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Impact Assessment Report on

Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand


For

Consultancy Services for Conducting TNA, Impact Studies


and Developing Strategic Goal of B-TEVTA

Submitted to
Balochistan Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority

Researched and Compiled by


R2V (Private) Limited

October 20, 2016


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Impact Assessment Report on 
 
Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand 
 
 
Prepared for 
 
Balochistan Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority 
Quetta, Pakistan 
 
Under Consultancy Services for Conducting TNA, Impact Studies  
and Developing Strategic Goal of B‐TEVTA 
 
 
Prepared and Compiled by 
 

 
Rawalpindi – Karachi – Quetta 
www.r2v.com 
 
 
Researchers and Authors 
Ali Hamza  Bilal Chaudhry  Sonia Hussain
 
 
 
Cover and Graphics  Infographics 
Naveed Ikram  Bilal Chaudhry 
 
 
 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.  
No part of this work may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means; graphic, electronic, or 
mechanical; including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, email, web distribution, information 
networks, or information storage and retrieval systems; without permission in writing from B‐TEVTA or the Publisher. 
 
 
Published by R2V (Private) Limited, Rawalpindi, Pakistan 
October 2016   

 
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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Executive Summary

Executive Summary

R2V (Private) Limited has been awarded a Services Contract by Balochistan Technical Education and
Vocational Training Authority [B-TEVTA] for executing Consultancy Services for Conducting Training
Needs Assessment, (six) Impact Assessments including Developing Strategic Goals for the organization.
This Impact Assessment serves as the fourth deliverable and a major milestone for this project. This
report is researched and compiled by R2V utilizing numerous primary and secondary data sources.

The Report on Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand is aimed at identifying the rise in labor demand
within the Gwadar region on account of development of the Gwadar Port. The Report aims to provide
B-TEVTA with added visibility to preempt and cater for the projected skill needs. The Report starts
with an introduction of the Consultancy, along with the Project background, scope, objectives,
deliverables and the specific outcomes desired of this report. The current stage of the project is also
briefly explained to orientate the reader about the Project’s progress thus far. The term ‘Impact
Assessment’ along with its significance and types, is explained. Principles and Guidelines for Social
Impact Assessment have been followed during the research and compilation of this report, with slight
customization for the specific context of Balochistan.

The Report than moves on to provide an insight into the relevance and importance of ports and their
socio-economic impact on adjoining cities, regions and their countries. Ports enable trade, generate
revenue and create employment. This is showcased by presenting examples of three of the world’s
major ports; Port of Shanghai, Port of Singapore and Port of New Jersey.

After presenting the reader with background knowledge of ports and their far-reaching impacts, the
subsequent sections concentrate on the main theme of the Report. Demographic, geographic, social
and economic factors have been identified to ensure that the steps taken by B-TEVTA are actionable,
realistic and practical. Gwadar’s geographic and strategic prominence is highlighted, as is the interest
of international stakeholders that are deeply vested in its future. Stakeholders with respect to the
Gwadar Port are identified. This is further complimented by an appraisal of the projects being
undertaken at Gwadar Port. A SWOT matrix is presented and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities
and threats presented by the development of Gwadar Port are analyzed.

The Report then goes on to identify and analyze stakeholders, and discusses the need of creating
linkages, with a discussion on the approach and methodology, which if utilized, would enable B-TEVTA
to create key linkages with local and international industries. The Case for Balochistan is presented
after analysis of the skill gap between the skilled labor demand for Gwadar port, and the perceived
current competency levels of Balochistan's skilled labor. Opportunities for skilled labor of Balochistan
are separately addressed. Lists of 441 trades, skills and courses in 24 industries and disciplines have
been given that are likely to be required by industries and businesses relevant to the development of
Gwadar Port. These may be introduced in different TVET institutes to enhance the skills, and thereby
demand, of labor in Balochistan.

A Qualitative approach has been used for data gathering and analysis; primary data has been collected
through interviews with B-TEVTA, TVET professionals and scholars. Secondary research has been
conducted by reviewing hundreds of research articles, peer-reviewed journals, academic databases

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Executive Summary

and data from government and international sources. Over one hundred ninety (190) such sources
have been cited, after having studied many more.

The Report concludes that the skill level prevalent in Balochistan does not meet the requirements of
technologically advanced knowledge, required by the foreign companies operating in the region,
especially in Gwadar. In actuality, it has been inferred that Balochistan is mainly producing unskilled
labor, highlighting a massive gap between the local capabilities and the level of competencies
required. It is also determined that the level of preparedness of TVET institutes of Balochistan for
picking up the challenge can only be accurately ascertained after the data collected through the
recently concluded TNA Survey is analyzed.

Recommendations made to B-TEVTA include creating of forward institute to institute and industry,
political and diplomatic linkages to secure the interests of Balochistan’s workforce for the
opportunities arising out of development of the Gwadar port. TVET institutes have been advised to
integrate their courses, curricula, course contents and practical training with contemporary global
standards, and with the local industry. Collaboration among national and international TVET sectors
has been advised, as has been NAVTTC accreditation for qualifying TVET institutes. It is realized that
further planning level recommendations can be made only after data analysis from the TNA survey
and the TVET institutional profiling is completed. This subject will be revisited in the TNA Report and
in the Comprehensive Training Plan, as well as while formulating the strategic objectives for B-TEVTA
towards the end of this Consultancy.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Contents

Contents at a Glance

Executive Summary..............................................................................................................i

Contents at a Glance ......................................................................................................... iii

Table of Contents ............................................................................................................... iv

List of Figures ...................................................................................................................... x

List of Tables ..................................................................................................................... xii

List of Abbreviations ........................................................................................................ xiv

1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1

2. What is an Impact Assessment? ................................................................................. 12

3. Ports and Port Cities ................................................................................................... 21

4. District Gwadar – An Overview .................................................................................. 32

5. Importance of Gwadar Port ........................................................................................ 46

6. Economic and Strategic Interest of Global Stakeholders in Gwadar Port .................... 64

7. Development Projects Linked to Gwadar Port ............................................................ 78

8. Stakeholders for B-TEVTA and Gwadar Port ............................................................... 91

9. Creating Linkages with Gwadar Port Stakeholders ................................................... 105

10. Case of Balochistan .................................................................................................. 119

11. Research Methodology ............................................................................................ 153

12. Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 157

13. Recommendations ................................................................................................... 174

References ...................................................................................................................... 177

Annex A Informed Consent Form ................................................................................... 192

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Contents

Table of Contents

Executive Summary..............................................................................................................i

Contents at a Glance ......................................................................................................... iii

Table of Contents ............................................................................................................... iv

List of Figures ...................................................................................................................... x

List of Tables ..................................................................................................................... xii

List of Abbreviations ........................................................................................................ xiv

1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1

1.1. Project Background .............................................................................................................. 1


1.2. Project Scope ........................................................................................................................ 2
1.3. Project Objectives................................................................................................................. 2
1.4. Project Deliverables .............................................................................................................. 3
1.4.1. The Inception Report ............................................................................................... 3
1.4.2. The Six Impact Assessments .................................................................................... 4
1.4.3. The Web Portal ........................................................................................................ 6
1.4.4. The TNA Report ....................................................................................................... 6
1.5. Current Status of Deliverables.............................................................................................. 6
1.6. Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Impact Assessment Report ......................................... 8
1.6.1. Objectives of Report ................................................................................................ 8
1.6.2. Structure of Report.................................................................................................. 9

2. What is an Impact Assessment? ................................................................................. 12

2.1. Definition ............................................................................................................................ 12


2.2. Significance of Impact Assessments (IA) ............................................................................ 13
2.3. Types of Impact Assessments ............................................................................................. 13
2.3.1. Social Impact Assessments (SIA) ........................................................................... 13
2.3.2. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) ............................................................. 17
2.3.3. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) ........................................................................... 17
2.3.4. Integrated Impact Assessment (IIA) ...................................................................... 17
2.4. Guidelines for Social Impact Assessments ......................................................................... 18

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3. Ports and Port Cities ................................................................................................... 21

3.1. Benefits of Ports ................................................................................................................. 21


3.2. Significance of Deep Sea Ports ........................................................................................... 21
3.3. How Ports Facilitate Trade ................................................................................................. 22
3.4. Employment Creation......................................................................................................... 22
3.5. Impact of Ports on Cities .................................................................................................... 23
3.5.1. Economic Impact ................................................................................................... 23
3.5.2. Employment Impact .............................................................................................. 23
3.6. Significance of Ports – Some International Examples ........................................................ 24
3.6.1. The Port of Shanghai ............................................................................................. 24
3.6.2. The Port of Singapore ............................................................................................ 26
3.6.3. The Port of New York & New Jersey ...................................................................... 29

4. District Gwadar – An Overview .................................................................................. 32

4.1. Brief History of Gwadar ...................................................................................................... 32


4.2. Geographic Importance of Gwadar .................................................................................... 32
4.3. Culture of Gwadar .............................................................................................................. 33
4.3.1. Cultural Blend ........................................................................................................ 33
4.3.2. Language ............................................................................................................... 33
4.3.3. Religion .................................................................................................................. 34
4.4. Demography of Gwadar ..................................................................................................... 34
4.4.1. Gender Specific Population ................................................................................... 34
4.4.2. Population Growth of Gwadar and Pakistan ......................................................... 35
4.4.3. Urban and Rural Population of Gwadar ................................................................ 37
4.4.4. Other Demographic Variables ............................................................................... 38
4.5. Socio-Economic Sectors...................................................................................................... 40
4.5.1. Education ............................................................................................................... 40
4.5.2. Literacy Rates ........................................................................................................ 41
4.5.3. Energy .................................................................................................................... 43
4.5.4. Gas ......................................................................................................................... 43
4.5.5. Health Facilities ..................................................................................................... 44

5. Importance of Gwadar Port ........................................................................................ 46

5.1. Vision and Mission of Gwadar Port Authority .................................................................... 46


Vision ..................................................................................................................... 46
Mission .................................................................................................................. 46
5.2. History of Gwadar Port ....................................................................................................... 48

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5.3. Geo-Strategic Importance of Gwadar Port ......................................................................... 48


5.4. Gwadar Port – Importance for China ................................................................................. 50
5.5. Gwadar Port Authority ....................................................................................................... 52
5.6. Gwadar Port Profile ............................................................................................................ 53
5.6.1. Current Port Infrastructure ................................................................................... 53
5.6.2. Current Port Equipment ........................................................................................ 55
5.7. Role of Gwadar Port in Development of Balochistan ......................................................... 56
5.8. Employment Creation on account of Gwadar Port ............................................................ 57
5.9. Competing Ports to Gwadar ............................................................................................... 57
5.9.1. Jebel Ali Port, UAE ................................................................................................. 57
5.9.2. Mina Rashid Port, UAE .......................................................................................... 58
5.9.3. Port Salalah, Oman ................................................................................................ 58
5.9.4. Bandar Abbas Port (Shahid Rajaee Port), Iran....................................................... 59
5.9.5. Chabahar Port, Iran ............................................................................................... 60
5.9.6. Karachi Port, Pakistan ............................................................................................ 61
5.9.7. Qasim Port, Pakistan ............................................................................................. 62
5.9.8. Ports Comparison .................................................................................................. 63

6. Economic and Strategic Interest of Global Stakeholders in Gwadar Port .................... 64

6.1. Regional Players ................................................................................................................. 64


6.1.1. China ...................................................................................................................... 64
6.1.2. Iran......................................................................................................................... 67
6.1.3. Central Asian Republics ......................................................................................... 67
6.1.4. Afghanistan............................................................................................................ 69
6.2. CPEC and its Implications for Gwadar Port ........................................................................ 70
6.2.1. Understanding CPEC .............................................................................................. 70
6.2.2. CPEC Route ............................................................................................................ 73

7. Development Projects Linked to Gwadar Port ............................................................ 78

7.1. Background of Development .............................................................................................. 78


7.2. Development Projects at Gwadar ...................................................................................... 80
7.3. Details of Selected Project.................................................................................................. 81
7.3.1. 300 MW Power Plant Project ................................................................................ 81
7.3.2. LNG Terminal Gwadar and Pipeline ...................................................................... 81
7.3.3. Up-gradation of Rail Network ............................................................................... 82
7.3.4. Gwadar Free Trade Zone ....................................................................................... 83
7.3.5. Gwadar – Road Network Extension ....................................................................... 84
7.3.6. Gwadar Airport Construction ................................................................................ 86
7.4. Gwadar - Industrial Sector Development ........................................................................... 86

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7.4.1. Industrial Estate Gwadar ....................................................................................... 86


7.4.2. Types of Industries ................................................................................................ 87
7.5. Challenges to Development ............................................................................................... 89
7.5.1. Security .................................................................................................................. 89
7.5.2. Terrorism ............................................................................................................... 89
7.5.3. Foreign Involvement.............................................................................................. 89
7.5.4. Water Issues .......................................................................................................... 89
7.5.5. Education Issue ...................................................................................................... 90
7.5.6. Health Facilities Issue ............................................................................................ 90
7.5.7. Weather ................................................................................................................. 90

8. Stakeholders for B-TEVTA and Gwadar Port ............................................................... 91

8.1. Stakeholders Defined ......................................................................................................... 91


8.2. Stakeholder Categorization ................................................................................................ 91
8.3. Stakeholder Analysis and Management ............................................................................. 92
8.4. Identification of Stakeholders ............................................................................................ 93
8.5. Key Stakeholders in TVET ................................................................................................... 95
8.5.1. Governmental Bodies ............................................................................................ 95
8.5.2. Regulatory and Professional Bodies ...................................................................... 95
8.5.3. Examination bodies ............................................................................................... 95
8.5.4. Training institutions ............................................................................................... 96
8.5.5. Local authorities .................................................................................................... 97
8.5.6. Industrial Sector .................................................................................................... 97
8.5.7. Private Sector ........................................................................................................ 98
8.5.8. NGOs ...................................................................................................................... 98
8.5.9. Competitors ........................................................................................................... 99
8.5.10. Book publishers and instructional materials manufacturers ................................ 99
8.5.11. Families of TVET Graduates ................................................................................... 99
8.5.12. Others .................................................................................................................. 100
8.6. SWOT Analysis of B-TEVTA ............................................................................................... 100
8.6.1. Definition ............................................................................................................. 100
8.6.2. SWOT Matrix ....................................................................................................... 100
8.7. SWOT Analysis .................................................................................................................. 101
8.7.1. Strengths ............................................................................................................. 101
8.7.2. Weaknesses ......................................................................................................... 102
8.7.3. Opportunities ...................................................................................................... 103
8.7.4. Threats ................................................................................................................. 103

9. Creating Linkages with Gwadar Port Stakeholders ................................................... 105

9.1. Significance of Creating Linkages ..................................................................................... 105

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9.2. Types of Linkages – National and International ............................................................... 105


9.2.1. National Linkages ................................................................................................ 105
9.2.2. International Linkages ......................................................................................... 106
9.3. National Linkages ............................................................................................................. 106
9.3.1. Educational Linkages ........................................................................................... 106
9.3.2. Institute to Institute Linkages .............................................................................. 106
9.3.3. Linkages with External Training Providers........................................................... 111
9.4. International Linkages ...................................................................................................... 113
9.4.1. INGOs ................................................................................................................... 113
9.4.2. TVET Sector of Countries with Leading Seaports ................................................ 114
9.4.3. International Accreditation Bodies ..................................................................... 116
9.4.4. Curriculum Developers ........................................................................................ 117
9.5. Sustainability of Newly Established Linkages ................................................................... 117
9.5.1. Monitoring ........................................................................................................... 117
9.5.2. Refresher Courses and Introduction of New Trades ........................................... 118
9.5.3. Sustained Funding and Political Will ................................................................... 118

10. Case of Balochistan .................................................................................................. 119

10.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 119


10.2. Pakistan’s Labor Market Statistics .................................................................................... 120
10.2.1. Contribution of Pakistan’s Regions towards Overseas Workforce ..................... 120
10.2.2. Contribution of Occupation Groups towards Overseas Workforce .................... 123
10.2.3. Contribution of Employment Category towards Overseas Workforce ............... 124
10.3. Balochistan’s Labor Market Statistics ............................................................................... 125
10.3.1. Balochistan’s Employment Share by Industry ..................................................... 125
10.3.2. Registered Overseas Workers of Balochistan under BEOE: 2005-2015 .............. 127
10.3.3. District Wise Overseas Registered Workers ........................................................ 127
10.4. TVET Courses Offered by B-TEVTA ................................................................................... 128
10.5. Preliminary Skill Gap Analysis ........................................................................................... 130
10.6. Opportunities for Balochistan Skilled Labor – Gwadar Port............................................. 130
10.6.1. Opportunities for Balochistan - Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand .................. 131
10.6.2. Key Business Areas – Gwadar Port ...................................................................... 131
10.6.3. Types of Industries .............................................................................................. 131
10.7. Gwadar – List of Trades by Development Projects .......................................................... 133
10.7.1. Power Plants / Energy Industry ........................................................................... 133
10.7.2. LNG Terminal / Industry ...................................................................................... 134
10.7.3. Railways / Rail Networks ..................................................................................... 135
10.7.4. Road Networks .................................................................................................... 136
10.7.5. Free Trade Zones (FTZ) ........................................................................................ 137

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10.7.6. Airport Operations .............................................................................................. 138


10.8. Gwadar - List of Trades by Key Business Areas and Industries ........................................ 139
10.8.1. Construction Industry .......................................................................................... 139
10.8.2. Import and Export Industry ................................................................................. 140
10.8.3. Transportation Industry ...................................................................................... 141
10.8.4. Clearing and Forwarding ..................................................................................... 141
10.8.5. Warehousing ....................................................................................................... 142
10.8.6. Building Material ................................................................................................. 142
10.8.7. Textile and Leather Industry................................................................................ 143
10.8.8. Shipping Industry ................................................................................................. 144
10.8.9. Food Products and Beverages Industry ............................................................... 145
10.8.10. Wood Industry................................................................................................ 146
10.8.11. Printing Industry ............................................................................................. 147
10.8.12. Fabricated Metal Products ............................................................................. 147
10.8.13. Rubber, Glass and Plastic Industry ................................................................. 148
10.8.14. Chemical Industry ........................................................................................... 149
10.8.15. Petroleum ....................................................................................................... 149
10.8.16. Basic Metals Industry ..................................................................................... 150
10.8.17. Ports and Shipping Industry ........................................................................... 151
10.8.18. Heavy Machinery Trades ................................................................................ 152

11. Research Methodology ............................................................................................ 153

11.1. Approach .......................................................................................................................... 153


11.1.1. Determining What Data Needs to be Used ......................................................... 153
11.1.2. Deciding Who Should Carry Out the Research Process....................................... 153
11.1.3. Identification of Baseline Information ................................................................ 153
11.1.4. Selection of Respondents .................................................................................... 154
11.1.5. List of Interviewed Personnel .............................................................................. 155
11.1.6. Designing and Developing a Semi-Structured Interview Schedule ..................... 155
11.1.7. Conducting Secondary Research ......................................................................... 155
11.1.8. Quantitative Approach for Inferential Analysis ................................................... 155
11.1.9. Collation and Interpretation of Narrative and Statistical Data ........................... 156

12. Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 157

13. Recommendations ................................................................................................... 174

References ...................................................................................................................... 177

Annex A Informed Consent Form ................................................................................... 192

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand List of Figures

List of Figures

FIGURE 1-1 PROJECT DELIVERABLES ...............................................................................................4

FIGURE 1-2 PROJECT DELIVERABLE’S’ STATUS ...............................................................................7

FIGURE 3-1 CONTAINER THROUGHPUT OF SHANGHAI PORT: 2001-2010 ...................................25

FIGURE 3-2 CARGO HANDLED BY SHANGHAI PORT IN TEUS: 2011-2014 ....................................25

FIGURE 3-3 SINGAPORE’S TOTAL CONTAINER THROUGHPUT (IN '000 TEUS)..............................28

FIGURE 3-4 TOTAL CARGO HANDLED BY SINGAPORE PORT (000’S OF TONNES).........................28

FIGURE 3-3 REVENUE FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK & NEW JERSEY .......................................31

FIGURE 4-1 MAP OF GWADAR CITY ..............................................................................................33

FIGURE 4-2 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION OF GWADAR – 1998 ....................................................34

FIGURE 4-3 COMPARISON OF POPULATION GROWTH –


MALE AND FEMALE POPULAITON OF GWADAR DISTRICT ........................................35

FIGURE 4-4 COMPARISON OF POPULATION GROWTH –


PAKISTAN VERSUS GWADAR DISTRICT ......................................................................36

FIGURE 4-5 COMPARISON GROWTH OF URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION OF GWADAR ..........37

FIGURE 4-6 COMPARISON GROWTH OF URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION OF GWADAR ..........41

FIGURE 4-7 LITERACY RATES IN GWADAR ....................................................................................42

FIGURE 5-1 GWADAR PORT ..........................................................................................................47

FIGURE 5-2 CURRENT ROUTES FOR OIL IMPORTS AND SHORTER FUTURE ROUTE ......................51

FIGURE 5-3 GPA ORGANOGRAM ..................................................................................................53

FIGURE 5-3 AERIAL VIEW OF SHAHID RAJAIE PORT COMPLEX, BANDAR ABBAS .........................60

FIGURE 5-3 RELATIVE GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF GWADAR, CHABAHAR AND


BANDAR ABBAS .........................................................................................................61

FIGURE 6-1 SHARES OF ENERGY SOURCES AND INVESTMENTS (FIRST PHASE) ...........................71

FIGURE 6-2 BREAKDOWN OF CPEC INVESTMENT ........................................................................72

FIGURE 6-3 PROPOSED CPEC ROUTE MAPS..................................................................................74

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand List of Figures

FIGURE 6-4 PROPOSED CPEC ROUTES ..........................................................................................75

FIGURE 7-1 SKETCH MAP OF CHINA-PAKISTAN RAILWAY ............................................................83

FIGURE 7-2 GWADAR TRADE STATISTICS (2005 – 2015) ..............................................................84

FIGURE 8-1 PROVINCIAL COMPARISON OF NUMBER OF TVET INSTITUTES .................................96

FIGURE 8-2 A COMPARISON OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE TVET INSTITUTES ....................................97

FIGURE 9-1 TVET SECTOR INDUSTRY LINKAGES ........................................................................ 111

FIGURE 10-1 CONTRIBUTION OF PAKISTAN’S REGIONS TOWARDS


OVERSEAS WORKFORCE: 1981-2015 ...................................................................... 121

FIGURE 10-2 ABSOLUTE CONTRIBUTION OF PAKISTAN’S REGIONS TOWARDS


OVERSEAS WORKFORCE: 1981-2015 ...................................................................... 122

FIGURE 10-3 CONTRIBUTION OF PAKISTAN’S REGIONS TOWARDS OVERSEAS


WORKFORCE: 1981-2015 ........................................................................................ 122

FIGURE 10-4 CONTRIBUTION OF PAKISTAN’S OCCUPATION GROUPS TOWARDS


OVERSEAS WORKFORCE 1971-2015 ....................................................................... 123

FIGURE 10-5 CONTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT CATEGORY TOWARDS


OVERSEAS WORKFORCE: 1971-2015 ...................................................................... 125

FIGURE 10-6 EMPLOYMENT SHARE BY INDUSTRY, BALOCHISTAN: 2010-11 .............................. 125

FIGURE 10-7 BALOCHISTAN’S GENDER EMPLOYMENT SHARE BY INDUSTRY: 2010-11 .............. 126

FIGURE 10-8 REGISTERED OVERSEAS WORKERS FROM BALOCHISTAN UNDER


BEOE: 2005-2015 .................................................................................................... 127

FIGURE 10-9 DISTRICT WISE OVERSEAS WORKFORCE OF BALOCHISTAN:


1981-2015 & 2005-2015 ......................................................................................... 128

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand List of Tables

List of Tables

TABLE 2-1 EXAMPLES OF KEY EVALUATION QUESTIONS FOR IMPACT


ASSESSMENT / EVALUATION .....................................................................................14

TABLE 2-2 SOCIAL IMPACTS OF PROJECTS AND POLICIES ..........................................................15

TABLE 2-3 DIRECTION PROVIDED BY SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS –


APPLICATION ON THE IMPACT ON BALOCHISTAN ....................................................16

TABLE 2-4 GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS ......................................................19

TABLE 3-1 AVERAGE MARITIME TRANSPORT COSTS BY SECTOR ...............................................22

TABLE 3-2 SHANGHAI PORT PRIMARY DATA STATISTICS: APRIL 2013 .......................................26

TABLE 3-3 SINGAPORE PORT'S MARITIME PERFORMANCE: 2009-2013 ....................................28

TABLE 3-4 TYPE AND NUMBER OF CRANES AT PANYNJ .............................................................30

TABLE 3-5 REVENUE FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK & NEW JERSEY .......................................31

TABLE 4-1 PROJECTED GWADAR DISTRICT POPULATION BY 2020 .............................................35

TABLE 4-2 DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES OF GWADAR DISTRICT


BETWEEN 1951 AND 1998 .........................................................................................38

TABLE 4-3 GWADAR DISTRICT DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS ........................................................39

TABLE 4-4 PUBLIC SECTOR SCHOOLS –GWADAR ........................................................................40

TABLE 4-5 LITERACY RATES IN GWADAR ....................................................................................42

TABLE 4-6 HEALTH INSTITUTES – NUMBERS (2011 -12) .............................................................44

TABLE 4-7 HEALTHCARE STAFF AND FACILITIES IN 2010 ............................................................45

TABLE 5-1 GWADAR PORT INFRASTRUCTURE ............................................................................54

TABLE 5-2 GWADAR PORT EQUIPMENT .....................................................................................55

TABLE 5-3 COMPARISON OF PORTS ...........................................................................................63

TABLE 6-1 INVESTMENT BREAKDOWN OF CPEC ........................................................................71

TABLE 6-2 IMPACT OF CPEC ON PAKISTAN’S GDP GROWTH POTENTIAL ...................................73

TABLE 6-3 COMPARATIVE OPPORTUNITY COST OF CPEC ROUTES.............................................76

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TABLE 6-4 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CPEC ROUTES ..............................................................77

TABLE 7-1 DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AT GWADAR ....................................................................79

TABLE 7-2 TYPES OF INDUSTRIES ................................................................................................88

TABLE 8-1 IDENTIFICATION OF INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS AND INTERESTED PARTIES .............93

TABLE 8-2 IDENTIFICATION OF EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS AND INTERESTED PARTIES .............94

TABLE 8-3 LIST OF TVET INSTITUTES IN PAKSITAN .....................................................................96

TABLE 8-4 SWOT MATRIX ........................................................................................................ 101

TABLE 10-1 CONTRIBUTION OF PAKISTAN’S REGIONS TOWARDS


OVERSEAS WORKFORCE: 1981-2015 ...................................................................... 120

TABLE 10-2 CONTRIBUTION OF PAKISTAN’S OCCUPATION GROUPS TOWARDS


OVERSEAS WORKFORCE: 1971-2015 ...................................................................... 123

TABLE 10-3 OVERSEAS WORKFORCE EMPLOYMENT CATEGORY: 1971-2015 ........................... 124

TABLE 10-4 EMPLOYMENT SHARE BY INDUSTRY, BALOCHISTAN: 2008-2011 .......................... 126

TABLE 10-5 COURSES OFFERED BY DIRECTORATE OF MANPOWER TRAINING ......................... 129

TABLE 11-1 BROAD SUBJECT AREAS OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................................ 154

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand List of Abbreviations

List of Abbreviations

Abbreviation Description

APTTA Afghanistan Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement

BEOE Board of Emigration & Overseas Employment

BOT Build Operate Transfer

B-TEVTA Balochistan Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority

CAA Civil Aviation Authority

CAR Central Asian Republics

CIPS Centre of International Peace and Stability

CNPC China Pipeline Petroleum Company

COPHC China Overseas Port Holding Company

CPEC China Pakistan Economic Corridor

CTTI Construction Technology Training Institute

DP Dubai Port

DPW Dubai Ports World

DSP Deep Sea Port

DWT Deadweight Tonnage

EIA Environmental Impact Assessment

EPZA Export Processing Zone Authority

FATA Federally Administered Tribal Area

FCT Federal Capital Territory

FDI Foreign Direct Investment

G2G Government to Government

GCC Gulf Cooperation Council

GDA Gwadar Development Authority

GDP Gross Domestic Product

GIEDA Gwadar Industrial Estates Development Authority

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand List of Abbreviations

Abbreviation Description

GIZ Deutsche Gesellschaft Fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit

GNP Gross National Product

GoB Government of Balochistan

GoP Government of Pakistan

GPA Gwadar Port Authority

IEA International Energy Agency

ILO International Labor Organization

IMS International Maritime Security

INGO International Non-Governmental Organization

IPRI Islamabad Policy Research Institute

KDLB Karachi Dock Labor Board

KP Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

LNG Liquefied Natural Gas

LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas

MOE Ministry of Education

MoPS Ministry of Ports and Shipping

NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations

NPLs Non-Performing loans

NTB National Training Bureau

NUST National University of Science and Technology

OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

PANYNJ Port of New York & New Jersey

PBS Pakistan Bureau of Statistics

POL Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants

PSA Port of Singapore Authority

PSAA Pakistan Ship’s Agents Association

RLNG Regasified Liquefied Natural Gas

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand List of Abbreviations

Abbreviation Description

RO-RO Roll On – Roll Off

SCMP South China Morning Post

SDPI Sustainable Development Policy Institute

SIA Social Impact Assessment

SLOC Sea Lines of Communication

SMART Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic And Time-Bound

SSGC Sui Southern Gas Company

SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

TEU Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit

TEU Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit

TUSDEC Technology Upgradation and Skill Development Company

TVET Technical and Vocational Education Training

UAE United Arab Emirates

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training
This is the International Centre for connecting UNESCO Member States
worldwide to develop and strengthen TVET

UNEVOC The term combines UNESCO and Vocational education

US United States

USA United States of America

USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

VET Vocational Education and Training

WTO World Trade Organization

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Page xvii
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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

1. Introduction

This Section provides a concise background of this Consultancy Project, and lists the scope,
objectives and deliverables of the Consultancy. Each deliverable is then briefly described for the benefit
of the reader, and the current status of each deliverable is brought on record. The Section ends by
providing the objectives and structure of this impact assessment, that is, Gwadar Port Skilled Labor
Demand.

1.1. Project Background

1.1.1. The Balochistan Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority [B-TEVTA]
has engaged R2V (Private) Limited [R2V] in a contractual agreement for rendering
Consultancy Services for Conducting TNA, Impact Studies and Developing Strategic
Goal of B-TEVTA (Contract, 2016) [herein referred to as The Consultancy, or
The Project]. The Consultancy will encompass profiling of Technical and Vocational
Education and Training [TVET] institutes in Balochistan, conducting six research-
based impact assessments, designing of B-TEVTA’s web portal and a detailed survey-
based Training Need Assessment [TNA] for selected TVET institutes falling under the
functional and administrative control of B-TEVTA. This report conducts one of the
six impact assessments, that is, Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand.

1.1.2. B-TEVTA regulates, promotes and facilitates TVET in Balochistan. Its role also
encompasses financing and providing policy level direction to all provincial TVET
institutes (RFP, 2016, p. 14). Other provinces of Pakistan maintain similar TVET
authorities. At the Federal level, the National Vocational and Technical Training
Commission [NAVTTC] performs a similar role for TVET in Pakistan (NAVTTC, 2016).

1.1.3. B-TEVTA has recently felt the need for dedicated training and capacity building in
the field of Information and Communication Technology [ICT], management,
teaching skills, student evaluation, planning and preparation of schemes for the
TVET Sector of Balochistan (B-TEVTA, 2016; RFP, 2016, p. 16). The planned
institutional profiling during this Consultancy is expected to help strengthen TVET
institutes that fall under the administrative domain of B-TEVTA by providing a better
understanding of their individual and collective capacities, and by identifying and
addressing shortcomings, if any. The six comprehensive impact assessments will
analyze the effect of different national and international factors on the skill-set
demand and impact for skilled labor of Balochistan. This shall lead R2V to formulate
strategic goals for B-TEVTA with a futuristic vision (RFP, 2016, p. 17).

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

1.2. Project Scope

1.2.1. The Consultancy has been awarded to R2V so as to provide a ‘road map’ for
revamping the TVET Sector of Balochistan. The Project’s deliverables, along with a
comprehensive TVET Sector training plan and the knowledge base built up during
performance of the project, should enable R2V to formulate strategic objectives for
Balochistan’s TVET Sector. These, in turn, will show the way forward for B-TEVTA in
its endeavor to enhance the individual and collective capacities of TVET institutes,
as well as the capacities of their administrative and instructional staff.
Recommendations to address issues pertaining to the accreditation of B-TEVTA
institutes with NAVTTC shall also be furnished.

1.3. Project Objectives

1.3.1. The objective of this Consultancy is to establish practices, methodologies; and the
required commitment, effort and resources that B-TEVTA must either arrange or
provide to realize its strategic goals. The Consultancy plans to carry out an in-depth
research in existing TVET best practices and furnish recommendations based on
knowledge acquired and gaps identified in the local TVET Sector. The study will also
highlight gaps in the demand and supply of technical education through analysis of
industry/employers, both at the local and international levels.

1.3.2. This Consultancy endeavors to achieve the following objectives


(R2V(a), 2016, pp. 1-2):

1.3.2.1. To propose a way forward for B-TEVTA by prioritizing essential


activities needed to enhance the TVET Sector to meet future needs and
demand.

1.3.2.2. To enhance the proficiencies of administrative and instructional staff


of Technical Training Centers [TTCs], Vocational Training Centers
[VTCs], and Women Technical Training Centers [WTTCs] in line with
changing times and patterns of contemporary skills and trades.

1.3.2.3. To identify problem areas and gaps, if any, which are hindering the
accreditation process of institutes working under B-TEVTA with
NAVTTC.

1.3.2.4. To ascertain future opportunities arising nationwide for the skilled


labor of Balochistan and take necessary steps to ensure future demand
is catered for by the TVET Sector of the province.

1.3.2.5. To identify the demand and supply relationship between the skilled
workforce of Balochistan vis-à-vis demand of skills in the Gulf and
European countries.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

1.3.2.6. To enhance the employability prospects of the youth of the province.

1.3.2.7. To propose and analyze training themes of the instructional and


administrative staff of TVET institutes in Balochistan.

1.3.2.8. To design and develop a web portal that ensures seamless availability
of online information for both administrative and external users. The
web portal will include all TVET institutes falling under the umbrella of
B-TEVTA.

1.3.2.9. To furnish recommendations on the empowerment of Balochistan


TEVTA with regards to decision-making and implementation, in the
light of developed strategic goals for the Provincial TVET Sector.

1.3.2.10. To suggest measures for addressing the futuristic demand of skilled


labor force through the emerging opportunities in Balochistan
province, such as CPEC and Gwadar Port etc.

1.3.2.11. To propose a system that will continually contemporize the need for
earlier unidentified technical education pertaining to other
governmental departments and industries of Balochistan, by bringing
them under the ambit of TVET Sector and by properly addressing their
needs.

1.3.2.12. To design a comprehensive training plan encompassing all identified


themes.

1.4. Project Deliverables

R2V, as consultant of this Project, is required to prepare and submit an Inception Report, six
research-based impact assessments, design a Web Portal for B-TEVTA and submit a
comprehensive Training Needs Assessment [TNA] Report after the conduct of a TNA survey of
specified TVET institutes in Balochistan. The combined knowledge gained from these
deliverables will lead to the formulation of strategic goals that shall enable B-TEVTA to realize
its vision for TVET in the province. Figure 1-1 below depicts the inter-linkages and concept
behind the Project deliverables. A brief description of each Deliverable of the project follows.

1.4.1. The Inception Report

1.4.1.1. The Inception Report is a thoroughly researched document that


focuses on the global and national history of TVET sector, its models
and global best practices. In addition, it also presents a comparative
analysis of Pakistan’s provincial TEVTAs, discusses the Case of
Balochistan, presents overseas employment statistics and explains
different TNA methodologies.

