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Smarandache Curves of Bertrand Curves Pair According to Frenet


Frame

Süleyman Şenyurt, Abdussamet Çalışkan and Ünzile Çelik

abstract: In this paper, the curvature and the torsion of Smarandache curves
obtained by the vectors of the Bertrand partner curve are calculated. These values
are expressed depending upon the α curve. Besides, we illustrate example with our
main results.

Key Words: Bertrand curves pair, Smarandache Curves, Frenet invariants.

Contents

1 Introduction 1

2 Preliminaries 2

3 Smarandache Curves of Bertrand curves Pair According to Frenet


Frame 3
3.1 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1. Introduction
It is well known that many studies related to the differential geometry of curves
have been made. Especially, by establishing relations between the Frenet Frames
in mutual points of two curves several theories have been obtained. The best
known of these: Bertrand curves discovered by J. Bertrand in 1850 are one of
the important and interesting topics of classical special curve theory. A Bertrand
curves is defined as a special curve which shares its principal normals with another
special curve, called Bertrand mate or Bertrand curves Partner. The following
properties of Bertrand curves are well known: If two curves have the same principal
normals, (i) corresponding points are a fixed distance apart; (ii) the tangents at
corresponding points are at a fixed angle. These well known properties of Bertrand
curves in Euclidean 3-space was extended by L. R. Pears in [8]. The Bertrand
curves are the Inclined curve pairs. On the other hand, it gave the notion of
Bertrand Representation and found that the Bertrand Representation is spherical,
[6].
A regular curve in Minkowski space-time, whose position vector is composed by
Frenet frame vectors on another regular curve, is called a Smarandache curve [13].
Special Smarandache curves have been studied by some authors. Melih Turgut
and Süha Yılmaz studied a special case of such curves and called it Smarandache
2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 53A04.
Submitted February 01, 2018. Published July 15, 2018

Typeset by BSP
M
style.
1 c Soc. Paran. de Mat.

2 S. Şenyurt, A. Çalişkan and Ü. Çelik

T B2 curves in the space E41 [13]. Ahmad T.Ali studied some special Smarandache
curves in the Euclidean space. He studied Frenet-Serret invariants of a special
case, [1]. Şenyurt and Çalışkan investigated special Smarandache curves in terms
of Sabban frame of spherical indicatrix curves and they gave some characterization
of Smarandache curves, [3]. Özcan Bektaş and Salim Yüce studied some special
Smarandache curves according to Darboux Frame in E3 , [2]. Nurten Bayrak,
Özcan Bektaş and Salim Yüce studied some special Smarandache curves in E31 .
Kemal Tas.köprü and Murat Tosun studied special Smarandache curves according
to Sabban frame on S 2 [12]. Şenyurt and Sivas defined N C-Smarandache curve,
then they calculated the curvature and torsion of N B and T N B- Smarandache
curves together with N C-Smarandache curve, [11]. It studied that the special
Smarandache curve in terms of Sabban frame of Fixed Pole curve and they gave
some characterization of Smarandache curves, [4]. When the unit Darboux vector
of the partner curve of Mannheim curve were taken as the position vectors, the
curvature and the torsion of Smarandache curve were calculated. These values
were expressed depending upon the Mannheim curve, [5]. In [10], they calculated
curvature and torsion of spatial quaternionic involute curve according to n∗1 normal
vector and w∗ unit Darboux vector of Smarandache curve.
In this paper, special Smarandache curves belonging to α∗ curve such as T ∗ N ∗ ,
N B , T ∗ B ∗ and T ∗ N ∗ B ∗ drawn by Frenet frame are defined and some related
∗ ∗

results are given.

2. Preliminaries
In E3 , inner product is given by
h, i = x21 + x32 + x23
where (x1 , x2 , x3 ) ∈ E3 . Let α : I → E3 be a unit speed curve denote by {T, N, B}
the moving Frenet frame . For an arbitrary curve α ∈ E3 , with first and second
curvature, κ and τ respectively, the Frenet formulae is given by [7], [9]
T ′ = κN, N ′ = −κT + τ B, B ′ = −τ N. (2.1)
3 ∗ 3 2
Let α : I → E and α : I → E be the C − class differentiable unit speed two
curves and let {T (s), N (s), B(s)} and {T ∗ (s), N ∗ (s), B ∗ (s)} be the Frenet frames
of the curves α and α∗ , respectively. If the principal normal vector N of the curve
α is linearly dependent on the principal vector N ∗ of the curve α∗ , then the pair
(α, α∗ ) is said to be Bertrand curves pair. The distance between corresponding
points of the Bertrand curves pair in E3 is constant, [7].
The relations between the Frenet frames {T (s), N (s), B(s)} and
{T ∗ (s), N ∗ (s), B ∗ (s)} are given by [9].


