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Verbs, verb tenses, imperatives

9.1 The simple present and present progressive tenses (1)


9.1 A Pronunciation and spelling of the 3rd person, simple present [> LEG 9.6-71

Study: 1 Pronunciation [compare plural nouns > 2.5AI:


I**I We pronounce -s as Is/ after these sounds: If/ laughs; /p/ drops; /k/ kicks; I t / lets.
We pronounce -s as /IZ/after /z/loses; /dg/ manages; Is/ passes; /J/ pushes; /tJ/ stitches, and
/ksl mixes.
We pronounce -s as /z/after all other sounds: /b/ robs; /dl adds; /g/ digs; /I/ fills; /m/ dreams;
/n/ runs; lql rings; after vowels: sees; after vowel + w or r : draws, stirs.
2 Spelling
Add -s to most verbs: worklworks, drive/drives, play/plays, run/runs.
Add -es to verbs ending in -0: do/does; -s: misses; -x: mixes; -ch/-sh: catches/pushes.

Write: a Give the third person forms of the verbs in these sentences.
b Show whether you would pronounce the third person form as Is/, /z/ or /IZ/
1 They laugh a lot. He ......... ......... / s / 8 1 rush around a lot. She .............................. / /
2 1 often drop things. She ............................/ / 9 1 always saw the wood. She ....................... / /
3 We drink a lot of tea. She .......................... / / 10 1 wear old clothes at home. He ................... / /
4 1 often forget things. She .......................... ./ / 11 I love sweets. She ...................................... / I
5 We often lose things. He .......................... / / 12 1 often see them. He ................................... / /
6 They manage all right. She ...................... / / 13 They pay •’30a week rent. He .................... / /
7 1 often pass your house. He ..................... / / 14 1 cry at sad films. She ................................. 1 1

9.1B Uses of the simple present tense: 'I worklhe works' [> LEG 9.8.9.121

Study: There are seven basic uses of the simple present tense [compare > 11.1 lA]. We use it for:
I**I
1 Permanent truths: Summer follows spring. Gases expand when heated.
2 'The present period' (= 'this is the situation at present'): My sister works in a bank.
3 Habitual actions: I get up at 7. 1 sometimes stay up till midnight.

It says here that .... I love you. I hate him.

Write: Give the correct form of the simple present of each verb.
1 Water .............&I& ............. at 100•‹C.(boil) She never ........................... up very early. (get)
2 Hot air .................................................. (rise) I occasionally .................................. meat. (eat)
3 My uncle ......................... in a factory. (work) The coach ................. at 6 this evening. (leave)
4 John and Sue ...................... glasses. (wear) The concert .................. at 7 next Friday. (start)
5 The children ................. a lot of sweets. (eat) I ............................ Barcelona won again. (see)
6 He only ........................ at weekends. (work) It's not right, you ........(know) - I ......... (agree)
7 1 always ....................out on Saturdays. (go) Can he manage? - I ........................ so. (hope)
8 She .............to London once a week. (drive) It ......................... in the paper it'll be hot. (say)
9.1 The simple present and present progressive tenses (1)

9.1C Stative and dynamic verbs [> LEG 9.3, ~ p 381


p

Study: 1 We call a few verbs like love stative because they refer to 'states'. A state has no beginning
(**I and no end. We don't 'control' it, so we don't normally use stative verbs in progressive tenses:
She loves her baby more than anything. (Not 'is loving')
2 Most verbs in English are dynamic. We can use them in two ways:
- in the simple present tense to describe habits, etc. [> 9.161: 1 often make cakes.
- in the present progressive to describe deliberate actions in progress [> 9.281:
I'm making a cake.
3 We can describe three classes of verbs:
a Dynamic verbs which have simple or progressive forms (most verbs in English):
I often listen to records. (simple present tense)
I'm listening to a record. (present progressive tense)
b Verbs which are always stative:
This coat belongs to you. (simple present tense) (Not 'is belonging')
c Verbs that have stative or dynamic uses:
I'm weighlng myself. (a deliberate action: present progressive tense)
I weigh 65 kilos. (a state) (Not *I'm weighing 65 kilos. ')
4 There are five groups of stative verbs referring to: a feelings (like, love, etc.);
b thinkinglbelieving (think, understand, etc.) c wants (want, prefer, etc.)
d perception (hear, see, etc. [> 11.281) e beinglhavinglowning (appear, seem, belong, etc. [> 10.41

Write: Tick the sentences that are right. Cross out the verbs that are wrong and correct them.
la You're never ill. I envy you. d Ib You're never ill. I'm envying you. -
2a I understand English well. - 2b I'm understanding English well. -
3a You're knowing what I mean. - 3b You know what I mean. -
4a Is he seeming unfriendly? - 4b Does he seem unfriendly? -
5a I prefer fish to meat. - 5b I'm preferring fish to meat. -
6a Do you see that bird over there? - 6b Are you seeing John tomorrow? -
7a Why is he smelling his coffee? - 7b Something smells strange. -
8a She's weighing herself again. - 8b She weighs 75.5 kilos. -

