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Analysis and Influence of music festivals on

tourism in Serbia

A Capstone
Presented to the Faculty of European University
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
The Degree:
Bachelor of Business Administration

By:

August 2018

1
Foreword

First of all, I would like to thank my parents for granting me such an


incredible opportunity to study abroad and for supporting me in every single
undertaking I have made. Finally, I would like to say thank you to the
participants of the interviews and questionnaires, because they have made a
considerable contribution to the findings of this paper.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 1: Introduction .................................................................................................... 7
1.1 The Background ................................................................................................................... 7
1.2 Research Question............................................................................................................... 8
1.3 Purpose and Objectives ...................................................................................................10
1.4 Relevance of the Thesis ...................................................................................................12
Chapter 2: Literature Review ...................................................................................... 13
2.1 THEORETICAL BASIS OF DEFINING EVENTS TOURISM ........................................13
2.1.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................13
2.1.2 Special events ..................................................................................................................14
2.1.3 Defining the event ..........................................................................................................16
2.1.4 Classification of events.................................................................................................18
2.1.5 Purpose of special events ............................................................................................26
Chapter 3: Methodology of EVENT INDUSTRY ....................................................... 28
3.1 The emergence of the event industry.........................................................................28
3.2 Structure of the event industry ....................................................................................29
3.3 The role of the event manager and his team ...........................................................29
Chapter 4: Setting the concept of events ................................................................. 31
4.1 SWOT analysis: finding strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats 33
4.2 Planning a special event ..................................................................................................36
Chapter 5: PROMOTION OF SPECIAL EVENTS ........................................................ 38
5.1 Integrated marketing communications.....................................................................38
5.2 Tourism events ...................................................................................................................40
5.3 Festivals, carnivals and other tourist attractions ..................................................42
5.4 Strategy of tourism development in the territory of the Republic of Serbia
..........................................................................................................................................................44
5.5 Principles of vision............................................................................................................48
5.6 Reliance on strategic advantages ................................................................................49
5.7 Values that the Republic of Serbia should present................................................50
Chapter 6 POTENTIAL AND THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM OF EVENTS AT
THE TERRITORY OF SERBIA......................................................................................... 52
6.1 Festival Exit..........................................................................................................................55
Chapter 7 POTENTIAL AND IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM EVENTS IN
VRNJAČKA BANJA ............................................................................................................. 56
7.1 VRNJAČKA BANJA AS A TOURIST DESTINATION.....................................................56
Vrnjacka Banja in the 30's of the last century ......................................................... 58
7.2 Characteristics of the spa destination ........................................................................59
7.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM EVENTS FOR VRNJACKA BANJA ....................62
7.4 Existing events in Vrnjacka Banja ...............................................................................63
7.5 Love Fest - promotion of music, art and urba rather than youth culture......66
7.5.1 Influence of Carnival on tourist development of Vrnjacka Banja ................70
7.5.2 Visiting during Carnival ...............................................................................................73
7.6 Survey: Testing the Importance of Tourism Event ................................................74

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DISCUSSION OF RESULTS .............................................................................................. 80
Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 82
Bibliography ...................................................................................................................... 84
ANNEX: Survey .................................................................................................................. 86

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Executive Summary

Since ancient times, people have had the need to organize various
festivities in order to include fun and cultural contents in their everyday life,
which would fill their free time. Private manifestations will most often be related
to marking important moments by birthday, wedding, maturity, etc. while public
events celebrated important events for the entire community. Regarding the
very purpose of events, today has not changed much, but it is certain that
events have become something that happens every day in different spheres of
cultural and social life. The increasing need for organizing events for various
purposes has led to the development of an "industry event" with its own specific
skills and new business opportunities and the need for specialists in the field.

Today, it can be said of incomparably technically advanced events, more


interesting locations of maintenance, more creative scenic solutions, and may
differ from the complexities of the organization itself, the goal of its organization,
the sphere of cultural and social life to which they belong, etc. Based on these
indicators, there is a clear distinction between the past and present "events".
The event evolved into a brand new branch of business, where the solution of
leisure time is no longer the acquisition of gaining profit over something that
sounds quite ordinary and commonplace. As the awareness of the significance
of the events grew, various companies were formed who saw the possibility of
profit by organizing them. These companies, in addition to a better quality and
more efficient organization, offer something that is of great value in today's time,
which is the time saving of the bargainer.

Everything that is serious company is aware of the marketing importance


and positive effects of a well-organized business. It primarily has the promotion
or presentation function. In this way, it is possible to achieve an increase in
turnover through goods or services, the brand's identity or brand, people
working in it, increasing and influencing customer loyalty. Classical
presentations and promotions are somehow overcome, so events have just

5
become a way to hear your company or brand, as well as to create useful
business contacts. Brand awareness is one of the main goals of organizing
events (for business purposes), ie. first think of "As an As A Firm" when thinking
about an activity, product, or service within your area of business.

The importance of special events is also reflected in changes in the way


many activities work. As the successful functioning of the companies is
impossible without well-organized special events, where contact is made with
business partners, clients, consumers, etc. , so special events have become
the basis of tourism development for many destinations. This work is aimed at
showing, in addition to the complexity of the special organization events, the
seriousness of the profession such as the dog's management, and the
unimaginable significance of the event as a driving factor in the development of
tourism. Events have the power to create, revive and improve the tourist
demand, so in many destinations it is the most important marketing tool and "in
the sleeve" for extending the tourist season. We tried to present these claims
on the example of Vrnjačka Banja as one of the most important Serbian tourist
destinations with a long tradition of tourism events.

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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 The Background

Since ancient times, people have had the need to organize various
festivities in order to include fun and cultural contents in their everyday life,
which would fill their free time. Private manifestations will most often be related
to marking important moments by birthday, wedding, maturity, etc. while public
events celebrated important events for the entire community. Regarding the
very purpose of events, today has not changed much, but it is certain that
events have become something that happens every day in different spheres of
cultural and social life. The increasing need for organizing events for various
purposes has led to the development of an "industry event" with its own specific
skills and new business opportunities and the need for specialists in the field.

Today, it can be said of incomparably technically advanced events, more


interesting locations of maintenance, more creative scenic solutions, and may
differ from the complexities of the organization itself, the goal of its organization,
the sphere of cultural and social life to which they belong, etc. Based on these
indicators, there is a clear distinction between the past and present "events".
The event evolved into a brand new branch of business, where the solution of
leisure time is no longer the acquisition of gaining profit over something that
sounds quite ordinary and commonplace. As the awareness of the significance
of the events grew, various companies were formed who saw the possibility of
profit by organizing them.

These companies, in addition to a better quality and more efficient


organization, offer something that is of great value in today's time, which is the
time saving of the bargainer. Everything that is serious company is aware of
the marketing importance and positive effects of a well-organized business. It
primarily has the promotion or presentation function. In this way, it is possible
to achieve an increase in turnover through goods or services, the brand's
identity or brand, people working in it, increasing and influencing customer
loyalty. Classical presentations and promotions are somehow overcome, so

7
events have just become a way to hear your company or brand, as well as to
create useful business contacts. Brand awareness is one of the main goals of
organizing events (for business purposes), ie. first think of "As an As A Firm"
when thinking about an activity, product, or service within your area of business.

The importance of special events is also reflected in changes in the way


many activities work. As the successful functioning of the companies is
impossible without well-organized special events, where contact is made with
business partners, clients, consumers, etc. , so special events have become
the basis of tourism development for many destinations. This work is aimed at
showing, in addition to the complexity of the special organization events, the
seriousness of the profession, such as the dog's management, and the
unimaginable significance events as the driving factor of tourism development.
Events have the power to create, revive and improve the tourist demand, so in
many destinations it is the most important marketing tool and "in the sleeve" for
extending the tourist season. We tried to present these claims on the example
of Vrnjačka Banja as one of the most important Serbian tourist destinations with
a long tradition of tourism events.