Status: First Deliverable – Submitted on June 3rd, 2016

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

Figure 1-1 Project Deliverables


(R2V(a), 2016, p. 122)– Infographic rendered by R2V

1.4.2. The Six Impact Assessments

1.4.2.1. Expo Dubai 2020 and 2022 FIFA World Cup Qatar Skilled Labor
Demand
Two mega events in the next six years in Pakistan’s neighborhood are
expected to give rise to tremendous employment opportunities in the
region. These are the Expo Dubai 2020 and the 2022 FIFA World Cup
Qatar. These two mega global events will result in new trends in
industrial, commercial and enterprise development. The report will
focus on future opportunities and will project areas of specialization
which can be targeted specifically in case of Balochistan. This report
focused on bringing about an analysis of present gaps in Balochistan
TVET sector along with future employment opportunities in the region,
in general; and in Dubai, UAE and Doha, Qatar, in particular.
Status: Second Deliverable – Submitted on August 24th, 2016

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

1.4.2.2. Gulf and European Countries Skilled Labor Demand


This report is on the analysis of demand and supply of skilled labor from
Balochistan in the European and Gulf regions, with an evaluation of
labor demand against various variables such as environment, social,
cultural, religious and economic factors. The assessment report
focused on these areas, since they play a significant role in attracting
labor from other global regions.
Status: Third Deliverable – Submitted on August 29th, 2016

1.4.2.3. Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand


Gwadar port is also a mega project offering great economic
opportunity for skilled labor of Balochistan. This impact assessment will
be focusing on the demand and supply of industry driven trades with
reference to Balochistan TVET. It will also gauge and identify economic
and social opportunities, grey areas and analysis of available skilled
labor.
Status: Fourth Deliverable – This Report in hand

1.4.2.4. CPEC Demand Trades and its Outcomes


This Impact Assessment will be focusing on the advantages of CPEC for
the skilled labor of Balochistan. It will analyze industry driven trades,
and the national and international opportunities that this mega project
has the potential to bring for the skilled labor of Balochistan.
Status: Fifth Deliverable – To be Submitted

1.4.2.5. Creating Linkages with other TVET Stakeholders


This is another vital deliverable of this consultancy, focusing on the
TVET stakeholders in Pakistan. It will be a well-researched document
discussing with whom, and how, B-TEVTA can communicate,
collaborate and enhance the supply and demand of skilled labor of
Balochistan. It will focus on the areas through which B-TEVTA can
increase its capacity in collaboration with other national and
international stakeholders, for example provincial TEVTAs, private
vocational training institutes etc.
Status: Sixth Deliverable – To be Submitted

1.4.2.6. 5 – 10 years Strategic Goal of B-TEVTA


This Impact Assessment report will give a detailed analysis of objectives
and strategic goals of B-TEVTA, based on the global, national and
provincial perspectives. It will ensure a detailed research on NAVTTC
policies required for designing strategic goals of provincial TVETs.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

Research conducted during the preparation of all earlier Reports will


provide vital inputs.
Status: Seventh Deliverable – To be submitted

1.4.3. The Web Portal

1.4.3.1. Another important deliverable of this project is the detailed Web


Portal. The methodology in designing and developing the Web Portal
will focus on needs analysis, finalizing specifications, user friendliness
and comprehensiveness. Content writing / user access and testing will
also be a part of the proposed methodology.

Status: Eighth Deliverable – To be submitted

1.4.4. The TNA Report

1.4.4.1. This Consultancy focuses on the TNA of Administrative and


Instructional Staff as well as the institutional profiling of TVET institutes
under B-TEVTA. The aim of the TNA is to address the grey areas by
identifying gaps and giving solutions in terms of a robust Training Plan.
All these end objectives and outcomes will be discussed, analyzed and
recommended in this last deliverable and milestone of the project.

1.4.4.2. The TNA Report is based on a comprehensive on-site survey of 42 TVET


institutes throughout Balochistan. The institutes that are under the
administrative control of the Directorate of Labor and Manpower,
Directorate of Social Welfare, Directorate of Small Industries and
Directorate of Technical Education are included in the survey.

Status: Ninth Deliverable – To be submitted

1.4.5. The above mentioned deliverables also serve as the milestones to be achieved
during this Consultancy Project. The Inception Report has already been submitted
as the first deliverable with two subsequent impact assessments i.e. Expo Dubai
2020 and 2022 FIFA World Cup Qatar Skilled Labor Demand and Gulf and European
Countries Skilled Labor Demand as second and third deliverables, respectively.

1.5. Current Status of Deliverables

1.5.1. Infographic given below shows all the submitted and to be submitted deliverables
in a compiled form, Figure 1-2. In the figure given below, green color represents the
submitted deliverables, however, red triangles represent deliverables yet to be
submitted:

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

Figure 1-2 Project Deliverable’s’ Status


Infographic rendered by R2V

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

1.6. Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Impact Assessment Report

1.6.1. Objectives of Report

1.6.1.1. The Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Impact Assessment focuses on
the foreseeable demand for skilled labor of Balochistan vis-à-vis the
Gwadar Port. This report will help identify economic and social
opportunities for the skilled labor of Balochistan arising from the
development of the Gwadar Port. The report will also gauge the impact
of the development of Gwadar Port and will seek to discuss its
importance for the economy of Balochistan, as well as for Pakistan as a
whole.

1.6.1.2. The specific objectives which will be attained at the conclusion of this
Report include the following (R2V(a), 2016, pp. 75,123):

1.6.1.2.1. Identification of socio-economic opportunities arising for


Skilled Labor of Balochistan from the development of the
Gwadar Port.
1.6.1.2.2. Identification of current gaps, that may be prevalent and
which may adversely affect the opportunities at offer
from the development of the Gwadar Port.
1.6.1.2.3. Gauge the demand and utilization of Skilled Labor of
Balochistan, especially since prospects arising from the
development of Gwadar Port offer a chance to train,
develop and enhance technical skills of the local
population and create much needed employment.

1.6.1.3. It is important to note that the Impact Assessment Report on Gwadar


Skilled Labor Demand will undertake extensive secondary research,
along with selective primary data collection, including interviews and
analysis. In an effort to provide the reader with additional clarity on
how the report aims to achieve the above mentioned objectives, the
following subsection highlights how this Report is structured.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

1.6.2. Structure of Report

1.6.2.1. Introduction
This Section provides a concise background of this Consultancy Project,
and lists the scope, objectives and deliverables of the Consultancy.
Each deliverable is then briefly described for the benefit of the reader,
and the current status of each deliverable is brought on record. The
Section ends by providing the objectives and structure of this impact
assessment, that is, Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand.

1.6.2.2. What is an Impact Assessment


This Section explains what Impact Assessments are, and describes the
various types of impact assessments that are prevalent around the
world; namely social, environmental, health and integrated impact
assessments. It gives the rationale for why social impact assessments
are being conducted for this Consultancy. Towards the end, guidelines
that are followed across the world while conducting Social Impact
Assessments have been quoted.

1.6.2.3. Ports and Port Cities


When conducting a review of a port or port city like Gwadar, it is
important to understand what the port itself entails and how its
impacts the nearby areas in general and its parent city in particular.
This Section will attempt to provide clarity to the reader on the amount
of economic activity that a major port city can generate, both with
respect to trade and employment generation. The Section discusses
the significance of deep sea ports and lists selected statistics from three
major international ports. These are the Port of Shanghai, China; the
Port of Singapore, Singapore and the Port of New York & New Jersey,
USA.

1.6.2.4. District Gwadar – An Overview


The City and District of Gwadar – the prime setting of this Report – are
introduced in this Section. Gwadar’s history, its geographic
significance, its culture, selected demographic indicators and some
socio-economic elements are presented in brief. Its importance for
Pakistan and international stakeholders is brought on record.

1.6.2.5. Importance of Gwadar Port


This Section provides an understanding of Gwadar Port, including its
geo-strategic, economic and socio-economic importance for the
province, country and the region. The critical role that Gwadar is
destined to play in the industrial and economic development of
Balochistan and Pakistan, and the potential that the Port has to
generate ample employment opportunities for the local populace, is

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

discussed. The Section ends with a commentary on other sea ports in


the region that can be considered competitors to Gwadar Port.

1.6.2.6. Economic and Strategic Interest of Global Stakeholders in Gwadar


Port
With the onset of the development at Gwadar Port, it now holds a
pivotal position in the region both economically and strategically. It
now has enormous potential to emerge as a regional hub and a future
trans-shipment port. This Section, therefore attempts to identify the
interests of various global stakeholders vis-à-vis Gwadar Port. China,
Iran, the Central Asian Republics and Afghanistan are considered to be
regional players whose interests are directly linked to Gwadar Port. The
fact that Gwadar is the southern starting station for the China Pakistan
Economic Corridor makes Gwadar Port truly global in its strategic
significance. The Section ends with a brief introduction to CPEC and its
implications for Gwadar.

1.6.2.7. Development Projects linked to Gwadar Port


This Section provides a list of projects which have been earmarked for
Gwadar Port and City. Although, all of these projects also fall under
CPEC, but it was important, both for brevity and focus, to isolate those
projects which have a direct impact on Gwadar. Projects related CPEC
are intended to be discussed in a separate Impact Assessment report.
The Section also provides a list of industries which will look to setup
operations at Gwadar Industrial and Economic Zone in the foreseeable
future. Some challenges that can impede the planned development of
Gwadar are also discussed.

1.6.2.8. Stakeholders for B-TEVTA and Gwadar Port


This Section begins by defining stakeholders, followed by an
explanation of the concepts of Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder
Management. The categorization of stakeholders as primary or
secondary, internal or external, positive or negative and as national or
international is described. Stakeholders identified for Balochistan’s
TVET Sector, as well as stakeholders directly related to the Gwadar Port
are listed. The Section then goes on to provide a brief commentary on
some of the key stakeholder groups. A SWOT analysis is conducted
wherein the major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
being faced by B-TEVTA in relation to the development of Gwadar are
highlighted.

1.6.2.9. Creating Linkages with Gwadar Port Stakeholders


This Section focuses on the creation of linkages with national and
international stakeholders relevant to Gwadar port with additional
focus on the significance of these alliances, which if developed, would
enhance the capability of Balochistan’s TVET sector to provide industry

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Introduction

specific, high quality and focused skills training. The Section further
details the importance of sustaining the linkages, once created.

1.6.2.10. Case of Balochistan


This Section begins with an overview of selected labor market statistics
for Pakistan and Balochistan. A very preliminary list of courses offered
by TVET institutes under B-TEVTA is presented, which shall be built up
and organized as further research and the TNA Survey for this
Consultancy progresses. Two earlier impact assessment reports, that
is, the ‘Expo Dubai 2020 and 2022 FIFA World Cup Qatar Skilled Labor
Demand’ and the ‘Gulf and European Skilled Labor Demand’ have given
a fair idea of skilled labor demand in the Gulf and Europe. This allows
for a preliminary skill gap analysis. Opportunities for Balochistan skilled
labor with respect to Gwadar Port are briefly discussed. In the end,
trades, skills and courses which are thought to be most relevant for B-
TEVTA to consider are listed under twenty four shortlisted industries
and disciplines.

1.6.2.11. Research Methodology


This Section elaborates the ‘Research Methodology’ adopted for
undertaking this research based impact assessment. Guidelines for
social impact assessments were followed to derive relevant results that
could lead to improved and detailed analysis on the gathered data.

1.6.2.12. Conclusions

1.6.2.13. Recommendations

1.6.2.14. References
This Impact Assessment Report has been authored as a work in
academic research. Over one hundred ninety (190) references have
been cited, and indeed several more studied during the preparation of
this Report. Data has been extracted from several governmental and
organizational databases. Some of the more renowned on-line
academic databases were also consulted. Peer-reviewed journal
articles and reports that have found a place in international
publications have also been referred. Due to the present-day nature of
the subject, several newspaper and periodical articles have also been
cited. Efforts have been made to avoid referrals from commercial
websites, unless they are managed by trustworthy organizations. For
the sake of brevity and ease in comparison – most, if not all data has
been presented through liberal use of infographics designed and
created by the Consultant.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand What is an Impact Assessment?

2. What is an Impact Assessment?

This Section explains what Impact Assessments are, and describes the various types of impact
assessments that are prevalent around the world; namely social, environmental, health and integrated
impact assessments. It gives the rationale for why social impact assessments are being conducted for
this Consultancy. Towards the end, guidelines that are followed across the world while conducting
Social Impact Assessments have been quoted.

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. Prior to assessing and giving the definition of ‘Impact Assessment’, it is important to
understand the term ‘Impact’. The word ‘impact’ is explained as ‘any effect of the
service [or of an event, or initiative] on an individual or group’ (Streatfield &
Markless, 2009, p. 134). There are several types of ‘impacts’ which can be either
positive or negative, intended or unintended or about identifying and evaluating
change (Streatfield & Markless, 2009).

2.1.2. An Impact Assessment, thus, is a process of anticipating the future impact of a


current or proposed action, project or policy. It helps and is used in assuring that
proposed projects, programs and policies are economically sustainable, socially
justifiable and also have environment sustainability considerations (CBD, 2013).

2.1.3. Primarily, there are two types of Impact Assessments that are conducted all over the
world, that is, Environmental Impact Assessments [EIA] and Social Impact
Assessments [SIA] (R2V(a), 2016, p. 122). These two types serve as the main themes
under which different assessments of mega projects, construction sites, policies etc.
are carried out. EIAs are conducted to gauge and analyze the effect of any project
or policy on the environmental factors of the site. SIAs, on the other hand, are
carried out to identify the social effect of the policies or interventions on the site,
on the people living nearby and on the workforce (CSD, 2010, p. 7). In addition to
these two primary types of impact assessments, Health Impact Assessments [HIA]
and Integrated Impact Assessments [IIA] are also conducted (Arnold, Norton, &
Wallen, 2009, p. 290). A brief description of all these impact assessments [IAs] is
given further into this Section.

2.1.4. This Consultancy Project will be focusing on the social impact of certain external
projects and events on the TVET Sector of Balochistan, as well as the linkages among
different stakeholders. The impact assessments that will be conducted during the
course of this Consultancy will be SIAs. Considering the domain of these impact
assessments, guidelines provided for the conduct of Social Impact Assessments will
be followed (R2V(a), 2016, p. 13).

2.1.5. During the course of this report, impact of stakeholders, their identification,
management and analysis will be gauged by proposing relevant linkages and their
impact on the TVET sector of Balochistan.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand What is an Impact Assessment?

2.2. Significance of Impact Assessments (IA)

2.2.1. The significance of any IA can be gauged by the main thought process it follows, i.e.,
defining a hypothetical situation that would occur in the presence of any future
intervention, and the consequent drawbacks if the activity would not take place. It
also focuses on the individuals and groups who can benefit from this intervention in
the future, that is, the beneficiaries of the impact (World Bank(b), 2016).

2.2.2. Impact Assessments are a source of analyzing the effectiveness of organizational


activities and anticipating the significance of changes brought about by those
activities. Impacts are determined according to their positive or negative, intended
or unintended long-term effects (IFRC, N.D; Streatfield & Markless, 2009, p. 134).
Analysis generated by Impact Assessments aids in decision making regarding
whether to expand, modify, or eliminate a particular policy, program and can be
used in prioritizing public actions. A well and thoroughly researched IA focuses on
the comparative analysis of the similar projects, models and approaches that are
under study. This comparative analysis of the area under study during any IA gives
robust assessments of impact, which can then be communicated to policy makers
and program designers (World Bank(b), 2016).

2.2.3. Considering the above mentioned description by World Bank(b) (2016), R2V in all
the researched and compiled IAs, has managed to bring a comparative analysis by
giving case studies and comparing countries FDI and GDPs.

2.2.4. Table 2-1, lists the basic questions that an IA attempts to address. The importance
of conducting an IA can be gauged by understanding the gist of these questions
(Rogers, 2012, p. 4).

2.3. Types of Impact Assessments

2.3.1. Social Impact Assessments (SIA)

2.3.1.1. SIA’s are defined as ‘processes of anlyzing, monitoring and managing


the intended and unintended social consequences, both positive and
negative, of planned policies, programs, and projects and any social
change processes invoked by those proposals’ (Vanclay, SIA Principles,
2003, p. 6).

2.3.1.2. Moreover, SIAs also help in identifying ways to empower local


residents, enhance the position of women, minority groups and other
disadvantaged members of society. It also develops capacity, alleviate
all forms of dependency, increase equity, and focus on poverty
reduction. Social Impact Assessments shall consider social, cultural,
demogrphic, economic, social-psychological, and sometimes political
impacts (Arnold, Norton, & Wallen, 2009, p. 297).

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Table 2-1
Examples of Key Evaluation Questions for Impact Assessment / Evaluation
(Rogers, 2012, p. 4)

S No. Examples of Questions for


Key Evaluation Impact Assessment / Evaluation

1. Overall Impact  Did it work? Did [the intervention] produce [the


intended impacts] in the short, medium and long term?

 For whom, in what ways and in what circumstances did


[the intervention] work?

 What unintended impacts (positive and negative) did


[the intervention] produce?

2. Nature of impacts and  Are impacts likely to be sustainable?


their distribution
 Did these impacts reach all intended beneficiaries?

3. Influence of other  How did [the intervention] work in conjunction with


factors on the impacts other interventions, programs or services to achieve
outcomes?

 What helped or hindered [the intervention] to achieve


these impacts?

4. How it works  How did [the intervention] contribute to [intended


impacts]?

 What were the particular features of [the intervention]


that made a difference?

 What variations were there in implementation?

 What has been the quality of implementation in


different sites?

 To what extent are differences in impact explained by


variations in implementation?

5. Match of intended  To what extent did the impacts match the needs of the
impacts to needs intended beneficiaries?

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2.3.1.3. The Social Impact varies with the relationship that any specific project,
scheme or policy may have with the people. It is therefore important
that in an SIA, the unit of analysis, as well as the effected, should be
individuals. Vanclay (2003, p. 8) gives us a variety of social impacts of
projects and polices on the lives and societal elements of people. Table
2-2 below refers.

Table 2-2
Social Impacts of Projects and Policies
(Vanclay, 2003, p. 8)

Sr. No. Types of Changes Description

1. People’s way of life How they live, work, play and interact with one another
on a day-to-day basis
2. Their culture Their shared beliefs, customs, values and language or
dialect
3. Their community Its cohesion, stability, character, services and facilities
4. Their political systems The extent to which people are able to participate in
decisions that affect their lives, the level of
democratization that is taking place, and the resources
provided for this purpose
5. Their environment The quality of the air and water people use, the availability
and quality of the food they eat the level of hazard or risk,
dust and noise they are exposed to; the adequacy of
sanitation, their physical safety, and their access to and
control over resources
6. Their health and Health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and
wellbeing spiritual wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease
or infirmity
7. Their personal and Particularly whether people are economically affected, or
property rights experience personal disadvantage which may include a
violation of their civil liberties
8. Their fears and Their perceptions about their safety, their fears about the
aspirations future of their community, and their aspirations for their
future and the future of their children

2.3.1.4. It has been mentioned above that R2V has decided to conduct Social
Impact Assessment during this Consultancy. This type of IA was
identified and selected based on the following directions explained by
Burdge and Vanclay (1996, p. 60) in ‘Social Impact Assessment: A
Contribution to the State of the art Series’.

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Table 2-3
Direction Provided by Social Impact Assessments – Application on the Impact on Balochistan
Adapted from (Burdge & Vanclay, 1996, p. 60)

Sr. No. Direction Case of Balochistan

1. Understanding, managing and Understanding, managing and controlling the


controlling change. change which can be brought about by
identification, management and analysis of
stakeholders and linkages among them.
2. Predicting probable impacts from Foreseeing the impact on the skilled labor of
change strategies or development Balochistan. Anticipating how this project can
projects that are to be bring change in the lives of Balochistan’s skilled
implemented. labor through IAs, TNAs etc.
3. Identifying, developing and Identifying, developing and implementing
implementing mitigation strategies mitigation strategies to minimize the chances of
in order to minimize potential not involving important stakeholders. Knowing
social impacts (i.e. identified social the fact, that certain projects shall be addressed
impacts that would occur if no and predicting the disadvantages it can bring, if
mitigation strategies were to be not participated in.
implemented).
4. Developing and implementing Developing Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)
monitoring programs to identify strategies to have an on-process analysis. This is
unanticipated social impacts that to cater latent impacts of the project on the
may develop as a result of the skilled labor of Balochistan.
social change.
5. Developing and implementing Also to have a strategy or contingency plan to
mitigation mechanisms to deal address the unexpected impacts of not involving
with unexpected impacts as they potential stakeholders for uplifting TVET sector
develop. of the province.
6. Evaluating social impacts caused by Analyzing the best practices which can bring out
earlier developments, projects, changes in the TVET sector of Balochistan, if
technological change, specific adopted.
technology, and government
policy.

2.3.1.5. Table 2-3 above represents the directions which can be predicted while
implementing SIAs for identifying, managing and analyzing potential
stakeholders for B-TEVTA. These directions, as identified by Burdge and
Vanclay (1996) vary from country to country. These are among the few
directions which can be predicted or anticipated in Case of Balochistan,
however, few of these can be deducted or more can be inducted
keeping in view the cultural and economic differences.

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2.3.2. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA)

2.3.2.1. An EIA may be defined as ‘the process of identifying, predicting,


evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant
effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken
and commitments made’ (Senéca, Goldsmith, Conover, Sadler, &
Brown, 1993, p. 1) cited in (Arnold, Norton, & Wallen, 2009, p. 290).
EIAs are conducted to anticipate the probable impact of a proposed
project on the natural environment. The objectives of an EIA, as
described by Arnold, Norton and Wallen (2009, p. 291) are:

2.3.2.1.1. To support environmental protection and sustainable


development that optimizes resource use.
2.3.2.1.2. To ensure that environmental considerations are
addressed and incorporated into decision making
processes.
2.3.2.1.3. To predict the environmental consequences of a proposed
activity.
2.3.2.1.4. To ensure projects suit the local environment.
2.3.2.1.5. To provide predictions and options to decision makers.
2.3.2.1.6. To anticipate, avoid, minimize and offset the adverse
environmental impacts of a proposal.
2.3.2.1.7. To involve all stakeholders, including the public.

2.3.3. Health Impact Assessment (HIA)

2.3.3.1. The World Health Organization [WHO] defines HIA as ‘a combination of


procedures, methods and tools by which a policy, program or project
may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population,
and the distribution of those effects within the population’ (Arnold,
Norton, & Wallen, 2009, p. 293).

2.3.3.2. HIAs pave the way for classifying and objectively evaluating the health
impacts of a proposed development / project before it is implemented.
This type of IA is also carried out to determine the degree and
probability of anticipated positive and negative impacts on health of
the community (Arnold, Norton, & Wallen, 2009, p. 293).

2.3.4. Integrated Impact Assessment (IIA)

2.3.4.1. IIAs are defined as ‘an assessment that incorporates more than one
type of impact’ (Arnold, Norton, & Wallen, 2009, p. 297). It is commonly
used as a hybrid of EIAs and HIAs.

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2.3.4.2. IIAs are used to save time and money in conducting two or three
different IAs. However, this type of IA is usually avoided due to its
inherent drawback of not completely addressing one particular domain
(Arnold, Norton, & Wallen, 2009, pp. 297-8).

2.3.5. An IA is a systematic and scientific approach of probing the potential impacts caused
by an intervention - that intervention could be a project, scheme or policy. It
especially focuses on the impact any intervention has had on the lives of people
(AusAID, 2012, p. 2). B-TEVTA has felt the need to conduct several IAs on different
projects, policies and the interventions happening in Pakistan and abroad so as to
analyze the impact these events will have on the TVET Sector, and indeed, on the
lives of skilled labor of Balochistan (RFP, 2016, p. 14).

2.3.6. Planning and implementation of supply of labor force in considerable numbers can
lead to many social changes and impacts. For example, a prominent impact that
these projects may have at an early stage is the affect it has on property prices, an
exodus or influx of people (Vanclay, Esteves, Aucamp, & Franks, 2015, p. 1) for job
hunt.

2.4. Guidelines for Social Impact Assessments

2.4.1. The Inter-Organizational Committee on Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact
Assessment has provided comprehensive guidelines for conducting social impact
assessments. R2V has kept these guidelines in consideration so that accuracy of
data, correct guidance and realistic analysis can be arrived at, based on the
outcomes of this Impact Assessment.

2.4.2. Table 2-4 below lists these guidelines (ICPG-SIA, 2003, pp. 234-238; R2V(a), 2016,
pp. 15-6).

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Table 2-4
Guidelines for Social Impact Assessments
(ICPG-SIA, 2003, pp. 234-8; R2V(a), 2016, pp. 14-5)

Sr. PRINCIPLES GUIDELINES LIKELY METHODS


1. Achieve extensive understanding of Guideline 1a. Identify and describe interested and affected
local and regional settings to be stakeholders and other parties.
affected by the action or program or Guideline 1b. Develop baseline information (profiles) of local
policy. and regional communities.
2. Focus on key elements of the human Guideline 2a. Identify the key social and cultural issues related 2a.1. Impacts identified by the public
environment to the action or policy from the community and stakeholder 2a.2. Impacts identified by SIA practitioners
profiles. 2a.3. Provide feedback on social impacts
Guideline 2b. Select social and cultural variables that measure
and explain the issues identified.
3. Identify methods and assumptions and Guideline 3a. Research methods should be holistic in scope.
define significance
Guideline 3b. Research methods must describe secondary and
cumulative social effects related to the action or policy.
Guideline 3c. Ensure that methods and assumptions are
transparent and replicable.
Guideline 3d. Select forms and levels of data collection and 3d. 1. Published scientific literature
analysis that is appropriate to the significance of the action or 3d. 2. Secondary data sources
policy. 3d. 3. Primary data from the affected area

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Sr. PRINCIPLES GUIDELINES LIKELY METHODS


4. Provide quality information for use in Guideline 4a. Collect qualitative and quantitative social, ICPG-SIA (2003, pp. 234-5) refers to a ‘Data
decision-making economic and cultural data sufficient to usefully describe and Quality Act’, which specifies that quality,
analyze all reasonable alternatives to the action. utility, objectivity and integrity of provided
data and information must be ensured.
Guideline 4a specifies qualitative data, which
will mean to include data quality, utility,
objectivity and integrity.

Guideline 4b. Ensure that the data collection methods and


forms of analysis are scientifically robust.
Guideline 4c. Ensure the integrity of collected data.
Guideline 4d. Gaps in data or information.
5. Ensure that any environmental justice Guideline 5a. Ensure that research methods, data, and
issues are fully described and analyzed analysis consider underrepresented and vulnerable
stakeholders and populations.
Guideline 5b. Clearly identify who will win and who will lose,
and emphasize vulnerability of under-represented and
disadvantaged populations.
6. Undertake evaluation / monitoring and Guideline 6a. Establish mechanisms for evaluation/monitoring
mitigation of the proposed action that involve agency and stakeholders
and / or communities.
Guideline 6b. Where mitigation of impacts is required,
provide analyses and assessments of alternatives.
Guideline 6c. Identify data gaps and assess data needs.

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3. Ports and Port Cities

When conducting a review of a port or port city like Gwadar, it is important to understand
what the port itself entails and how its impacts the nearby areas in general and its parent city in
particular. This Section will attempt to provide clarity to the reader on the amount of economic activity
that a major port city can generate, both with respect to trade and employment generation. The
Section discusses the significance of deep sea ports and lists selected statistics from three major
international ports. These are the Port of Shanghai, China; the Port of Singapore, Singapore and the
Port of New York & New Jersey, USA.

3.1. Benefits of Ports

3.1.1. A port is an area or a platform, which is entered into from the sea by boats, ships
and other vessels for protected anchorage and docking. The port is then used for
loading and unloading of cargo from these vessels, after which the consignments
continue on to their destinations.

3.1.2. Historically, ports have been important for both economic and social development.
Economic theory refers to ports as an important proponent for economic growth.
This reference is further reaffirmed by history, which has shown that ports promote
commerce and welfare of nations. Furthermore, it is argued that ports expand
market opportunities for both national and international firms which results in
increased competition that, in turn, results in lowering of prices (Rodrigue &
Schulman, 2013).

3.2. Significance of Deep Sea Ports

3.2.1. The primary feature that sets a Deep Sea Port apart from others Ports is the depth
of water in its immediate vicinity. This depth defines the size of ships and vessels
that can actually enter the port and those that cannot. As their name implies, Deep
Sea Ports are capable of handling large and heavily loaded ships, their deeper waters
allowing for the same. This is why deep sea ports have such high importance for
trade, especially since other type of ports are usually considered suitable only for
recreational purposes (Dasgupta, 2016).

3.2.2. Ports, especially Deep Sea Ports [DSPs] such as Gwadar play an essential part in the
global supply chain, where they contribute to regional and inter-regional trade
between countries. There is a chain of activities that transpire at ports which create
value addition, leading to port related employment creation (Merk, 2014). DSPs also
provide great socio-economic benefit to the country, province and the port city. In
2014 alone, the Singapore Port handled 33.5 Million containers, which translates to
seven percent of Singapore's GDP (Fabbri, 2015). A major DSP port such as Gwadar

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has the potential to generate employment and revenue for Pakistan, just as the
Singapore Port Authority does for its country.

3.3. How Ports Facilitate Trade

3.3.1. There are various ways ports impact trade, some of which are fairly obvious. One of
the key facilitation comes in the form of reduced transportation cost for cargo being
shipped around the world. It has been estimated that on average, approximately
five percent of the imported value of any manufactured product can be attributed
to shipping. Moreover, goods which are shipped in containers or in bulk have a lower
per unit cost or per tonne cost than non-containerized goods. There are, however,
exceptions, to this statement, especially in case of bulk shipments for products such
as cement, which are cheaper to transport loose than in containers. Generally, when
transportation costs are compared with other means such as rail, land or air; sea
shipments are more cost effective in most instances with a far wider reach than land
and rail alternates.

3.3.2. Table 3-1 provides an indication of the cost of shipping per unit for the listed
products categories.

Table 3-1
Average Maritime Transport Costs by Sector
(Merk, 2014)

Maritime Transport Costs Maritime Transport Costs


Product
as % of Import Value (USD/Tonne)

Raw materials 24% 33


Agriculture 11% 81
Manufactures 5% 174
Crude oil 4% 18

3.4. Employment Creation

3.4.1. Ports themselves and their associated industries all require local manpower in
considerable numbers. Although, over the last decade most international ports have
shifted from being labor intensive to more capital intensive, this however, does not
appear to be the case with Gwadar Port, which will still seemingly be labor intensive.

3.4.2. Intuitively, the larger the port size the more port-related employment will be
created in the area. According to a Meta-study conducted by the Organization for
Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] of more than 150 port impact

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studies, on average for every one million tonne throughput of a port, an associated
800 jobs were created. This number represents both direct employment as well as
indirectly employment created through the port activities (Merk, 2014).

3.5. Impact of Ports on Cities

There is a profound impact of ports on their cities, especially since ports contribute to
employment, economy and culture of the city to which it is associated. This holds true for
most of the port cities around the world. Some ways in which ports effect nearby cities are
detailed below.

3.5.1. Economic Impact

Throughout history ports have always been the epicenter for economic activity and
trade. Depending on their size and location, ports exert a substantial impact on the
adjoining cities, region and the country as a whole. In order to better understand
their influence on employment and the economy, a list of case studies and examples
have been listed below, these include the following: cities.

3.5.1.1. Houston Port’s Economic Impact


In 2015 a study conducted by Martin Associates reported that in the
year 2014, due to the activity at Houston Port, the entire state
benefitted in the amount of US Dollars 264.9 Billion. The state and local
tax generated in 2014 was in excess of US Dollars 5 Billion. In recent
estimates it was seen that due to the economic activity of the Port of
Houston, the state of Texas was one of the nation’s highest exporting
state (Martin Associates, 2015).

3.5.1.2. Amsterdam Port’s Economic Impact


3.5.1.2.1. The total value added by the Amsterdam port region in
2013 was recorded to be EUR 6.0 billion (of which EUR 2.5
billion indirect). This accounts for 6% of the economy in
the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area (PA, 2015).

3.5.2. Employment Impact

Ports are hubs of economic activity and directly impact the levels of employment in
nearby areas, especially the adjoining cities. Their influence on skilled labor
demand, however, is not restricted to nearby regions. The examples below highlight
the widespread effect of ports on employment:

3.5.2.1. Employment Created by Houston Port


3.5.2.1.1. According to a survey, it was calculated that in 2012, the
port of Houston had facilitated in creating more than 1
million jobs throughout the state of Texas. This figure

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grew to 1.17 Million in 2015, which is an increase of 17%


in under 3 years (PHA, 2016).

3.5.2.2. Employment Created by Amsterdam Port


3.5.2.2.1. The Amsterdam Port Area accounts for 59,075 jobs (of
which 34,309 are directly port-related jobs and 24,766
indirectly). In the total national employment pool, the
port contributes approximately 4% of the total
employment in the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area. This is
a significant percentage (PA, 2015).

3.5.3. It will be helpful to understanding the impact and significance of ports with a brief
view on critical statistics of some of the more popular ports of the world. To this
effect, the Section will discuss the significance of three DSPs, which will include the
following:

3.5.3.1. The Port of Shanghai, China

3.5.3.2. The Port of Singapore, Singapore

3.5.3.3. The Port of New York and New Jersey, USA

3.6. Significance of Ports – Some International Examples

3.6.1. The Port of Shanghai

3.6.1.1. The port of Shanghai is one of the world’s busiest ports and with its
massive size has also been referred to as the ‘Goliath’ of global trade.
In 2014, the port surpassed all previous milestones and set a world
record by processing more than 35 million Twenty Foot Equivalent
Units [TEU] of cargo (Leslie, 2015).

3.6.1.2. The Shanghai port offers a variety of services including the following
(Yuehua, 2011) :

3.6.1.2.1. Warehousing
3.6.1.2.2. Logistics
3.6.1.2.3. Ship towing
3.6.1.2.4. Piloting
3.6.1.2.5. Transit services
3.6.1.2.6. Waterway passage services
3.6.1.2.7. Sea and railway transport facility

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3.6.1.3. Although, the Port of Shanghai deals with an impressive list of products,
but some of the main business sectors it caters to include the following
(Yuehua, 2011):

3.6.1.3.1. Petroleum Industry


3.6.1.3.2. Metals Industry
3.6.1.3.3. Minerals Industry
3.6.1.3.4. Heavy Machinery Industry

3.6.1.4. Since 2001, the Port of Shanghai has seen a continuous improvement,
year after year, in its throughput. Figure 3-1 refers. There was a slight
dip in 2009. This has been assumed to be the result of the international
financial crisis, which had a rippling effect on economic activities
around the world. Figure 3-2 shows cargo handled by Shanghai Port in
Twenty Foot Equivalent Units [TEU] between 2011 and 2014, which has
also been on the rise (WSC, 2016)
Twenty Foot Equivalent

2,801 2,907
2,615 2,500
2,171
1,810
Units

1,454
1,128
861
634

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Figure 3-1 Container Throughput of Shanghai Port: 2001-2010


(Yuehua, 2011, p. 32) – recreated and color enhanced by R2V

35.29
Volume (Million TEU)

33.62
32.53
31.74

2011 2012 2013 2014

Figure 3-2 Cargo Handled by Shanghai Port in TEUs: 2011-2014


(Yuehua, 2011, p. 32) – recreated and color enhanced by R2V

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3.6.1.5. The following tables shows Shanghai’s port throughput during 2013,
along with port data statistics from the month of April 2013 only.

Table 3-2
Shanghai Port Primary Data Statistics: April 2013

(SMOPS, 2016) – only selected data displayed

Category Item Volume

Cargo Throughput (10,000 tonnes) 3,172


Airport Cargo 23
Waterway Cargo 3,149
Cargo Container Throughput (10,000 TEUs) 239
Import 105
Export 95
Internal 40
Total Passenger Exit/Entry 2,407,006
Airport Exit/Entry 2,219,091
Personnel
Waterway Exit/Entry 175,494
Railway Exit/Entry 12,421
Total Vehicles 17,266
Airplanes 15,128
Vehicles
Ships 2,108
Trains 30
Total ships 3,477
International Ships Cargo ships 3,409
Passenger ships 68

3.6.2. The Port of Singapore

3.6.2.1. The port of Singapore has continued its upward trajectory, with growth
registered in all the key parameters. Container throughput established
a new record of 33.9 million TEUs in 2014 following a 4% increase while
total cargo tonnage handled rose 3.5% to reach 580.8 million tonnes.
Singapore also maintained its pole position in vessel arrival tonnage
and bunkering. In keeping with Singapore’s policy of building ahead of
demand to ensure it will never be caught short, new berths are steadily
being rolled out. Work at Pasir Panjang Terminal (PPT) 3 and 4 is
progressing at a steady clip (SNSC, 2015).

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3.6.2.2. When fully operational by end 2017, it will enhance Singapore Port’s
handling capacity to about 50 million TEUs from 35 million TEUs today.
Singapore has also unveiled plans for a new megaport at Tuas. At 65
million TEUs, it will be bigger than all the existing terminals put
together. Phased in from 2025, it will enable Singapore to consolidate
all its container operation in one location. Developed on a greenfield
site, Tuas Megaport will be better equipped to handle the mega-sized
container ships being built, with their demands for longer berths and
deeper draughts, as well as advanced cranes to turn the vessels around.
By continuing to scale up, Singapore will be able to keep pace with
trade requirements. Even with the moderate projected annual growth
of 4-5%, world trade could possibly double by 2030 (SNSC, 2015).

3.6.2.3. Annual vessel arrival tonnage reached 2.33 billion gross tons (GT) in
2013, an increase of 3.2 per cent from the 2.25 billion GT achieved in
2012. Container ships and tankers were the top contributors, each
accounting for around 30 per cent of total vessel arrival tonnage.
(MPAS, 2015)

3.6.2.3.1. Container and Cargo Throughput. Container throughput


hit 32.6 million TEUs in 2013, a 2.9 per cent increase over
the 31.6 million TEUs in 2012. Total cargo tonnage
handled last year rose 3.6 per cent over 2012 to reach
557.5 million tonnes.
3.6.2.3.2. Bunker Sales. The total volume of bunkers sold in the Port
of Singapore in 2013 was 42.5 million tonnes, compared
to 42.7 million tonnes in 2012. Singapore remained the
world's top bunkering port in 2013.
3.6.2.3.3. Singapore Registry of Ships. The Singapore Registry of
Ships did well last year. The total tonnage of ships under
our register grew by 13.2 per cent or 8.6 million GT in
2013. As of end December 2013, the total tonnage of ships
under the Singapore flag was 73.6 million GT, putting
Singapore among the top 10 ship registries in the world.

