft normed rings in [9]. Furthermore, Smarandache and Ali

studied NT theory in [10] and NT groups (NTG) in [11,12]. The greatest difference between NTG and

classical groups is that there can be more than one unit element. That is, each element in a neutrosophic

triplet group can be a separate unit element. In addition, the unit elements in the NTG must be different

from the unit elements in the classical group. Also, a lot of researchers have introduced NT theory

in [13–16]. Recently, Smarandache, Şahin, and Kargın studied neutrosophic triplet G-module in [17],

and Bal, Shalla, and Olgun introduced neutrosophic triplet cosets and quotient groups in [18].

Matthew introduced the concept of partial metric spaces (PMS) in [19]. It is a generalization of

usual metric space since self-distance cannot be zero in PMS. The most important use of PMS is to

transfer mathematical techniques to computer science. Also, Matthew introduced Banach contraction

theorem for PMS and a lot of researchers introduced PMS and its topological properties and FPT for

PMS in [20–23]. If f is a mapping from a set E into itself, any element x of E, such that f (x) = x, is called

a fixed point of f. Many problems, including nonlinear partial differential equations problems, may be

recast as problems of finding a fixed point of a mapping in a space. Recently, Shukla introduced FPT

for ordered contractions in partial b-metric space in [24]. Kim, Okeke, and Lim introduced common

coupled FPT for w-compatible mappings in PMS in [25]. Pant, Shukla, and Panicker introduced new

FPT in PMS in [26].

In this paper, we first introduced PMS and contraction in NT theory. So, we obtained a new

structure for developing NT theory. Thus, researchers can arrive at nonlinear partial differential

Symmetry 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 7

Lim introduced common coupled FPT for w-compatible mappings in PMS in [25]. Pant, Shukla, and

Panicker introduced new FPT in PMS in [26].

Symmetry 2018, 10, 240 2 of 7

In this paper, we first introduced PMS and contraction in NT theory. So, we obtained a new

structure for developing NT theory. Thus, researchers can arrive at nonlinear partial differential

equations problem

equations solutions

problem in NT theory.

solutions In Section

in NT theory. 2, we give

In Section 2, wesome

givebasic

someresults and definitions

basic results and definitions

for NTPM and NTM.

for NTPM and In Section

NTM. 3, NTPMS

In Section is defined

3, NTPMS and some

is defined andproperties of a NTPMS

some properties of a are

NTPMSgiven.are

It given.

was shown that both the classical metric and NTM are different from the NTPM, and NTPMS

It was shown that both the classical metric and NTM are different from the NTPM, and NTPMS can be can be

defineddefined

with each

withNTMS. Furthermore,

each NTMS. the convergent

Furthermore, sequence

the convergent and Cauchy

sequence sequence

and Cauchy in NTPMS

sequence in NTPMS

are defined. Also, complete

are defined. NTPMSNTPMS

Also, complete are defined. Later, we

are defined. define

Later, contractions

we define for NTPM

contractions and weand we

for NTPM

give some

giveproperties of theseofcontractions.

some properties Furthermore,

these contractions. we give awe

Furthermore, FPT for aNTPMS.

give FPT forIn Section In

NTPMS. 4, we

Section 4,

give conclusions.

we give conclusions.

2. Preliminaries

2. Preliminaries

Wesome

We give givebasic

someresults

basic results and definitions

andSymmetry

definitions for NTPM

forxNTPM

2018, 10, and

FOR PEER

and in

NTM

REVIEW

NTMthisin this section.

section.

Symmetry 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 7

Definition 1 ([19]).

Definition Let A be

1 ([19]). Letnonempty set.introduced

A be nonempty

Lim If the

set.function

If thecommon :AxA

function m→ ℝ →

pcoupled

:AxA R+for

satisfies

FPT the conditions

satisfies given

the conditions

w-compatible given below;

mappings in PMS in [25]. Pant, S

below; p

p is

is called

called a

a PM.

PM. ⩝ a,

a, b,

b, cc

Lim introduced common coupled FPT for w-compatible∈

∈ A;

A; Panicker introduced

mappings in newPMSFPTinin PMS

[25]. in [26].

Pant, Shukla, and

Panicker introduced

(i) (i)(a,new

a)p=mFPT

(a, a) in

(b, PMS

pm=(b,in

=b) [26].

b)(a,

= b) =Ina)

pm=(a, b)(b, pmthis

⟺

(b, a)paper,

= b; awe

a ⇐⇒ = b;first introduced PMS and contraction in NT theory. So, we obtai

In this (ii)

paper, (a,wea)first introduced PMS structure

and for

contraction developing

in NT NT So,

theory. theory. Thus, researchers

we obtained a new can arrive at nonlinear partial

(ii) pm≤(a, a)(a, ≤ b);

pm (a, b);

structure for developing

(iii) (a, b)p=m (a,NT (b, equations can

theory. Thus, researchers problem

arrivesolutions in NTpartial

at nonlinear theory.differential

In Section 2, we give some basic results and

(iii) b) =a);

pm (b, a);

equations problem

(iv) (iv) solutions

(a, c) ≤ in NT theory. In for NTPM

Section 2, and

we NTM.

give someIn Section

basic 3, NTPMS

results and is defined and some properties of a NTPMS a

definitions

p (a, c)(a,≤b)p + (a, b)(b,+c)p− (b, c)

(b,−b);p (b, b);

or NTPM and NTM. In mSection 3, m NTPMS ismdefined was shown m

and that both

some the classical

properties metric and

of a NTPMS NTM are

are given. It different from the NTPM, and NTP

Also,

was shown that both the (A, ) is

classical called a PMS. defined with each NTMS. Furthermore, the convergent

can be sequence and Cauchy sequence

Also, (A, pmmetric anda NTM

) is called PMS. are different from the NTPM, and NTPMS

defined with each NTMS. Furthermore, the convergent are defined. Also, complete

sequence and Cauchy NTPMS are defined.

sequence in NTPMS Later, we define contractions for NTP

Definition 2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and # be a binary operation. Then, N is called a NT if the given below

are defined. Also, Definition

complete NTPMS 2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and # be a binary operation. Then, N is called a NT ifwe

are give

defined. some

Later, properties

we define of these

contractionscontractions.

for NTPM Furthermore,

and we the give

givenabelow

FPT for NTPMS. In Se

conditions are satisfied.

give some properties of thesearecontractions.

conditions satisfied. give conclusions.