1.2 Research Question

The main and basic goals of this paper are:

• Indication of the importance of developing and nurturing tourism events


in Serbia;
• Presentation of spa as an important tourist destination, both in terms of
spa tourism and as a destination that has significant wealth and experience in
the field of tourism events;
• Extremely large but insufficiently exploited potential that this destination
has for the further development of tourism events;
• The necessity of creating a tourism development strategy for the spa
event (but also for the specific tourism development strategy of Serbia's

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events), using modern knowledge in this field, and suggesting several possible
directions for further development.

The main hypothesis:

• In addition to improving the basic spa offer, the event tourism is one of
the most important components on which the tourism product of Spa should be
created. The great potential that this destination possesses in terms of tourism
events should be better used, which would lead to more visits, prolonging the
tourist season, but would also contribute to greater recognition, brand creation
and better positioning of Spa in the tourist market.

Auxiliary hypotheses, i.e. The arguments that uphold the above


hypothesis are:

• The bottom of the spa already has events with a built tradition and
renown which do not require higher investments than modernization and better
designed marceting strategies.
• Spa has two events that have become its brand and contributed to the
turnaround in the structure of visitors.
• By making greater use of its cultural and historical treasures, in conjuring
up interesting special events, it will contribute to the creation of a recognizable
and authentic image, which is surely the right path to a wider tourist market.

In order to be able to address the core question of the research and further
develop the analysis, the subsequent secondary questions have been identified
and addressed:

1. Whether (and how) tourists affect the film industry in Serbia?


2. What really makes the film a trigger of tourism, what are the elements
who create the film as the driving force of tourism and how they are
combined?
3. When the film is primary, and when the secondary motivator and why?

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4. What is the psychological driver in the film that motivates desire for a
trip?
5. How is the easiest to present a location?
6. Do cultural differences in the film trigger the tourism market?

1.3 Purpose and Objectives

The problem of the work is the analysis and influences of the festival on
tourism in Serbia. The subject of research of this paper are special events in
the function of tourism development, their importance and potential in Serbia
as a tourist destination. As one of the examples, the tourist destination of
Vrnjacka Banja was chosen for the music festivals held there. Although
Vrnjacka Banja is a destination with a tradition in organizing various events, it
still "happens" as a significant driver of tourism development with no
seriousness in terms of strategy and implementation. During the year, most
during the summer, this destination organizes an impressive number of events
where the Vrnjacki Carnival and The Love Fest stand out as the most attractive,
but most of them despite their great potential remain in the shade. However,
the two events mentioned above represent the crown of the season until the
beginning of a serious engagement in improving others.

The Love Fest and Vrnjacki Carnival are presented in this paper as
indicators of the significance of the event to create a destination image, i.e. her
image as well as the factor of changing the structure of visitors. Among other
things, the paper analyzes the development of a special event, deals with its
popularization, features and organizational steps, as well as its connection with
the media and other products of modern times. A special review, ie. the
emphasis was placed on a special event as a kind of marketing instrument in
order to improve sales, branding and positioning in consumer awareness. The
goals of this scientific research work can be seen on two levels - theoretically

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and practically. Theoretical aim of this paper is first of all to provide a
comprehensive overview of theoretical and empirical findings in the field of
organization of special events, marketing, marketing management, branding,
with a focus on tourism of the event, which is the main subject of this paper.
We seek the most relevant data and integrate them into one functional entity
that allows understanding of the concept primarily of the event of tourism and
its importance for the development of tourism in general. In practical terms,
familiarizing yourself with the key principles of event management, marketing
management, integrated marketing communications, brand management
should enable the successful creation and implementation of special events as
a tourist product that will achieve the set goals of tourist destinations in terms
of their development. In this paper we tried to emphasize the importance of
positive effects of successfully organized and creatively designed events and
present the way in which they can be manifested. The main and basic goals of
this paper are:

• Indication of the importance of developing and nurturing tourism events


in Serbia;
• Presentation of Vrnjacka Banja as an important tourist destination, both
in terms of spa tourism and as a destination that has significant wealth
and experience in the field of tourism events;
• Extremely large but insufficiently exploit the potential that this
destination has for the further development of tourism events; The
necessity of creating a tourism development strategy for the Vrnjačka
spa event (but also for the specific tourism development strategy of
Serbia's events), using modern knowledge in this field, and suggesting
several possible directions for further development.
• In addition to improving the basic spa offer, the event tourism is one of
the most important components on which the tourism product of
Vrnjacka Spa should be created. The great potential that this destination
has in terms of tourism events should be better used, which would lead
to more visits, prolongation of the tourist season, but would also
contribute to greater recognition, creation of a brand and better
positioning of Vrnjacka Spa in the tourist market.
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Auxiliary hypotheses, i.e. The arguments that support the above
hypothesis are: • The bottom of the spa already has events with a built tradition
and renome that do not require greater investment except modernization and
better designed marketing strategy. Vrnjacka Banja has two events that have
become its brand and contributed to the turnaround in the structure of visitors.
By making greater use of its cultural and historical treasures, in conjuring up
interesting special events, it will contribute to the creation of a recognizable and
authentic image, which is surely the right path to a wider tourist market.

1.4 Relevance of the Thesis

The aim of the paper is to highlight some of the basic facts and
conclusions that have come from the research of the accompanying literature,
and in that way it examines the state and possibilities of the development of
tourism events both at the presented destination and in Serbia in general.
Although there is a marking of events as much as a human civilization, the
beginning of their study is related to the recognition of the possibility of
increasing primarily the economic but also other positive effects that the events
have on the community.

By exploring this topic, we noticed that most of the books, scientific papers
and studies dealing with special events and tourism events are actually
originated from countries such as Britain, Australia, Canada, America, and a
very small portion belongs to domestic literature. We note the lack of dealing
with the concept of special events and tourism events with the topic of research.
The most obvious short-sighted lack is within the framework of the tourism
development strategy of the Republic of Serbia. With this strategy, events were
presented as important for the development of tourism, but no specific plans
and guidelines for the realization of such effects were included. We think that
tourism events require that it be highlighted in the Tourism Development

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Strategy as a special part with the perceived situation, plans and realistic steps
in their achievement.

Regarding Vrnjacka Spa, despite its long tradition in terms of


manifestation activities, no significant literature was found except for the one in
which the beginnings of this type of tourism were recorded. Critical scientific
qualitative and quantitative analysis of the previously studied papers found that
this topic was not sufficiently scientifically researched and systematized, which
gave additional impetus to the processing of this topic. This paper will strive to
realize a more serious and more stylish approach to one part of this topic and
to point out the possibility for more efficient valorisation of this potential to
contribute to the better recognition of Vrnjacka Spa in the tourist market.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 THEORETICAL BASIS OF DEFINING EVENTS TOURISM

2.1.1 Introduction

Tourism has seen the most dynamic development in recent years. Due to
the comprehensive globalization, trends in tourism are changing with the rapid
economic, technological, cultural, political, climate and other changes. Tourism
is experiencing a number of modifications to adapt primarily to modern tourists
who are informed, possessing experience and expecting to get top quality
service and satisfy all their needs for their money. In addition to "basic", these
needs also include a number of others that become a real challenge for tourist
destinations, which compete in creating specific offers.

One of these "specific offers" is the presence of various festivals and other
special events that in many cases also represent the main motive of travel,
staying at a particular destination. Tourism events are one of the youngest and
most promising types of tourism whose expansion began in the last decades of

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the twentieth century. Although events have always existed as part of a tourism
product with a greater or lesser significance and impact on the destination, their
commercialization has nevertheless spurred a more active interest of tourism
and entire economies to study this area, with the aim of increasing the
economic and other benefits that the community is achieving. A number of
conclusions reached by more studious analysis of event tourism have shown
that the right approach to planning and organizing events can be improved not
only by economic effects but can also be reflected in a number of others

The organization of special events of cultural and artistic character is a


very popular way of attracting tourists. In accordance with the successful
results, many desktops create different festivals and events that aim not only
for greater tourist visibility, but also for creating a brand that gives a broader
perspective with development. As the whole new industry is linked to events, it
is necessary to study all the elements that characterize this area.