3.6.2.4. Some statistics for Singapore's maritime performance from 2009 to


2013 are presented in the two Figures below:

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Table 3-3
Singapore Port's Maritime Performance: 2009-2013
(MPAS, 2015) – remade and reoriented by R2V

Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Vessel Arrival Tonnage


1.78 1.92 2.12 2.25 2.33
(billion GT)
Container Thoughput
25.90 28.40 29.90 31.60 32.60
(million TEUs)
Cargo Thoughput
472.30 503.30 531.20 538.00 557.50
(million TEUs)
Bunker Sales Volume
36.40 40.90 43.20 42.70. 42.50
(million Tons)
Singapore Registry of Ships
45.60 48.80 57.40 65.00 73.60
(Million GT)

40,000

30,000
Till
June
20,000 2016

10,000

-
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Figure 3-3 Singapore’s Total Container Throughput (in '000 TEUs)


(MPAS, 2015) – Infographic rendered by R2V

400,000
Thousands of Tonnes

Till
300,000 June
2016
200,000

100,000

-
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Containerised Conventional Oil Non-Oil

Figure 3-4 Total Cargo handled by Singapore Port (000’s of Tonnes)


(MPAS, 2015) – Infographic rendered by R2V

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3.6.3. The Port of New York & New Jersey

3.6.3.1. The Port of New York and New Jersey is located on the North-Eastern
Coast of the United States. The Port consists of 10 Terminals (Wang &
Pagano, 2015). These are:

3.6.3.1.1. Six (6) handle Container Cargo


3.6.3.1.2. Three (3) handle Cruise Ships
3.6.3.1.3. One (1) handles Break Bulk Cargo

3.6.3.2. The Port of New York and New Jersey, is one of the oldest active ports
in the United States. With more than US $ 2 Billion having been
invested in infrastructure, equipment and facilities, the Port remains a
premier hub for maritime trade and is currently the country’s third
largest port (PANYNJ, 2016).

3.6.3.3. The Port of New York & New Jersey [PANYNJ] consists of 10 Terminals,
six of which handle container cargo, whereas three cater for cruise
ships, while one is designated to handle bulk- break bulk shipments.
Additionally, the port is equipped with an array of equipment, which
facilitates in port handling activities. A list of the cranes at PANYNJ is
provided below:

3.6.3.4. According to the revenue figures, the Port of New York and New Jersey
has seen an average growth rate of 5.53% in its operating revenue.
However, there has been a slightly higher average growth rate in the
operating expenses, which is approximately averaging at 6.16%. Table
3-6 provides a more detailed view of these

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Ports and Port Cities

Table 3-4
Type and Number of Cranes at PANYNJ
(Wang & Pagano, 2015)

Type Number Tonnage

IHI 3 40
New York
Container Paceco 2 45
Terminal
Liebherr Post-Panamax 4 50
ZPMC Super Post-Panamax 4 50
ZPMC Post- Panamax 6 50
APM Terminal
Paceco-Mitsui Post-Panamax 2 50
Paceo 3 50
Fantuzzi Super Post-Panamax 5 65
ZPMC Super Post-Panamax 4 65
Maher
Liebherr Super Post-Panamax 2 65
Terminal
Paceco Post-Panamax 6 50
Paceco Panamax 1 40
Paceco 3 46
Port Newark
Container ZPMC Post-Panamax 2 50
Terminal
Fantuzzi Post-Panamax 4 50

Global Marine ZPMC Post-Panamax 2 65


Terminal ZPMC Post-Panamax 4 50
Liebherr Post-Panamax 2 60
Star 1 50
Red Hook
Kone 1 60
Terminal
Paceco 2 40
Liebherr (Port Newark Terminal) 2 Mobile Harbor Stick Crane

Total No. of Cranes 65

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Ports and Port Cities

Table 3-5
Revenue from the Port of New York & New Jersey
(Wang & Pagano, 2015)

Operating Revenue Operating Expenses Operating Income


Year
(thousands of Dollars) (thousands of dollars) (thousands of dollars)

2014 243,778 174,476 69,302


2013 262,526 176,459 86,067
2012 249,609 190,043 59,566
2011 236,461 185,053 51,408
2010 223,095 163,424 59,671
2009 205,861 127,240 78,621
2008 201,269 143,523 57,746
2007 236,002 112,607 123,395
2006 170,617 109,371 61,246
Average Growth
5.53% 6.16% 4.34%
Rate (2006 -2013)

300
Thousands

200

100

0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Revenue Expenses Income

Figure 3-5 Revenue from the Port of New York & New Jersey
(Wang & Pagano, 2015) – Infographic rendered by R2V

3.6.4. The primary reason for selecting these ports as examples was to review mammoths
of the port industry. It was equally important to ascertain the qualities that each of
these ports have in common, which makes them a success. For instance, all three
ports; are massive in size, have the ability and the infrastructure to accommodate
large volumes of cargo, are ideally located and they all focus on developing
themselves to cater for rising demand. Based on these variables, it is easy to foresee
the potential of Gwadar Port and therein its economic impact on the region, city and
the country. Especially, since the demand for skilled labor demand is directly
proportional to amount of economic activity.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand District Gwadar – An Overview

4. District Gwadar – An Overview

The City and District of Gwadar – the prime setting of this Report – are introduced in this
Section. Gwadar’s history, its geographic significance, its culture, selected demographic indicators and
some socio-economic elements are presented in brief. Its importance for Pakistan and international
stakeholders is brought on record.

4.1. Brief History of Gwadar

4.1.1. Throughout history, cities located on coastlines have been frequented by travelers,
conquerors and occupiers. The case of Gwadar is no different, which was occupied
by the Portuguese in the early 16th century (Baloch S. , 2015). However, the
Portuguese soon reverted back to their homeland and the area was then ruled for
many centuries by local Baloch Tribes (GlobalSecurity, 2016).

4.1.2. In 1783, the Khan of Kalat gave Gwadar to the defeated ruler of Muscat, who even
after reclaiming his kingdom, continued his rule of Gwadar by appointing a
Governor. On 8th September, 1958, Pakistan purchased the Gwadar enclave from
Oman; where Gwadar officially became part of Pakistan on the 8th of December,
1958. Consequently, in 1977 the Government of Pakistan annexed Gwadar into the
province of Balochistan. (BHC, 2016).

4.2. Geographic Importance of Gwadar

4.2.1. Located on the South Western Coastline of Pakistan, Gwadar is the budding port city
of Balochistan. After Pakistan attained control of Gwadar in 1958, the area fell under
the Makran District. In 1977, the Government of Pakistan gave Gwadar the status of
an independent District (GDA, 2006). District Gwadar has an area of more than
12,637 square kilometers and a coastline of over 600 Kilometers.

4.2.2. Gwadar’s location has always been of great strategic and economic value for
Pakistan. Gwadar’s location is also of great international significance. This is perhaps
the reason why, when the Government of Pakistan was seeking an alternate port to
Karachi and Bin Qasim Ports, it selected Gwadar over Keti Bandar, Jiwani, Pasni and
Ormara etc. (Malik, 2012). The geo-strategic importance of Gwadar is further
discussed in the following Section.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand District Gwadar – An Overview

Figure 4-1 Map of Gwadar City


(GPA(d), 2016)– Infographic recreated by R2V

4.3. Culture of Gwadar

4.3.1. Cultural Blend

4.3.1.1. Due to the location and history of Gwadar, there is blend of cultures
that exist in the region. Although the general population of Gwadar is
predominantly Baloch, there is an Arabic influence left by the Omani
era. Their legacy still continues due to Gwadar’s close proximity to the
Arabian Peninsula.

4.3.2. Language

4.3.2.1. The locals of Gwadar are all Balochi speaking, however, the dialect may
differ from other parts of Balochistan. This is mainly due to its proximity
with Iran, which has seen a skew in the dialect towards the Persian
language. The Urdu language is also quite common throughout the

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region. The medium of learning in schools and colleges of the area is in


the Urdu language (GDA, 2006).

4.3.3. Religion

4.3.3.1. Islam is the predominant religion followed throughout the region, with
only a minor percentage (0.7%) of the population following other
faiths. A further breakdown of the 0.7% reveals that Hinduism makes
for 0.39%, with Christians and Ahmadis collectively making up 0.31% of
the minority faiths in the region (DDMAG, 2008, p. 15).

4.4. Demography of Gwadar

4.4.1. Gender Specific Population

4.4.1.1. The last population censuses in the region was held in 1998, according
to which the overall population of Gwadar District numbered 185,498.
Amongst this, the percentage of males was calculated to be 53.6% with
women making up 46.4% of the population (BOS, 2016).

Women Men
46% 54%

Figure 4-2 Population Distribution of Gwadar – 1998


(BOS, 2016)

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Table 4-1
Projected Gwadar District Population by 2020

(GoB, 2014, p. 11)

Population
Variables
1998 2005 2010 2015 2020

Female 86,667 106,517 123,422 143,011 165,708

Male 99,333 122,084 141,460 163,912 189,926

Total 186,000 228,601 264,882 306,923 355,634

4.4.1.2. According to the data available with the Bureau of Statistics Pakistan,
the expected population of Gwadar district was estimated to grow at
2.6% per annum. At this rate it is expected that the population of the
district in 2014 - 2015 is approximately between 298,012 and 306,923.
The Bureau further provides details on the population density, which
according to relatively outdated censuses stood at 14.7 Persons / Sq
Km (BOS, 2016).

200,000 360,000
180,000
270,000
160,000
140,000 180,000
120,000
90,000
100,000
80,000 0
1998 2005 2010 2015 2020 1998 2005 2010 2015 2020

Female Male Female Male

Figure 4-3 Comparison of Population Growth – Male and Female Populaiton of Gwadar District
(GoB, 2014, p. 11) – Infographic rendered by R2V

4.4.2. Population Growth of Gwadar and Pakistan

4.4.2.1. Gwadar Port Authority [GPA] estimates the current population of


Gwadar City to be approximately 85,000. Though, it is important to

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note that since the last census was conducted more than 18 years ago,
these figures are at best, approximations. Figure 4-4 below shows that
where the population growth of Gwadar has been more or less similar
to the national population growth, the Urban population of Gwadar has
grown at a faster rate than its Rural population. In 1998, Gwadar’s
urban population surpassed its rural population.

5.31%

3.06% 2.99%
2.45% 3.67%
2.69%
2.55%
2.05%

1961 1972 1981 1998

Gwadar Pakistan

Figure 4-4 Comparison of Population Growth – Pakistan versus Gwadar District


(DDMAG, 2008, p. 12) – Infographic rendered by R2V

4.4.2.2. Gwadar has had varied socio-economic climates, which has prompted
both inward and outward migration over the past several years. The
Gwadar Port coming into operation caused an influx of workers seeking
an earning. Although, due to the subsequent security situation in
Gwadar, there was a move outward from Gwadar. These fluxes in
situations both economic and security have affected the general
population of the city and district as a whole.

4.4.2.3. Over the course of four decades the population of Gwadar District has
experienced an oscillation of upward and downward trends. Figure 4-4
shows an increase of 2.05% growth in 1961. This increase is further
pronounced in 1972, when the growth rate is slightly more than double
at 5.31%. Although, the drop in population growth rate is seen in 1981,
which also falls by approximately half to 2.55%. In the next 17 years the
growth rate remains slightly changed at 2.99% in 1998. According to
Figure 4-4 the growth rate of Pakistan increased between 1961 and
1972, from 2.45% to 3.67%. There was a slight decrease seen in the
growth rate in 1981 to 3.06%. This downward trend seems to have
continued with the growth rate after approximately 20 years being
2.69%.

4.4.2.4. In 1961 the growth rate of Pakistan was slightly higher in comparison
to Gwadar district. This changed in the following decade when Gwadar

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overtook Pakistan’s growth rate, with a figure of almost double. During


the next decade, up until 1982, the growth rate of Pakistan remained
stable, but the growth rate of Gwadar fell by approximately half. In
1998, both growth rates of the district and that of Pakistan became
almost at par with each other.

4.4.3. Urban and Rural Population of Gwadar

4.4.3.1. The difference between the rural and urban population was relatively
wide in the 1950’s, as shown in Figure 4-5. However, this difference
was reduced significantly in the 1960’s, when the rural population
decreased in number, but the urban population grew by almost three
times. In the following decade there was a significant increase in both
the rural and urban populations. In 1981 the gap between the urban
and rural populations was still wide, as both categories continued to
grow. This all changed in the following two decades when urban
overtook the rural population.
Thousands

100.15

69.13
53.94 85.35

34.46 31.17
43.25
6.17 36.88
18.49

1951 1961 1972 1981 1998

Rural Urban

Figure 4-5 Comparison Growth of Urban and Rural Population of Gwadar


(DDMAG, 2008, p. 12) – Infographic rendered by R2V

4.4.3.2. It is also important to note that the distribution between the urban and
rural population is negligible since populations of both stratums are
situated near to the coastline and are involved in similar economic
activities i.e. fishing industry. Although there are approximately 198
villages and 35 other communities along the shoreline, the urbanized
areas are Gwadar, Ormara, Jiwani and Pasni (DDMAG, 2008, pp. 12-13).

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4.4.4. Other Demographic Variables

4.4.4.1. Some other demographic variables, based on the most recent data
available for Gwadar District, between 1951 and 1998 have been listed
in Table 4-2 (DDMAG, 2008, p. 12).

Table 4-2
Demographic Variables of Gwadar District between 1951 and 1998
(DDMAG, 2008, p. 12)

Population Census Years


Variables
1951 1961 1972 1981 1998

1. Total population 40,630 49,660 90,820 112,385 185,498


2. Gender Ratio NA NA NA 112 115
3. Population Density 2.7 3.3 6.0 7.4 12.2
4. Household size NA NA NA 6.3 5.5
5. Rural Population 34,462 31,167 53,939 69,132 85,350
6. Urban Population 6,168 18,485 36,881 43,253 100,150
7. Percentage of Urban Population 15.2% 37.2% 40.6% 38.5% 54%

This space has been left blank intentionally

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4.4.5. Table 4-3 below shows us more recent statistics for another set of demographic
variables for Gwadar district calculated by Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, based on
1998 census (PBS, 2016, p. 1)

Table 4-3
Gwadar District Demographic Statistics
(PBS, 2016, p. 1)

Sr. No. Variable Value

1. Area 12,637 Sq. Kms


2. Population (As of 1998 Census) 185,498 persons
3. Male 99,436 (53.60 %)
4. Female 86,062 (46.40 %)
5. Sex Ratio (Male per 100 Females) 115.5
6. Population Density 14.7 per Sq. Km
7. Urban Population 100,152 (54.00 %)
8. Rural Population 85,346 (46.00 %)
9. Average Household Size 5.5
10. Literacy Rate (10+) 25.5 %
11. Male 35.52 %
12. Female 13.81 %
13. Average Annual Growth Rate (1981 to 1998) -0.09 %
14. Total Housing Units 33,680
15. Pacca Housing Units 6,289 (18.67 %)
16. Housing Units having Electricity 11,716 (34.78 %)
17. Housing Units having Piped Water 15,300 (45.43 %)
18. Housing Units using Gas for Cooking 291 (0.86 %)
19. Sub-Divisions 02
20. Union Councils 13
21. Mouzas 77
22. Municipal Committees 02
23. Town Committees 02

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4.5. Socio-Economic Sectors

4.5.1. Education

4.5.1.1. The level of Education is a vital indicator for the amount of skilled labor
that can be trained from a region. If there is a lag in the education
system, its outfall will be felt by the TVET sector. It is therefore
important to review this particular sector as its impact is far reaching
for the TVET sector of Balochistan.

4.5.1.2. Traditionally, the overall level of education in Balochistan has been


below par, and this is evident from even a tertiary review of various
districts of the province. Gwadar, is no different, but access indicators
suggests that the level of education is still higher that other districts
(GoB, 2014, p. 12). It is however important to cater for the various
factors that plague the province and limit the educational system as
well. For instance, there are cultural limitations in some areas and
almost all the regions suffer from poverty. Both these factors have a
negative impact on the educational system of Balochistan.

4.5.1.3. Currently, there are 259 schools in the public sector, which are divided
between primary and secondary level (GoB, 2014, p. 12). Table 4-4
presents an overview of the public sector school system in Gwadar:

Table 4-4
Public Sector Schools –Gwadar
(GoB, 2014, p. 13)

Urban Rural Total


School Type
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
Primary 33 19 52 111 43 154 144 62 206
Middle 2 4 6 17 5 22 19 9 28
High 8 6 14 7 3 10 15 9 24
Higher Secondary 1 - 1 - - - 1 0 1

Total 44 29 73 135 51 186 179 80 259

4.5.1.4. Gauging from the figures presented in Table 4-4, it is clear to see that
higher secondary education is deeply lacking in the District. This is a
cause for concern, as it directly affects the quality of intakes for
Technical and Vocational Training from the region. Figure 4-6 below
provides a graphic representation and comparison of educational
institutes in Gwadar with respect to their urban/rural and gender
setting.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand District Gwadar – An Overview

Urban Rural
33
111
19
43
8 6
2 4 17 5 7
1 0 3 0 0

Primary Middle High High Sec Primary Middle High High Sec

Boys Girls Boys Girls

Boys Girls
111 43

19
33
17 7 8 5 4 3 6
2 0 1 0 0

Primary Middle High High Sec Primary Middle High High Sec

Rural Urban Rural Urban

Figure 4-6 Comparison Growth of Urban and Rural Population of Gwadar


(GoB, 2014, p. 13) – Infographic rendered by R2V

4.5.2. Literacy Rates

4.5.2.1. Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurements [PSLM] survey


indicates that Gwadar has a higher literacy rate when compared to
other districts of Balochistan. With a literacy rate of approximately 50%
in population aged above 15 years, Gwadar is placed 4th, right after
Quetta, in terms of literacy. This percentage is higher i.e. 56% in
population above the age of 10 years (GoB, 2014, p. 13).

4.5.2.2. With a female literacy rate at 25%, Gwadar is in 3rd place, right behind
Sibi and Quetta in this category. This percentage is in fact higher i.e.
31% in above 10 years’ age bracket, which suggest female literacy rate
of Gwadar is relatively higher than other districts. However, this rate is
still considerably lower than other provinces (GoB, 2014, p. 13).

4.5.2.3. From the perspective of B-TEVTA and in general the TVET sector of
Balochistan, higher literacy rates in Gwadar as compared with the rest
of Balochistan, provide an opportunity to train a larger pool of
graduates from Gwadar in both technical and vocational education.

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This is also relevant since most CPEC related projects in Balochistan are
concentrated in and around the city of Gwadar.

4.5.2.4. Table 4-5 shows literacy rate in female and male population aged above
10 years and 15 years of age between the years 2005 and 2013 (GoB,
2014, pp. 13-14).

Table 4-5
Literacy Rates in Gwadar
(GoB, 2014, pp. 13-14)

Above 10 Years Age Above 15 Years Age

Male Female Total Male Female Total

2005 51% 24% 38% 48% 15% 33%


2007 48% 15% 33% 38% 9% 24%
2009 77% 42% 61% 73% 32% 54%
2011 66% 30% 50% 51% 19% 35%
2013 78% 31% 56% 74% 25% 50%

Above 10 Years Age Above 15 Years Age

80% 80%

60% 60%

40% 40%

20% 20%

0% 0%
2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

Male Female Overall Male Female Overall

Figure 4-7 Literacy Rates in Gwadar


(GoB, 2014, pp. 13-14) – Infographic rendered by R2V

4.5.2.5. In case of Gwadar district, there are various communities and areas
which have no access to proper schooling, owing to the low density of
population. Moreover, there are gaps in enrollment in the schools that
are currently being run. Due to absence of amenities like toilets and

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water, the enrollment as well as maintaining those enrollments in


schools is severely affected. The barriers to availability of schools that
exists between primary to higher secondary level additionally makes
the access situation worse. Quality of teaching and learning is a major
issue in district of Gwadar. As indicated by the yearly education Report
from 2014, the students are badly suffering with regard to learning
outcomes (GoB, 2014, p. 14).

4.5.3. Energy

4.5.3.1. Electricity was first made available to the district through Pasni Power
House by Water and Power Development Authority [WAPDA], using
four generators that were run on diesel, possessing a total capacity of
17 Megawatts [MW]. Electricity was provided to main towns within the
district using local generators for a restricted span of time between 8
and 12 hours per day. Though, the outskirts and villages were not
privileged to have this facility (GoB, 2011, p. 57).

4.5.3.2. In the past decade, most small villages and settlements have been
provided with electricity, as 35 MW of electricity is imported from
neighboring Iran. Due to electricity shortage, load shedding of 3 to 4
hours takes place every day. (GoB, 2011, p. 57).

4.5.4. Gas

4.5.4.1. Gwadar does not have a gas pipeline running through it, which means
that residents have to use cylinders of Liquefied Petroleum Gas [LPG]
for domestic use. As LPG cylinders are a sought-after alternate to
natural gas, the demand of these cylinders is high. This has prompted a
number of companies to supply LPG cylinders – these suppliers include:
Burshane Gas, Sui Southern Gas Company [SSGC] and WakGas. All of
these companies have agencies in the major cities of the area including
Gwadar, Jiwani, Pasni and Ormara (GoB, 2011, p. 57).

4.5.4.2. Besides the local suppliers of Gas, there is also availability of smuggled
gas cylinders from neighboring Iran. This is primarily due to the
discrepancy between the prices of local and Iran gas cylinders, which
are 20-30% cheaper (GoB, 2011, p. 57).

4.5.4.3. Although the region is relatively poor and there are cheap alternates to
LPG, however the consumption of LPG is ever increasing. According to
last updated statistics, approximately 4000 cylinders are consumed
each month in the region. This number does not include the LPG gas
cylinders flowing in from Iran, which is mostly sold by independent
retailers. Their sales are therefore difficult to quantify (GoB, 2011, p.
57).

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4.5.5. Health Facilities

4.5.5.1. The local population primarily depends on the public healthcare


services for their medical and health facilities. The various divisions
within the districts healthcare system include the following: (GoB,
2011, p. 69).

4.5.5.1.1. Hospitals
4.5.5.1.2. Basic Health Units [BHUs]
4.5.5.1.3. Rural Healthcare Centers
4.5.5.1.4. Medical Stores
4.5.5.1.5. Maternal and Childcare Centers
4.5.5.1.6. Tuberculosis Centers

4.5.5.2. The overall medical and health facilities in the area are relatively poor,
with a very small number of medical practitioners available. A
population of more than 300,000 people are catered for by only twenty
one Medical Doctors, as indicated in Table 4-7.

4.5.5.3. The Government of Balochistan has recently reopened the 50-bed


Gwadar Development Authority Hospital, in an attempt to improve
medical facilities in the area. It is expected that the hospital will soon
be upgraded to cater for 350 beds (Baloch, 2016).

4.5.5.4. According to development statistics of Balochistan, the data available


from 2011- 12 on the health institutes are given in tables 4-7: (AASA
Consulting, GRHO, 2015, p. 11).

Table 4-6
Health Institutes – Numbers (2011 -12)
(AASA Consulting, GRHO, 2015, p. 11)

Hospital 3
Medical Stores 14
Rural Health Center 3
Basic Health Units 23
Maternal and Child Health Center 3
Tuberculosis Clinic 1

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4.5.5.5. Some additional statistics on Healthcare staff and facilities at Gwadar


are provided in Table 4-6 below.

Table 4-7
Healthcare Staff and Facilities in 2010

(GoB, 2011, p. 70)

Healthcare Doctors Nurses Para- Beds Health care


Facilities Male/Female Male/Female Medical Facilities
Male/Female

Hospitals 15 / 6 0 18 / 1 43 1
Medical Stores n /f 0 29 / 0 0 15
Rural Healthcare
n/f 0 25 / 3 58 3
Centers
Basic Health Units n/f 0 46 / 5 0 23
Maternal and child
n/f 0 0/4 0 3
healthcare centers
Tuberculosis Clinic n/f 0 0/0 0 1
Unit/Population
6,143 0 1,518 2,616 5,743
Ratio
*n/f Data Not Found

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Importance of Gwadar Port

5. Importance of Gwadar Port

This Section provides an understanding of Gwadar Port, including its geo-strategic, economic
and socio-economic importance for the province, country and the region. The critical role that Gwadar
is destined to play in the industrial and economic development of Balochistan and Pakistan, and the
potential that the Port has to generate ample employment opportunities for the local populace, is
discussed. The Section ends with a commentary on other sea ports in the region that can be considered
competitors to Gwadar Port.

5.1. Vision and Mission of Gwadar Port Authority

The Government of Pakistan (GoP), Government of Balochistan (GoB) and even Ministry of
Ports and Shipping (MoPS) all have their own vision for Gwadar Port. But, in this instance we
will focus solely on the direct vision and mission of Gwadar Port, which has been provided by
Gwadar Port Authority. The vision and mission statements of Gwadar Port are listed below
(GPA(c), 2016):

Vision

5.1.1.1. To become the access port for the region and Pakistan, and a world
class marine center

5.1.1.2. To match Karachi Port and Qasim Port in order to help in economic
growth of Balochistan and Pakistan.

5.1.1.3. To provide an opening for land locked countries of Central Asia,


Afghanistan and Western China by transit trade, as well as offer
transshipment services.

Mission

5.1.2.1. To provide both general and bulk cargo, container and Roll On – Roll
Off [RORO] ships services.

5.1.2.2. To enable development of trade, industry and economy at local,


regional and national level.

5.1.2.3. To stay aligned with the expectations of international as well as local


consumers and stakeholders.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Importance of Gwadar Port

Figure 5-1 Gwadar Port


(Google Maps, 2016)

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Importance of Gwadar Port

5.2. History of Gwadar Port

5.2.1. Gwadar became part of Pakistan in 1958. It was not until 1964 that the foundations
for Gwadar Port were laid. Although, the Initial vision for a strategic port had been
set early on, but it was in 1993, that Pakistan actually took a serious note of Gwadar
Port. This seriousness came in the form of feasibility studies that were undertaken
for the development of deep water seaport at Gwadar (Anwar, 2012). The Gwadar
Deep Sea Port Project started in 2002 when its development was tasked to China’s
Harbor Engineering Company. The initial cost of the project was estimated at US
Dollars 300 Million, which was co-funded by the Chinese to the tune of US Dollars
250 Million.

5.2.2. By the end of 2004, Phase 1 of the port was completed. This enabling bulk carriers
weighing up to 30,000 deadweight tonnage [DWT] to utilize the port. The port was
also able to moor container vessels weighing up to 25,000 DWT. Following the
completion of Phase 1, the Government of Pakistan handed over port operations to
the Port of Singapore Authority [PSA]. The PSA was granted operational command
for the next 40 years, with the agreement also requiring PSA develop a 584 Acre
Special Economic Zone near the port (Hamza W. , 2009).

5.2.3. According to the operating contract, PSA was to spend US Dollars 525 million for
developing the port between the years 2007 to 2012. However, as a result of
conflicts regarding the land acquisition, no investment was made by PSA during this
time. (LCC, 2015, p. 7). Soon after the handover of Gwadar Port to PSA, there were
also reports that the port was being underutilized. This argument of underutilization
was further reinforced by the staunch opposition of the Baloch political leaders, who
believed the port was of no benefit to the locals (Page, 2011).

5.2.4. Under mounting pressure and inability of PSA to deliver on its terms of agreement,
in 2013, PSA withdrew from its contract and China Overseas Port Holding Company
[COPHC] took control of the port. This was in part an economically motivated
decision, as well a strategic one by China. The port to this day is controlled by China
and is now a vital portion of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor [CPEC] project.
With Gwadar Port becoming a reality, subsidiary projects in light of the port were
spurred on. These projects included the following:

5.2.4.1. 700 Km Makran Coastal Highway

5.2.4.2. Gwadar—Quetta—Chamman Road

5.3. Geo-Strategic Importance of Gwadar Port

5.3.1. Gwadar has been blessed with a strategic position in the North Arabian Sea, which
helps Pakistan connect with four resource rich regions of the world; China, South
Asia, Central Asia and Iran. In fact, Russia and Mongolia also fall with this

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geographical proximity. Moreover, due to its location, the Gwadar Port serves as a
gateway to the Strait of Hormuz (Khetran, The Potential and Prospects of Gwadar
Port, 2015).

5.3.2. There are other salient features of the Gwadar’s geography, all of which provide
Gwadar with competitive and strategic advantages. Some of these include the
following (Khetran, 2015):

5.3.2.1. The geographic location of Gwadar Port places it near the international
Sea Lines of Communication [SLOCs], which allows Gwadar to provide
transit shipment facilities.

5.3.2.2. The Gwadar Port is also a gateway to the Persian Gulf at the Strait of
Hormuz, which will allow it to offer various port-related services to
regional and international countries including UAE, Gulf and the
European states. Some of these services may include the following:

5.3.2.2.1. Transit Shipments


5.3.2.2.2. Storage of sea resources
5.3.2.2.3. Manufacturing facilities

5.3.2.3. Another key advantage of Gwadar is the natural protection it enjoys


from harsh weather.

5.3.3. As discussed in the preceding subsections, traders from the landlocked Central Asian
Republics [CARs] will seek the shortest and quickest route to warm waters. The ideal
such route is through Gwadar Port because of its geographical placement. This will
bring about economic gains for Pakistan, especially since European countries will
strive to gain access to energy rich CARs region (Khetran, 2015).

5.3.4. One of the key advantages for Gwadar is its ability to tap into trade opportunities
with land locked countries including Afghanistan and the Central Asian Republics
[CARs]. Central Asian natural gas and oil could gain access through the port as well,
as it has limited market access owing to political and geographic circumstances, such
as constant Russian influence, restricted access to waterways outside the Caspian
Sea and inadequate export infrastructure. According to recent estimates these
reserves will be equal to the collective oil reserves of Kuwait and Iran, as well as
Saudi Arabia’s natural gas reserves (Murtha, 2011). Countries such as Kyrgyzstan,
Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan hold these reserves. However, they are
landlocked, with inadequate access to international markets. Moreover, they are
still going through the effects of being included in the previous Soviet economy that
never produced effective export infrastructure for their energy resources, and
rather focused on their domestic consumption.

5.3.5. An example for the significance of Gwadar port for the Central Asian countries is the
agreement that took place between Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan that

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entails building a pipeline to carry oil from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan to Gwadar
(Murtha, 2011). Because of its geographical location, Gwadar Port will benefit
traders from landlocked Central Asian Republics (CARs) who are looking for the
shortest and quickest route to warm water. This will bring about economic gains for
Pakistan, especially since the European countries will strive to gain access to energy
rich CARs region (Khetran, The Potential and Prospects of Gwadar Port, 2015).

5.3.6. The port will give rise to employment opportunities for Pakistani workforce, and
uplift the economy by generating capital from transit trade as well as foreign
exchange funds (Khan S. A., 2013). Gwadar port has gained international attention
due to its tax free investment and business feature, consequently a vast number of
foreign investors have shown interest in initiating development projects (PBC,
2016).

5.4. Gwadar Port – Importance for China

5.4.1. China is investing US Dollars 46 Billion in Pakistan under the China Pakistan Economic
Corridor [CPEC] project. This is a significant investment by China pursuant to its
ambitions to open new trade and transport routes across Asia (Shah & Page, 2015).
The Gwadar Port is destined to play a critical and pivotal role on account of being a
strategically located DSP that will be used to make CPEC a success.

5.4.2. In light of both the long and short term objectives of Pakistan’s neighbor and ally –
China, the importance of Gwadar is multifold. One of the major objectives of China
is to tap into the Middle Eastern market, through a quick, safe and an all-the-year-
around route. This is an intuitive decision since the Middle East possess
approximately 48% percent of the world’s oil and 38% of natural gas reserves. With
China’s energy needs ever increasing, access to this market is more of a necessity
than a luxury. Of course, Gwadar Port provides the most economical and shortest
route to this market, which makes it all the more important for China (Ahmed A. ,
2015).

5.4.3. Besides looking to enter the Middle Eastern oil and gas market, China is intent on
gaining access into mineral rich Africa. Again, for access into Africa, Gwadar Port
provides China with an inexpensive and safe route that will allow China to import
minerals from Africa as well as export a variety of goods to Africa.

5.4.4. China will be able to access the CARs (Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
and Turkmenistan) and Afghanistan using the port (Khan A. , 2014). Similarly, the
port will allow a substitute route to access the Strait of Malacca since India intends
to block it. Moreover, Gwadar port will be able to provide an alternate route to the
Indian Ocean and South China Sea routes. The port will also enhance the already
strong Pak-China Relations. The Chinese Premier on his visit to Pakistan in May 2013
called Gwadar port “an economic corridor”. Additionally, Gwadar Port has capability

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to act as a regional hub and will also offer suitable trade routes to the Caspian region
which is landlocked (Ijaz, 2015).

Figure 5-2 Current Routes for Oil Imports and Shorter Future Route
(SCMP, 2016)

5.4.5. China’s existing sea routes pass through the South China Sea, Pacific Rim, the Strait
of Malacca and Sri Lanka. Currently Chinese vessels have to travel more than 10,000
kilometers to reach their regional trading partners. Once Gwadar Port becomes fully
operational, Chinese vessels will be able to reach their trading partners through a
shorter sea route, which is estimated to be approximately quarter of the original
distance i.e. 2500 kilometers. Gwadar Port will also reduce the land distance for
Kashgar, China. This is because Kashgar is 4500 Km’s from Shanghai Port, whereas it
is only 2800 Km’s from Gwadar Port. Resultantly, it will not only save time, but also
millions of dollars for China (Ahmed A. , 2015).

5.4.6. There are a variety of economic reasons for China’s interest in Gwadar Port.
However, it also has military interests, where it needs Gwadar Port to achieve its
strategic objective of becoming a ‘dominant naval power’ in the Indian Ocean
(Ahmed A. , 2015). The Gwadar Port will also allow China to observe Indo-US
presence of the Arabian Sea, and use the Gwadar Port as an alternate sea route in
case India blocks the Strait of Malacca (Ahmed A. , 2015). According to reports, China
will also establish a listening post at the port to observe the naval maneuvers of the
US in the Persian Gulf and those of India at nearby Indian bases of Gujarat and
Mumbai (Ahmed A. , 2015). Since 60% of China’s energy resources come from Gulf,

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China also wants to monitor the Sea Lines of Communication [SLOCs] from the
Persian Gulf. China’s maritime ambitions also include its interest in controlling the
sea oil routes and trade links between South Asia, Africa, Central Asia, Gulf and the
Middle East through presence at the Gwadar Port.

5.5. Gwadar Port Authority

5.5.1. The Gwadar Port Authority [GPA] was established by the proclamation of the GPA
Law No. LXXVII on 17th October 2002. The Law was mainly established for
developing, operating, managing and maintaining Gwadar Port. The essential staff
that was required for the Port Authority was approved by the Chief Executive of
Pakistan at that time (GPA(a), 2016).

5.5.2. Since its inception, the Gwadar Port Authority has been involved in ancillary services
of the port, especially since the port was first operated by the Port Singapore
Authority and then handed over to the Chinese. However, some of the more
significant projects GPA has undertaken were within the purview of the CPEC
Project. Since 2014, the GPA has been involved in the planning and appraisal process
specifically for the CPEC project, more precisely during its early harvest phase.
During this time, the GPA has been involved in the following projects, which are in
different phases of development (GPA(a), 2016).

5.5.2.1. Construction of East-Bay Expressway, Gwadar Port

5.5.2.2. Construction of Breakwaters, Gwadar Port

5.5.2.3. Dredging of Berthing Areas & Channels, Gwadar Port

5.5.2.4. Pak-China Technical & Vocational Institute

5.5.2.5. Facilities of Fresh Water Treatment and Water Supply

5.5.2.6. China-Pakistan Friendship Hospital (Up-gradation of existing 50 bedded


hospital

5.5.3. The Organogram of the Gwadar Port Authority is depicted in Figure 5-3 (GPA(a),
2016).

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GPA Board

Chairman

Director (Legal) Secretary GPA

I.A

DG (A) DG (Ops) DG (F) DG (P&D)

Manager Marine Maintenance & Director / DD


DMA Inch. Stores DD (P&D) Director Estate
Operations Operations Staff Accounts

Office Staff Office Staff Office Staff DMH XEN

Office Staff

Figure 5-3 GPA Organogram


(GPA(a), 2016) – Recreated and color enhanced by R2V

5.5.4. It is important to understand that although international companies are operating


Gwadar Port on Build, Operate and Transfer basis however, there are none, nor will
there be any cross shareholding between the principal controller and terminal
operator. Which means that the primary authority is with GPA and this status quo
will be maintained in the future as well (GPA(a), 2016).