Furthermore, we give a FPT for NTPMS. In Section 4, we

(i) There is neutral element (neut(x)) for x ∈ N such that

give conclusions.

(i) There is neutral element (neut(x)) for x ∈ N such that x*neut(x) = neut(x)* x = x.

2. Preliminaries

x*neut(x) = neut(x)* x = x.

2. Preliminaries (ii) isThere

(ii) There is anti element

anti element (anti(x))(anti(x))

for x ∈ for

N x∈N

such such that x*anti(x) = anti(x)* x = neut(x).

that

We give some basic results and definitions for NTPM and NTM in this section.

x*anti(x) NT = anti(x)*

is shown xby= neut(x).

(x, neut(x), anti(x)).

We give some basic results and definitions for NTPM and NTM in this section.

NT is shown by (x, neut(x), anti(x)). Definition 1 ([19]). Let A be nonempty set. If the function :AxA → ℝ satisfies the condition

Definition 1 ([19]).Definition

Let A be nonempty 3 ([15]). set. If the#)function

Let (M, below;

be a NTS :AxA

p is and a#ba→

called ∈

PM.ℝN, ⩝satisfies ∈

a,a,bb,∈c M.

theA;conditions

NTM d T :MxM →R+ ∪ {0} such

given

is a map

below; p is called that ⩝3a,a,

a PM.

Definition b,b,cc∈∈Let

([15]). A; (M, #) be a NTS and a#b ∊ N, ⩝ a, b ∊ M. NTM is a map :MxM → ℝ ∪ {0} such

M,

(i) (a, a) = (b, b) = (a, b) = (b, a) ⟺ a = b;

i) = ⩝a,(b,

(a, a)that b, c ∈ M, (a, b) =

(a) b) =d T (a, b) ≥ 0 (b, a) ⟺(ii) a = b; (a, a) ≤ (a, b);

ii) (a, a)(a)≤ (b) b);If≥a0= b, then d T (a, b) = 0 (iii)

(a, b) (a, b) = (b, a);

iii) (a, b)(b)

= If (b,

a =a);

b, then (a,

(c) d T (a, b) = d T (a, b)b) = 0 (iv) (a, c) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c) − (b, b);

iv) (a, c) ≤

(c) (a, b) +

(a, b)If= there

(d) (b, c) −

(a,exists

b) (b, b);

any element c Also, in M(A, such )that dT (a,a c) ≤ dT (a, c*neut(b)), then dT (a, c*neut(b)) ≤

is called PMS.

Also, (A,(d) If there exists

dT (a,

) is called any element

b) + dT (b, c).

a PMS. c ∊ M such that

(a, c) ≤ (a, c*neut(b)), then Definition (a, c*neut(b)) ≤ Let

2 ([12]). (a, b)

N +be a nonempty

(b, c). and # be a binary operation. Then, N is called a NT if the

Also, ((M,*), d T ) space is called NTMS.

Definition 2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and

Also, ((M,*), ) space is called NTMS. # be a binary operation. Then,

conditions are satisfied. N is called a NT if the given below

conditions are satisfied.

(i) There is neutral element (neut(x)) for x ∈ N such that

3. Neutrosophic

3. Neutrosophic Triplet Partial

i) There is neutral element (neut(x)) for x ∈ N such Metric

Triplet Metric

Partial Space

that Space

x*neut(x) = neut(x)* x = x.

x*neut(x) = neut(x)* x = x. metric

Partial Partial

metric is the generalization (ii) There

of usual

is the generalization is anti element

ofmetric

usual (anti(x))

space,

metric since for

space, ∈ N such

xsince

self-distance that

cannot becannot

self-distance zero inbe zero

ii) There ispartial

anti element

inmetric (anti(x))

partialspace.

metricfor x

The ∈ N such

mostThe

space. that

importantx*anti(x) =

use of PMS

most important anti(x)*

use of x =

is PMS neut(x).

to transfer mathematical

is to transfer mathematicaltechniques to

techniques to

x*anti(x) = anti(x)*

computer x = neut(x).

science. Also, If f is a mapping

computer science. Also, If f is a mapping from a set E

frominto itself,

a set any element

E intoanti(x)). x of E such that f(x) = x

itself, any element x of E such that f (x)is

NT is shown by (x, neut(x),

called a

= fixed

x is point

called of

a

NT is shown by (x, neut(x), anti(x)). f. Many

fixed problems,

point of f. including

Many nonlinear

problems, partial

including differential

nonlinear equations

partial problems,

differential equations

may beproblems,

recast asmayproblems

be recastof as

finding a fixed point of a mapping in a space. In this

Definition 3 ([15]). Let (M, #) be a NTS and a#b ∊ N, ⩝ a, b ∊ M. NTM

problems of finding a fixed point of a mapping in a section,

space. In wesection,

this is a map :MxM → ℝ

introduced

Definition 3 ([15]).we firstly

Letintroduced PMS and

(M, #) be a firstly

NTS and FPT

PMS in

a#band NT

∊that theory.