9.1D Context
Write: Put in the simple present or the present progressive tenses.
CHOMP CHAMP!
'(you sit) ...h.%.@W.-.. comfortably? Good! I 2(hope) ................................... you =(study)
................................... this text carefully because I 4(have) ................................... news for you. The
Guinness Book of Records =(notinclude) ................................... records for eating any more. People
who =(try) ................................... to swallow 47 hard boiled eggs in half a minute will have to do it for
~ ~

pleasure and not to get into the record book. 'We '(regard) ................................... these records as
unhealthy,' said the book's editor, Mr Donald McFarlan. However, one record-holder will remain. He is
Michel Lotito of Grenoble ('Monsieur Mangetout'). Since 1966, he has chomped his way through 10
bicycles, 7 TV sets and a light aircraft. He's likely to remain world champ, unless you 8(want)
................................... to challenge him, of course!

Chomp! chomp1
9 Verbs, verb tenses, imperatives

9.2 The simple present and present progressive tenses (2)


9.2A Spelling: how to add '-ing' to a verb: 'waitlwaiting' [> LEG 9.101

Study: 1 We add -ing to most verbs, without changing the base form: waivwaiting:
El Wait for me. -, Iam waiting for you.
2 If a verb ends in -e, omit the -e and add -ing: use/using:
Use a broom. -, Iam using a broom.
3 A single vowel followed by a single consonant doubles the final consonant: sivsitting:
Sit down. -, Iam sitting down. [> compare 6.5AJ

4 We double the last consonant of two-syllable verbs when the second syllable is stressed:
bdginhdginning. Compare the unstressed final syllable: 'differ/'differing:
Begin work. -, Iam beginning work.

Write: Add -ing to the verbs in these sentences.


1 I'm W the beds. (make) 4 I'm always ........ things. (forget) 7 I'm ........ the 9.04.(catch)
2 I'm ........a sandwich. (eat) 5 I'm ........ on my coat. (put) 8 I'm ........ of thirst. (die)
3 I'm ........a letter. (write) 6 I'm ........ abroad. (travel) 9 I'm ........ your case. (carry)

9 - 2 8 Uses of the present progressive tense: 'I am workinglhe is working'


[> LEG 9.1 I]

Study: There are four basic uses of the present progressive tense. We use it for:
I**I Actions in progress at the moment of speaking: He's working at the moment.
Temporary situationslactions, not necessarily in progress at the moment of speaking:
My daughter is studying English at Durham University.
Planned actions (+ future adverbial reference): We're spending next winter in Australia. [> 9.9Al

Write: a Use the present progressive in the sentences below.


b Number the sentences 1 , 2, 3 or 4 to show uses of the present progressive.
1 Don't rush me. . . ~ . d t + r . . ~ . . b.......................................................
~b.. as fast as I can. (Ilwork)
2 What .........................................................................................................? It looks awful. (youldrink)
3 ......................................................................................................... to see the boss. (Shelstill wait)
4 ............................................................................................................. to catch his train. (Helhurry)
5 ............................................................................... , aren't you? Calm d o ~ n(You/constantly/panic)
!
6 ............................................ more and more politically aware these days. (Young peoplelbecome)
7 What .......................... nowadays? (Johnldo) - ..........................for the British cycle team. (Helride)
8 ...........................................................................................our holiday here very much. (Welenjoy)
9 ................................................................. people by asking personal questions. (Helalhayslupset)
10 What time ....................................................................................................... tomorrow? (helarrive)
1 1 ........................................................................................ to lock the front door. (Shelforeverlforget)
12 ........................................................................ treatment on my bad back for a few weeks. (Ilhave)
13 You can't believe a word he says. ............................................................................. (Helalwaysllie)
14 ............................................................................ the 1,500metres in the next Olympics. (Shelrun)
124
9.2 The simple present and present progressive tenses (2)