T = cos θT + sin θB

N∗ = N (2.2)

 ∗
B = − sin θT + cos θB.
Where ∠(T, T ∗) = θ
Smarandache Curves of Bertrand Curves Pair According to Frenet Frame 3

Theorem 2.1. Let (α, α∗ ) be a Bertrand curves pair in E3 . For the curvatures
and the torsions of the Bertrand curves pair (α, α∗ ) we have, [9]

λκ − sin2 θ ∗ sin2 θ
κ∗ = , τ = 2 , λ = constant. (2.3)
λ(1 − λκ) λ τ

3. Smarandache Curves of Bertrand curves Pair According to Frenet


Frame

Here, we give some characterizations of Smarandache curves in Euclidean 3-


space. We find parametrization of Smarandache curves for tangent, principal nor-
mal and binormal of α∗ curve. Furthermore we investigate the curvature and the
torsion of Smarandache curves of Bertrand pair and these values are expressed
depending upon the α curve.

Definition 3.1. Let (α, α∗ ) be a Bertrand curves pair in E 3 and {T ∗ N ∗ B ∗ } be


the Frenet frame of the Bertrand curves α∗ at α∗ (s).

1
β 1 (s) = √ (T ∗ + N ∗ ). (3.1)
2

regular curve drawn by the vector is called T ∗ N ∗ - Smarandache curve.

Theorem 3.2. The Frenet invariants of the T ∗ N ∗ - Smarandache curve are given
as following;

−κT + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)N + τ B γ T + υ 1 N + χ1 B



Tβ 1 (s) =
 p , Nβ 1 = p1


 2
kW k + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2 γ 1 2 + υ 1 2 + χ1 2





 
χ1 (κ cos θ − τ sin θ) − υ 1 τ T + (κχ1 + τ γ 1 )N


Bβ 1 =



 q 
kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2 (γ 1 2 + υ 1 2 + χ1 2 )







 υ1 κ + γ 1 (κ cos θ − τ sin θ) B
−q ,



 
kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2 (γ 1 2 + υ 1 2 + χ1 2 )










 p
2(γ 1 2 + υ 1 2 + χ1 2 ) 2(ϑ1 η 1 + σ 1 λ1 + µ1 ρ3 )


κβ 1 = 2 , τ β 1 =


ϑ 1 2 + σ 1 2 + µ1 2

kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2
(3.2)
Herein, the coefficients are
4 S. Şenyurt, A. Çalişkan and Ü. Çelik

(−κ′ − κ2 cos θ + κτ sin θ) kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2


 
γ 1 =


+κ kW kkW k′ + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)(κ′ cos θ − τ ′ sin θ) ,
 



(−kW k2 + κ′ cos θ − τ ′ sin θ) kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2

υ = 
1
−(κ cos θ − τ sin θ) kW kkW k′ + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)(κ′ cos θ − τ ′ sin θ) ,




(κτ cos θ − τ 2 sin θ + τ ′ ) kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2

χ1 =





−τ kW kkW k′ + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)(κ′ cos θ − τ ′ sin θ) ,
 

(−κ′ − κ2 cos θ + κτ sin θ)′ − κ − kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)′ ,


 
η =
 1

 ′
λ 1 =


 κ(−κ′ − κ2 cos θ + κτ sin θ) + − kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)′
−τ (κτ cos θ − τ 2 sin θ + τ ′ ),





τ − kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)′ + (κτ cos θ − τ 2 sin θ + τ ′ )′ ,

 ρ1 =



ϑ1 = (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)(κτ cos θ − τ 2 sin θ + τ ′ ) − τ − kW k2

+(κ cos θ − τ sin θ)′ ,
 



κ(κτ cos θ − τ 2 sin θ + τ ′ ) + τ (−κ′ − κ2 cos θ + κτ sin θ),




 σ1 =
−κ − kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)′ + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)

1 =




 µ
·(−κ′ − κ2 cos θ + κτ sin θ).

