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Draft for Public Comment Form 36

Version 6.1

DPC: 07/30154996 DC

Head Office
389 Chiswick High Road Date: 15 January 2007
London W4 4AL
Telephone: +44(0)20 8996 9000
Origin: National
Fax: +44(0)20 8996 7001

Latest date for receipt of comments: 30 March 2007 Project no.: 2006/02306
Responsible committee: GEL/31/19 Gas detectors

Interested committees:

Title: Draft BS BS 8494 Portable apparatus designed to detect and measure carbon dioxide in ambi ent air or
extraction systems

Supersession information: If this document is published as a standard, the UK implementation of it will supersede
NONE and partially supersede NONE . If you are aware of a current national standard which may be affected,
please notify the secretary (contact details below).

WARNING: THIS IS A DRAFT AND MUST NOT BE REGARDED OR USED AS A BRITISH STANDARD.
THIS DRAFT IS NOT CURRENT BEYOND 30 March 2007.
This draft is issued to allow comments from interested parties; all comments will be given consideration prior to
publication. No acknowledgement will normally be sent. See overleaf for information on commenting.
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Cross-references
The British Standards which implement International or European publications referred to in this draft may be found
via the British Standards Online Service on the BSI web site http://www.bsi-global.com.

Responsible Committee Secretary: Miss K Chambers (BSI) Direct tel: 020 8996 7280
E-mail: karen.chambers@bsi-global.com

a
Introduction
Your comments on this draft are welcome and will assist in the preparation of the consequent British Standard. If no
comments are received to the contrary, this draft may be implemented unchanged as a British Standard.
Submission
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responsible BSI committee. Annotated drafts are not acceptable and will be rejected.

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Template for comments and secretariat observations Date: xx/xx/200x Document: ISO/DIS xxxxx

1 2 (3) 4 5 (6) (7)

MB Clause No./ Paragraph/ Type of Comment (justification for Proposed change by the Secretariat
Subclause Figure/Table/ com- change) by the MB MB observations
No./ Note ment on each comment
Annex (e.g. Table 1) submitted
(e.g. 3.1)

3.1 Definition 1 ed Definition is ambiguous and Amend to read ‘... so that the
needs clarifying. mains connector to which no
connection ...’
6.4 Paragraph 2 te The use of the UV photometer Delete reference to UV
as an alternative cannot be photometer.
supported as serious problems
have been encountered in its
use in the UK.
Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks, and Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

b
Draft BS 8494:2007

BRITISH STANDARD

Electronic portable apparatus


designed to detect and
measure carbon dioxide in
indoor ambient air
ICS x.xxx.xx

NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI PERMISSION EXCEPT AS PERMITTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW

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Publishing and copyright information


The BSI copyright notice displayed in this document indicates when the document
was last issued.
© BSI 2007
ISBN 0 580 XXXXX X
The following BSI references relate to the work on this standard:
Committee reference GEL/31/19
Draft for comment 06/30154996 DC

Publication history
(Publishing history if applicable)

Amendments issued since publication


Amd. No. Date Text affected

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Contents
1 Scope 5
2 Normative references 5
3 Terms and definitions 5
4 Construction, labelling and instructions 7
5 Performance 9
Bibliography 14
List of tables
Table 1 – CO2 test gases 10

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Foreword
Publishing information
This British Standard is published by BSI and came into effect on XX Month 200X. It was
prepared by Subcommittee GEL/31/19, Gas detectors, under the authority of Technical
Committee GEL/31, Equipment for explosive atmospheres. A list of organizations represented
on this committee can be obtained on request to its secretary.
Information about this document
This is a new standard, which has been written to fill a need for the standardization of
electronic portable apparatus designed to detect and measure carbon dioxide.
Hazard warnings
WARNING. This British Standard calls for the use of substances and/or procedures that can
be injurious to health if adequate precautions are not taken. It refers only to technical
suitability and does not absolve the user from legal obligations relating to health and safety at
any stage.
Use of this document
Any user claiming compliance with this British Standard is expected to be able to justify any
course of action that deviates from its recommendations.
It has been assumed in the preparation of this British Standard that the execution of its
provisions will be entrusted to appropriately qualified and experienced people, for whose use
it has been produced.
Presentational conventions
The provisions of this standard are presented in roman (i.e. upright) type. Its requirements are
expressed in sentences in which the principal auxiliary verb is “shall”.
Commentary, explanation and general informative material is presented in smaller italic type,
and does not constitute a normative element.
Contractual and legal considerations
This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users
are responsible for its correct application.
Compliance with a British Standard cannot confer immunity from legal obligations.