9.2C The simple present and the present progressive tenses in typical
contexts [z LEG 9.1 21
Write: a Use the correct present tense form.
b Say what the context for each extract could be, written and/or spoken.
1 Let me explain what you have to do. First 4 The house is in a mess because we've got
you (take) ...........&?& ......... the photos the workmen in. The plumber (put)
.......... them into
and (sort) ...........ACT$ ............................. in a new bath, the
categories. Then you (file) .. f& ... electricians (rewire) ............................. the
them according to subject. system, and the carpenter (build) .................
............ us some new bookshelves!
2 We (hope) ............................. you (enjoy)
............................. this marvellous weather 5 Dear Jane,
as much as we are. We (sunbathe) ......... Sorry to hear about your problem at work
.................... and (go) ............................. I (think) ............................. you (do) ..................
swimming every day. Next week we (go) ........... the right thing, but I (doubt) ...................
............................. snorkelling. .......... whether your boss really (know) ............
................. his job from what you (tell) ..............
3 The play is set in London in 1890. The ............... me!
action (take) ............................. place in 6 Pym (pass) ............................... to Smith, who
Sir Don Wyatt's mansion. When the (run) ............................. straight at the central
curtain (go) ............................. up, the defence and (shoot) .............................. and
hero and heroine (sit) ............................. Gomez (push) ............................. it over the
in the lounge. They (argue) bar for a corner.
.............................

9.2D Context
Write: Put in the simple present or present progressive. Note where both forms are possible.
A HOLIDAY JOB W1TH.A DIFFERENCE!
I ( s t u d y ) l . @ % . . ~ English at Exeter University. I'm on holiday at
the moment and I (work) ............................. in a public library. I'm lucky to
have this job. I (not have to) ............................. get up early. The library
(open) ............................. at 10 and (close) ............................. at 7. It's
interesting work because people (always come in) ............................. and
(ask) 7............................. me to help them, so I (learn) ...........................a
lot about different subjects. I (enjoy) ............................. the job and (find)
lo ............................. it very amusing, too. People (use) " .............................
the strangest things as bookmarks. I have found a rasher of bacon
(uncooked!). Matchsticks (be) l 2 ............................. common and so (be)
13
............................. bus tickets. My colleagues (always find)
14
............................. things too - even a •’10 note, but I haven't been so
lucky! I often (think) l5 ............................. of the photo of a beautiful woman
which I found. On the back were the words: 'I (love) I6.............................
you. I (miss) l7 ............................. you and I'll never forget you.'

The strangest bookmarks!


Key 8.7D-9.2B

8.7D Context 9 Verbs, verb tenses, imperatives


1 (-) 2 (-) 3 puts a business suit on 4 (-)
5 put his shirt and tie on 6 picked the receiver up 9.1 The simple present and present
7 (-) 8 (-) 9 check some figures over 10 (-) progressive tenses (1)
11 cutting expenses down 12 put the meeting off
13 writing some notes down 14 (-) 15 put down the 9.1A Pronunciation and spelling of the 3rd person,
receiver 16 (-) 17 (-) 18 (-) 19 (-) 20 had his simple present
red shorts on 1 He laughs 1st 8 She rushes /IZ/
2 She drops 1st 9 She saws /z/
8.8 Phrasal verbs: 3 She drinks 1st 10 He wears /z/
(Type 3, verb + particle (intransitive) 4 She forgets 1st 11 She loves /z/
(Type 4, verb + particle (transitive) 5 He loses /IZ/ 12 He sees /z/
6 She manages /IZ/ 13 Hepays /z/
8.8A Type 3: Verb + particle, intransitive, non- 7 He passes /IZ/ 14 She cries /z/
idiomatic: 'hurry up'
Possible answers 9.1 8 Uses of the simple present tense:
1 Come along. 2 Come away. 3 Come in. 'I worWhe works'
4 Come up. 5 Go away. 6 Go in. 7 Go up. 1 boils 2 rises 3 works 4 wear 5 eat 6 works
8 Hurry along. 9 Hurry up. 10 Hurry away. 7 go 8 drives 9 gets 10 eat 11 leaves
11 Sit down. 12 Sit up. 13 Stand up. 12 starts 13 see 14 know ... agree 15 hope
14 Come down. 15 Hurry in. 16 Go down. 16 says

8.88 Type 3: Verb + particle, intrasitive, idiomatic: 9.1 C Stative and dynamic verbs
'break down' The following need ticks: l a , 2a, 3b, 4b, 5a, 6a, 6b,
l b 2 h 3 j 4 e 5 m 6 f 7 q 8 0 9c/d l o p 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b
l l i 1 2 n 1 3 a 141 1 5 k 16c/d 1 7 9 1b l envy 2b l understand 3a You know 4a Does
he seem 5b l prefer
8.8C Type 4: Verb + particle + preposition +
object, non-idiomatic: 'walk up to the top' 9.1 D Context
Possible answers 1 Are you sitting 2 hope 3 are studying 4 have
1 The lift takes a long time to come down from the 5 does not include 6 try 7 regard 8 want
top floor.
2 We'd better try to drive on to Calcutta before 9.2 The simple present and present
sunset. progressive tenses (2)
3 1 hurried over to Tom's as soon as I heard the
news. 9.2A Spelling: how to add '-ing' to a verb:
4 Run along to the shop for me and get a loaf of 'waitlwaiting'
bread. 1 making 2 eating 3 writing 4 forgetting
5 It's best to stay away from the town centre on 5 putting 6 travelling 7 catching 8 dying
Friday nights. 9 carrying