Proof If we use the equation (2.2) in the equation (3.1), we obtain

cos θT + N + sin θB
β 1 (s) = √ · (3.3)
2

The derivative of this equation with respect to s is as follows:

dsβ1 −κT + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)N + τ B


β ′1 = Tβ1 = √ (3.4)
ds 2

and by substitution, we get

−κT + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)N + τ B


Tβ1 (s) = p (3.5)
kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2

where r
dsβ 1 kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2
= · (3.6)
ds 2
In order to determine the first curvature and the principal normal of the curve
β 1 (s), we formalize

2(γ 1 T + υ 1 N + χ1 B)
Tβ′ 1 (s) = 2 (3.7)
kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2
Smarandache Curves of Bertrand Curves Pair According to Frenet Frame 5

where

(−κ′ − κ2 cos θ + κτ sin θ) kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2


 

 γ1 =

+κ kW kkW k′ + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)(κ′ cos θ − τ ′ sin θ) ,
 



(−kW k2 + κ′ cos θ − τ ′ sin θ) kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2

υ = 
1
−(κ cos θ − τ sin θ) kW kkW k′ + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)(κ′ cos θ − τ ′ sin θ) ,




(κτ cos θ − τ 2 sin θ + τ ′ ) kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2

χ1 =





−τ kW kkW k′ + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)(κ′ cos θ − τ ′ sin θ) ·
 

The first curvature is

κβ 1 = kTβ′ 1 k,
p
2(γ 1 2 + υ 1 2 + χ1 2 )
κβ 1 = 2 ·
kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2

The principal normal vector field and the binormal vector field are respectively
given by

γ T + υ 1 N + χ1 B
Nβ1 = p1 , (3.8)
γ 1 2 + υ 1 2 + χ1 2


χ1 (κ cos θ − τ sin θ) − υ 1 τ T + (κχ1 + τ γ 1 )N
Bβ1 = q 
kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2 (γ 1 2 + υ 1 2 + χ1 2 )

υ 1 κ + γ 1 (κ cos θ − τ sin θ) B
− q  ·
kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)2 (γ 1 2 + υ 1 2 + χ1 2 )
(3.9)

The torsion is then given by

det(β ′1 , β ′′1 , β ′′′


1 )
τ β1 = ,
kβ ′1 ∧ β ′′1 k2

2(ϑ1 η 1 + ϑ2 η 2 + ϑ3 η 3 )
τ β1 =
ϑ1 2 + ϑ2 2 + ϑ3 2
where

(−κ′ − κ2 cos θ + κτ sin θ)′ − κ − kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)′ ,


 
η 1 =


κ(−κ′ − κ2 cos θ + κτ sin θ) + − kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)′

λ = 
1


 −τ (κτ cos θ − τ 2 sin θ + τ ′ ),
τ − kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)′ + (κτ cos θ − τ 2 sin θ + τ ′ )′ ,

ρ1 =

6 S. Şenyurt, A. Çalişkan and Ü. Çelik




 ϑ1 = (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)(κτ cos θ − τ 2 sin θ + τ ′ ) − τ − kW k2
+(κ cos θ − τ sin θ)′ ,

 


σ1 = κ(κτ cos θ − τ 2 sin θ + τ ′ ) + τ (−κ′ − κ2 cos θ + κτ sin θ)
−κ − kW k2 + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)′ + (κ cos θ − τ sin θ)
 
µ1 =




·(−κ′ − κ2 cos θ + κτ sin θ).

Definition 3.3. Let (α, α∗ ) be a Bertrand curves pair in E 3 and {T ∗ N ∗ B ∗ } be


the Frenet frame of the Bertrand curves α∗ at α∗ (s)

1
β 2 (s) = √ (N ∗ + B ∗ ) (3.10)
2

regular curve drawn by the vector is called N ∗ B ∗ - Smarandache curve.

Theorem 3.4. The Frenet invariants of the N ∗ B ∗ - Smarandache curve are given
as following;

−κT − (κ sin θ + τ cos θ)N + τ B γ T + υ 2 N + χ2 B
Tβ 2 = , Nβ2 = p2 ,


 p

 2
kW k + (κ sin θ + τ cos θ)2 γ 2 2 + υ 2 2 + χ2 2






−(χ (κ sin θ + τ cos θ) + υ 2 τ )T + (χ2 κ + γ 2 τ )N


 Bβ 2 = q 2


 
kW k2 + (κ sin θ + τ cos θ)2 (γ 2 2 + υ 2 2 + χ2 2 )






 (−υ 2 κ + γ 2 (κ sin θ + τ cos θ))B


 +q  ,
kW k2 + (κ sin θ + τ cos θ)2 (γ 2 2 + υ 2 2 + χ2 2 )









 p √
2γ 22 + 2υ22 + 2χ22 2(ϑ2 η 2 + σ 2 λ2 + µ2 ρ2 )