2.1.2 Special events

The term "special event" was used in a brush to describe "the happiest
place on the planet." In 1955, when Volt Disney opened about Disneyland in
Kalforni, he asked for help from Robert Jane, the then PR Manager of Disney
End, facing a major problem. Every day at 5 pm, thousands of people, about
90% of all visitors, left the park. The problem with this mass departure was that
Volt's happiest place in the world was open until 22:00 every day. This meant
that the park operates every day for up to five hours with loss, due to costs,
such as employee wages, utility services, and other expenses. In order to solve
this problem, Janey proposed to create a night parade, which would be called
"Main street elecric parade". A crowd of rafts fired by thousands of small light
bulbs, nightly along the Main Street, will delight thousands of visitors who would
stay to enjoy the spectacle. This technique is still used today in all Disney Parks.
According to producers, this spectacle results in millions of dollars with a
tendency to increase every year. When journalists asked Jane how this

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program was already in use, he responded: "Special Event". When asked,
"What is a Special Event," he may have given perhaps the simplest and finest
definition of a special event: "A special event is something that is the other one
of the normal days of life."

But the story of the first special events began very long ago, almost with
the beginnings of ancient civilizations. Since events cover a broad basis, the
occurrence of various events does not relate to the same time period. It is quite
certain that the economic phenomenon of events dates from the beginning in
the society of organized human life, but it is economic study of events, and
especially its management aspects of a recent date. It is known that exhibitions
and trade shows were held in the pre-antiquity period. Sports events record
antique historians as a significant and prestigious form of social activity, which
reached its peak through the organization of the ancient Olympic Games (776
BC) in the form of peteboys. Events of the festival type are known from the
Middle Ages, although these kinds of events also appear in the Roman Empire.
As much as it seems that conference events are the product of the modern way
of life, their origin is linked to the XVIII century.

Events were probably created even before the appearance of money, but
their development was undoubtedly followed after the establishment and
acceptance of the general equivalent, since the intangible character and the
conceptual basis of the events are not particularly favorable for natural
exchange. The emergence of capitalism, new products and social relations, as
well as the new way of life, have opened the way to a more versatile
development of an increasing number of different events. The dynamic
development of events, as an economic offer, took place in the 20th century,
which affirmed the post-industrial society. The emergence of discretionary
income, the rise in purchasing power and consumer standards, the shift of the
line from basic to the complementary needs, and the emergence of completely
new consumer needs focused the demand for a specific economic offer of
events, which then stimulated the development of various contemporary
events. The development of events in economic terms has also helped to solve
the problem of employment of modern labor, and it also reflected on the
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economic growth of developed market economies (the impact of mega events
such as the Olympic Games or the World Championships of popular sports on
the economic growth of the host countries).

2.1.3 Defining the event

There is no defined and generally accepted definition of an event. The


differences that result are the approach of certain authors to the definition of an
event. The majority of the authors agree that the event in economic terms is
part of the service economy, and different approaches to definition are
determined by the characteristics of an environment in which individual
autodors work and create. The event can be seen as an exciting and fastest
growing form of phenomena derived from leisure, business and tourism. In
order to provide a good definition, one should first notice some of the
characteristics of these events:

• There is an objective that can be defined in a broad circle;

• It's always planned (it's not a random event);

• the place and the time of the event are defined (the start and end of
events are exactly known);

• there is a team in charge of the organization; certain funds are needed


for realizing;

• it can be organized by individuals and businesses; a great flexibility is


needed;

• it must be legally accessible;

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• It can be intended for any part of the population (employees, politicians,
youth, children, the elderly, men, women, media, etc.);

• Dependence on the sponsor is expressed;

• There is a lot of media coverage, the risk dose is associated with every
such event, there is a high level of creativity;

• There is multidisciplinarity in terms of staff necessary for the realization


of the event;

• There is significant marketing support;

• have a relatively short duration (although the organization itself may


take a long time, the event itself often does not last longer than one or two to
three days);

• It is related to the leisure industry and the entertainment industry (things


that are serious and risky are not considered a special event - for example,
launching a spejs-shuttle has almost all the relevant features but it would be
fake to organize it as a special event);

• For this kind of event, the dose of glamor and spectacularity is usually
related (for example, the construction of a motorway, although it is unique and
unrepeatable, is not a special event, while the Olympic Games are).

Based on the listed characteristics of the special event, a definition can


be given: A special event is a set of designed actions and activities, in order to
gather the projected profile and the number of participants in the projected time
and place, in order to achieve the given goals. The event is a specially designed
offer of a limited duration, on which basis there is an appropriate idea, which,
by joint engagement of executors and material assets, is an original idea.
Perhaps the most complete definition of an event is: events are constrained
17
sets of time, determined by location, time of maintenance, participants and
motives and goals of assembly. In economic terms, the event is a supply that
is on the market in the process of exchange with the goal of satisfying the
specific, heterogeneous and immaterial needs of consumers. Due to their
originality and specific characteristics, events have become a special area of
management studies (event management) in a growing number of academic
institutions.

2.1.4 Classification of events

The basic division of events is on planned and unplanned events. The


planned events are the subject of management studies and generally require a
wide array of operations through which it must pass that the event itself would
be well organized, which will be further discussed. What about unplanned
events, these are events that we can not get into (accidents, natural disasters,
extorted reactions, etc.) and that have nothing to do with the topic that is being
processed so that they will not be further analyzed. Events can be further
divided according to the content of the program, so Getz D. events are divided
into:

1. Mega events

2. Hallmark events

3. High events

Mega events - Mega events are events of great importance both


organizational and economic. These are events that attract a large number of
visitors and positively affect the overall economic activity of the country in which
it is organized. These events are well-media-tracked and represent "must see"

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events. Mega event is an event whose size attracts at least a million visitors,
the capital costs of its setting and execution exceed 500 million dollars and the
interest of the public and the mass media is such that the visibility of the mega
event must be ensured. The prefix mega signifies its size and visibility, the
target market, the financial difficulty, the median coverage, the construction of
facilities and the venue of the event program, respectively the economic and
social impact on the host country. The Mega Event is aimed at the international
tourism market (for example, the Olympic Games, the Paralympic Games, the
FIFA World Cup).

Hallmark events - Under hallmark events, we mean large festivals, fairs,


exhibitions and sports events of international status that are held either
regularly or once. The primary function of these manifestations is that the host
community offers the opportunity to acquire high importance in the tourism
market. The term hallmark event refers to those events that have been
identified with the spirit and being of the place where they are held, thus
becoming synonymous with its name, which is widespread in the
consciousness of visitors. The success of these manifestations is based on
their uniqueness, status and great ability to instil interest and attract attention.
A classic example of the hallmark event is Carnival in Riu, Oktoberfest in
Munich, Golden Lion in Venice, Edinburgh International Festival in Scotland.

All these events symbolize the soul of the city and its inhabitants, who of
course bring them some benefit. In addition to the significant revenues from
tourism, this manifestation enhances the sense of local pride and community
resemblance, as well as the international recognition of the city.

Major events - Given the scale of impact, these are events that go
beyond the boundaries of their own country, have international significance,
cause great interest of the media, and can attract significant visitors' struggle
and achieve a solid gain. An example is the Grand Prix Formula 1 or the Open
Golf Championship in the UK, the type of annual annual major manifestations
that globally have a very strong effect in the promotion of desination and the
whole region to which they belong. Many international sports championship,
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and enter this category of major events so it is not a rare case of interest of
national sports organizations and the Government to actively participate in
them.).

In the UK, the criteria that a sports event should fulfill to be considered
as the main one are prescribed:

1. The event must include a competition conducted between teams or


individuals representing a nominal number of nations;

2. The event must attract a great national and international public interest
in terms of the presence of viewers and coverage of the media;
3. The competition must be recognized in the international sport and
must take a significant place in the international calendar of sports events.