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1 Scope
This British Standard specifies requirements for the construction, testing and performance of
electronic portable apparatus for the detection and measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) in
indoor ambient air, which includes air entering mechanical ventilation systems in dwellings,
commercial premises and industrial premises.
NOTE 1 The CO2 measuring capabilities of indoor air quality apparatus is covered by this standard.
NOTE 2 The measurement capabilities of electronic portable apparatus that are additional to the measurement
of CO2 are not covered in this standard. Other standards that cover these additional measurement capabilities
include, for example, BS EN 50379 for electronic portable combustion gas analysers and BS EN 45544 for toxic
gas detection apparatus having an alarm function for alerting an operator to an unsafe workplace atmosphere.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition
of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
BS 4884-1, Technical manuals – Part 1: Specification for presentation of essential
information
BS EN 60068-2-6, Environmental testing – Part 2: Tests – Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal)
BS EN 60079-0:2004, Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres – Part 0: General
requirements
BS EN 60335-1, Household and similar electrical appliances – Safety – Part 1: General
requirements
BS EN 60529:1992, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code)
BS EN 50270, Electromagnetic compatibility – Electrical apparatus for the detection and
measurement of combustible gases, toxic gases or oxygen

3 Terms and definitions


For the purposes of this British Standard, the following terms and definitions apply:
3.1
aspirated apparatus
gas detection apparatus that obtains the gas by drawing it through a sample line to the gas
sensor, for example, by means of a hand-operated or electric pump
[BS EN 61779-1:2000, definition 2.2.2]
3.2
battery-powered
apparatus designed to be energized from batteries alone, whether disposable or rechargeable
3.3
calibration
process of determining the deviation of a measuring apparatus relative to a standard and
subsequent adjustment, if necessary, to achieve the manufacturer’s stated specification

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3.4
clean air
air that contains carbon dioxide at outdoor air concentrations but is free of other gases and
vapours to which the sensing element is sensitive or which influence the performance of the
sensing element
3.5
diffusion apparatus
apparatus in which the transfer of gas from the atmosphere to the gas sensor takes place by
random molecular movement, i.e. under conditions in which there is no aspirated flow
[BS EN 61779-1:2000, definition 2.2.4]
3.6
dwellings
unit of residential accommodation including residential park homes, flats, bed-sits,
maisonettes, terraced, semi-detached and detached houses (including all such residential
accommodation situated within or forming part of commercial or industrial or agricultural
premises), leisure accommodation and boats, excluding vessels with an international load line
certificate
NOTE It is recognised that the guidance can be applied to premises other than dwellings, such as those
supplying a small number of clients on a bed and breakfast basis.
[BS 7967-1:2005, definition 3.1]
3.7
electronic portable combustion gas analyser
electronic apparatus that will detect and measure the presence of combustion gases and clearly
display the result
[BS 7967-1:2005, definition 3.4]
3.8
gas concentration
amount of CO2 present expressed as parts per million or percent by volume
NOTE Parts per million (ppm) measurements can be expressed as parts per million (volume) (ppmv).
3.9
indoor air quality apparatus
apparatus used to determine the health and comfort of the air inside buildings, often used for
analysing the efficiency of air filtration and ventilation systems
NOTE The apparatus can be designed to measure a number of different factors, such as gaseous composition,
temperature, relative humidity and airborne contaminant levels.
3.10
probe
part of the measuring system that is placed in ambient air including air entering a mechanical
ventilation system for the purpose of sampling the gas
3.11
response time (t90)
time interval with the apparatus in a warmed-up condition, between the time when an
instantaneous variation of the parameter to be measured is produced at the apparatus inlet, and
the time when the response reaches and remains beyond 90% of the final indication
[BS EN 50379-1:2004, definition 3.16]