⩝⩝a,in

N,FPT bb,∊NT So, we

∈ theory.

c M. obtained

NTM isSo,

M, a new structure

:MxM a→new

we obtained

a map for

ℝ structure developing NT

∪ {0} suchfor developing NT

theory.

hat ⩝a, b, c ∈ Thus, researchers

M, theory. can arrive

Thus, researchers at nonlinear

can arrive partialpartial

at nonlinear differential equations

differential problem

equations solutions

problem in

solutions in

NT theory. (a) (a, b) ≥ 0

NT theory.

a) (a, b) ≥ 0 (b) If a = b, then (a, b) = 0

b) If a = b, then (a, b) = 0 (c) (a, b) = (a, b)

c) (a, b) = (a, b) (d) If there exists any element c ∊ M such that

d) If there exists any element c ∊ M such that (a, c) ≤ (a, c*neut(b)), then (a, c*neut(b)) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c).

(a, c) ≤ (a, c*neut(b)), then (a, c*neut(b)) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c).

Also, ((M,*), ) space is called NTMS.

Also, ((M,*), ) space is called NTMS.

3. Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space

3. Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space

defined. Also, complete NTPMS are defined. give someLater,properties

we defineofcontractions

these contractions. for NTPM Furthermore,

and we we give a FPT for NTPMS. In Section

some properties of these contractions. Furthermore, give conclusions. we give a FPT for NTPMS. In Section 4, we

conclusions.

2. Preliminaries

eliminaries

Symmetry 2018, 10, 240 We give some basic results and definitions for NTPM and NTM in this 3 of section.

7

We give some basic results and definitions for NTPM and NTM in this section.

Definition 1 ([19]). Let A be nonempty set. If the function :AxA → ℝ satisfies the conditions given

nition 1 ([19]). LetDefinition

A be nonempty 4. Letset. If #)

(A, thebelow;

befunction

a NTS p isand :AxA

called →A,

a#ba in

PM. ℝ⩝ a, a, bb,inc ∈

satisfies A.the

A;

NTPMconditions given

is a map p N : AxA → R+ ∪{0} such that

w; p is called a PM. ⩝ a,a,b,b,cc∈∈ A A;

(i) (a, a) = (b, b) = (a, b) = (b, a) ⟺ a = b;

(a, a) = (b, b)(i)

= 0(a, b) = (b, a) ⟺(ii)

≤ p N (a, a) ≤ p N (a, b) a = b;(a, a) ≤ (a, b);

(a, a) ≤ (ii) If p N (a, a) = p N (a, (iii)

(a, b); b) = p N (b,(a, b)b) == 0, then

(b, a);

there exits any a, b such that a = b.

(a, b) = (b, a);(iii) p (a, b) = p (a, b) (iv) (a, c) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c) − (b, b);

N N

(a, c) ≤ (a, b)(iv)

+ If(b,there

c) −exists(b,any

b); element b in A such that p (a, c) ≤ p (a, c#neut(b)), then p (a, c#neut(b)) ≤ p (a, b)

Also, (A, ) is called

N a PMS.N N N

Also, (A, ) is called a +PMS. p N (b, c) − p N (b, b)

Definition 2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and # be a binary operation. Then, N is called a NT if the given

Additionally, ((A, #), p N ) is called NTPMS.

nition 2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and # beconditions a binary operation.

are satisfied. Then, N is called a NT if the given below

tions are satisfied.

Example 1. Let A be a nonempty (i) There set isand neutral

P(A) beelement

power(neut(x))

set of A and x ∈ Nbe

for m(X) such that of X ∈ P(A). Where, it is

cardinal

There is neutral elementclear that X∪X

(neut(x)) for=xX.∈ Thus;

N suchwex*neut(x)

give that=neut(X)

that neut(x)*=xX= and x. anti(X) = X for X ∈ P(A). So, (P(A), ∪) is a NTS.

x*neut(x) = neut(x)* We x. the function p N : (ii)

x =give P(A)x There

P(A)is→ R+element

anti ∪ {0} such(anti(x))

that for x ∈ N=such

p N (X,Y) that

max{m(X), m(Y)}. From Definition 4,

There is anti element (anti(x)) for x ∈ N such thatx*anti(x) = anti(x)* x = neut(x).

(i), (ii) and (iii) are apparent.

x*anti(x) = anti(x)* x = neut(x).

(iv) Let ∅ be empty element ofNT P(X).is shown

Then, by p N(x,

(X,neut(x), (X, Y ∪ ∅) since for p N (X, Y ∪ ∅) = p N (X, Y) =

Y) = p Nanti(x)).

NT is shown by (x, max{m(X),

neut(x), anti(x)).

m(Y)}. Also, it is clear that

max{m(X), m(Y)} ≤ max{m(X), Definition m(Z)}+ 3 ([15]). Let (M,

max{m(Z), #) be–amax

m(Y)} NTS{m(∅),

and a#b ∊ N, ⩝ a, b ∊ M. NTM is a map :MxM → ℝ ∪ {0

m(∅)}.

nition 3 ([15]). Let (M, #) be a NTS and a#bthat ∊ N,⩝⩝a,a,b,bc∊∈M. M,NTM is a map :MxM → ℝ ∪ {0} such

Therefore, p N (X, Y∪∅) ≤ p N (X, ∅) + p N (∅, Y) – p N (∅, ∅). Thus, ((P(A), ∪), p N ) is a NTPMS.

⩝a, b, c ∈ M,

(a) (a, b) ≥ 0

(a, b) ≥ 0 Corollary 1. NTPM is different (b) If afrom = b, thethenpartial(a,metric.

b) = 0 Because there isn’t a “#”binary operation and neutral

If a = b, then (a, of

b)x=in0 PMS. (c) (a, b) = (a, b)

(a, b) = (a, b) (d) If there exists any element c ∊ M such that

If there exists any element c ∊ M such that

Corollary 2. Generally the NTPM (a, isc)different from NT metric,

≤ (a, c*neut(b)), then since (a, for p N (x, x)≤ ≥ 0.

c*neut(b)) (a, b) + (b, c).

(a, c) ≤ (a, c*neut(b)), then (a, c*neut(b)) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c).

Theorem 1. Let A be a nonempty Also, set((M,*),

and P(A) )bespace power is called

set of ANTMS.

and m(X) be cardinal of X ∈ P (A) and (P(A),

Also, ((M,*), ) space is called NTMS.