The following criterion in the event classification is the repeatability and


specificity of setting and executing an event. On the basis of this criterion,
distinctions are made: special events and common events. Leisure and tourism
researchers have devoted considerable attention to the compensating function
of leisure activities and tourism. People tend to compensate for what they lack
in everyday life by their activities. Professor D. Burstin states that it would be
difficult to find "a better example of over-exaggerating our expectations than
what our changed attitude toward travel has to offer."

If a man could choose at all, then one of the oldest motives for traveling
was certainly to be seen strange places. Man's eternal desire to go somewhere
else testifies to his eternal optimism and insatiable curiosity: we always expect
things to be different somewhere else. " "The journey is," wrote Dekart at the
beginning of the seventeenth century, "very much like conversation with people
from other times. Those who are moving because they are hungry, frightened
or suppressed, expect that they will be slimmer, safer and more free elsewhere:
they, who live in a safe, wealthy and respectable society, travel to escape the
boredom, escape the famous and discover the exotic ".

20
The "compensation theory" was developed in leisure time sociology. The
notion of compensation is mainly used by sociologists in relation to theoretical
consideration of work and leisure time. The "Compensation Theory" is the only
one that is fully built in the context of leisure time sociology. Creation, or the
development of a special branch of sociology, should be justified by the
theoretical contribution that it can give to knowledge in a specific domain. This
means that the formation of leisure time sociology, henceforth, would depend
on the importance of the "compensation theory". Within the framework of the
"compensation theory", categories of compensation, recovery, inversion and
transgression have been developed.

A. Gras demonstrated that in one phenomenon, or in the cauldron


activity, all three processes significant for the "compensation theory" can be
detected: compensation, inversion and recovery (cites an example with "going
to a restaurant"). The time taken in this case is the renewal of energy potential
by absorbing food. But there is also the inversion (the position of the woman
and the meaning of the paid relationship) and the escape, the compensation
from the gloomy domestic ritual. Indeed, chefs, as well as those who serve, are
men, which is contrary to "home" rules. And the client, the most frequent
installer in his professional life, becomes an employer (he directly rewards work
in the form of a 15 percent service). The inversion is reflected in the quality of
food, and also through the escape from the daily "reality of the can box".
Likewise, decorating, number of visitors, the originality of the decorated cities
and favors the expression of emotions.

Recovery is an escape that allows “getting more strength". But "going


out to the restaurant", spending food, or satisfying strength, is also inversion
(the reverse order of things) in some situations. For a woman, it is an inversion
because she is not a housewife, but the others are serving her, and that others
are males. For an installer, it is an inversion because he is now an employer:
he pays a percentage to waiters who serve him. In this case, in one occurrence,
the escape from everyday life ("going to the restaurant") there is compensation,
recovery and inversion. Tourism offers great opportunities for the realization of
recuperation, inversion and compensation. The need for changing the
21
environment (in order to change nutrition, to reverse roles, compensate for what
is missing in the everyday environment, etc.) is realized by "tourist movement".
People often succeeded in this: the times of great journeys were usually
preceded by great spiritual quakes. Going to distant lands and new, unusual
aspects, throughout history have been an incentive to human imagination.
Surprise and satisfaction prompted people to think that life at home should not
remain the same as it always was. The desire to make up for something that is
missing at home is realized through a tourist trip. And tourism gives great
compensatory opportunities for every person.

Special Events - Special events industry is a new branch dedicated to


organizing new, unusual, unusual special events that leap from stereotypes and
offer a whole new experience. What distinguishes special events from other
consumeristic content is that it brings people out of monotony and gives them
the opportunity to make ordinary things unusual. Special events can be
designed for any part of the population and can be organized in any sphere of
life and work. We can characterize them as planned that are planned, designed
in advance with a good organization and morally and quite similar.

From the angle of the company, special events are its necessity. If a
particular company wants to effectively position its product or service, it must
first of all be separated from the competition and also intrigue buyers who are
overflowing and saturated with the sea of products and propaganda messages.
Since this is a very difficult task, companies use various means to introduce
themselves in a new, interesting and original way. As already mentioned,
special events have the ability to make ordinary things unusual, and so are a
kind of marketing tool. They represent a good way of attracting attention and
can give a strong impression. The present channels of the presentation and
promotions no longer have such an effect on the auditorium. Today's
consumers who value more real contact, a unique experience. More effort is
needed to get the product into consumer consciousness precisely because of
the large number of advertisements that are being served. The event of special
events is in its expansion, precisely because special events reflect the
greatness, originality, creativity and quality of what they represent, and in
22
addition provide an unforgettable experience, experience and thus ensure that
what is promoted remains and hoped.

Special events can have cultural, scientific, research, humanitarian,


social and entertainment character. They are not just designed to make profits
and do not have to be organized in the service of promoting a particular brand,
firm, impressing existing and potential clients, there is a whole spectrum of
events that are at the service of social benefits and benefits and aim at refining,
human and cultural values. A special event is a planned event that achieves
economic, social and cultural goals. They can be diverse, starting from national
holidays, knowing civil events, unique cultural performances, recognizable
sports games, corporate events, business events, original promotional
activities, etc. In the event management theory, special events are defined in
two respects, respecting the interests of the organizer, that is, the participants
as well as the visitor:

• A special event is held once or with rare repetitions, its maintenance


program exceeds the usual offer of events in a particular environment and
attracts the attention of the public, media and sponsors;

• A special event provides visitors with the opportunity to overcome the


effects of leisure, offers social and cultural content that are not common in
everyday life visitors.

These events are special because they are happening with purpose,
they have a precisely determined purpose, goal, organization, because they
are unique and unrepeatable, and most of all because they have special
(special) importance for the contractor or organizer, which results from the
expected effect (improvement of sales , lifting of the edges, cultural
enlightenment, etc.). They are special, in fact, because with the help of them,
participants meet unusual needs. There are many types of special events of
which they are most popular:

• grand openings - great opening hours;


23
• open houses - open house, type of association;
• conventions;
• sales meetings or collections;
• holiday events;
• festivals;
• celebration banquets - celebrations;
• parades;
• charity balls - humanitarian concerts, balls;
• picnics;
• dinner dances - veer dances;
• coctail events - cocktails;
• anniversary celebrations;
• theatrical opening events - theater premiere;
• kick-off / opening events - premier events;
• sporting events and tournaments;
• seminars;
• corporate events;
• political events;
• groundbreakings - great events, exclusive;
• stockholder meetings - deer charity meetings;
• concerts;
• fairs;
• trade shows - exhibition sales;
• spouse programs - marriage programs, weddings;
• themed galas - thematic vexas;
• rallies - gatherings;
• fashion shows - fashion events;
• community events - social events;
• sales events;
• employee holiday events - holiday ceremonies for workers;
• motivational meetings.

24
The special events themselves can be divided into those that are
profitable and non-profitable. Special events of a non-profit type can be events
where the primary goal is not to gain profit but to enhance the image of
organizers, executors, visitors or third parties, organizations. The goal of
organizing such an event can be publicity, market recognition, loyalty. The
ultimate positive outcome of such events would be an increase in profits, but
they are priced in a marketing manner for marketing purposes. The second
category of non-profit special events are humanitarian events where it is
actually the main and primary goal of raising money, but it does not remain the
property of the organizers, and therefore do not belong to profitable special
events. As for special events of a profitable type, it can be said that these are
the most common events. The economic goal is profit and social goals are
focused on the realization of sports, cultural, artistic, business, educational
(scientific), recreational, political programs and contents. The purpose and
event characteristics can be taken as the criteria for classifying events.
According to this criterion, eight types of events are distinguished:

• Cultural events,

• Artistic / entertainment events,

• Business / trade events,

• Sports competitions,

• Educational and scientific events,

• Recreational events,

• Political / state events,

• Private events (anniversaries, baptisms, weddings, fun at the bar


mickeys, dinner with socializing, family gatherings, club parties, fraternity
gathering, funerals).
25
Classification of events can also be carried out within one type of event.
The theory of event management is known for dividing sports events according
to the criteria of the place and the way of organizing it. Sports events according
to this criterion are divided into:

• Sport events in indoor and outdoor spaces,

• Sports events on the ground / water / air,

• Sport events with regular and periodic maintenance schedules,

• Public and private sports event,

• Professional / amateur sports event,

• A sporting event with a defined and free structure of the competition.