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3.12
sensor
assembly in which the sensing element is housed, and which can contain associated electronic
components
3.13
warm up period
time taken for the apparatus to reach the manufacturer’s specified operating performance from
switch on, or following power failure in the case of mains powered equipment

4 Construction, labelling and instructions


4.1 Construction
4.1.1 General
4.1.1.1 All parts of the apparatus, including the sensors and probe, shall be constructed of
materials that will not be affected by vapours and gases or chemical substances typically found
in the environment in which it is intended to be used [see 4.2.2c)].
4.1.1.2 The design of the apparatus shall be such that all materials used in the construction and
all components, including electrical and electronic components, shall be within the
manufacturer’s ratings or limits, as specified by the material or components supplier, unless
otherwise certified by the manufacturer of the apparatus.
4.1.2 Degree of mechanical strength and protection
4.1.2.1 The apparatus shall conform to BS EN 60529:1992, IP42. The sampling system shall
be so constructed as to prevent damage to the sensors and pump by such particulate matter and
liquids that may be expected in the application.
4.1.2.2 The resistance to impact of the apparatus shall be tested in accordance with
BS EN 60079-0:2004, 26.4.2 and be capable of withstanding a low impact resistance for
Group II apparatus in accordance with BS EN 60079-0:2004, Table 8. If mechanical
protection such as a carrying case is provided, this test shall be carried out with the apparatus
assembled in the form in which it is intended to be used.
4.1.2.3 It shall not be possible to make external adjustments that affect the performance of the
apparatus. Any regular checks and calibrations shall either be achieved automatically or via
limited access adjustment controls.
4.1.3 Power supplies
4.1.3.1 For battery-powered apparatus, the batteries specified by the manufacturer shall have
sufficient capacity to enable accurate readings of gas concentration and other measurement
parameters, if provided, for at least 4 h of continuous usage. When the battery capacity falls
below a preset level a visual warning shall be given, following which the apparatus shall
operate to the performance specification for at least a further 30 min.
4.1.3.2 Apparatus provided with the means of connection to the mains supply shall conform to
relevant British Standards.
4.1.4 Indicators
4.1.4.1 Indicators shall be provided to show:
a) measured parameter, values and units of measurement;
b) low battery warning for battery-powered apparatus;

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c) mode of operation or apparatus status (e.g. warm-up and measurement); and


d) when values lie outside the indicating range.
4.1.4.2 All values shall be indicated on a display with characters not less than 8 mm high,
unless adequate provision is made for enhancing the legibility (e.g. backlighting), in which
case the minimum character height shall be 4 mm.
4.1.5 Range and resolution
The apparatus shall indicate gas concentrations of CO2:
a) at least across a range of (0 to 5 000) ppm with a resolution of 50 ppm or better; and/or
NOTE Apparatus with this range may be considered suitable, for example, when monitoring indoor air
quality or measuring CO2 concentrations in commercial laundry and kitchen environments.
b) across a range of (5 000 to 20 000) ppm with a resolution of 2% of the displayed reading
or better.
NOTE Apparatus with this range may be considered suitable, for example, when assessing the safe
operation of open flue appliances installed in compartments).
4.1.6 Printer or data transfer facility
When the apparatus is provided with a printer or data transfer facility, it shall print or
communicate the date, time, unique apparatus identification, measured parameter, values and
units of measurement specified in 4.1.5 taken at the time of the measurement.
4.2 Labelling and instructions
4.2.1 Labelling
4.2.1.1 Durable labels shall be carried on the apparatus, or moulded into the casing, giving:
a) the manufacturer’s or supplier’s name, trademark or other means of identification;
b) the type of apparatus, e.g. “CO2 gas analyser”, and model name or number;
c) the number and year of this British Standard, i.e. BS 8494:2007;
d) the manufacturer’s serial number or other unique apparatus identification;
e) the replacement battery and mains power requirements if relevant;
NOTE Attention is drawn to the requirements for markings and instructions given in the EC directive on waste
electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) [1].
4.2.1.2 Item 4.2.1.1b) shall be clearly visible during normal operation.
4.2.1.3 Item 4.2.1.1e) shall be clearly visible if the batteries are being changed.
4.2.1.4 The durability of any external label shall be tested in accordance with
BS EN 60335-1:2002, 7.6 and 7.14 after which the label shall not be removable and shall be
legible with no curling.
4.2.2 Instructions
The apparatus shall be provided with an instruction booklet or leaflet, conforming to
BS 4884-1. This shall give complete, clear and accurate instructions for the safe and proper
operation, handling and regular checking of the apparatus, and shall include:
a) the correct battery types and method of replacing or recharging batteries for battery
powered units, details of mains voltage, frequency and fuse rating, if relevant, and warning
of the possible hazards of electric shock or malfunction, if tampered with;