5.6. Gwadar Port Profile

5.6.1. Current Port Infrastructure

5.6.1.1. Since 2013, China has assumed control of the Gwadar Port and with the
CPEC project gaining momentum, the port has been continuously
upgraded. According to the data available with Pakistan - China Joint
Chamber of Commerce & Industry and with GPA, the current
infrastructure of Gwadar Port includes the following (GPA(b), 2016):

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Table 5-1
Gwadar Port Infrastructure
(GPA(b), 2016)

S No. Item Description


1. Multipurpose Berths 200-Meter-Long Berths x 3
2. Roll On – Roll Off Facility Single Facility
3. Service Berths 100-Meter-Long Berth x 1
4. Approach Channel Length 4.7 Km
5. Outer Channel 14.4 Meters
6. Outer Channel (Width) 206 Meters
7. Inner Channel 13.8 Meters
8. Inner Channel (Width) 155 Meters
9. Turning Basin 14.5 Meters
10. Turning Basin (Diameter) 595 Meters
11. Bulk Handling 50,000 DWT
Maximum Depth of 12.5 Meters
12. Port Area 64,000 Square Meters
13. Container Stacking Area 48,278 Square Meters
14. Reefer Cargo Space 367 Square Meters
15. Empty Container Stacking Area 6,875 Square Meters
16. Storage Yard 28,669 Square Meters
17. Transit Shed 3,750 Square Meters
18. Hazardous Cargo Storage Yard 1,800 Square Meters
19. Control Tower 1,536 Square Meters
20. Buoy Yard 1,500 Square Meters
21. Generator Building 593 Square Meters
22. Maintenance Workshop 1,440 Square Meters
23. Vehicles Servicing Garage 450 Square Meters
24. Security Building 65 Square Meters
25. Common Offices for GPA, Customs Immigration Multiple Floors
Per floor: 4 ,144 Square Meters
26. Mosque 324 Square Meters
27. Operations Office and Canteen / Floor 1,742 Square Meters
28. Lorry Car Park 1,125 Square Meters
29. Future Development Area 118,575 Square Meters
30. Oil Recovery System Complete Set x 1
31. VHF/DSC Including INMARSAT-B Complete system

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5.6.2. Current Port Equipment

5.6.2.1. There is a diverse range of equipment that is currently being used at


the Gwadar Port, however this list is continuously being populated.
However, at this juncture the updated details of equipment as per the
Gwadar Port Authority is listed in Table (GPA(b), 2016).

Table 5-2
Gwadar Port Equipment
(GPA(b), 2016)

S No. Equipment Number of Units


1. Tug Boats (2400 HP) 2
2. Survey Boats 1
3. Working Boats 1
4. Mooring Boats 1
5. Pilot Boats 2
6. Rail Mounted Crane (40 Tonnes) 2
7. Rail Mounted Crane (16 Tonnes) 1
8. Rail Mounted Crane (10 Tonnes) 2
9. Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes– RTGS (40 Tonnes) 2
10. Mobile Cranes (10 Tonnes) 2
11. Refrigeration Container Sockets 400
12. Power House Main Generators (1.5MW) 3
13. Power House Emergency Generator (116 KW) 1
14. Fork Lift Trucks (5 Tonnes) 12
15. Container Stackers (40 Tonnes) 2
16. Container Tractors (100 Kilo Newton) 6
17. Container Semi Trailers 4
18. Flat Trucks (25 Tonnes) 4
19. Flat Trucks (10 Tonnes) 4
20. Hoppers (6x6 Meters) 8
21. Mobile Bagging Plants (50 Tonnes) 8
22. Fork Trucks (5 Tonnes) 12
23. Weighing Bridges (80 Tonnes) 2
24. Fire Tenders 2
25. Sweeping Vehicle 1
26. Garbage Truck 1
27. Water Purification Plant 1

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5.7. Role of Gwadar Port in Development of Balochistan

5.7.1. Although, Gwadar Port is not commercially operational as yet, however its impact is
already visible throughout the neighboring area. Construction of contemporary
residential areas, roads, schools, hotels and hospitals in Gwadar city/district indicate
progressive developments. These developments will further gain momentum as the
port becomes fully operational. This will have a massively positive affect on the port
city as well as the surrounding areas (Ahmad, 2015, p. 15).

5.7.2. Geological surveys of Balochistan have, over the years, revealed that the province is
rich in natural resources, which includes abundance of minerals, natural metals and
oil. These revelations have gained Balochistan international interest. Balochistan’s
natural gas reservoirs account for 36% of Pakistan’s overall gas production.
Moreover, the province is also blessed with precious metals such as gold, copper,
coal, platinum, silver, aluminum and most importantly uranium. The iron reserves
are approximately 200 million tonnes and the coal reserves are about 217 million
tonnes. The Saindak gold and copper mines include a stock of about 412 million
tonnes. Similarly, Reko Diq are reported to hold reserves of about 5.9 billion tonnes
of copper & gold. However, up until now there has been no adequate transportation
network available for these resources to be transported to the international
markets. With the onset of Gwadar Port, the entire dynamics of Balochistan’s
reservoir of precious resources is likely to change. If Gwadar Port can facilitate trade
of these precious resources, the economic implication for the entire province and
Pakistan will be monumental and reshape the entire area (Sherbaz, n.d., p. 76).

5.7.3. A vast majority of the population living alongside the Makran coastline are
dependent on fishing as their primary source of revenue. A majority of fishing
vessels are likely to be concentrated towards the Gwadar region due to its harbors
and associated infrastructure. Also, since Gwadar is the main port of the Makran
coast, its contribution to the overall fishing industry of the province will be massive
(Sherbaz, n.d., pp. 77-78). Although, fishing is a major industry of Makran coastal
areas, the complimenting value adding industries are also an integral part of the
scenery. With the onset of Gwadar Port these facilities, i.e. processing, and
packaging etc., would also see a massive boost in their sector, especially if they are
located near to the Gwadar Port. Moreover, a vast majority of Baloch fishermen who
had earlier moved to Karachi in search of better business, will be forced to rethink
their relocation and might consider a return to the province. This would bring in
much needed economic activity in the fishing industry of Balochistan and will
contribute towards betterment of the entire province (Ahmad, 2015, p. 16).

5.7.4. In the long run, both the province and country are expected to earn huge revenues
through Gwadar port, since the port will deliver transit and transshipment services
to many countries (Ahmad, 2015, p. 16).

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5.8. Employment Creation on account of Gwadar Port

5.8.1. The expected economic activity that is likely to be delivered by Gwadar port can be
divided into various groups. These groups will help in generating employment for
people of Balochistan.

5.8.1.1. The first group comprises cargo handling, passenger handling, loading
and delivery activities directly associated with the functioning of the
port, ship repair and services related to transport within the port and
the neighboring city centers (Sherbaz, n.d., p. 75).

5.8.1.2. The second group includes a number of processing industries that


convert the imported material prior to shipping or re-exporting it,
(Sherbaz, n.d., p. 75).

5.8.1.3. The third group includes industries that import bulk commodities
through the port. Industries included in this group are iron and steel,
sugar, oil refineries and associated chemical industries (Sherbaz, n.d.,
p. 76).

5.8.1.4. The fourth category that does not have a direct relation with the port
operations but is of great significance, is the tourism and leisure
industry. All these operations not only create employment, but also
produce huge economic activity, which will directly influence the
development and prosperity of the region (Sherbaz, n.d., p. 76).

5.8.2. The development of Gwadar port and related activities that will take place in and
around the city of Gwadar in future, are expected to create around two million new
jobs for several sectors in a time period of 8 to 10 years. List of skills and trades for
which jobs are expected to be created in various industries, sectors and businesses
are mentioned in Section 10 of the Report ‘Case of Balochistan’. According to the
estimates of Gwadar Development Authority, around 1.7 million individuals will shift
to Gwadar in a time span of thirty years (Sherbaz, n.d., p. 76).

5.9. Competing Ports to Gwadar

5.9.1. Jebel Ali Port, UAE

5.9.1.1. The Port of Jebel Ali lies in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and is
operated by the Dubai Port World [DPW]. The Port is actually
considered the flagship facility amongst DPW’s portfolio of more than
65 ports. The port can be considered as a multi modal hub offering
connectivity through land, sea and air. It all offers an extensive logistic
facility, making Jebel Ali the 9th largest container port in the world. The
port is also considered to be premier gateway connecting more than
140 ports globally.

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5.9.1.2. The Jebel Ali Port is now fully equipped to meet local and international
transportation demands both on sea and on land. With some key
infrastructural developments, the port can accommodate ships of any
size in existence (DPW(a), 2016). Currently the port has a total of 26
berths and 87 cranes. Three additional berths are under development
and ten additional cranes are on order to cater to the world’s largest
container vessels.

5.9.1.3. Complementing the Jebel Ali port is the Jebel Ali Free Zone which was
established in 1985. The Zone currently facilitates more than 6400
companies which are active in manufacturing, trade, logistics and a
range of other service related industries (DPW(a), 2016).

5.9.2. Mina Rashid Port, UAE

5.9.2.1. Another prominent port in the region is Mina Rashid Port, which is
located on the southern coast of the Arabian Gulf. The port is
considered as a multi-purpose port which is equipped to handle cargo
as well as passenger vessels. Mina Rashid port is the only port in the
Middle East to receive ISO-9002 accreditation and the Security
Certificate of Excellence by International Maritime Security [IMS]
(DPW(b), 2016).

5.9.2.2. The port is strategically located and as such enjoys an advantage since
all cargo destined for Iran, Iraq, Africa and India pass through Mina
Rashid Port. Moreover, its facilities and infrastructure are top tier,
which allow it the handle all types of vessels including large Break Bulk
vessels to Roll On – Roll Off [RORO] carriers. The port also offers
logistics and warehousing facilities, where it offers leasing of
warehouse sheds for all types of non-containerized cargo (DPW(b),
2016).

5.9.3. Port Salalah, Oman

5.9.3.1. The Salalah Port is the largest port of Oman and is strategically located
at the major East-West Shipping Lane. This is precisely why it is
considered to be the region’s top preference for access to the Middle
East, Indian Subcontinent and East Africa (PS, 2015). The port of Salalah
is equipped with the following equipment:

5.9.3.1.1. Speed loaders 11


5.9.3.1.2. Fork Lifts 9
5.9.3.1.3. Super Post Panamax Cranes 25
5.9.3.1.4. Rubber Tyre gantries 68
5.9.3.1.5. Tractors and trailers 177 / 187

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5.9.3.1.6. Tug Boats 4


5.9.3.1.7. Reach Stackers 4
5.9.3.1.8. Empty Handler 6

5.9.3.2. The Port of Salalah is aiming to expand its General Cargo Terminal with
an estimated investment of US Dollars 143 Million. This will certainly
enhance its capabilities, allowing for rapid transfer of commodities to
and from the quay. The port is further improving its competitiveness
by developing its facilities for Bulk and Liquids.

5.9.3.2.1. Bulk – The planned expansion project Bulk Handling is for


a Grain Terminal which would be fully equipped with silos.
The expected handling capacity of these silos is expected
to be approximately 100,000 Tonnes of wheat storage,
expandable in later phases (PS, 2015).
5.9.3.2.2. Liquids – Plans are also underway to develop the existing
tank storage of 1 Million Tonnes to 6 Million Tonnes.

5.9.4. Bandar Abbas Port (Shahid Rajaee Port), Iran

5.9.4.1. Iran’s Bandar Abbas Port is located at the Strait of Hormuz at the entry
of the Persian Gulf. The Port is divided in two parts, the new Shahid
Rajaie Port Complex and the old port, called Shahid Bahonar. It is a very
large complex situated on the foot of Kashar and Gachin mountains,
thirty 30 kilometers west of the city of Bandar Abbas. The port has a
main maneuvering basin and three subsidiary basins having berths,
warehouses, wharfs and buildings with associated facilities.

5.9.4.2. Iran’s Supreme Council of Free Trade Zones recently ratified Bandar
Abbas as a special economic area. This special status offers an
opportunity for exports to and from Central Asia through direct railway
link as well as with the rest of Iran’s communications network. The port
claims that it offers the best facilities with 24 loading booths for ocean
liners, together with a range of well-equipped storage facilities,
including mechanized, indoor and open-top storage (MS&F(a), 2014).
Some important projects of the Shahid Rajaie Port Complex include:

5.9.4.2.1. A silo for grain storage


5.9.4.2.2. A fishing and coastal traffic harbor
5.9.4.2.3. Expansion of cargo
5.9.4.2.4. Container storage areas

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Figure 5-4 Aerial View of Shahid Rajaie Port Complex, Bandar Abbas
(Google Maps, 2016)

5.9.5. Chabahar Port, Iran

5.9.5.1. The port of Chabahar is located in the Gulf of Oman, 2,371 kilometers
from Tehran. It is only about 170 kilometers from Gwadar. The port of
Chabahar is connected to Tehran and other cities by road and air. The
port hosts cargo handling machinery of different types and capacities.
The main berths at the port are open to ocean going vessels during
monsoon season in June, July and August, wherea, barge and lighter
operations are carried out throughout the year (MS&F(b), 2014).

This space has been left blank intentionally

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Figure 5-5 Relative Geographic Location of Gwadar, Chabahar and Bandar Abbas
(Google Maps, 2016)– Color enhanced by R2V

5.9.6. Karachi Port, Pakistan

5.9.6.1. Karachi is a DSP which provides safe navigation to tankers, modern


container vessels, bulk carriers, and general cargo ships. It is considered
to be one of South Asia’s busiest port and handles approximately 60%
of the country’s trade (KPA, 2016).

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5.9.6.2. The Port currently handles more approximately 26 Million Tonnes of


cargo per annum. This figure includes 14 Million Tonnes of Liquid and
12 Million Tonnes of Dry Cargo. In order to facilitate such types of
cargo, Karachi Port has 30 Dry Cargo and 3 Liquid Cargo handling berth
for POL & non-POL products, along with a privately operated container
terminal. Additionally, it has 13 berths on West Wharves, 17 berths on
East Wharves and 3 liquid cargo berths. This makes Karachi Port a
relatively busy port with more than 1600 vessels visiting the port
annually.

5.9.6.3. Although this is a fair number, but according to port record this is only
at 45% occupancy rate, which means that there is still significant
capacity to handle more cargo. The port facilities are very well backed
up with goods transit and storage areas, with rail and road services for
handling, storage and clearance of cargo. (KPA, 2016)

5.9.6.4. Facilitation of trade at the Karachi Port can be broadly categorized in


the follows categories:

5.9.6.4.1. Ship handling


5.9.6.4.2. Discharging / Loading of cargo
5.9.6.4.3. Storage of cargo
5.9.6.4.4. Clearance of cargo
5.9.6.4.5. Security / Safety

5.9.7. Qasim Port, Pakistan

5.9.7.1. Port Qasim is Pakistan’s second DSP and handles 40% of the country’s
trade, with the rest being handled at Karachi Port. The port is situated
in the Indus Delta region and is in close proximity to Karachi, lying
South-East it by a distance of approximately 28 nautical miles (52
kilometers approx.). Its geographic location places it ideally on the
trade route of the Arabian Gulf (PQA, 2012).

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5.9.8. Ports Comparison

Table 5-3
Comparison of Ports
(Hasan, 2006)

Port No. of Channel Channel Traffic Handled Vessels


Berths Length Depth (Million TEUs) Called
(KM) (Meters)

Rashid
35 0 3
(Dubai Port Authority)
5.1 13,232
Jebel
71 15 17
(Dubai Port Authority)
Salalah 33 0 16 2 1,184
Bandar Abbas 24 6.4 13 1 0
Chabahar 4 1 0 0 0
Karachi 30 12 3 8 1,600
Qasim 10 45 12 0.42 806
Gwadar 12 4.5 20 N/A N/A

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6. Economic and Strategic Interest of Global Stakeholders in Gwadar Port

With the onset of the development at Gwadar Port, it now holds a pivotal position in the region
both economically and strategically. It now has enormous potential to emerge as a regional hub and a
future trans-shipment port. This Section, therefore attempts to identify the interests of various global
stakeholders vis-à-vis Gwadar Port. China, Iran, the Central Asian Republics and Afghanistan are
considered to be regional players whose interests are directly linked to Gwadar Port. The fact that
Gwadar is the southern starting station for the China Pakistan Economic Corridor makes Gwadar Port
truly global in its strategic significance. The Section ends with a brief introduction to CPEC and its
implications for Gwadar.

6.1. Regional Players

6.1.1. China

6.1.1.1. The Chinese economy is expanding at the rate of about 9% every year
with trade volume of U.S Dollars 1.76 trillion and GNP ranging up to
7.3%. China’s foreign exchange reserves stand at U.S Dollars 600 billion.
Its growing economic needs are re-defining its fiscal policies, which
now focus on increasing permanent buyers in international arena. To
be a potent member of World Trade Organization (WTO), the foreign
and economic policies being followed by the Chinese Government are
cogent and well executed. Chinese efforts to lay more emphasis on
regional economic developments and foreign realignments highlight its
focused intent to become a global economic power. Since the downfall
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics [USSR], the Chinese
government is pursuing its pragmatic, focused and determined policies
in a passive manner to be a recognized as a world power in times to
come (Malik, 2012).

6.1.1.2. The Gwadar Port offers China a tactical position in the energy rich
Caspian Region, thus offering a substitute trade route for the western
Xinjiang province by utilizing the trade route through Gwadar Deep Sea
Port. Apart from the utilization of the Port, an existing land link can be
of help to China in improving its ever expanding trade to Central Asia,
Middle East and Africa, as it will reduce the sea distance of 10,000
kilometers to a mere 2,500 kilometers over land (Malik, 2012).

6.1.1.3. China has provided massive assistance for the development of Gwadar
Deep Sea Port to Pakistan, thus strengthening the vital geo-strategic
ties with each other in an expanding global village. Numerous strategic
and economic aspects of Chinese interest in this project are explained
below (Malik, 2012):

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6.1.1.3.1. Xinjiang is China's largest and yet most sparsely populated


province. Xinjiang shares borders with Pakistan, Eastern
Central Asian Republics and Afghanistan. The Gwadar port
is an extremely viable option for the Chinese economy
especially for the economic development of its south
western Xinjiang Province. It provides China with an
option to utilize the shortest approach to the Persian Gulf
and Gulf of Aden, by crossing 2500 kilometers on an
existing Silk Route.
6.1.1.3.2. In 2010, according to a report by the Paris-based
International Energy Agency [IEA], China has become the
largest energy consumer in the world surpassing USA.
China did sustain a double digit economic growth through
the last decade fueled by energy-intensive heavy industry
and infrastructure construction, as well as the growth of
the transportation sector. It plans to diversify, secure and
increase its energy supplies. This is why, China plans to
build an oil refinery at Gwadar. An oil pipeline from
Gwadar to Xinjiang will supply oil from the Persian Gulf
and Africa to Western China by reducing the distance by
several thousand kilometers. The total length of the
proposed gas pipeline from Gwadar Port to Xinjiang via
Pakistan is 2500 kilometers while the total distance from
the Persian Gulf to Xinjiang is 14,500 kilometers. This
includes 10,000 kilometers from Persian Gulf via Indian
Ocean to Shanghai Port, and 4,500 kilometers from the
eastern ports of Shanghai and Beijing to Xinjiang through
inland China.
6.1.1.3.3. It is evident that trade and energy transport from Persian
Gulf and East-African States via Gwadar through Pakistan
will reduce the distance of about 12500 kilometers to a
distance of just 2500 kilometers. It is not only cost
effective, but also safe and secure in comparison to the
maritime route. Currently Chinese oil tankers on an
average take 20 days in reaching the Gulf. However, after
the completion of the high-speed rail and road networks
across Pakistan, oil tankers from eastern China would
reach Gwadar, right on the mouth of the Gulf, within 48
hours. China’s interest in Gwadar Port thus becomes
apparent. It secures a safe and short route for China’s oil
imports. Besides, the Port of Gwadar helps China to
extend its presence in Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf from
where China imports 60 percent of its energy (Khan,
2013).

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6.1.1.3.4. The Gwadar Port can provide the Chinese with a listening
post to observe the naval activities of USA in the Persian
Gulf 460 kilometers further west of Karachi and away from
Indian Naval Bases of Gujrat and Mumbai. Chinese naval
presence at this critical choke point of Gulf can not only
check the Indo-US domination of Indian Ocean but can
also strive to achieve its aim of being a global naval power
(Malik, 2012).
6.1.1.3.5. China also has its concerns about the growing Indian
influence in the Arabian Sea, particularly since the US-
India civilian nuclear cooperation deal which worries both
Pakistan and China with regard to their long term strategic
and economic interests in the region. India cannot bypass
Pakistan and Pakistan cannot bypass Afghanistan in their
access to Central Asia. However, Chabahar is an
alternative which provides India with an opportunity to
further its objectives in the Arabian Sea, Afghanistan and
Central Asia. (Khan, 2013)
6.1.1.3.6. It is hoped that China-Pakistan plan to make Gwadar an
energy corridor by constructing the oil refinery that was
abandoned in 2009. This oil refinery in Gwadar will be
linked to Kashgar by pipeline which slashes not only the
distance by several thousand km but also avoids the
Straits of Malacca and the dangerous maritime routes
through the South China, East China and Yellow Sea.

6.1.1.4. For the Chinese investor, Pakistan also has prospects in Finance,
Banking, Power, Alternative Energy, IT, Engineering Goods, Textile
Machinery, Agriculture, Agro-Based Industry, Food & Fruit Processing,
Packaging, Livestock and Dairy Farming. Currently, China is undertaking
250 projects in Pakistan. Despite the energy crisis, Pakistani apparel
industry offers one of the lowest global cost options. The cost
differential can be as high as 25 percent, substantial in an industry that
generally operates on low margins for the exporter.

6.1.1.5. Pakistan also has its own cotton supply and fabric and has more small
and medium-size factories. China, after the US, is the second largest
importer of Pakistan’s textiles which is US Dollars 1.527 Billion. But this
figure does not reflect the true potential of Pakistan’s textile exports to
China, which can be increased manifold. China mainly buys cotton yarn
and cotton fabrics but even for these products (excluding value added
textile products) Chinese demand is unlimited while Pakistan’s
production is limited due to the ever-prevailing energy crises in the
country (Khan, 2013).

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6.1.2. Iran

6.1.2.1. Iran does have its reservations and concerns over the development of
Gwadar Port due to the proximity of its Chabahar and Bandar Abbas
ports with Gwadar. It sees Gwadar as direct competition to Chabahar,
especially since both ports are in such close proximity to one another.
This was not always the case. In 2013, Iran was preparing to setup an
oil refinery in Gwadar with an average daily output of 400,000 Barrels
per Day (Kiani, 2013). This was the same year when Singapore Port
Authority withdrew from its contractual agreement for handling
operations of Gwadar Port. The project never materialized, which may
be attributed to Pakistan handing over the port to China.

6.1.2.2. The province of Balochistan is spread across three countries i.e.


Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. In fact, both Gwadar and Chabahar
Ports both lie in Balochistan, but on opposite sides of the border of
Pakistan and Iran. Initially there were reports of India and Iran
developing Chabahar to compete against Gwadar Port. Although,
according to a recent meeting between the leaders of Iran and
Pakistan, the President of Iran lauded Pakistan on CPEC and expressed
Iran’s interest to be a part of CPEC (Joshi, 2016)

6.1.2.3. Relations between Pakistan, China and Iran have always been mutually
cordial. This is evident from the assistance China offered in 2015 to help
address Pakistan energy crisis, in the form of building the natural gas
pipeline from Iran to Pakistan. Currently, the pipeline has been
completed from Iran’s side, whereas Pakistan is still looking for a way
to fund building 435 miles (700 kilometers) of pipeline from the
western Pakistani port of Gwadar to Nawabshah (Shah, 2015). This
goes to show that although there is likely to be competition between
the two ports of Pakistan and Iran, but Iran will see Gwadar in light of
CPEC and therefore as an opportunity rather than a threat. Moreover,
Pakistan believes linking these two ports together would be even more
beneficial. Mr. Sartaj Aziz, advisor to the Prime Minister on foreign
affairs said, “Pakistan did not see Chabahar as a rival and was in fact
exploring the possibility of developing links with Gwadar” (Arif, 2016).

6.1.3. Central Asian Republics

6.1.3.1. Overview
6.1.3.1.1. In 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, five
countries, which are referred to as the Central Asian
Republics (CARs), broke away from the USSR and declared
independence, these included:
6.1.3.1.1.1. Kazakhstan

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6.1.3.1.1.2. Kyrgyzstan
6.1.3.1.1.3. Tajikistan
6.1.3.1.1.4. Turkmenistan
6.1.3.1.1.5. Uzbekistan
6.1.3.1.2. Attaining independence only two decades ago, the
economies of these countries have surprisingly
maintained a sense of stability. However, recently there
have been conflicting reports, which suggest that the
region is now facing economic woes (Schenkkan, 2016). In
any event, the uniqueness of this region lies in its
diversity, as it is a blend of upper middle and low income
countries. Each of these five countries is strategically
important due to its geographic location and natural
resource endowments (World Bank, 2016).
6.1.3.1.3. The regional importance of CARs is more pronounced
because of the abundance of oil and natural gas reservoirs
in the area. This has traditionally caused both regional and
international countries, including Pakistan and China, to
show keen interest in developing a closer relationship
with countries in Central Asia (Butt & Butt, 2015)., All five
Central Asian countries are landlocked, which restricts
their access to the sea and thereby hinders their ability to
trade the abundant natural resource to their fullest
capacity. With the onset of CPEC, it is an opportunity for
the CARs to gain access to Gwadar Port and diversify their
export portfolio worldwide. Similarly, Pakistan seeks to
extend its cooperation with CARs by facilitating in transit
trade and oil pipelines for export of natural energy
resources. Gwadar Port can then offer smooth export for
Middle East and European markets. Kyrgyzstan and
Tajikistan especially attach great importance to the
transport infrastructure, the lack of which is the primary
reason why they have so little share in the international
markets. Under CPEC, China-Pakistan railroad can provide
Tajikistan direct access to the Indian Ocean. This is part of
Pakistan’s strategic objectives with CARs, where Pakistan
intends to be connected with Central Asia via Termez
(Uzbekistan) (Butt & Butt, 2015).

6.1.3.2. History and Future of CARs vis-à-vis Gwadar Port


6.1.3.2.1. In 1991, while the Soviet Union was being dissolved and
the Central Asia Republics were coming into being,
Pakistan was laying foundations for development of the

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Gwadar Deep Sea Port. The timing for this decision by


Pakistan was due to a strategic vision and foreseeable
opportunities, amongst them was the independence of
CARs. The Central Asian Republics have always been laden
with hydrocarbons and rich in Mineral resources.
Unfortunately, since they had always relied on Russia for
transportation routes, little had changed after their
independence. Now these countries want smooth,
uninterrupted, quick0 and short access to the markets of
the world. To gain access to the warm waters of the North
Arabian Sea, the landlocked CARs need to pave a route
through either the Iran or Pakistan (Ahmad, 2015).
6.1.3.2.2. Iran’s relationship with the West and the Gulf states has
always been less than cordial. An often bitter and
sometimes tense relations with the rest of the world
made Iran an unreliable option for the CARs to develop
trade routes. Intuitively, Pakistan and its Gwadar Port was
hailed as the preferred choice for CARs to connect to the
world. This, however, could not materialize primarily due
to post 9/11 invasion of Afghanistan and subsequent
security environment in the region. However, CARs are
still looking for a viable access to world markets and the
best possibility still remains the Gwadar port. Afghanistan
itself has always depended on Pakistan’s Karachi port for
access to the sea. After requisite connectivity and
facilities, the Gwadar Port will become a more feasible
option (Ahmad, 2015).

6.1.4. Afghanistan

6.1.4.1. Similar to the CARs region, Afghanistan too is landlocked, which means
it has to rely on its neighbors to facilitate its trade with the broader
global economy. In 1965, Pakistan and Afghanistan signed the
Afghanistan Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement [APTTA]. In 2010, the
APTTA was redesigned to allow the transit of Afghan exports through
Pakistan to the Wagah border with India, and to the seaport cities of
Karachi and Gwadar. Be that as it may, Kabul has recently signed a
three-way transit agreement on Iran's Southern Port of Chabahar,
which will include Afghanistan, India and Iran (Agencies, 2016). This
signals that Afghanistan has selected to side with Gwadar’s competing
port and align itself with India.

6.1.4.2. Although, Afghanistan favors Chabahar Port, but it has agreed to act as
a land bridge for trade to flow from the CARs region up to Gwadar Port.
However, in return for this facility, Pakistan is expected to reciprocate

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the same facility to Afghanistan vis-à-vis India. In perhaps an attempt


to motivate Pakistan to the “Trade-Bridge” notion, Afghanistan has set
a goal of increasing Afghanistan-Pakistan bilateral trade and taking it
up to US Dollars 5 billion by 2017 (Elahi, 2015).

6.2. CPEC and its Implications for Gwadar Port

6.2.1. Understanding CPEC

6.2.1.1. Pakistan and China have a time tested relationship which has brewed
gradually into a strong bond of trust. The Chinese foreign policy has
always given a paramount significance to Pakistan, which is evident
from the multiple instances of support for Pakistan (Ramay, 2016). The
China Pakistan Economic Corridor [CPEC] is yet another example of
China’s confidence in Pakistan as a friendly and trustworthy neighbor.
Although, the foundations of CPEC were laid more than two decades
ago, but it’s materializing now because China needs to exert its global
dominance. The CPEC project, with the Gwadar Port being its most
important component, will provide China with unprecedented access
to the globe. It will also be of great economic value for Pakistan,
especially since China is set to invest US Dollars 46 Billion as a first step
into the CPEC infrastructure. Reportedly, both governments after
signing the Free Trade Agreement in 2006, are looking to increase trade
up from US Dollars 1 Billion in 1998 to US Dollars 18 Billion by 2018
(Vandewelle, 2015).

6.2.1.2. As the importance of CPEC becomes more evident, it is worthwhile to


analyze the potential for economic growth and development that this
project will have for both China and Pakistan. In a recent analysis by
BMA Capital of CPEC, the total investment was divided into two sets,
i.e., FDI by China and Pakistan local investment (Ramay, 2016).

6.2.1.3. From the data provided in Table 7-1 below, it can be seen that the
maximum amount of investment comes in the Energy Sector. Since the
CPEC project itself is energy intensive and Pakistan has an energy
shortage, therefore this investment will revitalize the domestic
economy. Also, the energy generation does not only focus on
traditional coal / natural gas based solutions, but also includes
renewable energy in the portfolio. This will benefit China and Pakistan
both in the short, but more importantly, in the long run. Coal, however,
remains the preferred source of energy generation, as shown in Figure
7-1. During the first phase of the CPEC, 58% investment in the energy
sector is planned for coal-based production, which will generate 73%
of the total energy.

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Table 6-1
Investment Breakdown of CPEC
(Ramay, 2016)

Total Domestic Domestic China FDI


Investment Share (%) (USD Billion) (USD Billion)
Energy 24.7
Coal 7560 MW 8.8 20% 1.8 7.0
Wind 200 MW 0.5 20% 0.1 0.4
Hydel 1590 MW 4.2 50% 2.1 2.1
Solar 1000 MW 1.7 0% 0 1.7
Second Phase
9.5 20% 1.9 7.6
6445 MW
Mining 9.0 50% 4.5 4.5
Road 5.9 80% 4.7 1.2
Rail 3.7 50% 1.8 1.9
Mass Transit (Lahore) 1.6 50% 0.8 0.8
Gwadar Port 0.7 50% 0.3 0.4
Total 45.6 18.1 27.6

Energy Source (Mega Watts) Percentage Share in Investment

Hydel
15% 9

Coal Solar
73% 10%
6
USD Billion

Wind
2%

Total Energy Investment (USD Billion)


3
Hydel
28%

0
Coal Solar Coal Hydel Solar Wind
58% 11%
Pakistan Investment China FDI
Wind
3%

Figure 6-1 Shares of Energy Sources and Investments (First Phase)


(Ramay, 2016) – Infographic rendered by R2V

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6.2.1.4. The second largest investment in the CPEC project, will be that in
Mining. This sector will see US Dollars 9 Billion in direct investment
would be a major breakthrough in the mineral rich province of
Balochistan. It’s worth mentioning here, that when reviewing the
prospects of Gwadar Port for Balochistan, its mineral industry was
forecasted to benefit the most, as the port would provide it access to
international markets, where minerals are highly sought after.

6.2.1.5. Roads and Rail are the third in the top investments being undertaken
in the CPEC project. US Dollars 5.9 Billion and US Dollars 3.7 Billion have
been earmarked for developing the road and rail network respectively.
The infrastructure implications of this for Pakistan are massive. New
markets will emerge within the country and previously isolated areas
will come within the fold of major market areas. This will also boost the
small industries, as they would now have access to major clients within
the country and in China.

6.2.1.6. Although, the level of investment is relatively low, but the Gwadar Port
has the maximum utility for the CPEC project. This is the jewel in the
CPEC crown as it allows global access to China, which would be
impossible without the port city. The Gwadar Port will see an
investment of US Dollars 700 Million in the CPEC project. The multiplier
effect of this investment would be quick and far reaching. This will also
provide an opportunity to Pakistan to expand its trade with the
international markets, which could translate into a major rise in the
country’s GDP. Figure 7-1 provides a graphical depiction of the planned
investment to provide the reader with a visual breakdown of the level
and division of investment.

25
20
USD Billion

15
10
5
0
Mass Gwadar
Energy Mining Road Rail
Transit Port
China FDI 18.8 4.5 1.2 1.9 0.8 0.4
Pakistan Investment 5.9 4.5 4.7 1.8 0.8 0.3

Pakistan Investment China FDI

Figure 6-2 Breakdown of CPEC Investment


(Ramay, 2016) – recreated by R2V

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6.2.1.7. One of the major effect of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is reflected
in the recipient country’s GDP. This is no different for Pakistan, which
will go through a major leap in GDP with more than US Dollars 46 Billion
being injected into the country’s economy. Based on study and its
subsequent analysis undertaken by Ramay (2016), the CPEC project will
increase the GDP’s growth rate by 1.5% in the next three years. It is
worth mentioning here, that these three years will be the “Early
Harvest” phase of the project, which as the name suggests, will be the
initial phase of the project. Such FDI’s have a multiplier effect, that is,
they cause a ripple effect in the economy as they boost investor
confidence and create a more stable economic environment. The
investment in CPEC is no different, where it is anticipated that private
investment will rise with improving infrastructure, stable economy and
with provision of energy. Based on this it is expected that private
investment will contribute 0.5% to Pakistan’s GDP. A breakdown of the
impact on GDP is provided in Table 7-2.

Table 6-2
Impact of CPEC on Pakistan’s GDP Growth Potential
(Ramay, 2016)

GDP - FY 15 US $ Bn. 287


Total Investment US $ Bn. 46
Total Investment % of GDP 16%
Time Period Years 3
Annual Addition to Investment / GDP ratio % of GDP 5.30%
Addition GDP growth Potential (ICOR=3.6x) % of GDP 1.50%
Increment Private Sector Investment % of GDP 1.80%
Total Increase in GDP Growth Potential Percentage Points 2.00%

6.2.2. CPEC Route

6.2.2.1. One of the key considerations for the CPEC project was and still is the
planned land access route between Gwadar Port and Kashgar, China.
This is also a major element in the CPEC project as far as the socio-
economic development of either of the two countries is concerned.
There are inherent security concerns issues with the route for CPEC
highway. Which is why there are three routes which have been
proposed but yet to be confirmed by the government. These variations
of the CPEC route include the following (Bengali, et al., 2015):

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6.2.2.2. Central Route


Gwadar – Turbat – Panjgur – Khuzdar – Ratodero – Kashmore –
Rajanpur – Dera Ghazi Khan – Dera Ismail Khan – Bannu – Kohat –
Peshawar – Turbat and onwards (Bengali, et al., 2015).

6.2.2.3. Eastern Route


Gwadar – Turbat – Panjgur – Khuzdar – Ratodero – Kashmore –
Rajanpur – Dera Ghazi Khan – Multan – Faisalabad – Pindi Bhatian –
Rawalpindi – Hassanabdal and onwards (Bengali, et al., 2015).

6.2.2.4. Western Route


Gwadar – Turbat – Panjgur – Khuzdar – Kalat – Quetta – Zhob –Dera
Ismail Khan – Bannu – Kohat – Peshawar – Hassan Abdal and onwards
(Bengali, et al., 2015).

Figure 6-3 Proposed CPEC Route Maps


(Shah H. A., 2016) – Infographic rendered by R2V

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Gwadar

Turbat

Panjgur

Khuzdar

Western route
Kalat Ratodero
Central route
Kashmore
Eastern route
Quetta
Rajanpur

Zhob Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ismail Khan Multan

Bannu Faisalabad

Kohat Pindi Bhatian

Peshawar Rawalpindi

Hassanabdal

Kashghar

Figure 6-4 Proposed CPEC Routes


(Ramay, 2016) – infographic rendered by R2V

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6.2.2.5. The Government of Pakistan has deliberately been tight-lipped about


the choice of routes for CPEC, but that is to be expected, especially with
such high stakes and even higher security considerations. However,
there have been a variety of analysis and forecasting as to which of
these three route would be finalized, or indeed any other route with
slight variations. Dr Kaiser Bengali puts forth his analysis in his report
for the Chief Minister’s Economic Reform Unit, Balochistan, where he
presents the opportunity cost of each route. Based on this indirect cost,
it can be inferred as to which route would be the final choice.