2.1.5 Purpose of special events

Events are something that happens around us every day. They are a
part of life and are a way of marking special and significant moments.
Celebrations, weddings, parties, birthdays, celebrations are events that are
special to those who organize them and the organization itself does not require
much effort. As important to each individual, such events can not be
characterized as "special", at least not as much as concerts, promotions,
campaigns, advertising campaigns, and so on. where consumers of such
events are various companies, agencies, sports clubs, non-profit organizations,
humanitarian organizations, religious and political organizations, i.e.
companies that have significant financial assets to invest in them, and in
addition to money and substantially greater effort. So, events can be organized

26
for different purposes. They can be a means of promotion, have a humanitarian
character, serve for fun and entertainment, etc. However, they were primarily
created to fill the free time and make the most of it. Today, this has expanded
this choice and offers the most brilliant opportunities to solve the leisure
situation, and a whole spectrum of possibilities for using special events has
been created as a means of achieving different goals.

Companies through special events can achieve the following: reaching


the targeted public, shaping the organization's uniqueness, enhancing
reputation and image, acting on all senses, emotional reaction, constant
association with the company. The Entertainment and Entertainment Industry
is investing enormous efforts with the design of various content that would
interest today's man. As we meet with the possibility of our opportunities, our
criterion has grown and it became more difficult to come up with something new
and unexpected. From this tendency, "special events" emerged as the opposite
of everyday and common occurrences. Special events extend to all spheres of
cultural-social living and are tailored to everyone, but they can also be open
and closed, profitable and non-profit. Consequently, the purpose of the event
varies from one to the other, ie, differences are in the very types of events, the
messages they convey, the reasons for their organization, but what they should
unite is the legal and moral similarity.

All in all, special events are something without which modern society can
not. The event is a means of communication that provides the opportunity for
the audience to afford something that they will experience to all senses and
thus create a complete impression. To organize themselves as a means of
promotion, sale or for humanitarian purposes, one thing is certain that it is
common purpose ie. the characteristic to leave the impression, be spectacular,
remain memorable, and whether it will really depend on the quality of their
organization.

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Chapter 3: Methodology of EVENT INDUSTRY

3.1 The emergence of the event industry

In scientific research papers dealing with the study of tourism events,


many authors have tried to specify the time of the event industry. A significant
part of the authors are connected with the emergence of this industry for the
commercialization of celebrations that demanded investments and earnings of
people who organized them, that is, tracking revenues and expenditures as well
as achieving a certain profit. In order to realize the profit, the organizers of the
celebrations began with the selection of certain elements of traditional festivals
and adjusted them to rational consumption. Great Britain is a good example of
a country that has recognized the importance of commercializing traditional
celebrations because its Monarchy and celebrations of the anniversary of the
most important historical events have a key role in the tradition, image and
culture of this country for hundreds of years.

Royal manifestations not only strengthen patriotic feelings and glorify


Monarchy itself but also very successfully maintain UK's rating as one of the
most popular tourist destinations in the international tourism market, which
attracts millions of tourists from all over the world each year. According to
Rogers T., the beginnings of the event industry lie in political and religious
congresses and conventions of professional associations in America in the late
nineteenth century, although recognition has only occurred recently, in the mid
and second half of the 20th century. Author Shone also believes that the
recognition of this industry dates only thirty years back and in its discussion on
this topic analyzes the development of the place where trade was going through
history, which was conditioned by the development of adequate capacities:
from public halls (10th and 11th centuries) (13th century), guild houses (14th
century), tavern and cafeteria (17th century), meeting room (Café Royal and
Connaught Rooms in London) or meeting rooms within the hotel (19th century).
28
3.2 Structure of the event industry

The rapid development of events in the last decade has led to the
formation of a separate event industry, with its own experts, suppliers and
professional associations. The creation of a new industry required the
development of knowledge for better work, the development of training
programs and new occupations. The formation of the event industry coincides
with the globalization of markets and communications, which directly influenced
the nature of industry trends. The key components of the event industry are the
following segments:

• Event of the organization

• Event Management Companies

• Suppliers of the event industry

• National supervisory bodies

• Publications

• Training and training of event managers

3.3 The role of the event manager and his team

Event Management is one of the applications of project management in


the goal of designing and realizing various types of events, business and social,
or a combination of these two categories. It involves examining the internal
complexity of the brand, identifying the target group, designing the concept of
events, planning logistics, coordinating technical aspects, before the actual
realization. The organization of the event deals with a specialized event (event)

29
agency. The field of event management can be summarized as MICE -
meetings, incentives, conventions, exhibitions (meetings, incentives,
conventions, fairs). Analyzing the accomplished, after the realization of the
planned event, as well as ensuring the return of invested investments, became
significant guides in the field of event organization.

Event events by agencies and teams cover multiple areas - including


corporate events (promotion of new products, press conferences), marketing
programs (festive opening), special corporate events such as concerts, awards,
movie premiere, fashion shows, commercial events but also private
celebrations. Clients hire companies that handle the event management to
manage a certain amount of services for the given event, which at their
maximum includes all the creative, technical and logistic elements of the event
(or only some of them, depending on the client, expertise, and budget). Event
agencies perform those tasks for which the other party (the client) does not
have the necessary knowledge, skills or resources. This reduces costs and
costs time because the service provider does not need to invest additional
resources in expanding its own capacity or hiring new employees, and on the
other hand, it ensures quality and expertise. The services of the agencies are
equally beneficial both to large and small companies. Given that the
organization team takes on all the burden of responsibility with regard to the
given event, this would in practice mean that the stress to which the client is
exposed is minimized and this represents an immeasurable significant quality
of the services provided by the event team.

Event Management is the essential activity of event managers and event


agencies. The number of educational institutions that have the education of
event managers is increasing. Studies include the acquisition and acquisition
of organizational skills, technical knowledge, PR, marketing, advertising,
catering, logistics, scenography and decoration, human relations, law studies ,
risk management. An event manager is a person who plans and manages
activities related to the event's realization. He and his team are "behind the
scenes" to coordinate the event. They are involved in many more operations
than the planning and execution itself - brand building, marketing and
30
communication strategies. He is an expert on creative, technical and logistic
elements to help one event succeed. This includes event design, audiovisual
production, logistics, budget disposal, negotiation and certainly availability to
the client for other issues related to the realization of the planned event. In a
word, an event manager is a multidimensional profession. There are four event
management functions: planning, organizing, managing, and controlling.

Scheme no. 1: Functions and process of event management

PLANING ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT CONTROL

MANAGEMENT EVENTS

INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS MOTIVATION CORDINATION

Chapter 4: Setting the concept of events

Setting up the concept of events is something that is very important to


determine and perform before all stages. Professor Joe Goldblatt proposes that
before any aquatic operations, he develops the concept of events by answering
five key questions (5 W): WHY, WHO? , WHEN? , WHERE? , WHAT? . The
first step is to ask ourselves: "Why do we organize the event? "The answer to
this question must not be just one, but there must be a whole series of
convincing reasons that confirm the importance and cost-effectiveness of the

31
event. The second step is asking the question: "Who will be the stakeholders
at the event? The stakeholders are also internal and external stakeholders.
Internal stakeholders can be board of directors, committee members, staff,
elected leaders, guests and others. External stakeholders can be media,
politicians, bureaucrats and others who would invest in the event. Conducting
a solid research will help to increase the level of engagement of each of these
parties as well as for whom the event is being produced. The third step is "When
will the event be held?" "You need to ask yourself whether the desired time
frame is priced for the size of this event. If this time period is not adequate, you
may need to consider changing your plans or perhaps simply changing the
date. "When" can also specify "where". The fourth step in setting the concept
of the event involves the question:

"Where will the event be held"? The answer to this question can be in the
future and determine the further flow of the organization. The moment you clear
your desired event location, your job will become significantly lighter or far more
demanding. Due to this fact, the location of the event should be ascertained as
soon as it can, as it affects many subsequent decisions. The fifth and last
question is to determine, on the basis of the available facts, what the event is,
ie, which is its content and product. Aligning a product event with the needs,
aspirations, desires and expectations of your guests to meet the internal needs
of your organization is a difficult task. "What" must be carefully analyzed to
ensure "why", "who", "when", and "where" were united in this answer. Once the
answer to these five questions is answered, it must turn to thinking about how
the organization allocates scarce resources in such a way that it gives the
stakeholders the utmost benefit. SWOT (strengths-power, weaknesses,
weaknesses, opportunities- possibilities, threats-threats) analysis is a
comprehensive tool that will ensure that every step is considered
systematically.