8.8D Verb + particle + preposition + object, 9.28 Uses of the present progressive tense:
idiomatic: 'put up with it' 'I am workinglhe is working'
l e 21 3 b 4 t 5 i 6 n 7 9 8 k 9 q 1 0 s 1 l am working (1) 2 are you drinking? (1) 3 is still
l l p 12j 130 14a 15r 16d 17f 18h waiting ( I ) 4 is hurrying ( I ) 5 are constantly
1 9 m 20c panicking (4) 6 are becoming (2) 7 is John doing ...
is riding (2) 8 are enjoying (1) 9 is always upsetting
8.8E Context (4) 10 is he arriving (3) 11 is forever forgetting (4)
1 put up with 2 lie down 3 stay up 4 come about 12 am having (2) 13 is always lying (4)
5 lie in 6 catch up on 7 looks down on 8 face up 14 is running (3)
to 9 let me in on 10 coughed up 11 cheer up
12 look forward to
Key 9.2C-9.4D

9.2C The simple present and the present 9.3D Context


progressive tenses in typical contexts 1 claimed 2 attacked 3 was 4 had 5 chased
1 you take ... and sort ... you file 6 jumped 7 believed 8 called 9 set out
(Spoken or written explanation or demonstration) 10 offered 11 captured 12 visited
2 We hope you are enjoying ... We sunbathe and go
... Next week we're going 9.4 The simple past and past progressive
(Letter or postcard from someone who is on tenses
holiday)
3 The action takes place ... goes up ... are sitting ... 9.4A Irregular verbs with the same form in the
They are arguing present as in the past: 'putlput'
(Review of a play in a newspaper or on the radio) 1 past 2 present 3 past 4 past 5 present
4 The plumber is putting ... are rewiring ... is building 6 present or past 7 past 8 past 9 past 10 past
(Letter to, or telephone conversation with a friend) 11 present or past 12 past 13 present 14 past
5 1 think ... you are doing ... I doubt ... knows ... you
tell me 9.48 Uses of the past progressive tense:
(Letter to a friend or relation in reply to a phone 'I was working'
call or a letter) 1 was not listening 2 were enjoying 3 Were they
6 Pym passes ... runs ... shoots ... pushes playing 4 was gardening 5 Were you watching
(Spoken commentary on a football match on TV or 6 was raining 7 was wondering 8 Were you still
radio) working 9 were living 10 was always doing
11 were constantly improving 12 Were you
9.2D Context reading 13 was getting
1 am studying 2 am working 3 don't have to
4 opens 5 closes 6 are always coming in 9.4C The simple past and the past progressive in
7 asking 8 am learning 9 enjoylam enjoying story-telling
10 findlam finding 11 use 12 are 13 are 14 are 1 It was just before
always finding 15 think 16 love 2 Tom was only 20
17 misslam missing 3 (he) was living with his mother (1)
4 He was working and travelling (1)
9.3 The simple past tense 5 He received a mysterious letter
6 It was addressed
9.3A The past form and pronunciation of regular 7 ... was signed ... asked
verbs 8 as he was dealing ... Tom was wondering (3)
1 waited 11dl 2 cleaned /dl 3 played /dl 9 he decided
4 posted 11dl 5 smiled /dl 6 stopped It1 10 It was full
7 dreamt It/, or dreamed /dl 8 burnt It/, or burned /dl 11 He was just wondering ... when a stranger
9 cried /dl 10 watched It1 11 laughed It1 introduced himself (2)
12obeyedldl 13 hurriedldl 14 liedldl 12 (The stranger) said ... when Tom was a baby
15 finished It1 16 included /rdl 17 locked It1 13 The stranger explained ... Bill was
18 travelled /dl 14 Tom was recruited ...
15 was already working ... when the war began (2)
9.38 Irregular past forms
1 saw 2 understood 3 knew 4 met 5 found 9.4D Context
6left 7wrote 8sold 9was 10 had 11 kept 1 was driving 2 was driving 3 saw 4 stopped
12 ate 5 got out 6 was 7 looked 8 was crossinglcrossed
9 went 10 noticed 11 told 12 pulled 13 pulled
9.3C Uses of the simple past tense: 'Iworkedlhe 14 pulled 15 thought 16 looked/was looking
worked' 17 noticed 18 gave 19 seized 20 put
1 I worked as a civil servant five years ago. 21 continued
2 1 last playedfootball when I was 14.
3 The Carters left for their summer holiday last night.
4 John arrived at 4.
5 1 last saw 'Gone with the Wind' recently.
6 lNVe waitedat the airport till they arrived.
7 Sally told melus about her engagement when she
was here.