Table 6-3
Comparative Opportunity Cost of CPEC Routes
(Bengali, et al., 2015)

Central Eastern Western


Route Route Route

Average Population Density 156 264 98

Total Area Under Cultivation


5,829 10,322 2,933
(000 Hectares)
Production of Four Major Crops
13,754 30,928 7,430
(000 Tonnes)

6.2.2.6. Table 7-3 uses an astute gauge to determine which route will be most
preferred for CPEC. In this instance the variables selected indicate a
higher value of land in areas of higher densities. A major implication of
this would be higher cost of land acquisition and similarly higher
compensation cost for relocation of locals. Considering the stretch of
road that will be the highway for CPEC, high costs of relocation and
acquisition will translate into a much larger cost for road and rail
development. Therefore, based on these indicators, analysts believe
that the best option and the one selected by the Government would be
the Western Route.

6.2.2.7. The route decided for CPEC will not only be important to the project as
a whole, but will also have deep and far reaching implications for
Balochistan. Therefore, in an attempt to shortlist the final choice by the
Government, a comparative analysis of all three options is presented in
Table 7-4.

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Table 6-4
Comparative Analysis of CPEC Routes
(Bengali, et al., 2015)

Central Route Eastern Route Western Route

The Central Route is likely to be The Eastern Route is likely to be The Western Route is likely to be
longer than the Western Route, longer than the Central Route and shorter than the Central Route
but shorter than the Eastern the Eastern Route and the Eastern Route
Route.
The alignment will open up Except for backward areas of The alignment will open up
economic opportunities for a vast south / central Balochistan, economic opportunities for a vast
swathe of abjectly backward northern Sindh and Southern swathe of abjectly backward
regions of the country. Punjab, more than half the regions of the country
distance will pass through
relatively developed areas of
Central Punjab.
The area covered by the The area from Multan to The area covered by the
alignment is relatively Rawalpindi is highly productive alignment is relatively
unproductive and population and densely populated. The cost unproductive and population
density is low. The cost of land of land acquisition and population density is low. The cost of land
acquisition and population dislocation compensation is likely acquisition and population
dislocation compensation is likely to be higher dislocation compensation is likely
to be lower to be lower.
The terrain along the alignment is The alignment will cross the River The terrain along the alignment is
arid and hilly and would entail Indus between Dera Ghazi Khan arid and hilly and would entail
higher land leveling costs. The and Multan and require a major higher land leveling costs. The
alignment will cross the River bridge. The area is traversed by a alignment will cross the River
Indus between Peshawar and number of irrigation canals and Indus between Peshawar and
Hasanabdal and will require a will require a number of bridges Hasanabdal and will require a
major bridge major bridge
Except for the Gwadar - Ratodero Except for the Gwadar - Ratodero Except for the Gwadar - Khuzdar
section, a road preexists, but is section, a road preexists, but section, a road preexists, but is
narrow and low quality, and will most sections will need to be narrow and low quality, and will
need to be re-laid in its entirety widened and re-laid to cater to need to be re-laid in its entirety
the heavy traffic in terms of
volume and load.
The alignment is not likely to The alignment will cross the The alignment is not likely to
require diversion on account of Margalla Hills and a tunnel is require diversion on account of
environmental or military reasons being considered. Recourse to environmental or military
courts on environmental grounds reasons.
is certain – likely to cause delays
Security costs will be higher on The Ratodero - Hasanabdal Security costs will be higher on
account of insurgencies in section is relatively secure; as account of insurgencies in
Balochistan and FATA such, the alignment is likely to Balochistan and FATA
entail lower security costs
The alignment passes through all The alignment completely The alignment passes through
the provinces of Pakistan and bypasses the province of KP and only two provinces of Pakistan
likely to command broad political is likely to emerge as a new
support source of inter - provincial discord

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7. Development Projects Linked to Gwadar Port

This Section provides a list of projects which have been earmarked for Gwadar Port and City.
Although, all of these projects also fall under CPEC, but it was important, both for brevity and focus, to
isolate those projects which have a direct impact on Gwadar. Projects related CPEC are intended to be
discussed in a separate Impact Assessment report. The Section also provides a list of industries which
will look to setup operations at Gwadar Industrial and Economic Zone in the foreseeable future. Some
challenges that can impede the planned development of Gwadar are also discussed.

7.1. Background of Development

7.1.1. As discussed in earlier sections of this report, Gwadar is integral to the CPEC project
as it is envisioned to be the link between China’s One Belt – One Road project and
its Maritime Silk Route project. Based on reports, it is expected that an approximate
US Dollars 1 Billion worth of projects will be developed in and around the Gwadar
Port, by the end of 2017. This includes energy projects, development of airport,
laying of rail tracks, construction of free trade areas and special economic zones (FC-
Balochistan, 2015).

7.1.2. The Gwadar Port is a lifeline when it comes to regional economic link. It is likely to
generate about 2 million jobs and contribute billions of dollars to the national and
provincial economies. The provincial government is planning to develop an
industrial park in Gwadar, since it believes that there will be potential investments
in district development (AASA Consulting, GRHO, 2015).

7.1.3. In an effort to gauge the true potential of Gwadar Port with respect to industrial and
economic development, various industry experts were interviewed, thereby
allowing this Consultancy to acquire a more astute insight into the implications and
opportunities arising from a developed Gwadar Port. Mr. Shakeel Ramay, a Senior
Research Associate at Sustainable Development Policy Institute [SDPI], while
regarding speculations of an influx of skilled labor from China, was of the opinion
that there would be very little skilled labor imported from China for Gwadar Port.
His rationale for this assumption lies in the hiked cost of labor in China in recent
years, which has been the core reason why China now aims to shift from a labor
intensive to a capital intensive manufacturing industry by 2020. The skilled labor of
Pakistan is still relatively cost effective, which would suggest that the jobs created
by these projects will acquire skilled labor from Pakistan, or more specifically, from
Balochistan (R. Shakeel, personal communication, September 01, 2016).

7.1.4. Senator Kamran Michael, the Federal Minister for Ports & Shipping is also on record
for stating that two million individuals are expected to get employment
opportunities from Gwadar port once it is fully operational. Senator Michael said
that according to instructions by the Prime Minister, priority will be given to the local
Baloch people for employment. The Federal Minister added that a free zone will be

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established on a land of around 2281 acres and he had offered the whole world to
make investments here since it is entirely a tax-free zone. In his speech, the Minister
stated that a Halal food industry will also be set up at Gwadar, with plans to export
Halal food to the whole world (APSA, 2015) . The federal minister confirmed that
Gwadar port has already begun export activities officially. This began with an export
of 23 tons of fish to Dubai’s Jebel Ali Port via Gwadar port. From Dubai, the exported
fish will then be transported to other parts of the world. Before this export activity,
the port was just being used for import of wheat and fertilizers (APSA, 2015).

7.1.5. The Gwadar Port Authority [GPA] has actively been a part of the planning and
appraisal stages for these development projects, all of which fall under the CPEC
umbrella. A list of the “Early Harvest” projects which are currently in different stages
of development are presented in Table 8-1 (FC-Balochistan, 2015; Rana, 2015).

Table 7-1
Development Projects at Gwadar
(FC-Balochistan, 2015; Rana, 2015)

Sr. Project Expected


Project Title Executing Agency Start Completion
No.
1. Construction of East-Bay Expressway, GPA Jun 2015 Jun 2017
Gwadar Port
2. Construction of Breakwaters, Gwadar GPA Oct 2016 Dec 2017
Port
3. Dredging of Berthing Areas & Channels, GPA Oct 2016 Dec 2017
Gwadar Port
4. Pak-China Technical & Vocational GPA Jan 2016 Dec 2017
Institute
5. Infrastructure Development for Free Export Processing Zones Jun 2014 Dec 2017
Zone & EPZs, Gwadar Authority (EPZA) and
GIEDA
6. Necessary Facilities of Fresh Water GDA Apr 2015 Jun 2017
Treatment, Water Supply
7. China-Pakistan Friendship Hospital GDA Jun 2015 Dec 2017
(Up-gradation of existing 50 bed
hospital)
8. Coal-based Power Plant at Gwadar Min. of Water & Power Apr 2015 Jun 2017

9. Construction of Gwadar International Civil Aviation Authority Jun 2015 Jun 2017
Airport

7.1.6. Although, China has a massive role to play in the development of Gwadar Port, the
Gwadar Port Authority is also actively involved in this undertaking. As may be seen
in Table 8-1, six of the major works are within the purview and responsibility of GPA.
GIEDA, Ministry of Water and Power, CAA and EPZA all also contributing in the
development of Gwadar’s city, industrial area and its port.

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7.1.7. This development of Gwadar Port, should be the key focus of B-TEVTA. These
ongoing projects and those planned in the foreseeable future, will all demand a huge
number of skilled labor. In fact, according to some reports, the number of jobs that
will eventually be created will range in the millions (AASA Consulting, GRHO, 2015).
But even by modest estimates it would be an intuitive assumption to except the high
rates of labor demand in the area.

7.2. Development Projects at Gwadar

7.2.1. Gwadar’s future as an international transshipment deep sea port, will have a
massive impact on Pakistan’s economy and China’s economic and military
ambitions. This is precisely what makes Gwadar the jewel in the CPEC crown and is
a key area of focus for the CPEC project.

7.2.2. Under the CPEC project, Balochistan has been allocated 16 projects, amongst those
approximately 12 projects are planned for Gwadar. In fact, the remaining projects
are all directly or indirectly exponents of projects being developed in Gwadar. This
was to be expected, since mass transshipment will take place through Gwadar Port,
which will create demand for skilled labor, boost the local economy and will alleviate
the overall socio-economic condition of the province.

7.2.3. According to details shared by Mr. Muhammad Lijian Zhao, the Deputy Chief of
Mission of the People’s Republic of China’s Embassy in Pakistan, the list of projects
allocated to Balochistan and specifically Gwadar are provided below. It may be
noted here that further details have been shared of selected projects, in an effort to
focus on the derivations sought from this report. (Zhao, 2016)

7.2.3.1. Khuzdar - Basima Highway (N-30)

7.2.3.2. D.I. Khan - Quetta Highway (N-50)

7.2.3.3. HUBCO Coal Power Plant

7.2.3.4. Gwadar 300 MW Power Plant

7.2.3.5. Gwadar - Nawabshah LNG Terminal and Pipeline

7.2.3.6. Gwadar Eastbay Expressway

7.2.3.7. Gwadar New International Airport

7.2.3.8. Gwadar Smart Port City Master Plan

7.2.3.9. Expansion of Multi-purpose Terminal including Breakwater & Dredging

7.2.3.10. Wastewater Treatment Plants for Gwadar City

7.2.3.11. Gwadar Primary School

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7.2.3.12. Gwadar Hospital Upgradation

7.2.3.13. Gwadar Technical & Vocational College

7.2.3.14. Gwadar Eastbay Expressway II

7.2.3.15. Fresh Water Supply

7.2.3.16. Gwadar Free Zone

7.3. Details of Selected Project

7.3.1. 300 MW Power Plant Project

7.3.1.1. When considering the overall development projects under the CPEC
initiative, it is evident that the Energy sector has a substantially higher
percentage of the CPEC investments plan. This also holds true for the
development of the Gwadar Port, with the announcement of a 300MW
Coal Power Plant (Butt, 2015). The total cost for the development of
this project has been estimated to be approximately US Dollars 360
Million.

7.3.1.2. The prospect of the 300 MW Coal Power Plant for Gwadar is of great
significance, especially since the area suffers from an acute shortage of
electricity supply. The energy situation is so dire that for every one hour
of electricity available there are consequent two hours of non-
availability (Saleem, 2016; Jamil, 2015).

7.3.1.3. It is noteworthy to mention that there are conflicting reports regarding


the future of this project. Especially, since this power plant will be
based on Coal rather than a more renewable and eco-friendly
alternate. Reportedly, the Federal Minister for Planning has criticize the
Ministry of Water and Power for including a Coal based Power Plant in
the project (CM&D, 2016). Similarly, there have been other reports
which suggest that the Government is looking to shelf this project and
opt for setting up imported Regasified Liquefied Natural Gas [RLNG]
based power plants, each with a 100MW capacity (Haider, 2016).

7.3.2. LNG Terminal Gwadar and Pipeline

7.3.2.1. Another major development project scheduled to start in Gwadar is


that of the LNG Terminal for 600 MMCFD (Million Cubic Feet Gas Per
Day). Development of this terminal is on Government to Government
[G2G] basis between Pakistan and China, with an estimated cost
skewing between US Dollars 250 and 300 Million. Pakistan is currently
negotiating with the Chinese to get a better rate for the development
of the LNG Terminal, but the final cost is still estimated to be no lower
than US Dollars 250 Million (Observer, 2016).

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7.3.2.2. The LNG Terminal project is complimented with a 700 Kilometer LNG
pipeline which stretches between Gwadar, Balochistan and Nawab
Shah, Sindh. Consequently, China Pipeline Petroleum Company [CNPC]
is the same company contracted for the LNG Terminal and for the
construction of the LNG pipeline. For this reason, the original cost of
construction for the pipeline, approximately US Dollars 1.3 Billion, is
being renegotiated by the Price Negotiating Committee Pakistan
(Observer, 2016).

7.3.3. Up-gradation of Rail Network

7.3.3.1. East–West Railway Network


China will expand its East-West Railway, beginning from Kashgar, and
extending to Peshawar in northwest of Pakistan. Cargo delivery will
become easy for Beijing from Gwadar down the shortest way, from
Karachi to Peshawar. Moreover, the rail network could be utilized for
oil delivery from Persian Gulf to Xinjiang (Anwar, 2012; Jamil, 2015).

7.3.3.2. Gwadar to Karachi


7.3.3.2.1. Another vital project which is linked with the
development of the Gwadar Port, is the 700 Kilometer Rail
tracks being laid between Gwadar and Karachi. It is hoped
that through this railway track will facilitate businesses
from both cities. Especially, since some international
destinations are closer, through Gwadar Port, so cargo
traffic will be redirected quickly from Karachi to Gwadar.

7.3.3.3. Gwadar to Mastung


7.3.3.3.1. The Government also plans to lay two additional railway
tracks which total to approximately 960 Kilometers. These
include the 300 Kilometer railway track from Gwadar to
Mastung and a railway track from Bismah to Jacobabad via
Khuzdar, Balochistan (GM, 2015).

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Figure 7-1 Sketch Map of China-Pakistan Railway


(DAWN, 2015) – infographic rendered by R2V

7.3.4. Gwadar Free Trade Zone

7.3.4.1. According to the Export Processing Zones Authority [EPZA] of Pakistan,


there will be a 1000-acre Export Processing Zone [EPZ] developed near
the Gwadar Port. The EPZ will be equipped with a range of facilities to
facilitate value addition activities. Moreover, the Government of
Balochistan aims to provide top tier infrastructure and a hassle free
One-Stop-Approval to expedite procedural formalities.

7.3.4.2. During the development of this report, availability of updated trade


forecasts from Pakistan Bureau of Statistics was limited to 2015. These
have been presented in Figure 8-1 to provide the reader with a
perspective on the present level of trade. Forecasted and actual report
of the flow of trade at Gwadar were only limited till 2015 (Jamil, 2015,
p. 80):

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300 290
250 241
200 200

16.6 17.5 18.7 4.0 4.7 5.8

Transhipment Container Liquid Cargo Dry Cargo


(1000 TEUs) (Milion Tonnes) (Million Tonnes)

2005 2010 2015

Figure 7-2 Gwadar Trade Statistics (2005 – 2015)


(Jamil, 2015, p. 80)

7.3.5. Gwadar – Road Network Extension

7.3.5.1. Gwadar to Ratodero Motorway – M8


The M8 motorway between Gwadar and Ratodero has been planned
to be 892 Kilometers long, with 2 lanes at the initial stage, which will
be upgraded to 4 lanes by the close of the project. The M8 will start
from Ratodero in Sindh and enter Balochistan passing near the towns
of Khuzdar, Awaran, Hoshab, Turbat before joining the Makran Coastal
Highway just east of the port city of Gwadar. The Gwadar – Hoshab
portion of the M8 was successfully inaugurated in February 2016, with
the completion of the entire project estimated to be by December
2018 (CPEC Info, 2016).

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7.3.5.2. Gwadar to Turbat Road Network


Another primary road network being developed from Gwadar would
be the 188 km road from Gwadar to Turbat. China is connected with
this road network via the Indus Highway. Moreover, vast road and rail
networks are being developed by China, Pakistan, Uzbekistan,
Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan starting from Central Asia and Xinjiang up
to the Arabian Sea coast (Anwar, 2012; GIEDA(b), 2016).

7.3.5.3. Gwadar Eastbay Expressway


The East Bay Expressway is an 18.9-kilometer-long controlled access
road what is under construction in Gwadar, Pakistan. The 6-lane
expressway will also include 2 railway tracks. The expressway provides
immediate and uninterrupted connectivity to Gwadar Port terminals
with the Mehran Coastal Highway in the first phase and with New
Gwadar International Airport in the second phase. The total cost of the
project is US Dollars 140 Million with completion expected by
December 2018 (Jabri, 2016).

7.3.5.4. The Coastal Highway Project


The coastal highway will link Gwadar to Karachi and its total cost being
Dollars 200 million will be totally funded by the Chinese. Gwadar port
will act as a site for oil and gas entry, that will be transported by the
road links to the China’s western regions (Anwar, 2012).

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7.3.6. Gwadar Airport Construction

7.3.6.1. One of the major developments which are underway at Gwadar,


includes the construction of Gwadar International Airport. The airport
will be constructed at a cost of US Dollars 260 Million allowing Gwadar
to become connected with the rest of the world (APP, 2016; GIEDA(b),
2016).

7.4. Gwadar - Industrial Sector Development

7.4.1. Industrial Estate Gwadar

7.4.1.1. An industrial estate in Gwadar is being developed by Government of


Balochistan to cater for industrial plots that are located in the port city.
The industrial estate is expected to have considerable potential for
investment due to the prospects offered by the deep sea port, as well
as highways construction connecting Gwadar with Iran, Karachi, Quetta
and Central Asian Republics [CARs] (GIEDA(a), 2016).

7.4.1.2. Small Medium Enterprises [SME] will benefit from the industrial estate.
However, large manufacturing industries will not be included, apart
from those with products ready to be exported. The key business areas
will include (GIEDA(a), 2016):

7.4.1.2.1. Construction
7.4.1.2.2. Import and Export
7.4.1.2.3. Transportation
7.4.1.2.4. Clearing and Forwarding
7.4.1.2.5. Warehousing
7.4.1.2.6. Building Material
7.4.1.2.7. Textile and Leather Garments
7.4.1.2.8. Value Added Processing
7.4.1.2.9. Shipping
7.4.1.2.10. Repackaging and Transshipment

7.4.1.3. An independent body known as Gwadar Industrial Estate Development


Authority (GIEDA), has been created by Balochistan Government, for
the purpose of managing and developing the Gwadar Industrial Estate.
This Authority will have considerable executive and financial power to
help in rapid development of the industrial estate (GIEDA(a), 2016).

7.4.1.4. The industrial estate is on the Makran coastal highway, at a distance of


40 Km from Gwadar city. A land of 3000 acres has been allocated in the
south Makran coastal highway for this purpose, to be used for

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developing three phases, each of which will be on 1000 acres


(GIEDA(b), 2016).

7.4.2. Types of Industries

7.4.2.1. With the onset of trade at the Gwadar Port, as well as the connectivity
channels including roads and rail, there will be an expected onset of
industries being setup in the area. According to GIEDA and in line with
the master plan of the industrial estate, following industries will be
included in the industrial estate (GIEDA(c), 2016).

This space has been left blank intentionally

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Table 7-2
Types of Industries
(GIEDA(c), 2016)

Types of Industry Types of Industry

1. Food Products and Beverages 2. Manufacture of Textiles


 Flour Mills  Garment
 Rice Mills  Textile
 Ghee Mill & Lubricants  Weaving
 Fisheries Packing & Cold  Woven Garments
 Storage  Carpet Weaving
 Sea Food
 Baked Food
 Ice Factories
 Mineral Water Plant
3. Wood and Wood Products 4. Basic Metals
 Furniture  Steel Mills
5. Leather Products 6. Construction
 Leather  Construction and Brick
Manufacturing
7. Fabricated Metal Products 8. Rubber, Glass and Plastic Products
 Engineering Units  Marble
 Hardware Product  Plastic and Glass
 Petro-Wax
9. Chemical and Chemical Products 10. Publishing, Printing and Reproduction
 Pharmaceutical  Information Technology
 Chemical  Paper
 Compressed Natural Gas  Printing Packaging
 Dying  Advertising
 Printing
11. Others 12. Machinery and Equipment
 Jewelry  Electrical
 Pottery  Auto Parts
 PVC Pipes  Trade & Agriculture
 Warehouses  Air Conditioner
13. Petroleum  Computer Parts Assembly
 Petrol Filling Station

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7.5. Challenges to Development

It is important to understand that although there is a flurry of development projects aimed


for Gwadar Port and City, there are however certain challenges that preexist and need to be
addressed (Saleem, 2016).

7.5.1. Security

7.5.1.1. The most apparent challenge facing the development of Gwadar port
is the security issues, which is unfortunately being overstated on
different forums. It is of utmost importance to address such issues for
the smooth running of the project and to gain maximum out of this
opportunity. The most relevant way to address the issue is by taking
indigenous community on board with visible signs of progress. Without
this, the success of such a mega project will always remain susceptible
(Khetran, 2015, pp. 84-85).

7.5.2. Terrorism

7.5.2.1. Terrorism, interlinked with security, is also a huge challenge being


faced during development of Gwadar port. Terrorist and insurgent
groups on both side, i.e. Pakistan and China, who have been targeted
by security agencies in recent times can resort to violence against
security forces, laborers and engineers working in the vicinity.
Sufficient measures on both sides need to be taken to deal with this
issue (Khetran, 2015, p. 85).

7.5.3. Foreign Involvement

7.5.3.1. Foreign forces busy in sabotaging the initiative are also a big challenge
faced during this development. The Government of Pakistan has
already raised the issue with neighboring countries. China and Pakistan
have agreed to work in collaboration to counter insurgency and
terrorism supported through foreign involvement (Khetran, 2015, p.
85).

7.5.4. Water Issues

7.5.4.1. The scarcity of water in Gwadar is a harsh reality, which intensifies


during the seasons of little or no rain. The water lifeline of Gwadar is
the Akra Kaur Dam, a reservoir which can only sustain the area with 45
days of drinking water, before it is completely depleted. An alternate
arrangement for water, is through water tankers, which source the
water from Belar Dam. Although, the desalination plant in Karwat does
supply 200,000 gallons of water per day, there is still a shortage of
water. According to estimates, Gwadar needs approximately 3.5
million gallons of water per day. This water requirement can catered

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for with proper planning and implementation. However, no concrete


steps have been taken by the Provincial or Federal Government in this
regard (Amir, 2015).

7.5.5. Education Issue

7.5.5.1. Another primary issue with development is the lack of educated labor
force in Gwadar, with a literacy rate of only 25%. Unfortunately, there
is only one Degree College for boys, with no college available for girls
in the area. Moreover, the largest school in the region, Government
Higher Secondary School, Pasni also faces dire infrastructural issues.
The school does not have proper roofing, with exposed electrical wiring
and no drinking water for the students (Saleem, 2016).

7.5.6. Health Facilities Issue

7.5.6.1. There is no proper provision for health facilities and medicine. In fact,
the Gwadar Development Authority, on the behest of the Army Chief,
has recently reopened a hospital which has been in ruins for the past
eight years.

7.5.7. Weather

7.5.7.1. Extreme weather conditions on the northern side can hinder the
development of the project. Heavy snow will also make it difficult for
the workers to work and mitigation strategies to address the issue
would be required immediately (Khetran, n.d., p. 85).

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8. Stakeholders for B-TEVTA and Gwadar Port

This Section begins by defining stakeholders, followed by an explanation of the concepts of


Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder Management. The categorization of stakeholders as primary or
secondary, internal or external, positive or negative and as national or international is described.
Stakeholders identified for Balochistan’s TVET Sector, as well as stakeholders directly related to the
Gwadar Port are listed. The Section then goes on to provide a brief commentary on some of the key
stakeholder groups. A SWOT analysis is conducted wherein the major strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats being faced by B-TEVTA in relation to the development of Gwadar are
highlighted.

8.1. Stakeholders Defined

8.1.1. Prior to analyzing stakeholders, it is important to gain a better understanding of


what the term “stakeholders” actually implies. It has been pointed out, that over the
years, little attention has been paid to developing a systematic approach for
identifying and analyzing stakeholders (Mathur, Price, Austin, & Moobela, 2007).
This, in-turn, has led to a variety of definitions available that vary from one industry
to the other.

8.1.2. For the course of this report, we will adhere to the classification of stakeholders as:
individuals, groups, organizations or governments who are actively involved, have
an interest in some aspect of rights or ownership in the project, and can contribute
to, or be positively or negatively impacted by, or whose interests may be affected by
the outcomes of a particular undertaking; in this case, deployment of Balochistan’s
skilled labor on Gwadar Port (Bourne & Walker, 2006, p. 6; Gardiner, 2005, p. 106;
Chinyio & Olomolaiye, 2010).

8.2. Stakeholder Categorization

8.2.1. A common division of stakeholders places them in two categories i.e. primary and
secondary. Primary stakeholders directly control resources and provide support
required to perform work, and have a legal and contractual relationship with the
Project. Secondary stakeholders themselves do not directly provide any resources /
support, but still have substantial influence on primary stakeholders (Garvare &
Johansson, 2010, p. 739). Secondary Stakeholders, typically comprise of local
authorities, competitors, vendors, public and society (Edwards, 2013). Stakeholders
can also be classified as either internal or external to the sponsoring entity or
organization (Gardiner, 2005, p. 106). For the purposes of this Consultancy, and for
the subsequent establishment of linkages, stakeholders have also been categorized
as national or international.

8.2.2. In addition to stakeholders, Garvare and Johansson (2010, p. 739) acknowledge the
existence of ‘interested parties’, which unlike stakeholders, do not have any direct
influence over the outcome of a project or undertaking. Rather, interested parties

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need the support and influence of primary or secondary stakeholders to ensure that
their needs are met.

8.3. Stakeholder Analysis and Management

8.3.1. “Stakeholder analysis is a process of systematically gathering and analyzing


qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account
when developing and/or implementing a policy or program” (Schmeer, 1999, p. 1).
Understanding who the stakeholders are, is certainly important, but an analysis of
these stakeholders offers identification of ‘key’ stakeholders, their assessment,
interests, and the ways in which they may affect or be affected by the ultimate
outcome of the project. Stakeholder analyses are now arguably more important
than ever before, because of the increasingly interconnected nature of the world
(Bryson, 2004, p. 22), which holds true in the case of Gwadar as well.

8.3.2. After stakeholders have been analyzed, it is necessary that they be managed.
Stakeholder management is the development and implementation of strategies to
influence stakeholder activities that could favorably or adversely affect the projects
and execute the strategies that enable the organization to take advantage of
stakeholder issues and opportunities (Pinto, 1998, p. 58). Ferrary (2009, p. 34)
maintains that the objective of stakeholder management as to build alliances
between several stakeholders whose interests converge with those of the firm. In
short, stakeholder management is undertaken to encourage the response of
positive stakeholders and to curtail the response of negative stakeholders.

8.3.3. It is necessary for B-TEVTA’s success in placement of Balochistan’s labor force in


industries and activities related to the development of Gwadar Port that varied and,
at times, conflicting interests and agendas of all stakeholders are managed,
preferably as early as possible (Friday-Stroud, Shivers-Blackwell, & Sutterfield, 2006,
p. 33). The levels of influence and ability of individual stakeholders to impact on B-
TEVTA’s interests may keep changing in the global dynamic environment. B-TEVTA
officials will have to implement and make appropriate adjustments in their
management strategy for key stakeholders so as to ensure that B-TEVTA’s objectives
are met effectively and efficiently, while at the same time ensuring maximum
stakeholders satisfaction. This will require continual re-evaluation of stakeholders’
influence and expectations (Garvare & Johansson, 2010, p. 743).

8.3.4. Stakeholder management is a dynamic process, and must continue for all prioritized
stakeholders throughout the project by continual analysis and communication.
There are several reasons for this. As the project progresses, new stakeholders may
be identified, there may be changes in the relative power, position or ability of
existing key stakeholders to exert influence, or stakeholders’ expectations and
behavior may change with changes in their perceptions of their stakes (Bourne &
Walker, 2006, pp. 6, 17; Friday-Stroud, Shivers-Blackwell, & Sutterfield, 2006, pp. 26,
34). Interests of positive stakeholders will demand encouragement, and those of

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negative stakeholders will require curtailment. All these will require continual
stakeholder management for B-TEVTA to achieve its set of objectives.

8.3.5. Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder Management will be discussed in greater


detail in the Creating Linkages with other TVET Stakeholders Impact Assessment
Report towards the later part of this Consultancy.

8.4. Identification of Stakeholders

8.4.1. The Internal and External Stakeholders identified for B-TEVTA with respect to the
development of Gwadar Port and its skilled labor demand are respectively tabulated
in the Stakeholder Matrices in Table 8-1 and Table 8-2 below. The Matrices classify
stakeholders as primary/secondary, internal/external and national/international,
negative; and also identify some interested parties.

Table 8-1
Identification of Internal Stakeholders and Interested Parties

Primary Stakeholders Secondary Stakeholders


 B-TEVTA  Ministry of Education
 Balochistan Provincial Government  Volunteers from Balochistan
 TVET sector of Balochistan community
  Local media
National

Local Businessmen in Balochistan


 Skilled workers from Balochistan  Book Publishers and instructional
 Graduates of B-TEVTA materials manufacturers
 Private bodies contributing towards B-
TEVTA
 End-user industries
 Private international bodies  International book publishers and
International

contributing towards B-TEVTA instructional materials manufacturers


(These will be mainly of Chinese
origin)

 Unions in Balochistan TVET institutes  Caste Differentiation


Negative

 Society - stigma associated with  Bureaucracy and Red-Tapism


specific low paid, odd jobs  Feudal lords and like elements in
Balochistan
Interested Parties
 Working population in Gwadar and  Unskilled Balochistan Labor working
Balochistan abroad

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Table 8-2
Identification of External Stakeholders and Interested Parties

Primary Stakeholders Secondary Stakeholders


 Gwadar Port Authority  Pakistan Government
 Gwadar Industrial Estate Authority  Pakistan Military
 Gwadar Development Authority  Pakistan Navy
 Ministry of Ports and Shipping  Shipping lines / companies
 Various industries operating in  Traders
Gwadar  Investors
 Gwadar Chamber of Commerce and  Freight Forwarders
National

Industry  Clearing Agents


 NAVTTC  Facilitation agencies
 TVET sectors of other provinces  Donor and social organizations
 Ministry of Manpower and Labor,  Graduates from TVET institutes of
Pakistan other provinces
 Trade Testing Board [TTB]  Potential Customers of developing
 National Institute of Science and industries
Technical Education [NISTE]  Job and business market of Pakistan
 National Training Bureau [NTB]
 China Overseas Ports Holding  Chinese Government
Company Limited  Ministry of Labor and Social Security
 Chinese TVET graduates China
 Chinese’s Companies operating in  Governments of Central Asian
Gwadar Republics [CARs]
 Chinese’s Labor in Gwadar  Afghanistan Government
 International accreditation bodies  Shipping lines companies
International

 End-user industries  Traders


 Investors
 Freight Forwarders
 Clearing Agents
 Various industries
 Donor and social organizations
 USA Government
 GCC governments
 European countries government
 Other Provincial Governments  Dubai Ports World
 
Negative

Labor Unions in TVET sectors of other Port and Maritime Organization Iran
provinces  Karachi Port Authority
 Port Qasim Authority
 Indian Government
Interested Parties
 Working population in Pakistan  International Media
(other than Balochistan)

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8.5. Key Stakeholders in TVET

A brief discussion on selected key stakeholders follows.

8.5.1. Governmental Bodies

8.5.1.1. All national and local bodies which are connected with the TVET sector
play a vital part in the development of this segment. These include all
TVETA’s, TVET training institutes, regulatory and professional bodies,
examination bodies and organizations responsible for quality control
and checks (Ngure, 2013, p. 34). Organizations responsible for policy
formation, curriculum development and developing linkages with the
other stakeholders are also included in this list as they too address
challenges faced by the TVET sector (NAVTTC, 2016).

8.5.1.2. Some of the related government bodies in Pakistan are NAVTTC,


Ministry of Manpower, provincial TVET sectors, Employees Federation
of Pakistan [EFP], Skill Development Councils, Federation of Pakistan
Chamber of Commerce and Industry [FPCCI], Trade Testing Body [TTB],
POEPA, OEC, and National Institute of Science and Technical Education
[NISTE], National Training Bureau [NTB] etc. (Youth-Skills, 2016).

8.5.1.3. The TVET sector of any country is the backbone of the economy. The
case of Pakistan is no different. The TVET sector can facilitate training
of skilled, competent and professional workforce. Moreover, it can
reduce unemployment, which in itself has a positive impact on the
socio-economic landscape.

8.5.2. Regulatory and Professional Bodies

8.5.2.1. Regulatory and professional bodies, responsible for developing


standard rules and regulation concerning TVET sector, play an
important role in the sector’s success. They are mainly responsible for
policy formation, curriculum development, quality check and control,
and developing linkages with the other stakeholders. They also address
the challenges faced by the TVET sector (NAVTTC, 2016).

8.5.2.2. Some of the government regulatory bodies in Pakistan which work at


national level are NAVTTC, Ministry of Manpower, NISTE, [NTB] etc.

8.5.3. Examination bodies

8.5.3.1. The curriculum is tested and examined by the examining bodies both
within and outside the country (Ngure, 2013, p. 34).

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8.5.4. Training institutions

8.5.4.1. If education is to be considered as the ‘key’ to effective development,


then technical and vocational training would be the “master key’. This
master key has the potential to alleviate poverty, promote peace,
conserve the environment, improve the quality of life for all and help
achieve sustainable development (Marope, Chakroun, & Holmes,
2015). Training institutions, both Technical and Vocational have a
major role to play in the development of the TVET sector. These
institutes provide the environment and the opportunity for trainees,
from various background and skills levels, to get hands on experience
with develop their skillset for better employability.

Table 8-3
List of TVET Institutes in Paksitan
(NAVTTC, 2016)

Province/Region Public Private Total


Punjab 620 1,197 1,817
KP 70 529 599
Sindh 307 278 585
GB 26 149 175
Balochistan 36 89 125
AJK 48 66 114
ICT 37 66 103
FATA 33 28 61
Total 1,177 2,402 3,579

ICT FATA
3% 1%
AJK Punjab
3% 50%

Balochistan
4%

GB
6%

Sindh
11% KP
22%

Figure 8-1 Provincial Comparison of Number of TVET Institutes


(NAVTTC, 2016)

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0 500 1000 1500 2000

Punjab
Public
1177 KPK
33%
Sindh

GB

Balochistan Private
Private
AJK Public
2402
67% ICT

FATA

Figure 8-2 A Comparison of Public and Private TVET Institutes


(NAVTTC, 2016)

8.5.4.2. During 2015, over three and a half thousand technical and vocational
institutes with over nineteen thousand teachers were functional at
national level. An increase of 3.7 percent in student enrolment was
recorded as it increased to 319.94 thousand in FY2015 against 308.61
thousand in 2014. Enrolment is further estimated to increase by 2.6
percent, i.e., from 319.94 thousand to 328.26 thousand during 2016
(GoP, 2016, p. 173). Almost invariably, private TVETs institutes
outnumber public institutes by a fair distance in all provinces.

8.5.4.3. To make the youth of the country more productive, vocational and
technical training should also be promoted at national level. The
government is making all efforts to improve the quality of education
through effective policy measures and resource allocations. Under the
18th Constitutional Amendment, provincial governments will have to
play a more productive role on this sector (GoP, 2016, p. 187).

8.5.5. Local authorities

8.5.5.1. These include provincial bodies like the TVET sectors of Balochistan
province, that are responsible for the concerning province. They come
under the respective national governmental bodies.

8.5.6. Industrial Sector

8.5.6.1. The role of industry is of great importance for the TVET sector of a
country. These can be national or international. A highly skilled and
competent labor force can largely contribute towards the success and
profit of the industry. Equally, a well-developed and organized industry

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can accommodate a larger number of labor force besides providing


them with better benefits.

8.5.6.2. In most of the developing countries, TVET administration is now being


shifted from the jurisdiction of the Ministries of Labor or Manpower
Development to the Ministry of Industries or Education. This is so
because the entirety of TVET does not fit within the frame of only one
sector. Taking into account the learning and education element, it
seems more appropriate that the TVET be administratively under the
jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education. Considering the view of the
powerful trends at work placing and the requirement for the on-job
training and practical skilled workforce, it should also be within the
jurisdiction of the Ministry of Industries (Wahba, p. 1).

8.5.7. Private Sector

8.5.7.1. Trade unions and international accreditation bodies are private


stakeholders of the TVET sector. Trade unions can be both national and
international. The international accreditation bodies can help certify
skill recognition for the skilled labor at international level. These can
also help the labor move to a better job market by making mobility
easier for them. Trade unions, on the other hand, can help the skilled
labor in attaining their full rights. They can also influence the decisions
of the skilled labor. Thus, in galvanizing the labor to attain a required
set of skills, trade unions’ influence cannot be denied.

8.5.7.2. The private sector along with the government sector should realize that
investment in the TVET is not a cost, rather it provides significant
returns including the wellbeing of workers, enhancing productivity,
creating international competitiveness and promoting economic
growth in the long run (Wahba, p. 2).