32
4.1 SWOT analysis: finding strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats

Before planning the event, it is generally first to approach the SWOT


analysis in order to be able to support decision-making later on. SWOT analysis
serves to identify internal and external variables that could prevent the event
from reaching maximum success. Internal environment analysis (strengths and
weaknesses) - Internal strength and weaknesses should be assessed in each
business. It is clear that the business does not have to correct all the
weaknesses, nor should it be too much for the forces. The important question
is whether business must be limited to those chances where it has the
necessary strength or should consider the chances in which it may have to buy
or develop some strength. Sometimes business is bad, not because people
who work do not have enough strength, but because they do not work as a
team. Therefore, it is important to evaluate inter-departmental relationships as
part of the control of the internal environment.

Analysis of external environment (chances and hazards) - The business


unit must monitor the key factors in the macro environment (demographic -
economic, natural, technological, political - legal and socio - cultural) and
knowledgeable participants and micro - circuits (consumers, competitors,
distributors, dealers) that affect the ability to make a profit. A marketing
intelligence system for monitoring trends and significant achievements must be
established in the business unit. For each trend or achievement, management
must identify appropriate chances and hazards.

Strengths and weaknesses - The strengths and weaknesses of an event


are primarily considerations that can be observed even before it starts and ends
with the organization itself. They can be detected through focus groups or
through individual interviews with major stakeholders. If the weaknesses
outweigh the strength, ie the positive reasons for keeping the event, and there
is no reasonable way of removing them, it may not be necessary for the event
itself.

33
Table: 1 Possible strengths and weaknesses of the event

Strengths Weaknesses
good financing poor financing
good sponsorship potential there are no potential sponsors
well-trained staff poorly trained staff
number of volunteers a small number of volunteers
good relations with the media bad media relations
good location bad location
Source: Goldblatt, J.(2005): Special Events: Event Leadership for a New
World,John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, p. 45

Chances and hazards are two key factors that are generally presented
during or after the events, yet during the research process they should be
seriously treated. Chances represent potential benefits to the event without any
significant investment. One example would be that the year in which the event
will be held fits with the year of maintaining a significant date for the community,
etc. In this way, the event could benefit from additional funding, publicity or
other important resources by simply aligning it with a known and significant
manifestation. Benefit can also be seen as the emergence of a political figure,
that is, I will be a positive outcome event.

Dangers are activities that prevent the event from reaching maximum
success. The most obvious threat is time, but there are also political rapes that
can be at the same time defeating. Modern threat is the risk of terrorism. The
possibility of erupting violence at the event can prevent the arrival of people on
the same. The star of the evening canceled or does not appear at the event is
a significant threat to the success of the event. As is the case with strengths
and weaknesses, as well as opportunities and hazards, it is necessary to see if
it is necessary to continue with the organization. Threats should be carefully
considered with the advice of experts to determine how they can be restricted,
reduced or eliminated.

34
Table no: 2 Chances and hazards of the event

Chances Hazards
citizen's celebrations bad weather
promotion of chambers of commercepolitical turmoil
celebrities at the event violence and terrorism
close connection with the comforts drinking alcohol
winning elections location located in "bad end"
developing more loyal associates cancellation of celebration or non-
attendance
citizen's celebrations bad weather

Source: Goldblatt, J.(2005): Special Events: Event Leadership for a New World,
John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, p.46

35
4.2 Planning a special event

Special events are primarily events that take place in a planned manner.
These events have a predefined idea and goal that you want to reach. Planning
is a key item, ie. starting point for every well-organized event. Planning can
determine the outline details of the event itself, but it always comes with risk
and uncertainty, because all scenarios that can happen can never be foreseen.
Since special events are of great importance to businesses, because in this
way they significantly create their image in public, they often include special
events in their annual plans, at least they are made by powerful powerful firms
that hold to themselves. For such events, the budget is allocated in advance
and considered to be part of the business. Also, there are events that, unlike
those that are known to be realized during the business year, are organized ad
hoc in response to changes in the market. Such events are planned, today, for
tomorrow, so the situation is far more complicated because it must act quickly
and efficiently. The plan of a special event, like any other plan, defines the
following items:

• the goal that you want to achieve;

• the target group to which the event is intended;

• basic event data (date, micro and macro location);

• specification of the necessary financial and material resources;

• quality and quantity of necessary personnel;

• content and sequence of events;

36
• necessary permissions and approvals for event development;

• the type of marketing support is happening;

• possible event sponsors;

• possible media companies that would eventually follow the event;

• other.

Which of the activities will be involved in event planning depends on the


size and type of a particular event. Planing is a very complex item and requires
a whole range of operations. It functions on two levels - a strategy and a tactic.

STRATEGIC PLAN
Picture no. 1 Process of planning special events

Determining the vision and Formulating SMART goals


events mission events

Developing a strategy events Observation of internal and


external environment (SWOT
and PEST analysis)

Source: Bowdin, G.A.J. i McDonnell, I.(2001): Events Management, Great


Britain, p.23

37
Chapter 5: PROMOTION OF SPECIAL EVENTS

5.1 Integrated marketing communications

The success of a special event, regardless of its nature, will depend, in


the largest case, on promotion. Promoting is vital in creating awareness of the
existence of the event itself, the desire to participate, and the feelings that the
potential investment of time and money corresponds to the benefits that the
event provides. As the economy and society itself have been truncated, we can
identify many new challenges in creating it promotional strategies. A
promotional campaign can include a wide range of marketing tools or a
combination of several of them, depending on the type and need of the event
itself. Promotional techniques in the service of special events may include
advertising, public relations, cross promotions, etc. There are a number of
marketing tools that can be used for professional purposes. Among them are
flyers, brochures, advertisements, posters, postcards, street performances,
radio and television advertisements in striking terms, labels on buses, etc.

Advertising is the most dominant and traditional way of promoting


events. Although many watch advertising in print that includes newspapers or
magic, it can still appear in various forms that we come across on a daily basis.
Unlike advertising where it's primarily what you say about all of your
organization or event, public relations represent the marketing discipline of
creating a lot about organization, brand, event where the key thinking and
feeling of the auditorium is about it. The following is an accent on the
propaganda, outlining steps in the promotion of promotional strategies that can
be applied not only to events, but to all spheres of business in which promotion
is needed.

38
The main goal of integration is to increase the efficiency of marketing
communication by reducing the number of lost messages and increasing their
impact on the recipient. This is achieved by targeted approach in sending
messages to individual target groups, but in a consistent manner. Integrated
Marketing Communications (IMK) are the concept of marketing
communications planning, which recognizes the added value of a
comprehensive plan. Such a plan assesses the strategic roles of numerous
communication disciplines - such as, for example, propaganda, direct
marketing, sales promotion, public relations - and combines these disciplines
to achieve clarity, consistency and maximum impact through perfect integration
of messages.