#), d) be a NT metric space (NTMS). If there exists any Z ∈ P(A) such that m(Y#neut( Z ) = m(Y); then ((P(A),

3. Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space

#), p N ) is a NTPMS such that

eutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space

Partial metric is the generalization of usual metric space, since self-distance cannot be ze

partial metric d( X, Y ) + mimportant

( X )cannot

+ m(Yuse ) zero

Partial metric is the generalization of usual metric X, space.

p N (space, = The

Y ) since most

self-distance be of PMSin is to transfer mathematical techniqu

al metric space. The most important use computer

of PMSscience. Also, If fmathematical

is to transfer 2

is a mapping from a set E to

techniques into itself, any element x of E such that f(x)

puter science. Also, If f is a mapping fromcalled a set Eaintofixed point

itself, anyof element

f. Many problems,

x of E suchincluding

that f(x) =nonlinear

x is partial differential equations prob

Proof.

d a fixed point of f. Many problems, including may be recast as

nonlinear problems

partial of finding

differential a fixed

equations point of a mapping in a space. In this section

problems,

be recast as problems (i) p of finding ad(X,

N (X, X) =

fixed)+m ( X )+mof

Xintroduced

point ( X )afirstly

=mapping

m(X)PMS ≤ in d( X,

and Y )+min

a FPT

space. ( X )+

NT

In (Y

mthis) section,

theory.

= p NSo,

(X, weY),obtained

we since fora d(X,X)

new structure

= 0. for developin

2 2

duced firstly PMS andThus; FPT in NT theory. theory.

So, we Thus,

obtained researchers

0 ≤ p N (X, X) ≤ p N (X, Y) for X, Y ∈ P(A). a new can arrive

structure at

for nonlinear

developing partial

NT differential equations problem solutio

ry. Thus, researchers can arrive at nonlinearNT theory.

partial

(ii) If p N (X, X) = p N (X, Y) = p N (Y, Y) = 0, thendifferential equations problem solutions in

heory. d( X, X )+m( X )+m( X ) d( X, Y )+m( X )+m(Y ) d(Y, Y )+m(Y )+m(Y )

(iii) 2 = 2 = 2 = 0 and d( X, Y ) + m( X ) + m(Y) = 0.

Where, m(X) = 0, m(Y) = 0 and d( X, Y ) = 0. Thus, X = Y = ∅ (empty set).

d( X, Y )+m( X )+m(Y ) d(Y, X )+m(Y )+m( X )

(iv) p N (X, Y) = 2 = 2 = p N (Y, X), since for d(X, Y)= d(Y, X).

(v) We suppose that there exists any Z ∈ P(A) such that m(Y#neut( Z )) = m(Y) and p N ( X, Y ) ≤

p N ( X, Y#neut( Z )). Thus,

≤ (1)

2 2

d( X, Y#neut( Z )) ≤ d( X, Z ) + d( X, Z ) (2)

Symmetry 2018, 10, 240 4 of 7

≤ ≤ =

2 2 2

d( X, Z ) + m( X ) + m( Z ) d( Z, Y ) + m( Z ) + m(Y )

+ −m( Z ). Where, p N ( Z, Z ) = m( Z ).

2 2

Thus, p N (X, Y*neut(Z)) ≤ p N (X, Z) + p N (Z, Y) − p N (Z, Z). Hence, ((P(A), #), p N ) is a NTPMS.

Theorem 2. Let (A, #) be a NT set, k ∈ R+ and ((A, #), d T ) be a NTMS. Then; ((A, #), p N ) is a NTPMS

Symmetry 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 4 of 7

such that

p N (a,2.b)Let

Theorem = d(A,

T (a,#)b)be+ak,

NT∀ a, b∈

set, k ∈A.ℝ and ((A, #), ) be a NTMS. Then; ((A, #), ) is a NTPMS such

that

Proof.

(a, b) = (a, b) + k, ∀ a, b ∈ A.

Symmetry 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 4 of 7

(i) Since for d T (a, a) = 0, 0 ≤ p N (a, a) = d T (a, a) + k = k ≤ p N (a, b) = d T (a, b) + k. Thus;

Proof.

(ii) 0 ≤ p (a, a) ≤ p (a, b).

Theorem 2.N Let (A, #) N be a NT set, k ∈ ℝ and ((A, #), ) be a NTMS. Then; ((A, #), ) is a NTPMS such

(i)

(iii) Since

Therefor do not (a,exists

a)= 0, a,0 b≤∈ A(a, a) = that(a,p Na)(a,

such + ka)= =k p≤N (a, (a, b) b)= p=N (b,(a, b)b)= +0k.since Thus;for k ∈ R+ and

that

(ii) 0d T≤ = 0.a) ≤ (a, b).

(a, a) (a,

(iv)(a,There

(iii) pb)N=(a, b)(a,

do =not k,b)∀ a,

db)T +(a,

exists + a, b∈∈

kb= dA.

A such that (a, a) = (a, b) =

T (b, a) + k, since for d T (a, b) = d T (b, a).

(b, b) = 0 since for k ∈ ℝ and

(a, a) = 0. Symmetry 2018, Symmetry

10, x FOR 2018, PEER 10, xREVIEW

FOR PEER REVIEW

(v) Suppose that there exists any element c in A such that p N (a, b) ≤ p N (a, b#neut(c)). Then d T (a, b) +

Proof.

(iv) k ≤ (a,db) = (a, b) + k = (b, a) + k, since for (a, b) = (b, a).

T (a, b#neut(c)) + k. Thus,

(v) Suppose that there exists any element c ∊ A such that Lim(a, introduced

b) Lim introduced

common Then coupled

common FPTcoupled

b) for w-compatible

FPT for w-com m

(i) Since for (a, a)= 0, 0 ≤ (a, a) = (a, a) + k = k ≤ (a, b) =≤ (a, (a, b)

b#neut(c)).