8.5.7.3. The following are few private sector bodies in Pakistan: Federation of
Pakistan Chamber of Commerce and Industry [FPCCI], Gwadar
Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Karachi Chamber of Commerce of
Commerce and Industry, Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry,
Sialkot Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Quetta Chamber of
Commerce and Industry, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Chamber of Commerce
and Industry, Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce and Industry,
Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Pakistan Foundry
Association and all Pakistan Textile Mills Association (Pak-TVET, 2016).

8.5.8. NGOs

8.5.8.1. These include all the non-governmental bodies (like GIZ and Merci
Corps etc.) which are directly involved in the development of the TVET
sector. These can be both national and international. The involvement
of these bodies is similar to that of governmental bodies.

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8.5.8.2. Due to the requirement of specialized equipment and buildings, it is


expensive to start a TVET institution. This also applies to the richer
nations. The operating costs can be higher than other forms of
education or training due to needed consumable material for practical
trainings. Therefore, countries look into other ways of funding.
Pakistan currently depends mostly on the government donations,
which more often, are insufficient. Even some of the well-equipped
institutions remain inactive only because of no donor funding
(UNESCO(a), 2016, pp. 3-4). Grants by the NGOs thus are vital for the
sustainability of the TVET sector.

8.5.9. Competitors

8.5.9.1. In case of B-TEVTA, the other provincial TVET sectors and TEVT sectors
of the other countries may be considered as competitors. Graduates of
the competitor TVET sectors can also count as competitors. In case of
Gwadar port skilled labor demand, the Chinese TVET graduates are also
considered as competitors. Thus, these can be both national and
international.

8.5.9.2. A healthy competition among these stakeholders can result in the


making of apt and competent labor which can meet the current labor
demands, not only in the country but also abroad. Firms that intend to
establish presence in Gwadar have to compete on the basis of both
quality and quantity. The pressure of competition can result in
enhanced quality and variety, and can be a cause for development of
the TVET sector (UNESCO, 2009).

8.5.10. Book publishers and instructional materials manufacturers

8.5.10.1. Book Publishers and instructional materials manufacturers benefit by


printing books and instructional material for the TVET institutes (Ngure,
2013, p. 34). These can be both national and international. In the case
of Gwadar, a considerably large influx of Chinese training curricula is
expected.

8.5.11. Families of TVET Graduates

8.5.11.1. The families of TVET graduates are directly affected by the success or
failure of the TVET sector. The attitude of these families towards the
TVET training can also affect the success of that training. It is very
important for the TEVT sector and institutes to gain the good will of
these families and the society as a whole.

8.5.11.2. A greater number of TVET institutes usually lead to moderated family


size, reduced vulnerability and higher standards of living for the

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families of the TVET graduates. TVET also reduces inequality by filling


income gaps in the society (Suriana-Binti-Nasir, 2012, p. 12).

8.5.12. Others

8.5.12.1. Donor and social organizations are two main stakeholders. Again these
can be national and international. Similarly, volunteers and media are
two important contributors to the TVET sector.

8.5.12.2. Media can play an important role in educating the masses about the
importance of being skilled. Besides, it can also help eradicate the
social stigma attached to TVET (Pak-TVET Reforms, 2016).

8.6. SWOT Analysis of B-TEVTA

This sub section defines SWOT [Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats] analysis
and identifies various SWOTs. Suggestions are also given on how B-TEVTA can use its strengths
to realize the opportunities created by development of Gwadar Port and overcome its
weaknesses to deal with the threats in the external environment.

8.6.1. Definition

8.6.1.1. SWOT analysis is an examination of an organization’s internal strengths


and weaknesses, its opportunities for growth and improvement, and
the threats the external environment presents to its survival (Gretzky,
2010)

8.6.2. SWOT Matrix

8.6.2.1. The following matrix lists the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities


and Threats of B-TEVTA:

This space has been left blank intentionally

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Table 8-4
SWOT Matrix

Strengths Weaknesses

 Established TVET institutes in major  Inadequate Infrastructure and obsolete


districts Equipment
 Governmental status with government  Lack of investment in Staff Capacity
support building
 Adequate association with donor agencies  Labor / Employee Unions
such as Mercy Corps, EU and GIZ  Lack of linkages and collaboration
 Sizable population of Youth in the between training institutes and industries
Province at national and international level
 Trades and skills offered are not in
accordance with the labor market
demand
 Non accreditation of TVET Institutes

Opportunities Threats

 Opportunities arising from International  Insufficient funding from public and


mega events and projects private sector
 National mega events and projects  Competition with other provincial
 Collaborate with international TEVTA’s and Chinese labor force
organizations  Lack of women training and contribution
to labor force due to cultural factors
 Security issues – militancy

8.7. SWOT Analysis

8.7.1. Strengths

8.7.1.1. B-TEVTA has its training institutes established in all major districts of
Balochistan where the students are trained in various trades and skills.
B-TEVTA can take advantage of this strength, and focus on demand
driven skill training that is required in the wake of the numerous
industries being set up at the Gwadar Port, as these industries will
require large numbers of skilled labor force. Moreover, establishment
of the Gwadar Industrial Estate will increase the prospects for skilled
labor.

8.7.1.2. B-TEVTA is a provincial authority and therefore receives government


support. B-TEVTA should take government’s assistance for funding
courses and development programs that would play a significant part
in training the students on trades and skills relevant to Gwadar port

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skilled labor demand. Moreover, the government can be of great help


in terms of B-TEVTA’s collaboration with international organizations for
curriculum development, international training of trainers and
curriculum accreditation. This would play a substantial role in helping
the graduates secure jobs not only at Gwadar Port but also in the
international labor market.

8.7.1.3. It has strong association with donor agencies such as “Mercy Corps”
and “GIZ”. This can be utilized in the form of funding for modern
equipment and machinery that would help trainers and students alike
in strengthening their skills in order to be prepared for job
opportunities created by Gwadar Port. Additionally, financial and
technical support can also be received from the donors for staff
capacity building and skills development.

8.7.2. Weaknesses

8.7.2.1. One of the major weaknesses of B-TEVTA is its inadequate


infrastructure and obsolete equipment, both of which are paramount
to the success of TVET sector in Balochistan. Failure to upgrade will
result in loss of a mega opportunity in the shape of Gwadar Port
development, where jobs will be generated by the industries being
established at Gwadar Port.

8.7.2.2. With rapidly changing demand for skilled labor, B-TEVTA lacks capacity
building initiatives of its staff members, especially the instructional
staff. The current competency of the instructional staff may not be
sufficient to provide adequate training to students, who are to be
trained specifically for the opportunities arising at Gwadar Port.

8.7.2.3. Labor Unions are also prevalent in the TVET sector and these play a
dominant role in the TVET sector of Balochistan. A strike by the union
can result is closure of institutes and non-cooperation of staff etc., all
of which directly affects the TVET sector, more so the trainees.

8.7.2.4. Another weakness of B-TEVTA lies in its limited exposure and


collaboration with other TVET institutes at regional, domestic and
international level. These linkages, if established, can provide a range
of opportunities for staff, students and graduates, and lead to
improvement in curriculum and development of new programs.

8.7.2.5. Market intelligence is pivotal for any training initiative as it provides


information on the current and future skill labor demand of the
industry. Unfortunately, B-TEVTA currently does not design nor offer
programs based on such information. This creates a dichotomy and
disconnect from actual requirement, which decreases the
employability prospects of the graduates of B-TEVTA.

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8.7.3. Opportunities

8.7.3.1. The need for specific technical and vocational skills owing to both
international and national mega events and projects is rapidly
increasing. B-TEVTA can benefit from such events, especially from the
job generation at Gwadar Port, once it is operational to is full
developed capacity.

8.7.3.2. B-TEVTA needs to coordinate with the concerned government


ministries and international organizations to take advantage from such
events and projects. Synchronized planning is required for producing
skilled labor force for these events that will help in economic growth of
Balochistan.

8.7.3.3. With an established network of institutes throughout Balochistan, B-


TEVTA can focus on its institutes in Gwadar and Turbat to train localized
labor for employment opportunities arising from the development of
the Gwadar Port. It can also focus on districts directly affected by CPEC
and identify specific institutes that are most suited to provide relevant
and in-demand programs which would be a requirement of the CPEC
initiative.

8.7.4. Threats

8.7.4.1. With growing demand in skilled labor vis-à-vis Gwadar Port


development, the private TVET sector will be quick to respond.
Investments can be expected from the private sector in institutes and
training facilities in neighboring areas to Gwadar Port.

8.7.4.2. Since Gwadar Port is currently being operated by the Chinese and in
light of CPEC, there is a possibility that China might import its own
labor. This could be a more prominent reality if B-TEVTA and the TVET
sector of Balochistan fail to accommodate the forecasted demand
brewing from the Gwadar Port and CPEC initiatives. If this threat
materializes, graduates from B-TEVTA will be hard pressed to find
suitable employments in multi-billion dollar projects, which would be
loss for the province and the country.

8.7.4.3. B-TEVTA also faces threat from other provincial TEVTAs, which are
more experienced, organized and have an array of skilled labor trained
in the lines. If B-TEVTA fails to enhance the competency of its staff and
resultantly its graduates, an influx of workers from neighboring
provinces can be expected. If this threat materializes, B-TEVTA will face
a major loss yet again.

8.7.4.4. Militancy has been an issue plaguing Balochistan for a few years. If this
threat of violence and insecurity continues, it will create obstacles to
opportunities for graduates. In fact, such instable circumstances will

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even hamper the trainees, who may not even be able to visit institutes
for training. With a low population density, the TVET sector is already
hard-pressed to find a sizeable number of trainees.

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9. Creating Linkages with Gwadar Port Stakeholders

This Section focuses on the creation of linkages with national and international stakeholders
relevant to Gwadar port with additional focus on the significance of these alliances, which if developed,
would enhance the capability of Balochistan’s TVET sector to provide industry specific, high quality and
focused skills training. The Section further details the importance of sustaining the linkages, once
created.

9.1. Significance of Creating Linkages

9.1.1. An energetic and effective TVET sector plays a pivotal role in the progress of
developed and developing countries (Alagaraja, Kotamraju, & Kim, 2014, p. 266).
The manufacturing and industrial revolution that propelled the first world countries
to their present advanced state required workers from countries and regions rich in
skilled human resource (King & Palmer, 2010). The TVET sector of Pakistan in
general, and of Balochistan in particular, can benefit from the progress and
experience made by the first world industrialized countries by developing
collaborative linkages in the TVET sector.

9.1.2. Ashari, Rasul and Azman (2016) maintain that the key objective of creating linkages
or developing collaborations is to reinforce relationships with industry, job
placement for the graduates, to identify new training courses for introduction and
to enhance the value of the service or product. In our opinion, the prime aim of
collaboration and creating linkages is to shape and continuously update industry
driven training curriculum. Without this globally changing demand from the TVET
sector, industries cannot get the trained and skilled manpower they need to
progress. This ever-increasing demand of technological resourceful human resource
can be utilized by B-TEVTA through initiating alliances and develop national and
international linkages.

9.1.3. There are few types of collaborations / linkages which, if formed, would create a
win-win situation for all stakeholders; for instance, staff and students,
apprenticeships and placements etc. (Liew, Shahdan, & Lim, 2012). B-TEVTA needs
to take coordinated and aggressive measures for developing national and
international linkages to uplift the TVET sector of Balochistan.

9.2. Types of Linkages – National and International

In consideration of the theme of this impact assessment, this section will enlist linkages
required for B-TEVTA under national and international typology.

9.2.1. National Linkages

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9.2.1.1. National Linkages will focus on linkages which should be developed


inside Balochistan and Pakistan. These linkages will also orientate B-
TEVTA towards engagement in generating national opportunities for
skilled labor of Balochistan.

9.2.2. International Linkages

9.2.2.1. International Linkages will focus on linkages which can be created


outside Pakistan and which are important for skilled labor of
Balochistan to benefit from the international TVET bodies.

9.3. National Linkages

9.3.1. Educational Linkages

9.3.1.1. The TVET and higher education systems have been created and
function independently. University degrees are usually transferrable
and are designed for progression to the subsequent higher level of
education. However, the transferability of TVET qualification and
certificates to higher education institutes is mostly limited (UNESCO(b),
2016, p. 2).

9.3.1.2. In this regard, B-TEVTA should develop educational linkages to connect


its TVET institutes with higher education in order to enhance
employment accessibility and growth in terms of ongoing learning
opportunities for its students and graduates. This may involve
developing and implementing some policies that would enable
transferring the TVET certifications/qualifications to higher education
using appropriate equivalency criteria (Kashem, Chowdhury, & Shears,
2016, p. 4).

9.3.2. Institute to Institute Linkages

9.3.2.1. Preamble
9.3.2.1.1. Preliminary secondary research and the TNA Survey
conducted by this Consultancy has shown that Balochistan
currently has a shortage of well trained and certified labor
force. In light of the major development taking place at
Gwadar, this unavailability of skilled labor force is and will
be a cause for concern. Especially, since skilled labor will
be in high demand for the projects planned and underway
for the development of Gwadar.
9.3.2.1.2. B-TEVTA should focus on collaborating with different
institutes working under them and begin training labor in
the required fields e.g. Port related activities,

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Construction etc. An important factor to note here is the


necessity to increase trainee intake. In order to do so,
those industry driven trades and courses which are
offered in institutes with less number of enrollments,
should also be offered in institutes which have more
number of enrollments per year. In this way, a greater
number of trainees will be skilled in industry driven skills
and trades in a lesser timeframe, leading towards securing
more jobs nationally and internationally. Moreover,
institute to institute linkages can be developed among
TVET institutes under B-TEVTA, as well as with other
institutes under other provincial TEVTAs. Institute to
institute linkages should be developed for both Instructor
and Student Training.

9.3.2.2. Instructor Training


9.3.2.2.1. In the non-industrial and developing countries, most
teachers and instructors imparting TVET trainings have
little to no industry knowledge. Practical and updated
information of industries provides instructors with insight
about the actual demand of the market (Dittrich &
Abdullah, 2012). Hence, their contribution to the TVET
sector can increase manifold if they are connected with
the industry and share their inputs with regards to
futuristic industrial trends in the course content which is
best suited to meet the present and future needs of the
industry.
9.3.2.2.2. It is critical to involve teachers who have actual industry
experience. If B-TEVTA had a high number of instructors
having either local or international industry experience, it
would greatly enhance the level and quality of the
instructions they impart to the trainees. Subsequently,
teachers would know the importance of introducing new
trades, which will also enhance the intake of students in
different institutes. Relevant practical trainings could also
be introduced to provide valuable hands-on experience.
B-TEVTA will benefit by hiring and training instructors in
Port specific trades. If teachers had international
experience, they could advise policy makers on changes or
amendments needed in the TVET institutes and curricula
for international compatibility. Considering the research
of Dittrich and Abdullah (2012), it is still not too late to
develop industry linkages and apply these linkages during
instructor training. This would greatly facilitate in
identifying both current and future demands of Gwadar
Port.

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9.3.2.3. Student Training


9.3.2.3.1. Linkages are required to be developed amongst the TVET
institutes of Balochistan to ensure that they can benefit
from each other’s strengths and cover up each other’s
shortcomings. It is unlikely that institutes would be able to
offer courses of all types, this is where such mutual
linkages can be of great help.
9.3.2.3.2. Some of the significant skills required at Gwadar Port that
need to be catered for by Balochistan’s TVET institutes
through mutual linkages are listed below:
9.3.2.3.2.1. Port management professionals
9.3.2.3.2.2. Terminal management professionals
9.3.2.3.2.3. IT personnel
9.3.2.3.2.4. Energy management professionals
9.3.2.3.2.5. Elementary occupations including clerical
staff, freight handlers, kitchen assistants
etc.
9.3.2.3.2.6. Craft and related workers
9.3.2.3.2.7. Heavy machinery operators
9.3.2.3.2.8. Construction machinery mechanics
9.3.2.3.2.9. Port machinery operators
9.3.2.3.3. Comprehensive lists of skills and trades from which B-
TEVTA can benefit are mentioned in section ‘Case of
Balochistan’ of the subject report. However, these lists are
by no means exhaustive, and can be built upon as the
situation demands.
9.3.2.3.4. B-TEVTA should carry out a mapping study to have a
detailed analysis of all the institutes imparting training in
Balochistan. This mapping study should be dedicated to
ascertain if there are courses or trades relevant to port
development are being offered currently. This would
assist B-TEVTA to generate coordinated efforts among all
institutes for dissemination of training.

9.3.2.4. Linkages with other Provincial TVETs


9.3.2.4.1. Given the nature of the development being undertaken in
Gwadar, it is crucial for B-TEVTA to create bilateral
linkages with other provincial TVETs. Keeping in view the
future employment trends of Gwadar Port, B-TEVTA
should coordinate with all the provincial TVETs and design
a strategy for student and instructors exchange. By this

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exchange it would be possible to hire or arrange few


weeks’ seminars on how to induct trainings for courses
and trades which are not available in Balochistan. This
non-availability could be due to financial (lack of funds),
technical (insufficient lab equipment or inexperienced
trainers) or political (labor / employee unions) constraints.
9.3.2.4.2. Amongst the sister provinces, B-TEVTA must focus on
developing linkages with the TVET sector of Sindh. This is
particularly of significance since the province has been
contributing skilled labor to two of Pakistan’s primary
ports i.e. Karachi Port and Port Qasim. Gwadar will see
major development of its port which will result in
increased demand of skilled labor for port related
activities. Linkages with organizations like the Karachi
Dock Labor Board [KDLB], which offer specialized dock
related skills training would be beneficial.

9.3.2.5. Industrial Linkages


9.3.2.5.1. Industrial collaboration at national level is significant due
to their linkages with other stakeholders such as
provincial TVETs. TVET institutes need to develop a
bilateral and strong link with the industries to enhance the
cooperation between academia and industries to
understand the changing demand and supply mechanism
(Raihan, 2014, p. 51). Best practices of such industry and
institutes collaboration are planned to be discussed in the
‘Creating Linkages with Other TVET Stakeholders’ Impact
Assessment. To enhance the local / domestic level
industries, it is important to develop linkages with
international industries. This will also support in uplifting
the indigenous TVET standard (Raihan, 2014, p. 51).
9.3.2.5.2. B-TEVTA should create linkages with industry by engaging
Pakistan Ship’s Agents Association [PSAA], whose main
objective is to resolve issues faced by their members.
Their members include ports and shipping related
companies and traders (PSAA, 2009). Therefore, linkage
with an organization who already has established
industrial linkages with relevant companies is also very
important. This will help in getting relevant feedback on
the type and level of skill in demand, introduction of new
trades, enhancement of existing trades and training of
trainers and students.
9.3.2.5.3. Moreover, keeping in view future employment trends at
Gwadar Port, the following industries can contribute in
uplifting the TVET sector of Balochistan. These industries

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and employment trends serve as examples and are in no


terms exhaustive.
9.3.2.5.3.1. Ports and Shipping industry
9.3.2.5.3.2. Energy Industry
9.3.2.5.3.3. Construction
9.3.2.5.3.4. Import and Export
9.3.2.5.3.5. Transportation
9.3.2.5.3.6. Clearing and Forwarding
9.3.2.5.3.7. Warehousing
9.3.2.5.3.8. Building Material
9.3.2.5.3.9. Textile and Leather Garments
9.3.2.5.3.10. Value Added Processing
9.3.2.5.3.11. Repackaging and Transshipment
9.3.2.5.4. Raihan (2014) maintains that TVET institutes of the
country must develop links with home industries as well.
This will facilitate them in learning skills which they are not
being trained on in their respective province. However,
this linkage will further be explained in another report,
i.e., Creating Linkages with other TVET Stakeholders.

This space has been left blank intentionally

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Figure 9-1 TVET Sector Industry Linkages


(Raihan, 2014, p. 51)

9.3.3. Linkages with External Training Providers

TVET sector of Balochistan must create linkages with external training providers in
Balochistan and all over the country. Some of the examples of external training
providers that B-TEVTA can benefit from could be within the ports and shipping,
construction and energy industry.

9.3.3.1. Ports and Shipping


9.3.3.1.1. B-TEVTA should collaborate and develop linkages with
National Centre for Maritime Policy Research at Bahria
University Karachi to initiate training programs for their
skilled labor. This can be made possible by sending
instructors of B-TEVTA to the center to undertake relevant
ports and shipping related courses (BU, 2016), which can
include the following:

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9.3.3.1.1.1. Port Development, Operations and


Management
9.3.3.1.1.2. Shipping Operations and Management
9.3.3.1.1.3. Fishery Management and Operations
9.3.3.1.1.4. Port Terminal Management
9.3.3.1.1.5. Logistics, Supply Chain Management and
Methods
9.3.3.1.1.6. Ship Brokering and Chartering
9.3.3.1.1.7. Admiralty, Shipping and Marine
Environmental Law
9.3.3.1.1.8. Coastal Zone Management
9.3.3.1.1.9. Customs Clearing and Freight Forwarding

9.3.3.2. Construction Industry


9.3.3.2.1. Traditionally the construction industry has always been
the backbone of any economy. This is also true for
Gwadar, especially in light of the development works
being undertaken at Gwadar port and other associated
projects. This is why the need to develop linkages with
construction related institutes should be a priority for B-
TEVTA. The Construction Technology Training Institute
[CTTI] in Islamabad is NAVTTC accredited, and offers a
variety of programs in construction related fields.
Exchange programs for teachers and student training with
CTTI can boost the construction segment of Balochistan’s
TVET sector.
9.3.3.2.2. Following courses could be of benefit for skilled labor of
Balochistan (CTTI, 2016):
9.3.3.2.2.1. Construction machinery mechanic
9.3.3.2.2.2. Welding and fabrication
9.3.3.2.2.3. Auto Electrician
9.3.3.2.2.4. Auto Mechanic
9.3.3.2.2.5. Construction Machinery Supervisor
9.3.3.2.2.6. Construction Machinery Operator
9.3.3.2.2.7. Basic Civil Surveyor
9.3.3.2.2.8. Laboratory Technician
9.3.3.2.2.9. Steel Fixer
9.3.3.2.2.10. AutoCAD

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9.3.3.3. Energy Industry


9.3.3.3.1. The Energy sector is one of the most important sectors
which will be developed with reference to Gwadar port.
Therefore, to cater to the demands of this sector, it is
important for B-TEVTA to collaborate with companies and
organizations working and imparting training in Energy
Sector. Technology Up-gradation and Skill Development
Company [TUSDEC] is one of the institutes at government
level providing training in energy sector. B-TEVTA must
develop linkages with this and other related institutes to
benefit in terms of addressing industry driven port specific
demand. B-TEVTA can send their students and instructors
or can invite teachers from TUSDEC to Balochistan to
impart training. The following courses, offered at TUSDEC,
can be introduced, or trainees can be sent to TUSDEC for
training on these (TUSDEC, 2014):
9.3.3.3.1.1. Introduction to Energy Efficiency and
Energy Management
9.3.3.3.1.2. Energy Auditing and Gap Analysis
9.3.3.3.1.3. Development of Energy Programme and
Documentation
9.3.3.3.1.4. Implementing Energy Management
System
9.3.3.3.1.5. Power Generation and Distribution
Systems
9.3.3.3.1.6. Electrical Utilities
9.3.3.3.1.7. Transformers
9.3.3.3.1.8. Welding Plants
9.3.3.3.1.9. Mechanical Utilities
9.3.3.3.1.10. Compressed Air System
9.3.3.3.1.11. Pumps, Fans, Cooling Towers
9.3.3.3.1.12. Heating Furnaces and Ovens

9.4. International Linkages

9.4.1. INGOs

9.4.1.1. Developing linkages with international NGOs is also an important


potential alliance for B-TEVTA. A primary focus of such linkages could
be to design and implement responsive and viable training curricula for
Gwadar Port skilled labor demand. Moreover, INGOs can also facilitate

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in capacity building of B-TEVTA staff members as well as instructors, by


arranging participation of personnel in international workshops and
seminars.

9.4.1.2. B-TEVTA may have pre-existing relationships with active INGOs in


Pakistan. However, it is important that the nature of these associations
be reconfigured to ensure a more active participation from the INGOs
including The British Council, ILO GIZ and UNESCO-UNEVOC.
Participation of these organizations may be further developed to
include direct contributions into the TVET sector of Balochistan in
terms of investment.

9.4.2. TVET Sector of Countries with Leading Seaports

9.4.2.1. Regional Countries with Leading Seaports


9.4.2.1.1. Best practices from countries with leading seaports, that
have prior knowledge about their development can serve
as an important resource for B-TEVTA. Therefore, linkages
can be developed by signing a range of MoUs with the
TVET bodies of countries with leading sea ports, such as
China, UAE and Singapore. In order to respond to the
skilled labor demand at Gwadar Port, B-TEVTA could
benefit by collaborating with TVET institutes imparting
training on ports and shipping related trades / courses in
China, UAE, Sri Lanka and Singapore. The ministries and
governmental organizations with which an alliance would
be helpful in this regard are:
9.4.2.1.1.1. China Maritime Safety Administration
9.4.2.1.1.2. Sri Lanka Port Authority
9.4.2.1.1.3. Maritime and Port Authority of
Singapore
9.4.2.1.1.4. Dubai Ports World

9.4.2.2. China
9.4.2.2.1. The development of Gwadar port is a primary focus of the
CPEC project, which consequently is spearheaded by
China. Moreover, the firms implementing the
development at Gwadar port are also Chinese, which
provides a unique opportunity for B-TEVTA to develop
linkages with the TVET sector of China. This would allow
B-TEVTA to gain cooperation from its Chinese
counterparts in facilitating the foreseeable rise in skilled
labor demand at Gwadar port. China’s TVET sector can
provide first hand insights into the requirements of

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Chinese companies working on Gwadar port and may be


persuaded to undertake joint training programs. An
exchange of teachers and students from both sides would
enhance the overall quality of training and graduates.

9.4.2.3. Sri Lanka


9.4.2.3.1. B-TEVTA must focus on developing linkages with other
countries which have a relevant, yet more developed
TVET sector in comparison to Balochistan. Sri Lanka’s TVET
sector is highly suitable for such alliances. Considering the
development of Gwadar port, B-TEVTA should
additionally focus on developing linkages with Sri Lankan
TVETs providing port related training programs. Mahapola
Training Institute is one such example, which is an
institute run by the Sri Lanka Ports Authority and offers
training programs in the following areas (SLPA-MTI, 2014):
9.4.2.3.1.1. Port Operations and Logistics
9.4.2.3.1.2. Fire safety and Occupational Health
Programs
9.4.2.3.1.3. Technical Programs
9.4.2.3.1.4. Management Programs
9.4.2.3.1.5. Information System Programs

9.4.2.4. Singapore
9.4.2.4.1. The Port of Singapore is one of the largest transshipment
hubs in the world. Quality of skilled labor is paramount to
ensure the quality of service with such large volumes of
cargo routed through Singapore. This is why B-TEVTA
should look to develop linkages with Port of Singapore
Authority [PSA] Institute, an institute under the port
authority umbrella. The institute has trained more than
60,000 workers and executives for port and other
industries. It is also reputed for developing its own
training content coupled with advanced training aids to
provide high quality training. In the context of Gwadar
Port, PSA Institute can be an asset for the provision of
training in the following areas:
9.4.2.4.1.1. Port operations
9.4.2.4.1.2. Lifting, Signaling and Rigging
9.4.2.4.1.3. Logistics
9.4.2.4.1.4. Forklift Operations
9.4.2.4.1.5. Safety and security

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9.4.2.4.1.6. Equipment Handling


9.4.2.4.2. Similarly, developing relationships with various Federal
and Provincial Ministries is essential, especially since
these can be of significance in developing political linkages
between corresponding ministries and governmental
organizations of Pakistan and foreign countries. Some
examples include:
9.4.2.4.2.1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs
9.4.2.4.2.2. Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis & Human
Resource Development
9.4.2.4.2.3. National Vocational & Technical Training
Commission
9.4.2.4.2.4. Ministry of Commerce & Trade
Development Authority of Pakistan
9.4.2.4.2.5. Board of Emigration and Overseas
Employment
9.4.2.4.2.6. Overseas Pakistanis Foundation

9.4.2.5. Linkages with above mentioned authorities are important in two ways;
to develop TVET sector through training and by using these sources for
developing sustainability of the sector via political means.

9.4.3. International Accreditation Bodies

9.4.3.1. Chinese companies that are either involved or will be part of Gwadar
Port development will require skilled labor to undertake the mega
projects earmarked for Gwadar port. These companies would greatly
benefit if they can find a continuous supply of skilled labor in Gwadar,
or else they would be forced to import skilled labor from China, which
will be cost-ineffective. Therefore, besides enhancing the skills of the
labor available in Balochistan, B-TEVTA must create linkages with
international accreditation bodies as this would certify the skill level of
local labor to foreign companies operating at Gwadar. If graduates hold
certificates accredited by international accreditation bodies, chances
of their consideration for highly skilled trades at Gwadar port will
increase manifold.

9.4.3.2. In an effort to ensure that B-TEVTA is able to create linkages with


international accreditation bodies, it must focus its efforts towards the
premier accreditation body, i.e., City and Guilds. A focused approach
would allow effort to be zoned in to ensure a higher rate of success.
Moreover, City and Guilds already operates in Pakistan, which
translates to ease-of-access to initiate efforts for creating an alliance.

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9.4.4. Curriculum Developers

9.4.4.1. According to an academic report, a team from Pakistan went to the


United States of America in 1951-1955 to study the polytechnic system
implemented in USA at the time. The team then returned to develop a
local training curriculum for polytechnics, which yielded a variety of
dividends for years to come (Hassan, 2007).

9.4.4.2. Taking lead from history, B-TEVTA must initiate a similar effort through
the development of linkages with curriculum developers. A similar
team of curriculum developers can be sent to China, Malaysia or Sri
Lanka to study their programs, content and training methodology. This
is also an important and necessary step, because with the development
of Gwadar port comes the introduction of new technology and
equipment in related sectors, such as energy and construction. It would
also be pertinent to note here that to undertake such an effort,
institute to institute linkages for instructors may also be created.

9.5. Sustainability of Newly Established Linkages

This subsection has detailed the various types of linkages which are crucial for the
development of the TVET sector of Balochistan. These alliances cannot be a onetime
effort, instead they will need to be cultivated, maintained and sustained over the
long run. When developing the strategy for establishing new linkages, B-TEVTA must
include a stratagem for ensuring these linkages are maintained. Especially since the
TVET sector of Balochistan will require a focused effort, prolonged over a number of
years. Such alliances will yield benefits throughout. Some of the steps which can
assist in ensuring longevity of these linkages are listed below.

9.5.1. Monitoring

9.5.1.1. A proper monitoring mechanism must be developed to oversee the


progress of linkages being developed. This is important for several
reasons:

9.5.1.1.1. Once Institute to Institute collaborations are developed,


constant monitoring and evaluation is required to ensure
that both parties are aligned with the standards set by
accreditation bodies (national or international).
9.5.1.1.2. It is important that both parties are aware of the changing
trends in the industry and markets. This will help in
updating the trades and knowledge with changing times.
9.5.1.1.3. In the event of any discrepancies, both stakeholders
should be able to identify and counter issues together to
ensure that their relationship remains healthy and
beneficial for both parties.

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9.5.2. Refresher Courses and Introduction of New Trades

9.5.2.1. Continuous improvement is vital for any institute, especially for those
looking to stay relevant while offering their graduates a better chance
at employability. It is important for B-TEVTA to run refresher courses
for staff at various institutes and to offer instructors regular training
programs. This is an important approach to ensure the linkages created
are being properly catered to.

9.5.3. Sustained Funding and Political Will

9.5.3.1. Adequate funds are required for the smooth running of all the
institutes. This needs strong political will and loyalty from responsible
government departments.

9.5.3.2. Separate funds from provincial governments for the education and
specifically Technical and Vocational education has significant
importance.

9.5.3.3. Dedicated funds for Technical Training institutes and Vocational


Training institutes offering port related trades or intending to offer port
related trades are significant for sustainability.

9.5.3.4. Both male and female technical and vocational education institutes
needs to be refurbished as per the changing demands.

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10. Case of Balochistan

This Section begins with an overview of selected labor market statistics for Pakistan and
Balochistan. A very preliminary list of courses offered by TVET institutes under B-TEVTA is presented,
which shall be built up and organized as further research and the TNA Survey for this Consultancy
progresses. Two earlier impact assessment reports, that is, the ‘Expo Dubai 2020 and 2022 FIFA World
Cup Qatar Skilled Labor Demand’ and the ‘Gulf and European Skilled Labor Demand’ have given a fair
idea of skilled labor demand in the Gulf and Europe. This allows for a preliminary skill gap analysis.
Opportunities for Balochistan skilled labor with respect to Gwadar Port are briefly discussed. In the
end, trades, skills and courses which are thought to be most relevant for B-TEVTA to consider are listed
under twenty four shortlisted industries and disciplines.

10.1. Introduction

10.1.1. There is perhaps no debate that there exists a gap between the current skill level of
Balochistan’s workforce and the burgeoning skilled labor demand at Gwadar Port.
The question is how wide this gap is, what the nature of this gap is, and how this gap
can be narrowed. On the one hand, accurate information is required on the current
status and capacities of Balochistan’s TVET sector and where, and at what level is its
workforce presently being assimilated in accordance with its current average skill
level. On the other hand, a comprehensive assessment of required skill sets, trades,
skill levels and employment opportunities that exist today, and several years into
the future, must be made. These two sets of information need to be studied and
analyzed in parallel to arrive at the desired logical conclusion.

10.1.2. Some information on the current status and capacities of Balochistan’s TVET sector
and its workforce has been brought forward by this report. The greater part of this
data, however, will become available after the TNA survey and profiling of TVET
institutes is completed. In the same way, this report has identified requirements of
contemporary and futuristic skills sets and trades. Although these are specific to the
Gwadar Port, but can also be considered as generic global requirement. By
comparing these with Balochistan’s current capabilities and level of preparedness of
its workforce, a Case for Balochistan can be made, as has been attempted in this
Section.

10.1.3. Similarly, requirements for contemporary and futuristic skills sets and trades will be
unearthed through research that is planned to be conducted during preparation of
the remaining impact assessments of this Consultancy. These will help identify
further specific and generic gaps. Some of these requirements have already been
highlighted in two previous Impact Assessment conducted by this Consultancy, that
is, the ‘Expo Dubai 2020 and 2022 FIFA World Cup Qatar Skilled Labor Demand’
(R2V(b), 2016) and the ‘Gulf and European Skilled Labor Demand’ (R2V(c), 2016). In
this way, we hope to keep expanding and solidifying the Case for Balochistan.

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10.2. Pakistan’s Labor Market Statistics

10.2.1. Contribution of Pakistan’s Regions towards Overseas Workforce

10.2.1.1. The Bureau of Emigration & Overseas Employment [BEOE] has some
interesting labor market migration statistics of Pakistan. Since 1981, a
little over eight million (8,163,474, to be exact) individuals of Pakistan’s
workforce have proceeded abroad for employment. Table 10-1 lists the
contribution of different federal units and administrative regions of
Pakistan towards overseas workforce since 1981 till 2015.

Table 10-1
Contribution of Pakistan’s Regions towards Overseas Workforce: 1981-2015
(BEOE(c), 2015) – Calculations performed by R2V

Regions of Pakistan Number of Workers

Punjab 4,168,212
KP 2,090,966
Sindh 778,438
Azad Kashmir 545,460
FATA 413,123
Balochistan 95,965
FCT 59,050
Northern Areas 12,260

Total 8,163,474

10.2.1.2. Punjab has contributed the largest share to this number, i.e., 51.6%;
followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s contribution of 25.61%. This is
understandable, as these are our most populous provinces. We also
see from Figure 10-1 that Balochistan’s contribution towards overseas
employment is only 1.18%. The is relatively quite low, especially when
we consider the fact that the population of Balochistan has generally
been around 5% of the National population levels over the years.

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Sindh
Punjab 9.54%
4,168,212 KP
25.61% Azad Kashmir
6.68%
FATA
5.06%

Balochistan
1.18%
KP
2,090,966 FCT
0.72%
Punjab Northern
51.06% Areas
0.15%
Sindh
778,438 Azad Kashmir
545,460 FATA
413,123
Balochistan FCT Northern Areas
95,965 59,050 12,260

Punjab KP Sindh Azad FATA Balochistan FCT Northern


Kashmir Areas

Figure 10-1 Contribution of Pakistan’s Regions towards Overseas Workforce: 1981-2015


(BEOE(c), 2015; R2V(a), 2016, p. 93) – Infographic created by R2V

10.2.1.3. Figure 10-2 renders an inter-provincial comparison of their


proportionate comparison towards overseas workforce over the years
since 1981. It can be seen that in terms of absolute numbers, the
contributions from Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Azad Kashmir
and FATA has been rising at a greater-than-linear rate. However,
research conducted during preparation of the Inception Report for this
Consultancy shows that this rise is not as much on account of securing
greater employment opportunities abroad, as it is on account of the
ever-rising population of Pakistan and its provinces (R2V(a), 2016, p.
90). Indeed, Figure 10-3 displayed subsequently shows that the
percentage provincial contribution has remained similar and stable
over the years since 1981. It can be seen from this Figure that the
contribution of Balochistan towards the National overseas workforce
has been hovering around the 1% mark.

