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# 7.

## Conservative force — Work is independent of the path.

Non-conservative force — Friction
7-1. Potential Energy

## Ug mgh : Work against to the gravitational force

 
Wg Fg d
mgˆj y f yi ˆj
mgy f mgyi
U gf U gi Ug
Example 2. Elastic Potential Energy in a Spring

 
fS kx

## Work done by Spring

 
dWS f S dx
xf
  xf
WS x
f S dx xi
kx dx 1
2 k x 2f xi2
i

US 1
2 kx2 WS US U Sf U Si
7-3. Conservative forces and Potential Energy

For a certain conservative force F
 c
Work done by F
c
 
xf 
Wc x Fc dx Uc U cf U ci
i

xf  

U c U cf U ci  Fc dx
x i

## 7-4. Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Total Mechanical Energy E
E K U
Ki U i Kf Uf

## Conservation of Mechanical Energy in any isolated system

dE dK dU
0
dt dt dt
1 2 dK d 1 2 dv
K 2 mv 2 mv mv mv a Fx v
dt dt dt
dU dU dx dU
v
dt dx dt dx
dE dU dU
Fx v v 0 Fx
dt dx dx
In General
  U U ˆ U
F U î j k̂
x y z

Fxî Fy ˆj Fz k̂
Ex-1. Gravitation
Ug
Ug mgz Fg k̂ mg k̂
z
Total Energy
E K Ug 1
2 mv2 mgz
Ex-2. Spring

1 2 Us
Us 2 kx Fs î kxî
x
E K Us 1
2 mv 2 1
2 kx2

U U g Us mgz 1
2 kz2
U
 F k̂ mg kz k̂
z z
E K U 1
2 mv 2 1
2 kz2 mgz
Total Energy
1 2
E K Ug 2 mv0 mgh
h At y = 0
ˆj

E 1
2 mv 2 1
2 mv 02 mgh

v v02 2 gh
v0 v0 cos î v0 sin ˆj

î : v x v0 cos
ˆj : vy v0 sin gt

y h v0 sin t 1
2 gt 2 0
v0 sin v02 sin 2 2 gh
t
g
vy v02 sin 2 2 gh

## v vx2 v y2 v02 sin 2 2 gh v02 cos 2

v02 2 gh
Example
Total Energy of m1

E1 Ki U i Kf Uf
R
Kf Ki Uf Ui
m1 m2 1
2 m1v 2 m1 gR 1 cos

v2
F 0 T m1 g m1a m1 2m1 g 1 cos
R
T m1 g 3 2 cos

If T m2 g , it lift up m2 .

In case, m2 2m1
m1 g 3 2 cos m2 g 2m1 g
1
cos 2

If 60°, it lifts up m2 .
7-5. Work done by Non-conservative Forces

d fk mg
  
 WA F d
f F
m Wnet F fk d K
k
fk d changes into thermal energy.
 Energy Conservation
Energy can never be created or destroyed.
Energy might be transformed.
Total Energy is always conserved !

Example 7.3
(a) No Friction
Et
1
2 mvi2 mgyi
mgcos mgl sin 30
1
2 mgl
1
2 mv 2f 0
(b) Friction coefficient k vf gl
Et Ki U i Kf Uf H
Heat Loss
1 1 2 3
2 mgl 2 mv f 2 k mgl H = fk·l = kmg cos30°·l

vf 1 3 k gl
Example 7.4

-x0

(i) k =0
Et 1
2 mv i2
m
Et 1
2 kxm2 xm
k
2
 
Et 1
2 mv f
vf vi
(i) k 0
Et k mg xm x0 1
2 kxm2
Et k mg 2 xm x0 1
2 mv2f
7-7. Gravitational Potential Energy in general
 GM e m
FG 2

r
rf   r GM e m

WG r FG ds r f 2
dr
i i
r
r r
GM e m f GM e m GM e m
r r ri rf ri

U Uf Ui

GM e m GM e m
Uf Ui
rf ri

Assume Ui = 0 at ri =

GM e m
U r
r

For r = Re, r + r = Re + r
1 1 GM e m r
U U Re r U Re GM e m
Re r Re Re Re r
GM e m
2
r mg r U mgh
Re
In general, the potential energy; Gm1m2
U r
m2 r

Ut G
m1 r12 r23 r31
r31 m3
   m1m2 m3m1
F1t F12 F13 G 2
r̂12 2
r̂13
r12 r13

## 7-8. Energy Diagram and Stability of Equilibrium

Us 1
2 kx2

dU s
Fs kx
dx
Fs x 0 0 & Minimum at x = 0

Stable Equilibrium

If Fs x 0 & Maximum at x
Unstable Equilibrium