+ k. Thus; (a,

Panicker introduced

Panicker introduced

new FPT in

new PMS FPT in in

[26].

PMS in [26].

(ii) 0+ k≤≤ (a, (a, a)b#neut(c))

≤ (a, b). + k. Thus, d T ( a, b) ≤ d T ( a, b#neut(c)) (3)

In this paper, In this wepaper, first introduced

we first introducedPMS and PMS contract an

(iii) There do not exists a, b ∈ A such that(a, b)(a, ≤ a) (a,

= b#neut(c))

(a, b) = (b, b) = 0 since for k ∈ ℝ and (3)

structure for structure

developing for developing

NT theory. NT Thus,

theory. researchers

Thus, resc

Also,(a, a) = 0. Symmetry 2018, Symmetry

10, x FOR 2018, PEER10, xREVIEW

FOR PEER REVIEW

equations equations problem solutions problem in solutions

NT theory. in NT In theory.

Section In 2, Sw

(iv) Also, (a, b) = (a, b) + k = (b, a) + k, since for (a, b) =

d T ( a, b#neut(c)) ≤ d T ( a, c) +ford TNTPM (b, a).

(c, b)for (4) 3,isNTPMS

and NTPM

NTM. andIn Section

NTM. In

3, Section

NTPMS defined is

and

de

(v) Suppose that there exists any element (a, b#neut(c))c ∊ A such≤ c)Lim

that

(a, + was (a,introduced

b)b)

(c, ≤ Lim(a,

shown was

introduced

that

common coupled

b#neut(c)).

shown

both the

that

common

Then FPT

classical

both the

coupled

metric

for w-compatible

(a, (4)

b)

classicaland

FPT for w-comp

metric

NTM and

are

ma

diff

NT

since for ((A, #), d T ) is a NTMS. Panicker introducedPanicker introduced new FPT in new PMS FPT inin[26].

PMS in [26].

+k≤ (a, b#neut(c)) + k. Thus,

sinceFromfor ((A,(3)#),

and (4), ) is a NTMS. defined

In this withdefined

Ineach

paper, thiswe with

NTMS.

paper,

first each Furthermore,

NTMS.

introduced

we Furthermore,

first introduced

PMS theandconvergent

PMS theand

contractio conse

From (3) and (4), (a, b) ≤ (a, b#neut(c)) are defined.

structure structure are Also,

defined.

for developing complete

for developingAlso,

NT theory.NTPMS

complete (3)

are

NTThus, NTPMS

theory.defined. are

researchers Later,

define

Thus, resea can w

p N ( a, b) ≤ p N ( a, b#neut(c)) = d T ( a, b#neut(c)) + k ≤ d T ( a,equations cgive

) + some give

properties

d T (equations

c, b

problem) = some

p ( properties

a, of c )these

+ p ( c, b ) −

contractions.

of these k contractions.

Furthermore, Furth w

+ k = solutions

Nproblem solutions

(a, c) + in (c,NT b) −theory.

k. in NT Intheory.

SectionIn 2, Sec

we

N

Also,

(a, b) ≤ (a, b#neut(c)) = (a, b#neut(c)) + k ≤ (a, c) + (c, b)

give

for NTPMfor conclusions.

give

and NTPM conclusions.

NTM.and In Section

NTM. In 3, Section

NTPMS3,isNTPMS definedisand defin

so

where, p N (c, c) c) = k.k. Thus; (a, b#neut(c)) ≤ (a, c)was

+ shown (c, b)was that shown

both the thatclassical

both themetric (4)andmetric

classical NTMand are differ

NTM

p N (a, b#neut(c)) ≤ p N (a, c) + p N (c, b) − p N (c, c). Hence, 2. ((A, #), p N2.

Preliminaries ) isPreliminaries

a NTPMS.

since for ((A, #),≤ ) (a,

(a, b#neut(c)) is ac)NTMS.

+ (c, b) − (c, c). Hence, ((A, #), defined ) is with

adefined

NTPMS. eachwith NTMS.

□ each Furthermore,

NTMS. Furthermore, the convergent the conveseq

From (3) and (4), are defined. Weare give Also,

defined.

some

We complete

give Also,

basic some complete

NTPMS

results basic are

NTPMS

andresults defined.

andare

definitions Later,

defined.

definitions

for NTPM we

Corollary 3. From From Theorem 2, we can define NTPMS with eachgive NTMS. somegive properties

some propertiesof these contractions.

of these contractions.Furthermore, Furthewe

(a, b) ≤ (a, b#neut(c)) = (a, b#neut(c)) + k ≤ (a, c) + (c, b) + k = (a, c) + (c, b) − k.

giveDefinition

conclusions.

give Definition

1 conclusions.

([19]). Let1 A ([19]). Let A be set.

be nonempty If the function

nonempty set. If the fu:

Definition

where, (c, ((A,

Let= ((A,

5. c) k. Thus;#), p N )) be

#), be aa NTPMS,

NTPMS,{x { n }}be

beaasequence

sequenceininNTPMS NTPMS

below; isand

pand a ain∊A.

below;

called A.

apPM.Iffor

Ifis for ⩝⩝εa,

called ε>>ab,00PM. ∈ A;

and

cand ⩝⩝nna,≥≥b,M,

M,c ∈ A;

there exist

exist aa MMin ∊ ℕ suchsuch that p N (a, {x { n })})<< εε++ p N (a,(a,a), then{x{ n2.

a),then Preliminaries

} }converges

converges 2. to ∊ A.

Preliminaries

to aa in A. It It is shown

shownby by

(a, b#neut(c)) ≤ (a, c) + (c, b) − (c, c). Hence, ((A, #),(i) ) is a(a, NTPMS.

(i)

a) = □

(a,

(b, a) b) == (b,

(a, b) = (a,

(b, b)a) =⟺ a(b, a) ⟺

= b;

(ii) We give (a, some

(ii)

a) We≤ give

basic

(a, (a, a)some

b); ≤

results basic

(a,and results

b); definitions

and definitions

for NTPMfoa

lim xn == a or

lim or xn → → a.