 κβ 2 = 2 2 , τ β 2 = ·
ϑ2 2 + σ 2 2 + µ2 2

 
kW k2 + κ sin θ + τ cos θ

Herein, the coefficients are



− κ′ + κ(κ sin θ + τ cos θ) kW k2 + (κ sin θ


 γ2 =

+τ cos θ)2 + κ kW kkW k′ + (κ sin θ + τ cos θ)
  




·(κ′ sin θ + τ ′ cos θ)(κ′ sin θ + τ ′ cos θ),




(−κ2 − (κ′ sin θ + τ ′ cos θ) − τ 2 ) kW k2 + (κ sin θ + τ cos θ)2

υ = 
2
+(κ sin θ + τ cos θ) kW kkW k′ + (κ sin θ + τ cos θ)




·(κ′ sin θ + τ ′ cos θ),




(−τ (κ sin θ + τ cos θ) + τ ′ ) kW k2 + (κ sin θ + τ cos θ)2
 
χ2 =





−τ kW kkW k′ + (κ sin θ + τ cos θ) (κ′ sin θ + τ ′ cos θ),
 
Smarandache Curves of Bertrand Curves Pair According to Frenet Frame 7

(−κ′ − κ(κ sin θ + τ cos θ))′ − κ − kW k2 + (κ′ sin θ + τ ′ cos θ) ,


 
 η2 =
 ′
κ(−κ′ + κ(κ sin θ + τ cos θ)) + − kW k2 − (κ′ sin θ + τ ′ cos θ)




 λ2 =
−τ (−τ (κ sin θ + τ cos θ) + τ ′ ),





τ − kW k2 + (κ′ sin θ + τ ′ cos θ) + (−τ (κ sin θ + τ cos θ) + τ ′ )′ ,

 ρ2 =



(−κ sin θ − τ cos θ) − τ (κ sin θ + τ cos θ) + τ ′

ϑ2 =
+τ kW k2 + (κ′ sin θ + τ ′ cos θ) ,

 



κ(−τ (κ sin θ + τ cos θ) + τ ′ ) + τ (−κ′ + κ(κ sin θ + τ cos θ)),




 σ2 =
2 = (κ sin θ + τ cos θ)(−κ′ + κ(κ sin θ + τ cos θ))




 µ
+κ kW k2 + (κ′ sin θ + τ ′ cos θ) .
 

Proof The proof is similar to proof of Theorem 3.2.


Definition 3.5. Let (α, α∗ ) be a Bertrand curves pair in E 3 and {T ∗ N ∗ B ∗ } be
the Frenet frame of the Bertrand curves α∗ at α∗ (s).
1
β 3 (s) = √ (T ∗ + B ∗ ). (3.11)
2
regular curve drawn by the vector is called T ∗ B ∗ - Smarandache curve.
Theorem 3.6. The Frenet invariants of the N ∗ B ∗ - Smarandache curve are given
as following;
 
κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) N γ T + υ 3 N + χ3 B
Tβ 3 = , Nβ3 = p3 ,


 p


 2 2
κ − τ − kW k sin 2θ2 γ 3 2 + υ 3 2 + χ3 2





(χ3 T − γ 3 B)[κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)]


Bβ 3 = p

 (κ2 − τ 2 − kW k2 sin 2θ)(γ 3 2 + υ 3 2 + χ3 2 )




 p
2(γ 3 2 + υ 3 2 + χ3 2 ) −τ κ′ + κτ ′



 κβ 3 = 2 , τ = ·

 β
(κ − τ 2 − kW k2 sin 2θ)2
 
3
κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) kW k2
Herein, the coefficients are
−κ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) (κ2 − τ 2 − kW k2 sin 2θ),
  
γ 3 =

κ (cos θ − sin θ) − τ ′ (sin θ + cos θ) (κ2 − τ 2 − kW k2 sin 2θ)

υ =  ′ 
3
− κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)(κκ′ − τ τ ′ − kW kkW k′ sin 2θ) ,
 



τ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) (κ2 − τ 2 − kW k2 sin 2θ).
 
χ3 =

Proof The proof is similar to proof of Theorem 3.2.