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b) an explanation of all warning and other indications;


c) a list of commonly occurring materials, vapours or gases (e.g. cleaning fluids, polishes,
paints and cooking operations) that may affect the operation or reliability of the apparatus
in the short or long term;
d) guidance on the life expectancy of the apparatus and batteries;
e) details of the operational limitations including temperature, humidity and pressure ranges;
f) details of the storage limitations including temperature and humidity ranges;
g) details of procedure for switch on, including warm up period;
h) instructions for checking, testing and/or calibration and adjustment of the apparatus on a
routine basis;
i) instructions for the disposal of the apparatus at the end of its working life.

5 Performance
5.1 General
5.1.1 Sample and sequence of tests
5.1.1.1 For the purposes of type testing, one sample of the apparatus shall be subjected to the
tests given in 5.3.2 to 5.3.17.
NOTE The tests in 5.3.2 to 5.3.17 may be performed in a sequence chosen at the discretion of the test house.
5.1.1.2 If the apparatus consists of separate measuring and display elements they shall be
considered as a single unit for the purposes of these tests.
5.1.2 Preparation of sample apparatus
5.1.2.1 The sample apparatus shall be prepared in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions (see 4.2.2).
5.1.2.2 If the apparatus has the facility to zero in ambient air, the apparatus shall be zeroed in
ambient air before each test.
5.1.3 Test chamber
The apparatus shall be tested in a suitable test chamber and gas delivery system to present test
gases to the sensor. The construction of the test chamber and gas delivery system shall be such
as to ensure that the gas sensor is exposed to a specific concentration of test gas in a
reproducible manner.
5.1.4 Labels
After the full sequence of tests has been carried out, any external labels shall be checked again
for legibility.
5.2 Conditions for tests
5.2.1 Test gas
The apparatus shall be tested with single gases, of known concentration as laid out in Table 1.

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Table 1 – CO2 test gases


Level CO2 concentration range, balance air
ppm
1st 450 – 500
2nd 2 500 – 3 000
3rd 4 500 – 5 000
4th 10 000 – 18 000 (only where the apparatus covers this range)
Total uncertainty of test gas concentrations shall be within ±2% relative

5.2.2 Speed of test gas


The speed of air or test gas in the test chamber shall be between 0.1 m/s and 0.5 m/s.
NOTE In the case of a mask, the requirements of 5.1.3 apply.
5.2.3 Power supply
Unless otherwise specified for the particular test, the mains voltage shall be within either ±2%
of the nominal value or the range of values quoted by the manufacturer. Battery powered
apparatus shall be fitted with new or fully charged battery/batteries at the start of each test.
5.2.4 Temperature
Unless otherwise specified for the particular test, the ambient air and test gas shall be at the
same constant temperature of ±2% °C and within a range of (15 to 25) °C for the duration of
each test.
5.2.5 Humidity
5.2.5.1 Unless otherwise specified for the particular test, the ambient air shall be at a constant
relative humidity ±10% r.h., within the range 30% r.h. to 70% r.h for the duration of each test.
5.2.5.2 The test gas shall be at a constant relative humidity of less than 10% r.h., except during
the humidity test in 5.3.5.
5.2.6 Pressure
The test shall be performed at any ambient atmospheric pressure between 97 kPa and 108 kPa
and shall be recorded during each test with a total uncertainty of not greater than ±1 kPa.
5.3 Test methods
5.3.1 General
5.3.1.1 The displayed reading shall be within ±10% of the concentration of the test gas. Unless
otherwise stated, all tests shall be carried out in test gas.
5.3.1.2 Unless otherwise stated, each test condition shall be varied separately, while the others
remain as defined in 5.2.
5.3.1.3 The test procedure to be used for 5.3.2 to 5.3.17 is as follows.
a) Switch on the apparatus and its pump (if fitted) and allow it to stabilize for warm up period
recommended by the manufacturer.
b) Expose the apparatus to:
1) the first level test gas for (180 ± 10) s;
2) clean air for at least 180 s to purge the apparatus back to ambient conditions;