10.2.1.4. A cause of concern for B-TEVTA here is that where the absolute
workforce numbers for most of the provinces and administrative areas
have been on the rise, those for Balochistan have not varied much.
Reasons for this gap will become evident after the TNA survey, profiling
of TVET institutes and further research conducted during this
Consultancy.

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x 100000 4

0
1987

1991

1995
1981

1983

1985

1989

1993

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

2015
Azad Kashmir Balochistan FATA FCT
KP Northern Areas Punjab Sindh

Figure 10-2 Absolute Contribution of Pakistan’s Regions towards Overseas Workforce: 1981-2015
(BEOE(c), 2015; R2V(a), 2016, p. 90) – Infographic created by R2V

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
2013
1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2015

Azad Kashmir Balochistan FATA FCT


KP Northern Areas Punjab Sindh

Figure 10-3 Contribution of Pakistan’s Regions towards Overseas Workforce: 1981-2015


(BEOE(c), 2015; R2V(a), 2016, p. 90) – Infographic created by R2V

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10.2.2. Contribution of Occupation Groups towards Overseas Workforce

10.2.2.1. Table 10-2 lists workers registered for overseas employment through
BEOE for the past forty five years (1971 to 2015), distributed under the
occupational group/skill-level category (BEOE(a), 2015). Figure 10-4
shows the same figures as a comparative percentage.

10.2.2.2. The fact that a large number of the total workers, i.e. 43.12%, are
unskilled needs to be addressed. It is important for Pakistan, and the
workforce itself, to secure respectable jobs and earn good wages. TVET
Programs leading to the skill development needs to play a critical role
in this regard. An extremely low percentage of our workforce in foreign
lands is either highly skilled (4.4%) or highly qualified (1.79%) which is
a cause of concern.

Table 10-2
Contribution of Pakistan’s Occupation Groups towards Overseas Workforce: 1971-2015
(BEOE(c), 2015)

Regions of Pakistan Number of Workers

Highly Qualified 157,015


Highly Skilled 386,197
Skilled 3,778,835
Semi-Skilled 666,882
Un Skilled 3,782,638

Total 8,771,567

Semi Skilled Un Skilled


7.60%
43.12%

Skilled
43.08% Highly
Qualified
Highly Skilled 1.79%
4.40%

Figure 10-4 Contribution of Pakistan’s Occupation Groups


towards Overseas Workforce 1971-2015
(BEOE(d), 2015; R2V(a), 2016, p. 96)– Infographic created by R2V

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10.2.3. Contribution of Employment Category towards Overseas Workforce

10.2.3.1. We see in the data for overseas workers with respect to employment
category, Table 10-3; and in Figure 10-5 that an exceedingly large
number of our overseas workforce comprises of un-skilled or low-
skilled trades such as laborers, drivers, masons, carpenters,
technicians, electricians, steel fixers, etc. Only laborers, drivers, masons
and carpenters constitute a high 62% (approx.) of our workforce
abroad. This is another critical area that this training Consultancy needs
to address.

Table 10-3
Overseas Workforce Employment Category: 1971-2015
(BEOE(c), 2015) – Calculations performed by R2V

Category Numbers %age Category Numbers %age


Labourer 3,391,535 38.67% Comp/Analyst 17,425 0.20%
Driver 922,081 10.51% Teacher 12,792 0.15%
Mason 658,846 7.51% Rigger 11,356 0.13%
Carpenter 448,737 5.12% Cable Jointer 8,140 0.09%
Technician 371,639 4.24% Nurse 7,798 0.09%
Electrician 316,455 3.61% Goldsmith 6,889 0.08%
Steel Fixer 301,609 3.44% Draftsman 6,528 0.07%
Agriculture 291,073 3.32% Blacksmith 5,901 0.07%
Mechanic 224,171 2.56% Designer 5,705 0.07%
Tailor 214,480 2.45% Secretary/ 5,566 0.06%
Painter 176,430 2.01% Stenographer
Plumber 168,476 1.92% Artist 4,948 0.06%
Operator 149,040 1.70% Pharmacist 1,581 0.02%
Salesman 136,966 1.56% Photographer 1,036 0.01%
Welder 125,157 1.43% Total 8,771,567 100.00%
Cook 118,646 1.35%
Clerk/Typist 101,985 1.16%
Fitter 99,955 1.14%
For/Supervisor 81,824 0.93%
Others. 75,810 0.86%
Engineer 59,941 0.68%
Waiter/Bearer 54,048 0.62%
Denter 47,011 0.54%
Manager 43,668 0.50%
Accountant 37,223 0.42%
Surveyor 22,543 0.26%
Storekeeper 18,547 0.21%
Doctor 18,006 0.21%

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All The Rest


38.2%

Carpenter
5.12%

Mason
7.51%

Driver Labourer
10.51% 38.67%

Figure 10-5 Contribution of Employment Category towards Overseas Workforce: 1971-2015


(BEOE(d), 2015)– Infographic rendered by R2V

10.3. Balochistan’s Labor Market Statistics

10.3.1. Balochistan’s Employment Share by Industry

10.3.1.1. The Figure below exemplifies the industry wise labor distribution in
Balochistan during 2010-11. The figures have more or less remained
same over the years, as shown in Table 10-4. Almost half (45.1%) of
Balochistan labor is associated with agriculture/forestry/hunting &
fishing, followed by wholesale & retail trade and manufacturing.

Others
2.1%
Agriculture/forestry/
Transport/Storage hunting & fishing
and communication 45.1%
5.1%

Construction
7.0%

Community/social &
personal services
10.8%
Wholesale & retail trade
Manufacturing
16.2%
13.7%

Figure 10-6 Employment Share by Industry, Balochistan: 2010-11


(GoP, 2013)

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Table 10-4
Employment Share by Industry, Balochistan: 2008-2011
(GoP, 2013)

Major Industry Divisions 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11


Agriculture/forestry/hunting & fishing 45.1% 45.0% 45.1%
Wholesale & retail trade 16.5% 16.3% 16.2%
Manufacturing 13.0% 13.2% 13.7%
Community/social & personal services 11.2% 11.2% 10.8%
Construction 6.6% 6.7% 7.0%
Transport/Storage and communication 5.2% 5.2% 5.1%
Others 2.4% 2.4% 2.1%
Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

10.3.1.2. Figure 10-7 shows the gender distribution of Balochistan’s workforce


associated with the same industries. It comes as a surprise that there
are far more women associated with the agriculture/forestry/hunting
and fishing industry then men, even though there is a similar trend in
our rural areas. Understandably, a greater number are women
employed in the community/social & personal services. A more glaring
statistic is the high number of women associated with manufacturing.
Given its high percentage of employment share, and the percentage of
women associated manufacturing, it should be interesting to see what
type of manufacturing industries are prevalent in Balochistan. As of
now, however, such data is not available.

75.4%
Male Female

36.2%

20.4%
10.8% 11.5% 14.5% 10.9%
8.9% 6.6%
0.2% 0.1% 1.6% 2.6% 0.3%

Agriculture/ Community Construction Manufacturing Transport/ Wholesale & Others


forestry/ /social & Storage and retail trade
hunting & personal communication
fishing services

Figure 10-7 Balochistan’s Gender Employment Share by Industry: 2010-11


(GoP, 2013)

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10.3.2. Registered Overseas Workers of Balochistan under BEOE: 2005-2015

10.3.2.1. Balochistan has contributed 95,302 individuals to Pakistan’s overseas


workforce since 1981, and 58,205 since the year 2005. The annual
trend since 2005 is shown in the graph below1.

9,293

7,258
6,809 6,663

5,262
4,480

3,098 3,392 3,130 5,122


3,698

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Figure 10-8 Registered overseas workers from Balochistan under BEOE: 2005-2015
(BEOE, 2016)

10.3.3. District Wise Overseas Registered Workers

10.3.3.1. The District wise contribution from Balochistan towards overseas


Pakistani workforce is shown in Figure 10-9 for two timeframes; 1981-
2015, and 2005-2015. It may be seen that the pattern has not changes
much over the years. Quetta, Khuzdar and Zhob are the prominent
contributors.

1
Though this data is also sourced from the Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment, there is a slight
dichotomy in the workforce numbers contributed by each province / administrative region when considered
from the Provincial level and built up from the District level.

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Quetta 20,261 Quetta 8,303


Khuzdar 9,570 Khuzdar 6,276
Zhob 9,053 Zhob 5,649
Panjgur 5,536 Sherani 3,654
Turbat 4,803 Lasbela 3,193
Kharan 4,568 Panjgur 3,165
Lasbela 4,520 Gowadar 3,025
Kalat 3,954 Kharan 2,796
Chaghi 3,709 Turbat 2,751
Gowadar 3,703 Kech 2,399
Sherani 3,654 Kalat 1,929
Kachhi 3,345 Chaghi 1,909
Pishin 3,292 Loralai 1,611
Kech 2,399 Pishin 1,541
Loralai 2,100 Awaran 1,459
Nasirabad 1,672 Kachhi 1,118
Awaran 1,459 Barkhan 1,095
Makran 1,200 Nasirabad 1,037
Barkhan 1,095 Jaffarabad 832
Sibi 914 Makran 627
Jaffarabad 832 Killa Abdullah 602
Kohlu Agency 655 Sibi 536
Killa Abdullah 602 Musakhel 511
Jhalmagsi 513 Killa Saifullah 488
Musakhel 511 Kohlu Agency 423
Killa Saifullah 488 Jhalmagsi 382
Ziarat 309 Ziarat 309
Bolan 267 Bolan 267
Mastung 234 Mastung 234
Dera Bugti 84 Dera Bugti 84

1981-2015 2005-2015

Figure 10-9 District Wise Overseas Workforce of Balochistan: 1981-2015 & 2005-2015
(BEOE(a), 2015) – Infographic rendered by R2V

10.4. TVET Courses Offered by B-TEVTA

10.4.1.1. According to the information available with R2V at present, TVET


institutes under the Directorate of Manpower Training in Balochistan
are currently offering the courses as listed in Table 10-5 below. The
Directorate of Manpower Training is one of the four Allied
Departments of Balochistan TEVTA (B-TEVTA, 2016). This list is certainly
not complete and has been placed here only for record. A more
complete, accurate and categorized list shall be available after profiling
of TVET institutes and conduct of the TNA Survey.

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Table 10-5
Courses Offered by Directorate of Manpower Training
(B-TEVTA, 2016)

S. No. Course Name S. No. Course Name


1. Agriculture Machine Repair & Motor 2. Electrical
Winding
3. Auto Electric 4. Industrial Electronics
5. Auto Electric, Motor Cycle Repair 6. Leather Embroidery
7. Auto Mechanic 8. Machinist
9. Beautician 10. Maintenance Electric
11. Boat Engine Repair 12. Maintenance Mechanic
13. Civil Draftsman 14. Motor Winding
15. CNC 16. PLC
17. Commercial Cooking 18. Plumbing
19. Computer 20. R.A.C
21. Dress Designing 22. Radio TV
23. Electric, Motor Winding, Generator 24. Tailoring
Repair
25. Telecommunication 26. Wood Work
27. Welding

10.4.2. The purpose of evaluating domestic and international labor markets is to analyze
labor trend in various occupations and gauge employer and workforce inclinations,
so that appropriate recommendations and strategic goals can be furnished for B-
TEVTA. The complete list of courses and training offered, along with
recommendations on proposed additions and changes will be offered in the TNA
Survey Report and in the Comprehensive Training Plan, a latter deliverable of this
Consultancy. However, a list of new proposed trades and skills which may be
introduced to uplift TVET sector of Balochistan, based on the research conducted
during the course of this impact assessment, is given at the end of this Section under
‘Listing of Trades, Skills and Courses from Selected Industries and Disciplines’.

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10.5. Preliminary Skill Gap Analysis

10.5.1. At this early stage of the consultancy, with only a preliminary knowledge of the TVET
Sector of Balochistan, it appears that the workforce of Balochistan is years, if not
decades, away from the technological knowledge, capability and advancement that
is currently the hallmark of international mega projects. This fact has been derived
from studying the present and forecasted growth across industries and sectors, the
present and forecasted employment patterns and the economic and labor market
statistics for two global mega events, that is, Expo Dubai 2020 and the 2022 FIFA
World Cup Qatar, and for the six GCC countries and ten selected EU countries; and
indeed, the labor market statistics for Pakistan and Balochistan. The corporate
knowledge acquired and documented on the subject in two earlier Impact
Assessments the ‘Expo Dubai 2020 and 2022 FIFA World Cup Qatar Skilled Labor
Demand’ (R2V(b), 2016) and the ‘Gulf and European Skilled Labor Demand’ (R2V(c),
2016) also points in the same direction. It is evident that Balochistan, just as other
areas of Pakistan, has generally been producing raw labor, instead of skilled
professionals. A wide gap can be observed between the local capacities / capabilities
and competencies and skill sets required at the international level. This gap appears
more prominent due to the lack of involvement of the local industry, and the
absence of integration between national and international industry.

10.5.2. There is, however, always a silver lining. As it is said, the first step in resolving a
problem is acknowledging that there is one. It is encouraging to see that the
realization exists and the initial steps have been taken – in the right direction. B-
TEVTA will need to continue playing a positive and aggressive role in revamping of
the provincial TVET Sector and skills development of its workforce. Political support
will have to be harnessed, without which financial support will always be suspect.
Social instabilities and insecurities of Balochistan’s workforce and their families will
have to be addressed.

10.6. Opportunities for Balochistan Skilled Labor – Gwadar Port

At this stage of the Consultancy, it is not possible to assess how well prepared TVET institutes
of Balochistan are to dish out a continual stream of skilled, trained and experienced
manpower required to fulfil the demand of the Gwadar Port as well as the industries being up
at the port. This can only be ascertained after the profiling of Balochistan’s TVET institutes
from the recently completed TNA Survey, data from which is presently under analysis and
compilation. This subject will be revisited in the TNA Report and in the Comprehensive
Training Plan, as well as while formulating the strategic goals for B-TEVTA towards the end of
this Consultancy.

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10.6.1. Opportunities for Balochistan - Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand

10.6.1.1. Gwadar port will open new avenues of job prospects for population of
Balochistan and will contribute to the development of Balochistan and
addresses several social and economic issues of the province. By one
estimate, around two million new jobs in a time period of 8 to 10 years,
and around 1.7 million individuals will shift to Gwadar in a time span of
thirty years (Sherbaz, n.d., p. 76). The list of potential areas where the
Gwadar Port can generate employment opportunities are:

10.6.1.1.1. Cargo handling, passenger handling, loading and delivery


activities, ship repair and transport services
10.6.1.1.2. Processing industries that convert the imported material
for domestic use or re-export
10.6.1.1.3. Bulk commodities, e.g., iron and steel, sugar, oil refineries
and associated chemical industries
10.6.1.1.4. Tourism and hospitality industry.
10.6.1.1.5. Road and rail networks, energy projects, power plants,
LNG projects, Expansion of Gwadar Airport, fiber optic
cable construction, oil and gas terminals, oil refineries and
petrochemical industries.

10.6.2. Key Business Areas – Gwadar Port

10.6.2.1. In addition to the projects and then the opportunities derived for
skilled labor of Balochistan out of it, key business areas (GIEDA(a),
2016) which were identified during the course of this report are given
below:

10.6.2.1.1. Construction
10.6.2.1.2. Import and Export
10.6.2.1.3. Transportation
10.6.2.1.4. Clearing and Forwarding
10.6.2.1.5. Warehousing
10.6.2.1.6. Building Material
10.6.2.1.7. Textile and Leather Garments
10.6.2.1.8. Value Added Processing
10.6.2.1.9. Shipping
10.6.2.1.10. Repackaging and Transshipment

10.6.3. Types of Industries

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10.6.3.1. All the above mentioned projects and key business areas encapsulate
various industries, which will be addressed during the completion of
Gwadar port. A list of such Industries (GIEDA(c), 2016) is presented
below:

10.6.3.1.1. Food Products and Beverages


10.6.3.1.2. Manufacture of Textiles
10.6.3.1.3. Wood and Wood Products
10.6.3.1.4. Publishing, Printing and Reproduction
10.6.3.1.5. Leather Products
10.6.3.1.6. Construction
10.6.3.1.7. Fabricated Metal Products
10.6.3.1.8. Rubber, Glass and Plastic Products
10.6.3.1.9. Chemical and Chemical Products
10.6.3.1.10. Basic Metals
10.6.3.1.11. Petroleum
10.6.3.1.12. Machinery and Equipment
10.6.3.1.13. Others

10.6.3.2. Trades/courses/occupations addressing all the above mentioned


projects, key business areas and industries will be given in next sub-
sections of this section. It is important to mention that due to the
overlapping nature of key business areas and industries involved, a
merged list of both the categories along ‘list of trades’ is given under
‘Gwadar - List of Trades by Key Business Areas and Industries’.

This space has been left blank intentionally

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10.7. Gwadar – List of Trades by Development Projects

10.7.1. Power Plants / Energy Industry

(WCT, 2016; NPTI, 2012)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Advanced Plant Supervisor


2. Auxiliary Plant Operator Practice
3. Basic Electricity
4. Basic Power Plant Theory
5. Boiler Design and Environmental Protection
6. Boiler Simulator Lab
7. Boilers, Combustion and Water Treatment
8. Electrical Power
9. Electrical Writing Lab
10. GIS and Remote Sensing
11. Hydro Power Plant Engineering
12. Industrial Control
13. Introduction to Process Instrumentation and Automatic Controls
14. Low Pressure Boilers
15. Plant Cycle and Systems
16. Plant Operator Practice
17. Plant Supervisor Practice
18. Power Engineering
19. Power Management
20. Programmable Logic Controllers
21. Thermal Power Plant Engineering
22. Thermodynamics
23. Transmission and Distribution System

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10.7.2. LNG Terminal / Industry

(IBCA(b), 2016; UoT, 2016; Consulting, 2016; API, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Baseload Liquefaction Plant


2. Fundamentals of the Oil & Gas Industry
3. Gas and Power Physical Trading
4. Global LNG Essentials
5. Introduction to Oil Trading, Operations & Contract Administration
6. Liquefied Natural Gas – Shipping and Import Terminal Operations
7. LNG as Transportation Fuel
8. LNG Project Development
9. LNG Shipping Industry
10. Major Equipment and Supporting Functional Units in LNG Plants
11. Market Fundamentals and the Growth of LNG Floating Production Solutions
12. Non-conventional LNG and Risk Management
13. Offshore LNG
14. Overview of LNG Industry
15. Piping Inspector
16. Power & Gas Trading Principles
17. Pressure Vessel Inspector
18. Receiving Terminal
19. Risk Based Inspection Professional
20. Safety, Security and Environmental Issues Overview
21. Terminal Management
22. Welding Inspection and Metallurgy Professional

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10.7.3. Railways / Rail Networks

(RAILCOP(c), 2014)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Civil Engineering/Building Works


2. Concrete and Steel Bridges
3. Feasibility Studies
4. Irrigation Works
5. Land and Route Surveys
6. Line Capacity Works
7. Manufacturing & Supply of Rolling Stock
8. Mechanical Engineering Works
9. Mechanized Production/Supply of Stone Ballast
10. Production of Track Fittings & Fastenings
11. Railway Engineering Works.
12. Railway Management/Operations
13. Railway Signaling Systems
14. Railway System Studies
15. Rehabilitation of Track Machines/Cranes
16. Supply of Railway Human Resources
17. Track Construction & Rehabilitation
18. Track Design and Maintenance
19. Traffic Survey & Projections
20. Training in Railway Fields

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10.7.4. Road Networks

(PITS, 2016; Oxford, 2016; Career, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Carpentry
2. Civil engineering (Road Construction)
3. Civil road laboratory technician
4. Commercial Construction
5. Construction Industry Development
6. Construction Planning and scheduling
7. Construction plant and equipment
8. Contract administration
9. Cost management
10. Cost planning
11. Heavy machinery operators
12. Infrastructure construction
13. Project safety management
14. Quality in construction
15. Road and bridges technology
16. Road Construction and Maintenance
17. Road engineering
18. Road lab engineering
19. Site management
20. Specialized construction

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10.7.5. Free Trade Zones (FTZ)

(PIMS, 2016; CFE, 2013; MIM, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Control management
2. Import and export management
3. Import and Export procedures
4. Import Export practical training
5. Industrial development inventory and management
6. International trade and economic development
7. Materials management
8. Post shipment credit or finance
9. Procurement management
10. Procurement, logistic and inventory
11. Product packaging
12. Pro-shipment credit or finance
13. Shipping and forwarding agent
14. Shipping bill ad bill of lading
15. Shipping transport and management
16. Trade contracting

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10.7.6. Airport Operations

(VBGI, 2013; SAULT, 2014; AM, 2016; Rogers, 2012, p. 67)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Air cargo management


2. Aircraft parking
3. Aircraft structural repair technician
4. Airline operations
5. Airport administration and services
6. Airport operations
7. Aviation services: Cabin crew training
8. Aviation technology
9. Cargo introductory
10. Combination welding
11. Dangerous good operations
12. Dangerous goods quality specialist
13. Ground operations
14. Loaders
15. Travel and tourism: Foundation diploma
16. Vehicle assembly

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10.8. Gwadar - List of Trades by Key Business Areas and Industries

10.8.1. Construction Industry

(Career, Building and Construction Courses, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Building and Construction (Building)


2. Site Management
3. Building Design
4. Building Information Modelling
5. Building Measurement
6. Building Surveying
7. Carpentry
8. Cost Management
9. Cost Planning
10. Heavy Machinery Operators
11. Infrastructure Construction
12. Residential Construction
13. Specialized Construction
14. Commercial Construction
15. Construction Estimating
16. Construction Industry Management
17. Construction Law
18. Construction Management
19. Construction Planning and Scheduling
20. Construction Plant and Equipment
21. Contract Administration
22. Plumbing – Roofing
23. Project Safety Management
24. Quality in Construction
25. Site Management
26. Technicians / AutoCAD

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10.8.2. Import and Export Industry

(MIM, 2016; AEPK, 2014)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Control management
2. Import and export logistics and shipping management
3. Import and export management
4. Industrial development inventory and management
5. Introduction to intellectual property
6. Inventory and material management
7. Logistics, supply chain management
8. Materials management
9. Modern inventory control and management
10. Procurement management
11. Procurement, logistic and inventory
12. Procurement, stores and material management
13. Shipping transport and management
14. Store keeping and purchasing
15. Stores management
16. Supervisory management
17. Transport management

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10.8.3. Transportation Industry

(CIL&T, 2016; VCC, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Automotive collision repair technician


2. Automotive glass technician
3. Automotive paint and refinishing technician
4. Automotive refinishing prep technician
5. Automotive service technician
6. Commercial transport vehicle mechanic
7. Diesel engine mechanic
8. Heavy duty equipment technician
9. Heavy duty mechanic
10. Heavy mechanical trades
11. Logistics and Transportation
12. Maritime Transportation Management
13. Transport trailer technician
14. Truck and transport mechanic

10.8.4. Clearing and Forwarding

(EIC, 2016; RIBM, 2009; SC, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses
1. Cargo storage management
2. Clearing and forwarding practices
3. Clearing and forwarding terminology
4. Custom house agent
5. Customs declaration
6. Export import management
7. Forwarding Operations Certificate
8. Freight forwarder
9. Goods Classification and Duties
10. Import - Export Documentation Handling
11. Office practice
12. Shipping practice
13. Transport Modes Certificate

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10.8.5. Warehousing

(IoSCM, 2016; CoW(a), 2016; CoW(b), 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Warehousing operations
2. Operation management
3. Safety Assurance
4. Freight Consolidation
5. Supply Chain Management
6. Cargo Loaders
7. Stock Dispatchers
8. Inventory Processing
9. Inventory Management
10. Quality management
11. Security Management
12. Stock Temperature Regulator
13. Workplace Documentation Processing

10.8.6. Building Material

(MITOCW, 2001-2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Building technologies
2. Civil Engineering Lab Technician
3. Economic and Environmental Issues in Materials Selection
4. Electronic Courses
5. Fundamentals of Materials Science
6. Fundamentals of Photovoltaics
7. Material Systems Management
8. Materials Processing
9. Mechanical Behavior of Materials
10. Mechanical behavior of plastics
11. Mechanics and Materials
12. Plastic Handling
13. Transport Phenomena in Materials Engineering

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10.8.7. Textile and Leather Industry

(Courses, 2011-2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Bag Making
2. Crochet
3. Dressmaking and Tailoring
4. Dyeing
5. Embroidery
6. Felting
7. Knitting
8. Millinery (Hat Making)
9. Quilting and Patchwork
10. Rug Making
11. Sewing
12. Shoe Making
13. Soft Furnishings (Lampshades, Curtains and Cushion Covers)
14. Textile Art
15. Textile Spinning
16. Weaving

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10.8.8. Shipping Industry

(LMA, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Container Terminal Operation and Management


2. Crew Management and Agency
3. Harbor Masters
4. Logistics Management
5. Marine Accident Investigation
6. Marine Engineering
7. Marine Purchasing and Supply Management
8. Marine Surveying
9. Maritime Management
10. Maritime Safety Law
11. Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals Shipping
12. Port and Terminal Security
13. Ship and Port Agency
14. Ship Management
15. Ship Superintendence
16. Small Craft Surveying
17. Survey of Offshore Floating Units
18. Terminal Management

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10.8.9. Food Products and Beverages Industry

(CUG, 2016; RedVector, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Basic Workplace Skills


2. Electrical Maintenance
3. Food and Beverage Delivery
4. Food and Beverage Packaging
5. Food and Beverage Processing
6. Food and Beverage Production
7. Food and Beverage Technology
8. Food Hygiene
9. Food Science
10. Health, Safety, Environment
11. Industrial Baking
12. Industrial Brewing
13. Machinery Maintenance
14. Nutrition Courses
15. Process Safety Management

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10.8.10. Wood Industry

(UBC, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. CAD/CAM
2. Design of timber structures
3. Furniture construction
4. Industrial engineering
5. Introduction to wood products
6. Machine components
7. Mechanics of wood products
8. Principles of wood cutting and tooling
9. Quality improvement
10. Two dimensional and solid computer aided graphics
11. Wood adhesives and coatings
12. Wood composites
13. Wood finishing and protection
14. Wood industry business management
15. Wood machining skills
16. Wood products manufacturing applications
17. Wood properties and products manufacturing
18. Wood sawmilling and drying

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10.8.11. Printing Industry

(EUI, 2016; Study.com, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Digital Printing
2. Flexography
3. Graphics and Design
4. Lithography and Offset Printing
5. Machine Maintenance and Repair
6. Press Operations and Techniques
7. Press Operations and Techniques
8. Printing
9. Publishing of Calendars, Forms, Cards etc.
10. Publishing of Newspapers and Journals
11. Reproduction of Recorded Media
12. Screen Printing

10.8.12. Fabricated Metal Products

(BoLS, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses
1. Architectural and Structural Metals Manufacturing
2. Boiler, Tank and Shipping Container Manufacturing
3. Coating, Engraving, Heat Treating and Allied Activities
4. Cutlery and Hand Tool Manufacturing
5. Cutters
6. Forging and Stamping
7. Hardware Manufacturing
8. Machine Shops; Turned Product, And Screw, Nut, and Bolt Manufacturing
9. Machinists
10. Solders
11. Spring and Wire Product Manufacturing
12. Team Assemblers
13. Welders

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10.8.13. Rubber, Glass and Plastic Industry

(PRIM, 2015; CAT, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Extrusion Experts
2. Introduction to Flow Behavior
3. Machinery/ Equipment Maintenance and Repair
4. Mixers
5. Molders
6. Polymerization
7. Process Control Sub Engineer
8. Process Engineer
9. Processing and Process Ability
10. Product Design
11. Product Mold Designing
12. Quality Control
13. Rubber Processors
14. Rubber Product Fabricators
15. Rubber Technologist
16. Rubber to Metal Bonding
17. Selection, Storage and Handling Of Materials
18. Synthetic Rubber, Latex and Polymeric Materials
19. Testing of Polymers and Vulcanizes
20. Understanding Polymers
21. Understanding Vulcanized Rubber

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10.8.14. Chemical Industry

(Polytechnic, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Analytical Instrumentation
2. Analytical Instrumentation
3. Chemical Plant Operation and Chemical Engineering
4. General Chemistry
5. General Chemistry
6. Handling and Manipulating Chemicals
7. Introductory Statistics and Computer Application
8. Laboratory Mathematics
9. Laboratory Safety
10. Machinery/Equipment Maintenance and Repair
11. Nuclear Chemistry
12. Organic Chemistry
13. Quality Control in Laboratories
14. Recording, Processing and Reporting Data

10.8.15. Petroleum

(IPE&D, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Drilling and Completion


2. Heavy Machinery Maintenance
3. Heavy Machinery Operators
4. Petroleum Economics and Oilfield Management
5. Petroleum Geosciences
6. Petroleum Production Engineering
7. Production System and Facilities
8. Reservoir Engineering

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10.8.16. Basic Metals Industry

(IMLLC, 2016; CDS, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Aluminum Metallurgy
2. Assistant Metallurgist
3. Basic Principles of Metallurgy
4. Corrosion of Metals Webinar
5. Electroplating
6. Engineer Process Development
7. Engineer Product Development
8. Hardness Testing
9. Industrial Engineering Fabrication
10. Industry and Maintenance Services
11. Materials Development Engineer
12. Metal Corrosion
13. Metal Failure Analysis
14. Metal Fracture Failure Analysis
15. Metal Processing
16. Precipitation Strengthening
17. Steel Case Hardening
18. Steel Heat Treating
19. Steel Metallurgy
20. Steel through Hardening
21. Tensile Testing

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10.8.17. Ports and Shipping Industry

(BIU, 2016; ODU, 2016; IBCA(a), 2016; ISCM, 2016; MSA, 2010; FONASBA, 2015)

S. Trades/Skills/Courses S. Trades/Skills/Courses
No. No.

1. Civil Engineer 25. Port Centric Logistics and


2. Commodities Transported and Warehousing
Vessel Types 26. Port Connections Management
3. Computer Operator 27. Port Facilities Management
4. Concepts of Route Planning and 28. Port Infrastructure and
Scheduling Movement of Goods Equipment Requirements
5. Deputy Harbor Master 29. Port Management
6. Dock labourers 30. Port Operations Manager
7. Emergency Contingency Planning 31. Port Planning/ Survey
8. Emergency Planning 32. Port Safety
9. Emergency Services 33. Port Security
10. Environmental Concerns 34. Port Transport Management
11. Foremen 35. Response Plans and Training
12. Forklift operators 36. Risk Management
13. Harbor Master 37. Road, Rail, Air Connections
14. Hinterland Transportation 38. Security of Cargo and Passengers
15. Hydrographic Surveyor 39. Security of Vessels
16. Import/Export Gateway 40. Ship and Port Operations
17. Management of VTS Systems, 41. Shipbuilding and Ship Repair
Pilotage Services and Leisure Use 42. Shipping Management
In The Port
43. Surveyors
18. Marine Services – Salvage and
Counter Pollution 44. Technician

19. Maritime Management 45. Terminal Management

20. Maritime Safety Management 46. Towage

21. Mobile Crane operators 47. Trailer/Flat Bed operators

22. Navigation and Berthing 48. Transportation & Logistics

23. Occupational Health and Safety 49. Transshipment Handling


Management 50. Vessel Traffic Services
24. Pilotage 51. Vessel Traffic Services Officer
52. Waste Management

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10.8.18. Heavy Machinery Trades

(CTTI, 2016; Conestoga, 2016; VIU, 2016)

S. No. Trades/Skills/Courses

1. Auto Electrician
2. AutoCAD
3. Basic Civil Surveyor
4. Civil Draughtsman
5. Construction Machinery Mechanic (Chassis)
6. Construction Machinery Mechanic (Engine)
7. Construction Machinery Operator
8. Construction Machinery Supervisor
9. Excavator Operator
10. Health Safety and Environment
11. Heavy Construction Techniques
12. Heavy Equipment Operator Technician
13. Laboratory Technician (Material Testing)
14. Maintenance Dozer and Excavator
15. Maintenance Tractor-Loader-Backhoe and Compact Equipment
16. Operate Dozer
17. Road Builder and Heavy Construction Foundation
18. Steel Fixer
19. Turner Machinist with CNC
20. Welding and Fabrication

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11. Research Methodology

This Section elaborates the ‘Research Methodology’ adopted for undertaking this research
based impact assessment. Guidelines for social impact assessments were followed to derive relevant
results that could lead to improved and detailed analysis on the gathered data.

11.1. Approach

Mixed method of (triangulation of qualitative and quantitative) research was used to


undertake this Impact Assessment [IA] for skilled labor demand on Gwadar Port. The following
indicators were used to ensure smooth running of the research activity as well as to ensure
quality of data gathered. These indicators also give an understanding of the methodology
applied for this IA.

11.1.1. Determining What Data Needs to be Used

11.1.1.1. Relevant data which was collected included information from client,
informal ideas about impact and IA, and defining broad subject areas,
as listed in Table 11-1. This research has benefitted from information
available on various stakeholders, detailed information on Gwadar
Port, case studies of competitor sea ports and comparison with couple
of the leading sea ports to formulate relevant analysis for TVET
institutes under B-TEVTA.

11.1.1.2. Other relevant data sources included data from GPA, GDA, GIEDA,
other data sources, academic databases, peer-reviewed journals,
information on contemporary skills and trades being offered globally,
and others; which have given the theoretical background and current
data in order to carry out the assigned research.

11.1.2. Deciding Who Should Carry Out the Research Process

11.1.2.1. It was ensured by the research consultant that this form of research,
mixed method approach, shall be done by researchers with prior
experience in the field.

11.1.2.2. Orientation of subject domain, appropriate interviewing skills,


secondary data research technique, data analyses and clarity of the
researcher on the subject were ensured.

11.1.3. Identification of Baseline Information

11.1.3.1. Baseline information and data to establish a foundation for the report
was of pivotal importance. This helped in achieving conceptual clarity

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and developing a better methodology to ensure free flow of the


information in the report. Baseline information relevant to this
research included the availability of data on sea ports, deep sea ports
and primary statistical data related to skilled labor and trades in
Pakistan and Balochistan.

Table 11-1
Broad Subject Areas of Research Methodology
Adapted from Wright, 2005, pp. 3-4

SR. NO. BROAD SUBJECT AREAS IMPACT ON BALOCHISTAN


ADDRESSED

1. Defining Stakeholder B-TEVTA - Client


Skilled Labor of Balochistan - Beneficiary
2. How and why the undertaking of Industry Driven Trades, Stakeholder Analysis,
this current IA is changing the Before and After Impacts of the Gwadar Port
situation in TVET sector or skilled labor demand on the Skilled Labor of
assessing the change. Balochistan.

3. What is the current level of The current standard of service delivery of


satisfaction of the client with majority of stakeholders, linkages, training
institutes as service providers in program and institutes is below par. Which is
TVET training imparting bodies. evident from the fact that no institute is
accredited by NAVTTC.
4. Direct Impact of this IA on the Job Creation, knowledge and skills
Stakeholders. improvement, improved quality of life.
5. Indirect Impacts of this IA After the recommendations are given followed,
the outcomes can include better livelihood
opportunities, positive impact on household of
the labors, gender equity and community
uplift.

11.1.4. Selection of Respondents

11.1.4.1. Primary criteria for selection of respondents for this research was to
include people who have experience of working and research in TVET
sector. Authorities from B-TEVTA were also interviewed for primary
research. Representatives of national and international organizations,
working in TVET sector, were also included as respondents.

11.1.4.2. An ‘Interview Consent Form (sample place at Annex A) was developed


for semi-structured interviews, which were conducted to enhance the
Consultancy’s knowledge over the subject. Based on this form, a list of
interviewed organizations along with representatives’ names (if
allowed) are added.

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11.1.5. List of Interviewed Personnel

Personnel / Designation Organization

1. Mr. Shakil Ramay Sustainable Development


Senior Research Associate and Research Coordinator Policy Institute

2. Dr. Ahmed Waqas Waheed National University of


Assistant Professor – Centre for International Peace & Science and Technology
Stability [CIPS] [NUST]

11.1.6. Designing and Developing a Semi-Structured Interview Schedule

11.1.6.1. Based on the nature of this IA, open ended questions were asked from
the respondents i.e. B-TEVTA, national and international organizations’
personnel working in the field of TVET reforms and technical education
in general. For that matter, semi-structured interviews were
conducted.

11.1.7. Conducting Secondary Research

11.1.7.1. UNEP (2002) identifies the importance of secondary data research as


‘Secondary Data Review of information from previously conducted
work is an inexpensive, easy way to narrow the focus of a social
assessment, to identify experts and institutions that are familiar with
the development context, and to establish a relevant framework and
key social variables in advance.’

11.1.7.2. This is a diverse report; it attempts to gauge the future demand


patterns for skilled occupations in industries and sectors that are
forecasted to grow, and analyzes its impact for Balochistan skilled
labor. The report includes extensive secondary research through
research articles from reputed peer-review journals, academic
databases, books on theory and reports. This helped in conduct of
stakeholder analysis, and establishing the employment trends at
Gwadar Port, and its impact on Pakistan in general and Balochistan in
particular.