Definition 3.7. Let (α, α∗ ) be a Bertrand curves pair in E 3 and {T ∗ N ∗ B ∗ } be
the Frenet frame of the Bertrand curves α∗ at α∗ (s).
1
β 4 (s) = √ (T ∗ + N ∗ + B ∗ ). (3.12)
3
regular curve drawn by the vector is called T ∗ N ∗ B ∗ - Smarandache curve.
8 S. Şenyurt, A. Çalişkan and Ü. Çelik

Theorem 3.8. The Frenet invariants of the T ∗ N ∗ B ∗ - Smarandache curve are


given as following;

 
−κT + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) N + τ B
Tβ 4 = q  2 ,
kW k2 + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)

γ 4 T + υ 4 N + χ4 B
Nβ4 = p ,
γ 4 2 + υ 4 2 + χ4 2
h  
χ4 κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) − υ 4 τ T

+(χ4 κ + γ 4 τ )N − υ 4 κ + γ 4 κ(cos θ − sin θ)


 i −1
−τ (sin θ + cos θ) B (γ 4 2 + υ 4 2 + χ4 2 ) 2
Bβ4 = q  2 ,
kW k2 + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)
p
3(γ 4 2 + υ 4 2 + χ4 2 )
κβ4 =   2  2 ,
kW k2 + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)

3(ϑ4 η 4 + σ4 λ4 + µ4 ρ4 )
τ β4 = ·
ϑ4 2 + σ 4 2 + µ4 2

Herein, the coefficients are

 h i
− κ′ − κ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) kW k2 + κ(cos θ



 γ4 =

 2  
+ κ kW kkW k′ + κ(cos θ − sin θ)

− sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)





  ′ 
−τ (sin θ + cos θ) κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) ,




 h ′ i
− kW k2 + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) kW k2 + κ(cos θ
 
υ4 =





 2   
− sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) − κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)



· kW kkW k′ + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) κ(cos θ
 




 ′ 
− sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) ,




 h i
τ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) + τ ′ kW k2 + κ(cos θ
  
χ4 =





 2  
− τ kW kkW k′ + κ(cos θ − sin θ)

− sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)





  ′ 
−τ (sin θ + cos θ) κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) ,


Smarandache Curves of Bertrand Curves Pair According to Frenet Frame 9

  ′
− κ′ − κ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)

η 4 =


  ′ 
−κ − kW k2 + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) ,

 


 
 
κ − κ′ − κ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)
 



 λ4 =
  ′ ′
+ − kW k2 + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)


   
−τ τ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) + τ ′ ,

 



  ′ 
τ − kW k2 + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)

ρ4 =





   ′
+ τ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) + τ ′ ,

 

  


 ϑ4 = κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) τ κ(cos θ
 
− sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) + τ ′

 


 
 ′ 
−τ − kW k2 + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) ,

 



   
κ τ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) + τ ′

σ = 
4
 
+τ − κ′ − κ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) ,
 


 
 ′ 
κ − kW k2 + κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)
 



 µ4 =
  
+
 κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ)




 
− κ′ − κ κ(cos θ − sin θ) − τ (sin θ + cos θ) .

 

Proof The proof is similar to proof of Theorem 3.2.

3.1. Example

Let (α, α∗ ) be Bertrand curves pair, these curves are as follows

1 1
α(s) = √ − cos s, − sin s, s , α∗ (s) = √ (cos s, sin s, s)·

2 2

The Frenet invariants of the Bertrand partner curve α∗ (s) are given as following:
 1
T ∗ (s) = √ (− sin s, cos s, 1), N ∗ (s) = − cos s, − sin s, 0


2
1 1 1
B ∗ (s) =
 √ (sin s, − cos s, 1), κ∗ (s) = √ , τ ∗ (s) = √ ·
2 2 2

In terms of definitions, we obtain special Smarandache curves as following:


10 S. Şenyurt, A. Çalişkan and Ü. Çelik

Figure 1: Bertrand Curve Pair

T ∗ N ∗ − Smarandache Curve N ∗ B ∗ − Smarandache Curve

T ∗ B ∗ − Smarandache Curve T ∗ N ∗ B ∗ − Smarandache Curve


Smarandache Curves of Bertrand Curves Pair According to Frenet Frame11

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Süleyman Şenyurt,
Ordu University,
Department of Mathematics,
Faculty of Arts and Sciences,
Turkey.
E-mail address: senyurtsuleyman@hotmail.com

and

Abdussamet Çalışkan,
Ordu University,
Department of Mathematics,
Faculty of Arts and Sciences,
Turkey.
E-mail address: a.caliskan@odu.edu.tr

and

Ünzile Çelik
Ordu University,
Department of Mathematics,
Faculty of Arts and Sciences,
Turkey.
E-mail address: unzile.celik@hotmail.com