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3) repeat until all relevant levels of test gases have been applied
4) repeat 1).
5.3.2 Unpowered storage
The apparatus (including the battery, if the manufacturer supplies this item with the product)
shall be exposed sequentially to a temperature of (–10 ± 2) °C for 24 h, (20 ± 2) °C for 24 h,
(40 ± 2) °C for 24 h and (20 ± 2) °C for 24 h. The apparatus shall then be energized, and tested
in accordance with 5.3.1.
5.3.3 Supply voltage
For mains powered apparatus, stabilize with a power supply voltage of 207 V r.m.s. and test in
accordance with 5.3.1. Repeat with a power supply voltage of 253 V r.m.s.
5.3.4 Temperature
5.3.4.1 Steady state
The apparatus shall be tested in accordance with 5.3.1, at (–5 ± 2) °C after being exposed to
that temperature for at least 1 h. The apparatus shall then be allowed to stabilize at (20 ± 2) °C
for at least 1 h, before being tested again in accordance with 5.3.1 at (40 ± 2) °C, after being
exposed to that temperature for at least 1 h.
5.3.4.2 Transient test for battery-powered apparatus
The apparatus shall be switched on and stabilized at (20 ± 2) °C for the warm up period.
Transfer the apparatus, within 5 s, into a test chamber at (40 ± 2) °C. Apply test gas 2. Take a
reading at 3 min and 10 min after application of the test gas. Both readings shall be within
±20% of the concentration of the test gas.
5.3.5 Humidity
5.3.5.1 Steady state
The apparatus shall then be tested in accordance with 5.3.1 at (90 ± 5)% r.h. and (40 ± 2) °C,
after being exposed to that temperature and relative humidity for at least 1 h.
NOTE Low temperature, low humidity tests are a part of 5.3.4.1.
5.3.5.2 Transient test for battery-powered apparatus
The apparatus shall be switched on and stabilized at (40 ± 10)% r.h. and (20 ± 2) °C for the
warm up period. Transfer the apparatus, within 5 s, into a test chamber at (90 to 95)% r.h. and
(40 ± 2) °C. Apply test gas 2. Take a reading at 3 min and 10 min after application of the test
gas. Both readings shall be within ±20% of the concentration of the test gas.
5.3.6 Pressure
The apparatus shall be switched on and stabilized in the test chamber at ambient conditions as
specified in 5.2 for the warm up period. Apply test gas 2 for sufficient time to flush the
chamber and stabilize the displayed reading. Increase the pressure in the test chamber by
(10 ± 1) kPa within 30 s. Take a reading at 3 min after pressure is stable. The reading shall be
within ±20% of the concentration of the test gas.
5.3.7 Low battery warning
5.3.7.1 For battery powered apparatus, fit new or fully charged batteries and switch the
apparatus on. Check that the low battery warning is not activated within 4 h. When the low