An important novel the IMK concept brings into marketing


communication is the new approach to defining a promotional strategy in which
all individual strategies of promotional instruments are incorporated. For this
reason, IMK can be considered as a new strategic approach to marketing
communication. Given the variety of techniques that marketing experts have at
their disposal, The main marketing decision concerns choosing the promotional
mix that is needed to communicate with the target audience. A mix of marketing
communications (promotional mix) consists of seven main elements:

1. Propaganda (advertising) - any paid presentation of ideas or products in the


mainstream media (television, print, posters, cinema, and theater).

2. Sales promotion - an incentive given to consumers or business partners and


aimed at stimulating shopping.

3. Publicity - the representation of a product or a company, about which


information is provided through the media, and that media space or space is
not paid directly.

4. Sponsorship - linking a company or its products with an individual, event, or


organization.

39
5. Internet marketing - distribution of products, information and promotional
benefits for consumers or companies through internet technologies.

6. Personal sales - oral communication with potential counterparts whose aim


is to close the sale.

7. Direct marketing - the distribution of products, information and promotional


benefits to the target customers through interactive communication, in a way
that allows them to measure their reaction.

The application of the concept of integrated marketing communications


can lead to a more consistent and clearer positioning of companies and their
brands in consumer awareness.

5.2 Tourism events

While the tradition of the festival and events stretches along the entire
recorded history, over the past 30 years, the significance of such special events
has grown unimaginably. Today, special events have become so important that
they are considered unavoidable for the well-being and creation of identities of
organizations, businesses, communities, government agencies from local to
international ones. In the world, tourism events have already surpassed tourism
as an economic activity, and since the beginning of the 1980s, the 20th century
was mentioned as a special industry (event industry). Event industry is defined
as systematic planning, development and marketing of festivals and special
events, catalyst and image builder. What sets the event industry apart is the
diversity of tourist events in many places that tend to specialize in organizing
and host special events, which also bring about certain economic effects.

40
Throughout history, even today, special events have a significant position
in everyday life. Many exist in the same or similar form for hundreds of years.
This applies to festivals, sports events, exhibitions, fairs, etc. Many of the
festivals are a small religious or ritual aspect, and although the festival's festive
notes were different, music, dance and drama were their most important part.
Today, events are at the center of our culture and our lives more than ever
before. Globally, after increasing free time and standards, it has positively
influenced the development of everything related to events as a special kind of
entertainment. As a tourist resource, events are very important because they
attract visitors, thus increasing the average tourist spending as well as the
average length of stay, and thus also affect the return visits of tourists to a
particular destination. Different events have the ability to attract visitors out of
season, which allows longer use of available capacities and hence additional
tourism revenues.

The term "tour of events" includes various forms of tourism, such as


sports, cultural, business, rational, etc., but the focus is only on one aspect -
event or manifestation, as the occasion of the gathering of tourists. An
extrapolation of recent studies by IFE A (International Festivals and Events
Association) estimates that the special events industry around the world
encompasses 4-5 million regular festivals that are sufficiently organizational to
demand the support of the municipality, such as police, fire services, etc. This
number should be added to festivals that take place one or less than once a
year (Olympic Games, World Cup, etc.). We should also keep in mind all those
corporate celebrations, weddings, religious gatherings, school events and other
special events, and in this way we can see the unimaginably great influence of
this industry, measured in trillions of dollars.

The importance of special events to communities is multiple. This impact


was seen through cultural development, tourism development, image creation,
ie branding, and economic development. In order for communities to benefit
from these events, they must have a well-planned and implemented marketing
strategy. Only then these events become a unique means of attracting tourists,
that is, a successful tourist destination. As an important driver of tourism, the
41
events themselves are included in the development and marketing plans of
many destinations. The role and impact of planned events in tourism is of
growing importance for the destination's co-curse. Although it was established
just a few decades ago, the growth of the tourism sector of the event can be
described as spectacular. Thus, event management is a rapidly growing
professional field where tourists represent a potential market for planned events
and the tourism industry is a vital factor in their success and attractiveness.
Indicators around the world testify that festivals and special events in general,
among the most successful "tools" for tourism development. Special events
help to create a striking and memorable brand of destination (communities,
states, regions), unimaginable opportunities for its development, encourage
positive media attention, economic growth, and so also influence people's
linkage and contribute to the quality of the living locals. In an existing tourist
offer, tourism is a type of tourism that can contribute to increasing the volume
of tourism demand. Each community follows the process of identifying its
diversity, capacity, and heritage to have a unique event organized successfully.

5.3 Festivals, carnivals and other tourist attractions

In ancient times, the festivals were dedicated to the gods and to Herodotus,
there were many, both in Egypt and Greece, where four festivals were singled
out by significance: Olympic Games in Olympia, Pittsburgh Games in Delphi,
Story Games in Corinth and Germany games in Nemea. These festivals were
also organized in the form of "games", as one of the acts of the ancient Greeks
praised the deity was to give him the best athletic or metrical "performance". In
the Middle Ages, festivals have more secular character, because they were
celebrated by human rather than divine achievements. And then, as well as
later, they served to affirm local culture and tradition, offering the opportunity to
express the identity of the local community, but also to promote artists and
craftsmen. Nowadays, the purpose of the festival is significantly changed when
the tourist is noticed. economic significance of this type of event. Unlike festivals

42
that are primarily organized in the spirit of religious celebrations, seasonal
changes or others whose cultural significance, today's festivals are often
organized, ie, they are planned.

As already mentioned in the paper, different festivals and other special


events can be a powerful motive for tourism trends and the creation of a tourist
destination, which in turn brings a number of opportunities for development and
prosperity. The origin of this type of tourism is not a newer date, since the tourist
movements in order to visit certain festivals had existed since ancient times (as
is the case with the Olympic Games), but it is only due to such importance that
the tendency of even greater growth is attributed to it.

Event tourism, event tourism or event tourism includes journeys that are
primarily motivated by visiting events of cultural, artistic, entertaining and similar
nature and content. Earlier, as a generalization, the term special event was
used. Lately, you will always be using the sintagma festivals and events, which
in the first place emphasizes the importance of a festival event event. Festivals
have multiplied with the growth of mass tourism after the Second World War.
war. In the UK, almost 50% of art festivals started in the 1980s to encourage
more tourists to visit cities. Even festivals designed for members of the local
community bring curious tourists, and more and more of those events are
created for tourist purposes only. Tourism events are "an important motivator
for traveling and one of the most growing segments of the tourism industry.

It is conditioned by the ability of the event to help the level of tourist


attraction, media coverage and promotion of the city and destination for future
visitors "(Backman 1995). Although many of the festivals (events) are a form of
local social celebration, they play an important role in tourism. Special events
can not only attract visitors to the venue, but they can also contribute to
"creating a positive image of destiation, enriching the tourist experience, and
contributing to the extension of their life" (Baum Hagen, 1999). They encourage
a sense of community pride in a particular community and represent an
important potential for tourism development. The transfer of event
characteristics to the destination is so important, because these characteristics
43
"by their preference dominate the natural or physical features of space and the
identification of a tourist place" (Burns 1986).

Festivals also represent a window into the local community. Here, the local
population meets with tourists, which allows a kind of exchange of customs,
culture, helps to strengthen the identity of the community, self-confidence and
create a positive mood and connectivity. Festivals enhance the attractiveness
of the destination and bring more visitors to the city with a special interest in the
product, event, cultural heritage or tradition, which is celebrated with
frustrations and celebrations. Thanks to tourism, some of the once-abandoned
festivals (Venice Carnival) are being restored. While some festivals represent
the true festivities of the local community or, at least, have a candlestick, others
belong to the category of entertainment and spectacle. In this latter case, it is
not implicit, it is often not allowed that the audience is directly involved, as they
are intended for viewing only.