11.1.8. Quantitative Approach for Inferential Analysis

11.1.8.1. A triangulation of qualitative and quantitative approach was adopted,


so as to make accurate and tangible future based projections.
Inferences were drawn by adopting techniques of quantitative

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approach to draw accurate and authentic interpretations gathered


through secondary data. Comparative analysis, based on statistical
data, stakeholder analysis and before/after analysis of skilled labor of
Balochistan were inferred through statistics and representation of
empirical data.

11.1.9. Collation and Interpretation of Narrative and Statistical Data

11.1.9.1. Data gathered from different qualitative and quantitative methods was
collated and interpreted while keeping in view the ‘Case of
Balochistan’, Gwadar district’s history, employment opportunities at
sea ports and development projects linked to Gwadar Port. It also
clarified opportunities arising for Balochistan, as interpreted and
inferred after collating data from different sources.

11.1.10. Based on all the above indicators of research methodology, inferences were drawn
and recommendations were listed. Recommendations based on the triangulation
approach of this research are given in Section 13 of this Report

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12. Conclusions

The following conclusions can be drawn from the research conducted during the preparation of this
report:

12.1. B-TEVTA has engaged R2V in a contractual agreement for rendering Consultancy Services for
Conducting TNA, Impact Studies and Developing Strategic Goals of B-TEVTA. The Consultancy
has been awarded to R2V so as to provide a ‘road map’ and to formulate strategic goals for
revamping Balochistan’s TVET Sector.

12.2. The formal deliverables of the Consultancy Project include an inception report, six research-
based impact assessments, designing of B-TEVTA’s web portal and a TNA Survey Report for
selected TVET institutes in Balochistan.

12.3. Impact Assessments anticipate the future impact of a current or proposed action, project or
policy. There are various types of impact assessments. Social impact assessments are carried
out to identify the social effects (intended or unintended, positive or negative) of policies or
interventions on the site, on the pubic and on the workforce. The impact assessments that
will be conducted during the course of this Consultancy will be Social Impact Assessments.

12.4. The prime objectives of this Impact Assessment are (1) to study the employment and labor
demand that are likely to be generated by the development of the Gwadar Port, and (2) to
gauge the impact this development is likely to have on the opportunities available to the
Government of Balochistan and B-TEVTA so that organized efforts can be made for placement
of Balochistan’s labor force in Gwadar.

12.5. Ports are commercial trading hubs which have a major impact on their city, region and on the
country’s economy, in which they are located. Deep sea ports, which can accommodate larger
cargo and bulk vessels, can contribute more to the socio-economic activity of a region than
traditional ports.

12.6. Amid the variety of ports that exist in the world, transshipment ports are considered to be of
higher economic value as they facilitate not just local but international trade. These ports, as
the term suggests are transit ports, where cargo stay only in transit and then is rerouted to
their primary destination.

12.7. The Shanghai Port, Singapore Port, Dubai Port and New York-New Jersey Port are some of the
top ports around the globe in terms of volume of cargo handled.

12.8. Gwadar was officiated as a district in 1977, after it was acquired from Oman in 1958. At the
time of acquisition, the Government of Pakistan had envisioned Gwadar to become a popular
commercial port in the region.

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12.9. The Government of Pakistan’s first actual step towards development of Gwadar Port came in
1993, when feasibility studies for the port were sanctioned. In 2002, work on the port started
and later in 2004 the first phase of the port was completed.

12.10. Operations of Gwadar Port were handed over to the Port of Singapore Authority under a 40-
year contract. However, in 2012 PSA withdrew from the contract, which saw the Chinese
Overseas Port Holding Company take control of operations in 2013.

12.11. Some of the services Gwadar Port will provide include Transit Shipments, Storage of sea
resources and Manufacturing facilities.

12.12. Gwadar Port has a special geographic advantage, which is why its importance is not only
limited to Pakistan but also holds a special position in strategic economic objectives of other
regional players e.g. China and CARs. Some of the primary advantages offered by Gwadar Port
include the following:

12.12.1. Close proximity to international Sea Line of Communication.

12.12.2. Gateway to the Persian Gulf at the Strait of Hormuz.

12.12.3. Access to international waters for landlocked countries i.e. Central Asia Republics.

12.13. Gwadar also holds special importance for China, which aims to use Gwadar to cut down on
travel time of its maritime shipments, by more than 75%. Although one of the key motivation
for China to use Gwadar port is economic, but China is also looking to gain naval dominance
in the Indian Ocean, which only Gwadar port can facilitate.

12.14. Neighboring Iran has also started development of Chabahar port, which would be in direct
competition with Gwadar Port, especially due to the minimal nautical distance between the
two. Other countries which seek to use Chabahar as their primary port include India and
Afghanistan.

12.15. Gwadar Port will also see competition from other prominent ports in the region which include:

12.15.1. Port of Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates

12.15.2. Mina Rashid Port, United Arab Emirates

12.15.3. Port Salalah, Oman

12.15.4. Karachi Port, Pakistan

12.15.5. Qasim Port, Pakistan

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12.16. Gwadar city and district face various challenges that tend to impede the pace of development.
These include limited educational facilities, poor infrastructure, energy shortage and lack of
proper health facilities.

12.17. The China Pakistan Economic Corridor [CPEC] project will see China invest more than US
Dollars 46 Billion in Pakistan. This investment will focus on developing infrastructure in
Pakistan to facilitate China’s trade with the rest of the world. The CPEC projects will see
investment in several areas, which include the following:

12.17.1. Energy

12.17.2. Mining

12.17.3. Road and rail networks

12.17.4. Gwadar Port

12.17.5. Fiber Optics

12.18. Gwadar port is the key to the CPEC project, as it will act as the primary transshipment hub and
gateway for China’s trade with Middle East and other global regions.

12.19. In line with Gwadar port’s importance there is a range of projects which are being undertaken
to develop the port and complimenting facilities. A list of these projects includes the following:

12.19.1. Power Plant Project

12.19.2. LNG Terminal at Gwadar Port

12.19.3. LNG Pipeline

12.19.4. Upgradation of Rail Network

12.19.5. Gwadar Free Trade Zone

12.19.6. Road Network Extension

12.19.7. Gwadar Airport Construction

12.19.8. Development of Gwadar Industrial Estate

12.20. For the purposes of this Consultancy, stakeholders are defined as individuals, groups,
organizations or governments who are actively involved, have an interest or some aspect of

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rights or ownership in the project and can contribute either positively or negatively to the
outcome of a particular undertaking.

12.21. Key stakeholders are segregated after classification and analysis of the pool of identified
stakeholders. Key stakeholders will have a major implication on the project, which is why it is
imperative to not only identify them but to also continually manage these stakeholder as the
project progresses.

12.22. Stakeholders for Gwadar port have been divided into two categories i.e. internal and external,
which are further classified as either primary or secondary stakeholders. Additionally, there is
a further dimension to these classifications, which sees the primary and secondary
stakeholders sub-categorized as national, international, negative and interested parties.
These segmentations are done for both internal as well as external stakeholders of B-TEVTA
in connection with the development of the Gwadar port.

12.23. Review of stakeholder analysis and categorization has led to the shortlisting of key groups of
stakeholders, which include:

12.23.1. Governmental Bodies

12.23.2. Regulatory and Professional Bodies

12.23.3. Examination Bodies

12.23.4. Training Institutions

12.23.5. Local Authorities

12.23.6. Industrial Sector

12.23.7. Private Sector

12.23.8. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

12.23.9. Competitors

12.23.10. Book Publishers / Translators (Chinese to English / Urdu)

12.23.11. Families of TVET graduates

12.23.12. Others

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12.24. According to data available with NAVTTC, Balochistan has 125 registered TVET institutes. This
is only 4% of the total public and private TVET institutes in the country. This is also the lowest
number as compared to other provinces. Punjab, KP and Sindh have 1,817, 599 and 585 TVET
institutes respectively. In other administrative units, the number of TVET institutes are: Gilgit-
Baltistan – 175, Azad Jammu and Kashmir – 114, Islamabad – 103 and FATA – 61.

12.25. In terms of publicly operated TVET institutes, Balochistan still has the lowest number of
institutes with only 36, whereas Punjab has 620, Sindh with 307 and KP has 70 public TVET
institutes. AJ&K and Islamabad, at 48 and 37 respectively, have a greater number of public
TVET institutes than Balochistan.

12.26. Balochistan also fares below par in terms of TVET institutes operating by the private sector,
with only 89 such institutes. Punjab, KP and Sindh have 1,197, 529 and 278 private TVET
institutes respectively. Gilgit Baltistan has a greater number of private TVET institutes than
Balochistan, that is, 89.

12.27. It will be in place to mention here that the exact number of TVET institutes listed on NAVTTC’s
website, and the fact that whether many of those institutes qualify as TVET institutes, is a
matter of debate.

12.28. A SWOT analysis of B-TEVTA was undertaken, which entailed identifying B-TEVTA’s internal
strengths and weaknesses, and external opportunities and possible threats with respect to
the development of Gwadar Port. The following were identified:

12.28.1. Strengths:

12.28.1.1. Established TVET institutes in major districts

12.28.1.2. Governmental status with government support

12.28.1.3. Adequate association with donor agencies

12.28.1.4. Sizable population of Youth in the Province

12.28.2. Weaknesses:

12.28.2.1. Inadequate Infrastructure and obsolete Equipment

12.28.2.2. Lack of investment in Staff Capacity building

12.28.2.3. Labor / Employee Unions

12.28.2.4. Lack of linkages and collaboration between training institutes and


industries at national and international level

12.28.2.5. Trades and skills offered are not in accordance with the labor market
demand

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12.28.2.6. Non accreditation of TVET Institutes

12.28.3. Opportunities:

12.28.3.1. Opportunities arising from International mega events and projects

12.28.3.2. National mega events and projects

12.28.3.3. Collaborate with international organizations

12.28.4. Threats:

12.28.4.1. Insufficient funding from public and private sector

12.28.4.2. Competition with other provincial TEVTA’s and Chinese labor force

12.28.4.3. Lack of women training and contribution to labor force due to cultural
factors

12.28.4.4. Security issues – militancy

12.29. Creation of linkages with other stakeholders is highly important for B-TEVTA. According to
research conducted by this Consultancy, B-TEVTA would need to focus on creating alliances
with both national and international stakeholders.

12.29.1. Some of the key national alliances include the following:

12.29.1.1. Educational Linkages

12.29.1.2. Institute – Institute Linkages

12.29.1.3. Provincial TVETs Linkages

12.29.1.4. Industrial Linkages

12.29.1.5. Linkages with External Training Providers

12.29.1.6. Ports and Shipping Authorities

12.29.1.6.1. Karachi Dock Labour Board


12.29.1.6.2. Bin Qasim Port Workers Institute

12.29.1.7. Construction Industry

12.29.1.8. Energy Industry

12.29.2. Some of the key international alliances include the following:

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12.29.2.1. INGOs

12.29.2.2. China’s maritime TVET sector

12.29.2.3. Sri Lanka’s maritime TVET sector

12.29.2.4. Singapore maritime TVET sector

12.29.2.5. International Accreditation Bodies

12.29.2.6. International Curriculum Developers

12.29.2.7. TVET sector of countries with leading sea ports

12.29.2.7.1. China Maritime Safety Administration


12.29.2.7.2. Sri Lanka Port Authority
12.29.2.7.3. Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore
12.29.2.7.4. Dubai Ports World

12.30. Besides the development of local and international linkages, a major area of focus should be
the sustained maintenance of these linkages. If newly established linkages are not cultivated,
they will dwindle away and all efforts in developing these alliances will be wasted.

12.31. The Agriculture/forestry/hunting & fishing Sector in Balochistan employs the maximum
number of workers, that is, 45.1%. This is followed by Wholesale & retail trade (16.5%) and
Manufacturing (13.0%). It also employs a greater number of women than men – 75.4% as
opposed to 36.2%.

12.32. Surprisingly, the manufacturing sector employs a high percentage of women – 10.9%, as
compared to 14.5% male workers. It will be interesting to see the details of the manufacturing
sector, but this is unfortunately not immediately available.

12.33. Quetta, Khuzdar and Zhob are prominent contributors towards overseas Pakistani workforce
that comes from Balochistan.

12.34. The economic activities that are expected at Gwadar port have been divided into various
groups, where each group will assist in creating employment for the people of Balochistan.
These groups consist of the following:

12.34.1.1. The First group includes activities directly associated with the Gwadar
port i.e. cargo handling, passenger handling, loading and delivery
activities etc.

12.34.1.2. The Second group comprises of the processing industries that will
convert transit goods for reshipping and re-exporting.

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12.34.1.3. The Third group will include industries that import bulk commodities
from the port i.e. oil refineries, steel factories etc.

12.34.1.4. The Fourth group consists of those activities / industries that have an
indirect relationship with Gwadar port i.e. tourism, hospitality etc.

12.35. Based on these categories it is anticipated that Gwadar port will create more than two million
jobs in the next decade.

12.36. Based on research carried out in this report, twenty four industries and disciplines have been
identified that are relevant to the development of the deep sea port at Gwadar. B-TEVTA can
consider development and training of its human resource in several of these skill and trades.
These twenty four industries and disciplines are:

1. Power Plants / Energy Industry 15. Food Products and Beverages


2. LNG Terminal / Industry Industry
3. Railways / Rail Networks 16. Wood Industry
4. Road Networks 17. Printing Industry
5. Free Trade Zones [FTZ] 18. Fabricated Metal Products
6. Airport Operations 19. Rubber, Glass and Plastic Industry
7. Construction Industry 20. Chemical Industry
8. Import and Export Industry 21. Petroleum Industry
9. Transportation Industry 22. Basic Metals Industry
10. Clearing and Forwarding 23. Ports and Shipping Industry
11. Warehousing 24. Heavy Machinery Trades
12. Building Material
13. Textile and Leather Industry
14. Shipping Industry

12.37. Four hundred and forty one (441) trades, skills and courses; which are likely to create
maximum job opportunities during and after the development of the Gwadar Port have been
identified in the twenty four industries and disciplines mentioned above. These are listed
hereunder:

12.37.1. Power Plants / Energy Industry

1. Advanced Plant Supervisor 7. Boilers, Combustion and Water


2. Auxiliary Plant Operator Practice Treatment
3. Basic Electricity 8. Electrical Power
4. Basic Power Plant Theory 9. Electrical Writing Lab
5. Boiler Design and Environmental 10. GIS and Remote Sensing
Protection 11. Hydro Power Plant Engineering
6. Boiler Simulator Lab 12. Industrial Control

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13. Introduction to Process 18. Power Engineering


Instrumentation and Automatic 19. Power Management
Controls 20. Programmable Logic Controllers
14. Low Pressure Boilers 21. Thermal Power Plant Engineering
15. Plant Cycle and Systems 22. Thermodynamics
16. Plant Operator Practice 23. Transmission and Distribution
17. Plant Supervisor Practice System

12.37.2. LNG Terminal / Industry

1. Baseload Liquefaction Plant 11. Market Fundamentals and the


2. Fundamentals of the Oil & Gas Growth of LNG Floating Production
Industry Solutions
3. Gas and Power Physical Trading 12. Non-conventional LNG and Risk
4. Global LNG Essentials Management
5. Introduction to Oil Trading, 13. Offshore LNG
Operations & Contract 14. Overview of LNG Industry
Administration 15. Piping Inspector
6. Liquefied Natural Gas – Shipping 16. Power & Gas Trading Principles
and Import Terminal Operations 17. Pressure Vessel Inspector
7. LNG as Transportation Fuel 18. Receiving Terminal
8. LNG Project Development 19. Risk Based Inspection Professional
9. LNG Shipping Industry 20. Safety, Security and Environmental
10. Major Equipment and Supporting Issues Overview
Functional Units in LNG Plants 21. Terminal Management
22. Welding Inspection and Metallurgy
Professional

12.37.3. Railways / Rail Networks

1. Civil Engineering/Building Works 11. Railway Engineering Works.


2. Concrete and Steel Bridges 12. Railway Management/Operations
3. Feasibility Studies 13. Railway Signaling Systems
4. Irrigation Works 14. Railway System Studies
5. Land and Route Surveys 15. Rehabilitation of Track
6. Line Capacity Works Machines/Cranes
7. Manufacturing & Supply of Rolling 16. Supply of Railway Human Resources
Stock 17. Track Construction & Rehabilitation
8. Mechanical Engineering Works 18. Track Design and Maintenance
9. Mechanized Production/Supply of 19. Traffic Survey & Projections
Stone Ballast 20. Training in Railway Fields
10. Production of Track Fittings &
Fastenings

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12.37.4. Road Networks

1. Carpentry 10. Cost planning


2. Civil engineering (Road 11. Heavy machinery operators
Construction) 12. Infrastructure construction
3. Civil road laboratory technician 13. Project safety management
4. Commercial Construction 14. Quality in construction
5. Construction Industry Development 15. Road and bridges technology
6. Construction Planning and 16. Road Construction and Maintenance
scheduling 17. Road engineering
7. Construction plant and equipment 18. Road lab engineering
8. Contract administration 19. Site management
9. Cost management 20. Specialized construction

12.37.5. Free Trade Zones (FTZ)

1. Control management 8. Post shipment credit or finance


2. Import and export management 9. Procurement management
3. Import and Export procedures 10. Procurement, logistic and inventory
4. Import Export practical training 11. Product packaging
5. Industrial development inventory 12. Pro-shipment credit or finance
and management 13. Shipping and forwarding agent
6. International trade and economic 14. Shipping bill ad bill of lading
development 15. Shipping transport and management
7. Materials management 16. Trade contracting

12.37.6. Airport Operations

1. Air cargo management 9. Cargo introductory


2. Aircraft parking 10. Combination welding
3. Aircraft structural repair technician 11. Dangerous good operations
4. Airline operations 12. Dangerous goods quality specialist
5. Airport administration and services 13. Ground operations
6. Airport operations 14. Loaders
7. Aviation services: Cabin crew 15. Travel and tourism: Foundation
training diploma
8. Aviation technology 16. Vehicle assembly

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Conclusions

12.37.7. Construction Industry

1. Building and Construction (Building) 15. Construction Estimating


2. Site Management 16. Construction Industry Management
3. Building Design 17. Construction Law
4. Building Information Modelling 18. Construction Management
5. Building Measurement 19. Construction Planning and
6. Building Surveying Scheduling
7. Carpentry 20. Construction Plant and Equipment
8. Cost Management 21. Contract Administration
9. Cost Planning 22. Plumbing – Roofing
10. Heavy Machinery Operators 23. Project Safety Management
11. Infrastructure Construction 24. Quality in Construction
12. Residential Construction 25. Site Management
13. Specialized Construction 26. Technicians / AutoCAD
14. Commercial Construction

12.37.8. Import and Export Industry

1. Control management 9. Modern inventory control and


2. Import and export logistics and management
shipping management 10. Procurement management
3. Import and export management 11. Procurement, logistic and inventory
4. Industrial development inventory 12. Procurement, stores and material
and management management
5. Introduction to intellectual property 13. Shipping transport and management
6. Inventory and material management 14. Store keeping and purchasing
7. Logistics, supply chain management 15. Stores management
8. Materials management 16. Supervisory management
17. Transport management

12.37.9. Transportation Industry

1. Automotive collision repair 7. Diesel engine mechanic


technician 8. Heavy duty equipment technician
2. Automotive glass technician 9. Heavy duty mechanic
3. Automotive paint and refinishing 10. Heavy mechanical trades
technician 11. Logistics and Transportation
4. Automotive refinishing prep 12. Maritime Transportation
technician Management
5. Automotive service technician 13. Transport trailer technician
6. Commercial transport vehicle 14. Truck and transport mechanic
mechanic

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12.37.10. Clearing and Forwarding

1. Cargo storage management 8. Freight forwarder


2. Clearing and forwarding practices 9. Goods Classification and Duties
3. Clearing and forwarding terminology 10. Import - Export Documentation
4. Custom house agent Handling
5. Customs declaration 11. Office practice
6. Export import management 12. Shipping practice
7. Forwarding Operations Certificate 13. Transport Modes Certificate

12.37.11. Warehousing

1. Warehousing operations 8. Inventory Processing


2. Operation management 9. Inventory Management
3. Safety Assurance 10. Quality management
4. Freight Consolidation 11. Security Management
5. Supply Chain Management 12. Stock Temperature Regulator
6. Cargo Loaders 13. Workplace Documentation
7. Stock Dispatchers Processing

12.37.12. Building Material

1. Building technologies 8. Materials Processing


2. Civil Engineering Lab Technician 9. Mechanical Behavior of Materials
3. Economic and Environmental Issues 10. Mechanical behavior of plastics
in Materials Selection 11. Mechanics and Materials
4. Electronic Courses 12. Plastic Handling
5. Fundamentals of Materials Science 13. Transport Phenomena in Materials
6. Fundamentals of Photovoltaics Engineering
7. Material Systems Management

12.37.13. Textile and Leather Industry

1. Bag Making 6. Felting


2. Crochet 7. Knitting
3. Dressmaking and Tailoring 8. Millinery (Hat Making)
4. Dyeing 9. Quilting and Patchwork
5. Embroidery 10. Rug Making

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Conclusions

11. Sewing 14. Textile Art


12. Shoe Making 15. Textile Spinning
13. Soft Furnishings (Lampshades, 16. Weaving
Curtains and Cushion Covers)

12.37.14. Shipping Industry

1. Container Terminal Operation and 10. Maritime Safety Law


Management 11. Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals
2. Crew Management and Agency Shipping
3. Harbor Masters 12. Port and Terminal Security
4. Logistics Management 13. Ship and Port Agency
5. Marine Accident Investigation 14. Ship Management
6. Marine Engineering 15. Ship Superintendence
7. Marine Purchasing and Supply 16. Small Craft Surveying
Management 17. Survey of Offshore Floating Units
8. Marine Surveying 18. Terminal Management
9. Maritime Management

12.37.15. Food Products and Beverages Industry

1. Basic Workplace Skills 9. Food Science


2. Electrical Maintenance 10. Health, Safety, Environment
3. Food and Beverage Delivery 11. Industrial Baking
4. Food and Beverage Packaging 12. Industrial Brewing
5. Food and Beverage Processing 13. Machinery Maintenance
6. Food and Beverage Production 14. Nutrition Courses
7. Food and Beverage Technology 15. Process Safety Management
8. Food Hygiene

12.37.16. Wood Industry

1. CAD/CAM 8. Principles of wood cutting and


2. Design of timber structures tooling
3. Furniture construction 9. Quality improvement
4. Industrial engineering 10. Two dimensional and solid
5. Introduction to wood products computer aided graphics
6. Machine components 11. Wood adhesives and coatings
7. Mechanics of wood products 12. Wood composites
13. Wood finishing and protection

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Conclusions

14. Wood industry business 17. Wood properties and products


management manufacturing
15. Wood machining skills 18. Wood sawmilling and drying
16. Wood products manufacturing
applications

12.37.17. Printing Industry

1. Digital Printing 8. Printing


2. Flexography 9. Publishing of Calendars, Forms,
3. Graphics and Design Cards etc.
4. Lithography and Offset Printing 10. Publishing of Newspapers and
5. Machine Maintenance and Repair Journals
6. Press Operations and Techniques 11. Reproduction of Recorded Media
7. Press Operations and Techniques 12. Screen Printing

12.37.18. Fabricated Metal Products

1. Architectural and Structural Metals 7. Hardware Manufacturing


Manufacturing 8. Machine Shops; Turned Product,
2. Boiler, Tank and Shipping Container And Screw, Nut, and Bolt
Manufacturing Manufacturing
3. Coating, Engraving, Heat Treating 9. Machinists
and Allied Activities 10. Solders
4. Cutlery and Hand Tool 11. Spring and Wire Product
Manufacturing Manufacturing
5. Cutters 12. Team Assemblers
6. Forging and Stamping 13. Welders

12.37.19. Rubber, Glass and Plastic Industry

1. Extrusion Experts 8. Process Engineer


2. Introduction to Flow Behavior 9. Processing and Process Ability
3. Machinery/ Equipment 10. Product Design
Maintenance and Repair 11. Product Mold Designing
4. Mixers 12. Quality Control
5. Molders 13. Rubber Processors
6. Polymerization 14. Rubber Product Fabricators
7. Process Control Sub Engineer 15. Rubber Technologist

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Conclusions

16. Rubber to Metal Bonding 19. Testing of Polymers and Vulcanizes


17. Selection, Storage and Handling Of 20. Understanding Polymers
Materials 21. Understanding Vulcanized Rubber
18. Synthetic Rubber, Latex and
Polymeric Materials

12.37.20. Chemical Industry

1. Analytical Instrumentation 8. Laboratory Mathematics


2. Analytical Instrumentation 9. Laboratory Safety
3. Chemical Plant Operation and 10. Machinery/Equipment Maintenance
Chemical Engineering and Repair
4. General Chemistry 11. Nuclear Chemistry
5. General Chemistry 12. Organic Chemistry
6. Handling and Manipulating 13. Quality Control in Laboratories
Chemicals 14. Recording, Processing and Reporting
7. Introductory Statistics and Data
Computer Application

12.37.21. Petroleum Industry

1. Drilling and Completion 5. Petroleum Geosciences


2. Heavy Machinery Maintenance 6. Petroleum Production Engineering
3. Heavy Machinery Operators 7. Production System and Facilities
4. Petroleum Economics and Oilfield 8. Reservoir Engineering
Management

12.37.22. Basic Metals Industry

1. Aluminum Metallurgy 12. Metal Corrosion


2. Assistant Metallurgist 13. Metal Failure Analysis
3. Basic Principles of Metallurgy 14. Metal Fracture Failure Analysis
4. Corrosion of Metals Webinar 15. Metal Processing
5. Electroplating 16. Precipitation Strengthening
6. Engineer Process Development 17. Steel Case Hardening
7. Engineer Product Development 18. Steel Heat Treating
8. Hardness Testing 19. Steel Metallurgy
9. Industrial Engineering Fabrication 20. Steel through Hardening
10. Industry and Maintenance Services 21. Tensile Testing
11. Materials Development Engineer

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Conclusions

12.37.23. Ports and Shipping Industry

1. Civil Engineer 25. Port Centric Logistics and


2. Commodities Transported and Warehousing
Vessel Types 26. Port Connections Management
3. Computer Operator 27. Port Facilities Management
4. Concepts of Route Planning and 28. Port Infrastructure and Equipment
Scheduling Movement of Goods Requirements
5. Deputy Harbor Master 29. Port Management
6. Dock labourers 30. Port Operations Manager
7. Emergency Contingency Planning 31. Port Planning/ Survey
8. Emergency Planning 32. Port Safety
9. Emergency Services 33. Port Security
10. Environmental Concerns 34. Port Transport Management
11. Foremen 35. Response Plans and Training
12. Forklift operators 36. Risk Management
13. Harbor Master 37. Road, Rail, Air Connections
14. Hinterland Transportation 38. Security of Cargo and Passengers
15. Hydrographic Surveyor 39. Security of Vessels
16. Import/Export Gateway 40. Ship and Port Operations
17. Management of VTS Systems, 41. Shipbuilding and Ship Repair
Pilotage Services and Leisure Use In 42. Shipping Management
The Port 43. Surveyors
18. Marine Services – Salvage and 44. Technician
Counter Pollution 45. Terminal Management
19. Maritime Management 46. Towage
20. Maritime Safety Management 47. Trailer/Flat Bed operators
21. Mobile Crane operators 48. Transportation & Logistics
22. Navigation and Berthing 49. Transshipment Handling
23. Occupational Health and Safety 50. Vessel Traffic Services
Management 51. Vessel Traffic Services Officer
24. Pilotage 52. Waste Management

12.37.24. Heavy Machinery Trades

1. Auto Electrician 7. Construction Machinery Operator


2. AutoCAD 8. Construction Machinery Supervisor
3. Basic Civil Surveyor 9. Excavator Operator
4. Civil Draughtsman 10. Health Safety and Environment
5. Construction Machinery Mechanic 11. Heavy Construction Techniques
(Chassis) 12. Heavy Equipment Operator
6. Construction Machinery Mechanic Technician
(Engine)

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Conclusions

13. Laboratory Technician (Material 17. Road Builder and Heavy


Testing) Construction Foundation
14. Maintenance Dozer and Excavator 18. Steel Fixer
15. Maintenance Tractor-Loader- 19. Turner Machinist with CNC
Backhoe and Compact Equipment 20. Welding and Fabrication
16. Operate Dozer

12.38. At this stage of the Consultancy, it is not possible to assess how well prepared TVET institutes
of Balochistan are to dish out a continual stream of skilled, trained and experienced
manpower required for all the twenty four industries and disciplines expected to create
employment in relation to development of the Gwadar Port. This can only be ascertained after
the profiling of Balochistan’s TVET institutes and analysis from the recently concluded TNA
Survey. This subject will be revisited in the TNA Report and in the Comprehensive Training
Plan, as well as while formulating the strategic goals for B-TEVTA towards the end of this
Consultancy.

12.39. Only a preliminary knowledge of the TVET Sector of Balochistan is available at this stage. With
this, it appears that the workforce of Balochistan is years, if not decades, away from the
technological knowledge, capability and advancement that is currently the hallmark of
international mega projects. It is evident that Balochistan has been producing generally raw
labor, instead of skilled professionals. A wide gap can be observed between the local
capacities / capabilities and international competencies and skill sets.

12.40. At this stage of the Consultancy, and without the TNA Survey and profiling of TVET institutes
of Balochistan; Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic And Time-Bound [SMART]
objectives and strategic goals cannot be formulated for B-TEVTA.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Recommendations

13. Recommendations

Based on the research conducted during the preparation of this report, and the conclusions drawn in
the previous section, the following recommendations are offered to B-TEVTA:

13.1. A study into the development of Gwadar port and the onset of China-Pakistan Economic
Corridor has revealed an expected rise in demand for skilled labor in the region. Industries
including infrastructure, construction, aviation, hospitality & tourism, energy and port services
are expected to generate the most jobs. Based on these findings, it is imperative that B-TEVTA
realign itself to ensure provision of formal training and certification to Balochistan’s workforce
in the relevant trades. Section 10, Case of Balochistan, provides a detailed list of 441 trades,
skills and courses that will be a requirement in the future.

13.2. In light of the development projects earmarked for Gwadar port, there is a need to provide
training for several employment categories which will be generated directly from the port. B-
TEVTA needs to identify and designate certain TVET institutes under its umbrella to develop
industrial linkages with industry experts as well as with other national TVETs. B-TEVTA can
look to Sindh TEVTA for sharing their experience and expertise in imparting training programs
for this industry; especially since this sector has contributed skilled workforce to both Karachi
Port and Port Qasim for decades. Linkages with Karachi Dock Labour Board and Bin Qasim Port
Workers Institute will be especially helpful.

13.3. Creating linkages with industry experts who can enhance cooperation between the academia
and the industries is another important area, which B-TEVTA should focus on. These industrial
specialists must stay with the complete program from start till finish – that is, identification of
contemporary skill-sets, development of course content, imparting of class room training and
practical training, award of apprenticeships and job placements for gaining basic work
experience. This will also ensure that both students and teachers alike are exposed to new
techniques, processes and learning skills. Moreover, with strong industrial linkages, B-TEVTA
would be able to provide training on ‘need-based’ skills and trades, which would be reactive
to the demand of the industry and not being conducted in a pre-existing silo.

13.4. With the influx of the Chinese companies in the region, B-TEVTA should consider developing
course content for soft skills and elective humanities as supplementary training in addition to
the professional curricula. Offering Chinese language courses would enhance the
employability of the graduates and also increase the quality of training. For programs where
duration is less than a year, language classes can be offered as electives.

13.5. B-TEVTA must look to nominate selected TVET institutes, based on a pre-qualifying criterion,
to get accredited with the NAVTTC. The accreditation must include qualification of courses,
certification of the institute and training instructors. Moreover, accreditation of The Trade
Testing Board [TTB] also needs to be undertaken.

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13.6. Additionally, B-TEVTA must also look to get accreditation with international accreditation
bodies, such as City and Guilds. Graduates with international accreditation may be more
sought out by foreign employers, as international accreditation signals quality and standard
of the local workforce to the foreign employers.

13.7. B-TEVTA must also look to develop linkages with Chinese companies operating in the region.
This would provide industrial intelligence, valuable insights and the ability to customize
training programs to suit the requirements of the employers. Amidst speculations of Chinese
firms importing their own workforce form China, creating alliances with these firms is even
more important. Building inroads with Chinese employers may provide B-TEVTA with an
opportunity to discourage import of foreign workers, who will directly compete with the
workforce of Balochistan.

13.8. Assessment of development projects to be undertaken at Gwadar port reveals that the nature
and type of skills required will be more advanced in nature. B-TEVTA must look to enhance
existing capacities and capabilities of instructors, improve institutes’ infrastructure, develop
new curriculum and upgrade existing training equipment.

13.9. The population of Gwadar district is expected to grow to 0.35 Million by 2020. Men make up
53% of the population. With labor demand expected to rise in the coming years and with a
thin population density, B-TEVTA must ensure high induction rate of trainees. This is an
important factor, and failure to address this may lead to Balochistan’s workforce unable to
keep up with demand. In such an eventuality, Balochistan labor would be replaced by workers
from neighboring China and from other provinces of Pakistan.

13.10. B-TEVTA already has institutes in Gwadar and nearby Turbat, which means it would not need
additional funds to setup new institutes. Therefore, B-TEVTA would greatly benefit if it focuses
on using institutes in these areas solely to cater to the development of the Gwadar port and
the trades required there.

13.11. The TVET institutes at Gwadar and Turbat must be upgraded immediately in terms of new
trades, equipment, instructional and administrative staff so that their graduates may be
placed in the labor markets emerging through the available opportunities of Gwadar Port and
CPEC. If these facilities are not upgraded in time, the new Technical/Vocational Institute that
is planned under CPEC will have a clear competitive edge over the existing institutes.

13.12. Participation of trainees, instructors and administrative staff in international TVET related
events would greatly enhance the capacity and quality of training. B-TEVTA can seek to send
batches to these international TVET events for sustained capacity building.

13.13. Although, development at Gwadar port will impact a variety of industries, a major sector is
that of the construction industry. With projects such as development of LNG Plant at Gwadar
port, construction of the Gwadar airport and extension of road networks, this industry will
create a major demand for skilled labor. In light of these projects, B-TEVTA must ensure

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Recommendations

introduction of new trades specific to this industry, along with imparting formal training and
qualification credentials / diplomas to masons, surveyors, civil draftsmen etc.

13.14. With the development of the port, and the expected number and type of vessels docking at
Gwadar. Port related trades will also see an increase in demand. Therefore, B-TEVTA would
need to upgrade their existing training modules on boat engine repair, welding, cargo
handling, dock laborers, port machinery repair and maintenance etc. Once again, linkages with
Karachi Dock Labour Board and Bin Qasim Port Workers Institute must be established.

13.15. B-TEVTA must also look to develop alliances with countries that operate international ports.
TVET sector of these countries, especially the TVET segment dealing with port related trades
and skills would be able to share experiences, curriculum, and training methodologies.
Delegations from B-TEVTA should plan visits to such countries including Malaysia, Sri Lanka,
Singapore and China.

13.16. B-TEVTA and Balochistan’s TVET Institutes should join hands with NAVTTC to develop the skill
levels of Balochistan’s work force and enhance training activities.

13.17. Training and development of workforce in order to meet the existing global skill-set standards
raises a huge challenge for B-TEVTA. It is vital that the TVET institutes integrate their courses,
curricula, course contents and practical training with contemporary global standards. This will
not only be a great service to Balochistan’s economic and social development, but will also
contribute in the improvement of living standards of the workforce and their families. B-TEVTA
can and should play its role in the poverty alleviation and productivity enhancement of the
Province.

13.18. R2V realizes that some of the recommendations made above require further research before
they can be accurately planned for implementation. Most of the additional information
required pertains to TVET institutes, the course they presently run, and the teaching staffs’
present preparedness level etc. This information shall be available once the analysis from the
recently concluded TNA survey is complete. These recommendations, and all others made in
the remaining impact assessment reports, shall be revisited in the TNA Report and in the
Comprehensive Training Plan, as well as while formulating the strategic goals for B-TEVTA
towards the end of this Consultancy.

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand References

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Gwadar Port Skilled Labor Demand Annex

Annex A
Informed Consent Form

Dear ____________________

R2V (Private) Limited has been awarded a consultancy project by Balochistan Technical Education and
Vocational Training Authority [B-TEVTA] aimed at uplifting the TVET sector of Balochistan. The ambit
of the consultancy is to research and compile Impact Assessment reports, with an objective to
recommend 5-10 year Strategic Goal for B-TEVTA.

We, at R2V (Private) Limited, are highly grateful for your time and valuable contribution during this
interview. The information provided by you would prove to be beneficial for us in completion of our
research reports.

Your inputs and opinions, collected during this interview, will be a part of our research documents,
which will ultimately become the intellectual property of the Client i.e. B-TEVTA. If you chose, direct
quotes from you will be a part of our report mentioned with your designation and company name,
but, your name and other identifying information will be kept anonymous.

By signing this consent form, you authorize R2V (Pvt) Ltd to incorporate your inputs in our reports on
the aforementioned subject.

Thank you.

Name: Name:

Designation: Designation:

Organization: Organization: R2V (Private) Limited

Signature: Signature:

Date: _______________

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