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battery warning is activated wait a further 30 min, and measure the battery voltage, to be
further referred to as VL.
5.3.7.2 With the battery removed, connect the apparatus to a variable power supply. Decrease
the supply voltage to VL. Maintain the supply voltage at this level and test in accordance
with 5.3.1.
5.3.8 Vibration
5.3.8.1 The appropriate test, as defined in BS EN 60068-2-6 shall be applied along all three
axes with:
a) a frequency range of (10 to 150) Hz;
b) a vibration amplitude of 0.35 mm;
c) a duration of endurance of 10 sweep cycles per axis.
5.3.8.2 After return to normal test conditions, test in accordance with 5.3.1.
5.3.9 Drop
The apparatus including the probe and any interconnecting wiring and tubing, shall be dropped
in its normal orientation from a fall height of 0.5 m onto concrete. If the apparatus is normally
used in its carrying case, then it shall be installed in its case for the test to be carried out and
the apparatus shall show no signs of mechanical damage after the drop test. After return to
normal test conditions, test in accordance with 5.3.1.
5.3.10 EMC
The apparatus, including the probe and any interconnecting wiring and tubing, shall be tested
in clean air for electromagnetic compatibility in accordance with BS EN 50270.
5.3.11 Battery reversal
For battery powered apparatus, attempt to insert the battery/batteries the wrong way around.
Switch the apparatus on for 1 min. Afterwards, remove the battery/batteries and reinsert in
correct polarity and then power the apparatus and test in accordance with 5.3.1.
5.3.12 Printer and data transfer facility
Where there is a printer or data transfer facility, test it to confirm that the printout or transfer
repeats the displayed readings and date and time.
5.3.13 Operational stability
5.3.13.1 Continuous operation
If the apparatus is intended for temporary continuous monitoring (i.e. for periods exceeding
24 hours during which it will not be zeroed), it shall be subjected to a stability test, where the
test procedure in 5.3.1.2 shall be repeated after every 24 hours of continuously powered
operation for a period of 5 days, and then a subsequent test 1 week later.
5.3.13.2 Intermittent operation
If the apparatus is intended for intermittent monitoring (i.e. for periods of less than 24 hours),
it shall be turned on and off in clean air 100 times. The duration of each operation shall be
equal to the manufacturer’s stated warm-up time; 1 min shall elapse after each operation. At
the end of the 100 operations, the apparatus shall be exposed to the highest concentration of
test gas used in 5.3.

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5.3.14 Sample flow failure


For aspirated apparatus with an integral flow indicator, the sample line shall be blocked.
Operation of the apparatus shall be checked by visual inspection of the flow indicator to
ensure that a warning of the blockage is given.
5.3.15 Cross sensitivity and specificity
5.3.15.1 Unless 5.3.15.2 applies, the apparatus shall be subjected to test gas concentrations of
200 ppm carbon monoxide in air, 1% ethylene oxide in air and 2% nitrous oxide in air in turn
and the displayed reading shall be within ±5% of the previous ambient air reading.
5.3.15.2 Where it is known that the apparatus cannot conform to 5.3.15.1 (for example if it
uses infrared sensing technology) the apparatus need not be tested in accordance with 5.3.15.1,
however, where this is this case the instruction booklet or leaflet shall include a warning about
the possibility of cross sensitivity to these gases causing a higher reading (for example when
the apparatus is used for medical applications).
5.3.16 Response time
Expose the apparatus to a step change from ambient air to the test gas with the highest
concentration used in 5.3.
Aspirated apparatus shall have a response time (t90) of not greater than 50 s. Diffusion
apparatus shall have a response time (t90) of 120 s.
5.3.17 Air velocity
Apparatus with sensors that operate by diffusion shall be tested in a flow chamber under
conditions of no forced ventilation and at a speed of 6 m/s. This shall be performed using:
a) ambient air; and
b) the test gas with the highest concentration used in 5.3.
The orientation of the sensor in relation to the direction of the flow shall be such that the flow
reaches the apparatus from each of three mutually perpendicular directions, while the
orientation of the apparatus is kept constant.
NOTE Directions of flow which are not likely to occur in practice, due to the design of the apparatus, or which
are expressly prohibited by the manufacturer shall not be tested.

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Bibliography

Standards publication
BS 7967-1:2005, Carbon monoxide in dwellings and the combustion performance of gas-fired
appliances – Part 1: Guide for identifying and managing sources of fumes, smells,
spillage/leakage of combustion products and carbon monoxide detector activation
BS EN 45544 (all parts) Workplace atmospheres – Electrical apparatus used for the direct
detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours
BS EN 50379 (all parts), Specification for portable electrical apparatus designed to measure
combustion flue gas parameters of heating appliances
BS EN 61779-1:2000, Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of flammable
gases — Part 1: General requirements and test methods

Other publications
[1] EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT. Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 27 January 2003 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)
(as amended by Directive 2003/108/EC).

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