Corollary 3. From Theorem 2, we can define n→ ∞

→NTPMS with each NTMS. (iii) (a, (iii)

b) = (a,

(b, b) a);= (b, a);

Definition

(iv) Definition

1

(a, (iv) ([19]).

c) ≤ (a, Let 1

(a,c) ≤([19]).

A be

b) + (b, nonempty

Let A

b)−be

(a, c) + set.(b,If c)

nonempty the− function

b); set.(b,

If the

b); func

:A

Definition 5. Let ((A, #), ) be a NTPMS, { } be a sequence in NTPMS

below;

Definition 6. Let ((A, #), N ) be a NTPMS, n{ } be a sequence in NTPMS and a ∊ A. If for ⩝ε > 0 and ⩝n, m

6. Let ((A, #), p ) be a NTPMS, {x } be a sequence in NTPMS p is

and and

below;

called

a in a ∊

ap

A. A.

PM.

is

If If

called

for ⩝

for ε ⩝

a,>aε0 >

PM.

b, c

and0 ∈ ⩝

andA;n, ⩝

a, n

mb,≥≥

c ∈

M,

M, A;

therethere

≥M, existexist

exist aa M

Min a∊M ℕ ∊suchℕ such

such thatthat (a, m{({

p N ({x }) n},

}, {x <}){ε<+ε})+<p(a, a), a);

εN+(a, then { then

(a,then

a); } is aAlso,

{x} nconverges}Cauchy

(A,asequence

a to ∊Also,

A. (A,

) isItcalled

isinshown a)PMS.

((A, isby

in#),

called

p ). a PMS.

(i) { (a, is(i)

a) Cauchy

= (b,sequence

(a, a)

b)== (b, (a, ((A,

b)==N#), (a,

b) (b,).a) =⟺ a(b,= a)

b) b; ⟺ a =

(ii)Definition

(a,(ii) 2≤([12]).

a)Definition b);≤

(a,(a,a)Let2N be(a,

([12]). b); N be aand

a nonempty

Let nonempty

# be a binary

and # be

oper

a

Theorem 3.

Theorem 3. Let

Let ((A,

((A, #),

#), p N )) be NTPMS,lim

be aa NTPMS, {xn } be=aaconvergent

or

→{ } be a convergent

→ a. sequence

sequence in in NTPMS

NTPMS and and p N ({x { n })}) ≤

({ m },}, {x ≤

(iii) (a,(iii)

conditions b)are= satisfied.

(a,

conditions(b,b) a);= satisfied.

are (b, a);

p N({({xm},}, {{xn})}) *neut(a))

*neut(a)) for any aa ∊inA.A.Then

for any Then{ {xn} }isisaaCauchy

Cauchysequence

sequenceininNTPMS.

NTPMS.

(iv) (a,(iv)

c) ≤ (a, (a,c) ≤

b) + (b, (a, c)

b) −+ (b, (b, c)

b);− (b, b);

(i) There (i) is neutral

Thereelement

is neutral (neut(x))

elementfor x ∈ N such

(neut(x)) ∈ N suc

for xthat

Definition 6. Let ((A, #), ) be a NTPMS, { } be a sequence in NTPMS and a ∊ A. If for ⩝ε > 0 and ⩝n, m

Proof. It is clear that Also, (A, Also,

)

x*neut(x) =x*neut(x)is (A,

called a) PMS.

is

neut(x)* x= =neut(x)* called

x. a PMS.

x = x.

≥M, there exist a M ∊ ℕ such that ({ }, { }) < ε + (a, a); then { } is a Cauchy sequence in ((A, #), ).

p N ( a, { xn })< ε/2 + p N ((ii) a, a)There (ii) is antiThere

element

is anti(anti(x))

element x∈ (5)N such

for(anti(x)) ∈ N such th

for xthat

It is clear that

Definition Definition

2 ([12]).

x*anti(x) = Let

x*anti(x)

anti(x)*2N([12]).

be

x == aneut(x).

nonempty

Let N be

anti(x)* x a neut(x).

= and

nonempty

# be a binary

and # be

operat

a bin

Theorem 3. Let ((A, #), ) be a NTPMS, { } be a convergent sequence in NTPMS and ({ }, { }) ≤

conditions conditions

are satisfied. are satisfied.

({ }, { }) *neut(a)) for any a ∊ A. Then(a, { { } is})a<Cauchy

ε/2 + sequence

(a, a) in NTPMS.

NT is shown NTbyis(x, shown

neut(x),by (x,

anti(x)).

(5)

neut(x), anti(x)).

(i) There(i) is neutral

Thereelement

is neutral (neut(x))

elementfor x ∈ N such

(neut(x)) ∈ N such

for xthat

for each n ≥ M or

Proof. x*neut(x)

DefinitionDefinition=

x*neut(x)

neut(x)*

3 ([15]). Let3 (M,=

x neut(x)*

= x.

([15]).

#) be x

Leta (M,= x.

NTS#)and be aa#b

NTS∊ N,

and⩝ a#b

a, b ∊ NM

(a, { }) < ε/2 + (ii)

(a, a)

that ⩝

There

a, (ii)

b, ∈

iscthat

antiM,⩝

There

element

a, b, ∈

iscanti

(anti(x))

M, x ∈(6)

elementfor(anti(x)) ∈ N such that

for xthat

N such

It is clear that

Symmetry 2018, 10, 240 5 of 7

{ xm })<2018,

p N ( a,Symmetry ε/210,+xpFOR N ( a,PEERa) REVIEW (6)

Lim introduced common coupled FPT for w-compatible mappings in

for each m ≥ M

Panickercommon introduced new FPT infor

PMS in [26].

Because {xn } is a convergent. Then, Lim introduced

we suppose that p N ({xm }, coupled {xn }) ≤ pFPT w-compatible

N ({xm }, {xn }) *neut(a)) for

mappings in PMS in

Panicker In this paper,

introduced new we in

FPT first

PMS introduced

in [26]. PMS and contraction in NT t

any a in A. It is clear that for n, m ≥ M;

In structure

this paper,forwedeveloping first introduced NT theory.PMS and Thus, researchers

contraction in can

NT arrive

theory.atS

p N ({ xm }, { xn }) ≤ p N ({ xm }, { xn }) ∗structure neut( aequations

))for

≤ pdeveloping problemNT solutions

theory.inThus, NT theory.

N ( a, { xn }) + p N ( a, { xm }) − p N ( a, a ) (7)

researchersIn Section 2, we at

can arrive give som

nonlin

equations forproblem

NTPM and NTM. In

solutions Section

in NT 3, NTPMS

theory. In Section is defined

2, we giveand some basic prope

Because ((A, #), p N ) is a NTPMS. From for (5)–(7),

NTPM wasand shown NTM. that Inboth

Sectionthe 3, classical

NTPMS metric and NTM

is defined are different

and some propertiesfromoft

p N ({xm }, {xn }) < ε/2 + p N (a, a) + ε/2 was+ pshown

N (a,defined − pwith

a) that N (a, a)each

both the= ε+ NTMS.

classical Furthermore,

p N (a, metric

a). Thus; and{xNTM the

n } is convergent

aare different from

Cauchy sequence and

the NTP

sequence in ((A, #), p N ). definedare with defined.

each NTMS. Also, complete

Furthermore, NTPMS are defined.sequence

the convergent Later, we anddefine

Cauch co

give some properties of these contractions.

are defined. Also, complete NTPMS are defined. Later, we define contractio Furthermore, we give a FP

give some giveproperties

conclusions. of these contractions. Furthermore, we give a FPT for N

Definition 7. Let ((A, #), p N ) be a NTPMS and {xn } be a Cauchy sequence in NTPMS. If every {xn } is

give conclusions.

convergent in ((A, #), p N ), then ((A, #), p N ) is called2.a Preliminaries complete NTPMS.

2. Preliminaries

Definition 8. Let ((A, #), p N ) be a NTPMS and m: A → We A begive a map. some basic

If the mapresults

m and and definitions

the NTPM for NTPM and NTM i

p N satisfy

the conditions given below, then m is called a contraction We giveforsome ((A, #), basic p Nresults

). and definitions for NTPM and NTM in this se

Definition 1 ([19]). Let A be nonempty set. If the function :AxA → ℝ s

(i) There exists any element c in A such that Definition b) ≤1 ([19]).

p N (a,below; ppNis(a,called

Let A a PM.

b*neut(c)); ⩝ a,a,bb,inc set.

be nonempty ∈ A;If the function :AxA → ℝ satisfies

A.

(ii) There exists k in [0, 1) such that p N (m(a), below;

m(b))p is≤calledk. p Na(a, PM. b); ⩝ a,a,bb,inc A. ∈ A;

(i) (a, a) = (b, b) = (a, b) = (b, a) ⟺ a = b;

(i) (ii)

(a, a) = (a, (b, a) b) ≤ = (a,(a,b);b) = (b, a) ⟺ a = b;

Example 2. Let A = {∅, {x}, {x, y}} be a set (ii) and m(X) (a,bea)cardinal

(iii) ≤(a, b)(a,of X in

= b); (b,A.a);Where, it is clear that X∩X = X.

∩ +

Thus, we give that neut(X) = X and anti(X) = X.

(iii) So, (A,

(iv) ) is

(a, b) = (a, (b, a c) ≤a); (a,give

NTS. We b) + the function

(b, c) − p N (b,: AxAb); → R ∪

{0} such that p N (X, Y)= max{2 2 − m ( X ) 2

− 1, 2(iv) − m ( Y ) − 1}. From(a, Definition 4, c) −

(a, c) ≤Also, (A, b) + ) is called

(b, a PMS. (b, b);

(i), (ii) and (iii) are apparent.

(iv) p N (X, {x, y})= p N (X, Y ∩ {x, y}) since for Also,X, (A, ) is called a PMS.

YinA. Furthermore, it is clear that

− − − Definition − 2 x,

([12]).

}) Let N be a nonempty and # be a binary operation. Then, N

max{2 2 m ( X ) − 1, 2 2 m ( Y ) − 1} ≤ max{2 2 m ( X ) − 1, 2 2 m ({ y − 1} + max{22−m(Z) − 1, 22−m({ x,y})

conditions are satisfied.

− 1} − max{22−m({ x,y}) − 1, 22−m({ x,y}) −Definition 1}. Thus,

2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and # be a binary operation. Then, N is calle

p N (X, Y ∩ {x, y})≤ p N (X, {x, y})+ p N ({x, y},B) conditions are satisfied. ∈ aNNTPMS.

− (i)p N There

({x, is neutral

y},{x, y}). Furthermore, ((A, ∩), for

element (neut(x)) p Nx) is such that

(i) There

{ x, yis},x*neut(x)

X = {element

neutral x,=yneut(x)*

} (neut(x)) x = x.for x ∈ N such that

Let m: A → A be a map such that m(X) = x*neut(x) {(ii)

x }, XThere = ∅is anti xelement

= neut(x)* = x. (anti(x)) for x ∈ N such that

{ x, yis},x*anti(x) { x }= anti(x)* x =for x ∈ N such that

neut(x).

(ii) There X =element

anti (anti(x))

For k = 0, 2 x*anti(x)NT = anti(x)* x = neut(x).

is shown by (x, neut(x), anti(x)).

p N (m(∅), m(∅)) = p N ({x}, {x}) = 1 ≤ 0, 2. pNT N (∅, ∅) = 1,by5 (x, neut(x), anti(x)).

is shown

p N (m(∅), m({x})) = p N ({x}, {x, y}) = 1 ≤ 0, 2. Definition p N (∅, {x}) =31,([15]). 5 Let (M, #) be a NTS and a#b ∊ N, ⩝ a, b ∊ M. NTM is a

p N (m(∅), m({x, y})) = p N ({x}, {x, y}) =Definition 1 ≤ 0, that2. p N 3⩝(∅,

a, c ∈y})

b,{x,

([15]). LetM,=(M, 1, 5#) be a NTS and a#b ∊ N, ⩝ a, b ∊ M. NTM is a map

p N (m({x}), m({x})) = p N ({x, y}, {x, y}) that =0≤ ⩝a,0,(a)

b,2.c p∈NM,({x},

(a, b) {x})

≥ 0= 0, 5

p N (m({x}), m({x, y})) = p N ({x, y}, {x, y}) = 0 ≤(b) 0, 2.IfpaN=({x}, {x,y}) =(a, 0, b)

5 =0

(a) (a, b) ≥ 0 b, then

p N (m({x, y}), m({x, y})) = p N ({x, y}, {x, y}) = 0(c) ≤ 0, 2. (a, p Nb)({x, y},

= b) (a, {x, y}) = 0, 5

(b) If a = b, then (a, = 0b)

Thus, m is a contraction for ((A, ∩), p N )

(c) (d)b) If

(a, = there b) any element c ∊ M such that

(a,exists

(a,

(d) If there exists any element c) ≤ c ∊ M such

(a, c*neut(b)), then

that (a, c*neut(b)) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c).

Theorem 4. For each contraction m over a complete NTPMS ((A, #), p N ), there exists a unique x in A such

(a, c) Also,

≤ (a, c*neut(b)),

((M,*), thenis called

) space (a, c*neut(b))

NTMS. ≤ (a, b) + (b, c).

that x = m(x). Also, p N (x, x) = 0.

Also, ((M,*), ) space is called NTMS.

Proof. Let m be a contraction for ((A, #), p N ) complete 3. Neutrosophic NTPMS Triplet and xn Partial= m(xn− x0 ∈ A be a

1 ) andSpace

Metric

unique element. Also, we can take 3. Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space

Partial metric is the generalization of usual metric space, since s

p N ( xn , xk ) ≤ pPartial

N partial xk ∗metric

( xn , metric neut is(thexspace. )) The most important

n−1generalization of usual metric use of (8)PMSsince

space, is toself-dist

transfe

partial computer

metric space. science. TheAlso,mostIfimportant

f is a mapping use from

of PMS a setisE to

into itself, any

transfer ele

mathe

since for m is a contraction over ((A, #), p N ) complete NTPMS. Then,

computer called a fixed

science. Also,point If f of

is af. mapping

Many problems,from a set including nonlinear

E into itself, partial di

any element x

p N (x2 , x1 ) = p N (m(x1 ), m(x0 )) ≤ c. p N (x1 , x0 ) and

called amay fixedbe pointrecastof f.asMany problemsproblems, of finding

including a fixed point partial

nonlinear of a mapping

differentii

may beintroducedrecast as problems firstly PMS of and

finding FPTainfixedNT theory.

point ofSo, a we obtained

mapping in a new

spa

introduced theory. Thus,

firstly PMS researchers

and FPT in can NTarrive

theory.at nonlinear partial differential

So, we obtained a new structe

theory. NT Thus, theory.

researchers can arrive at nonlinear partial differential equation

NT theory.

Symmetry 2018, 10, 240 6 of 7

p N (xm+1 , xm ) = p N (m(xm ), m(xm−1 ))≤ c. p N (xm , xm−1 ) ≤ cm . p N (x1 , x0 ). Thus; from (8) and definition

of NTPMS,

p N ( xn , xm ) ≤ p N ( xn xm ∗ neut( xn−1 )) ≤ p N ( x n , x n −1 ) + p N ( x n −1 , x m ) − p N ( x n −1 , x n −1 )

≤ cn−1 .p N ( x1 , x0 ) + p N ( xn−1 , xm ) − p N ( xn−1 , xn−1 )

≤ c n −1 . p N ( x 1 , x 0 ) + p N ( x n −1 , x n −2 ) + . . . + p N ( x m , x m −1

≤ ∑in=−m1 ci .p N ( x1 , x0 ) − ∑in=−m1 p N ( xi , xi )

≤ ∑in=−m1 ci .p N ( x1 , x0 ) + p N ( x0 , x0 )

= ∑in=−m1 ci .p N ( x1 , x0 ) + p N ( x0 , x0 ) (For n, m → ∞ )

m

= 1c−c p N ( x1 , x0 )+ p N ( x0 , x0 ) → p N ( x0 , x0 )

Thus {xn } is a cauchy sequence. Also {xn } is convergent such that xn → x . Because ((A, #), p N )

is complete NTPMS. Thus; m(xn ) → m(x) since for xn = m(xn−1 ); m(xn ) = xn+1 → x . Thus; m(x) = x.

Suppose that m(x) = x or m(y) = y for x, y ∈ xn . Where;

p N (x, y)= p N (m(x), m(y)) ≤c. p N (x, y). p N (x, y)> 0, c ≥ 1 and it is a contradiction. Thus; p N (x, y) =

p N (x, x) = p N (y, y) = 0 and x = y. Therefore, p N (x, x) = 0.

4. Conclusions

In this paper, we introduced NTPMS. We also show that both the classical metric and NTM are

different from the NT partial metric. This NT notion has more features than the classical notion. We also

introduced contraction for PMS and we give a fixed point theory for PMS in NT theory. So, we obtained

a new structure for developing NT theory. Thus, researchers can arrive at nonlinear partial differential

equations problem solutions in NT theory thanks to NTPMS and FPT for NTPMS.

Author Contributions: In this paper, each Author contributed equally. M.S. introduced NTPMS and provided

examples. A.K. introduced contraction for NTPMS and provided examples. M.A.C. gave fixed point theory for

NTPMS and organized the paper.

Funding: This research received no external funding.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors are not report a conflict of interest.

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