5.4 Strategy of tourism development in the territory of the


Republic of Serbia

Republic of Serbia, a land of inexhaustible tourist resources in terms of


natural beauty, cultural heritage, history, warm and hospitable spirit, with
emotion with proud and deep tradition, is a destination that could become very
significant on the tourist map of the world. As tourist habits and desires have
changed over time, demand is significantly directed to unexplored destinations,
travels where he primarily learns the culture of a nation, enjoys an active
holiday, visiting all those sites that best reflect the culture and identity of the
destination. Today's tourists want new experiences, interesting activities
through which they will learn the spirit and tradition of the places they visit. For
this reason, Serbia has great potential for tourism. Although there is no sea,
national parks, rivers, villages, lakes and spas are just a part of our country's
natural aorta and an ideal destination for leisure and entertainment. There are
30 mountain peaks, twenty lakes, four waterfalls and five national parks in the

44
tourist offer of Sbija. In recent years, rural tourism has become more and more
popular.

In Serbia, there are a large number of spas, which besides the conditions
for providing health services, represent the meat for rest, enjoyment and
relaxation. Along the mountains, the villages of Serbia are genuine ecological
oases. Due to favorable climatic conditions, clean air and good food, Serbian
villages attract more and more tourists. Visitors are especially enthusiastic
about the gastronomic skills of Serbian hosts. Nevertheless, one of the
important flavors on the road to tourist progress is that events represent a
unique way of presenting everything that makes the national identity of Serbia
- culture, customs, food, music, drink, tradition, unique spirit and temperament.

Tourism events are a type of tourism that can contribute to the increase
in the volume of tourist traffic, because events have a specific character and
content and represent a supplement to tourism in tourist destinations and
regions. They are the first on the list of tourist motives for the arrival of foreign
tourists to our country. That is why the tourism event is highlighted in the
"Tourism Development Strategy of Serbia" as a very important development
segment. Foreigners are particularly interested in events such as Exit in Novi
Sad, Guca Trumpet Festival or Beer Fest in Belgrade, which are complemented
by visits to the surrounding cultural and historical sites.

As it is primarily important for all activities to make a significant strategy


for understanding the current situation, potentials, advantages and
disadvantages, and based on that, to plan a plan for further actions that would
lead to the realization of the vision, hereinafter referred to as the "Tourism
Development Strategy on the territory of the Republic of Serbia "Adopted by
the Government of the Republic of Serbia. Based on the (part) strategy, we can
see the desired direction for retirement in terms of the development of the
Serbian truism. Although the Strategy, the tourism of the event, which is the
main subject of this paper, is not sufficiently emphasized, still recognizes its
potential and is included in one of the most important tourist products whose
development should be dealt with. SWOT analysis has shown great strength
45
and weaknesses for the development of the tourism industry in the coming
period. On this basis, there are a number of strategies for the future
development of the tourism industry, so it is necessary to determine which
strategic competitive advantages the Republic of Serbia can build its tourism
industry in the future.

It is known that today's global competition in this risk is no longer guided


only by the product criteria and the quality of the tourist offer in the narrow
sense. At the time of global communications and overall access to information,
and the development of products and various types of tourist offerings,
everyone is available so that they can be copied easily and quickly. However,
today's serious tourism policies, driven by the principles of the economy of
experience, are increasingly focused on building and fostering their own long-
term strategic potentials, behind which there are different offers and products
that are much more difficult to copy. As a result, they represent strategic
resources for success in the future. In this sense, the strategic potentials of the
Republic of Serbia for success in tourism are defined in the following way:

1. positive attitude of the population of the Republic of Serbia towards tourism,


openness, hospitality and strong emotional relationship that the guest receives
as a result of his stay in the Republic of Serbia;

2. the geostrategic position of the Republic of Serbia in several historical


cultural circles and with Belgrade, a city on two great rivers, representing the
still undiscovered tourist metropolis of South-eastern Europe;

3. great untapped potential of underground and above ground waters, starting


from the richness of thermal springs and traditional spas, to the Danube, Sava,
Tisa, Morava and other rivers, which make up a special tourist offer in this part
of Europe;

4. untouched areas of mountains, forests, agrarian support, vineyards and


hunting-fishing zones, whose images create a recognizable image of unique g
and contrasts of rich landscape;
46
5. rich archeological and architectural heritage, which testifies to the historical
significance and development of civilizations in the territory of the Republic of
Serbia, and especially the highly-valued historical and artistic heritage of
Serbian medieval monasteries and archaeological sites as the sources and
inspiration of Serbian statehood.

The main strategic shortcomings that the Re public authorities of Serbia


have to resolve is to the Republic of Serbia has achieved success in the
international tourist market:

1. On the international market, there is still no awareness of the Republic of


Serbia as a tourist destination, especially due to the fact that the country still
does not have a national tourist brand and has not yet formulated and
internationally commercialized recognizable tourist products based on the
system of experience as well as due to the very low budget for promotion of
tourism;

2. Lack of general acceptance of the national vision of tourism in the Republic


of Serbia, lack of local (regional) visions, and lack of tourist structure of tourism
of the Republic of Serbia based on the dominant experience;

3. Due to inadequate cooperation and coordination between ministries and


relevant stakeholders in tourism in the Republic of Serbia, the spatial and urban
regulations of most current and potential tourist destinations and centers are
still insufficiently articulated, insufficient protection and maintenance of the main
national, natural and cultural resources / attractions, illegal construction, as well
as non-enforcement of laws, control and penal policy in environmental incidents
(wild landfills);

4. insufficient awareness and understanding of the importance of the system of


turnaround experiences and the establishment of the entire value chain in most
of the present products of Serbian tourism;

47
5. Limited access to the Republic of Serbia, or certain of its tourist interest
areas, as a combined result of a small number of functional airports, the lack of
low-cost air carriers, or a small number of modern highways and general
neglect of road, railways and river infrastructure;

6. lack of internationally qualified hotel and tourist managers, staff in new


tourism occupations (animation, entertainment, events, theme parks,
interpreting centers, etc.), as well as low labor mobility and the inefficiency of
the employment system (seasonal work, flexible working hours sl.).

Bearing in mind the mentioned strategic potentials and identification of


the main shortcomings of the country, the Republic of Serbia can definitely take
over the responsibility for building its own recognizable competences in
tourism, offering the world various tourist products that combine attractive
natural, historical and social elements that surround the environment. All this
has to be connected with a recognizable Serbian living style that can best be
experienced in the culture environment of friendly people. Bearing all this in
mind, the Republic of Serbia should not offer predominantly identical tourism
products, but a large number of different tourism products originating from its
strategic longevity potential. It can be noted that they offer numerous reasons
for the arrival and stay of tourists, the Republic of Serbia is the best choice for
the second holiday of the year.

5.5 Principles of vision

They take into account the results of all conducted field surveys, the
following key values are noted that are the basis for determining the
development vision of tourism in the Republic of Serbia in the next ten-year
period:

48
1. accepting tourism as an effective instrument for inclusion in
international market competition and globalization;

2. Using the positive surprise factor, in order to show the Republic of


Serbia as new, innovative and different because it represents a new tourist
destination within the European framework;

3. Orientation of tourism development mostly to those contents and


initiatives that, with the smallest transaction cost, provide not only a place on
the tourist map of the world, but also make it different from the competition.

4. that tourism is a winning combination for everyone.

5.6 Reliance on strategic advantages

In the long run, the Republic of Serbia must build its competitiveness in
tourism on the following strategic advantages:

1. human potential;

2. a geostrategic position that provides the Republic of Serbia and


Belgrade a central place in the traffic flows of Europe;

3. natural potentials, first of all in terms of underground and above


ground waters, which give the Republic of Serbia a strong basis for recreation
in the future;

4. preserving the potential of mountains, forests and rural areas as a


source for creating new products and innovations in tourism;

49
5. rich archeological and architectural heritage with an emphasis on
monasteries, historical cities and traditional architecture which gives the
Republic of Serbia strong arguments for affirmation and presentation as a
destination with valuable historical and cultural heritage;

6. spiritual creativity and propensity to festivals, celebrities and other


events and events, which provides the Republic of Serbia with the opportunity
to present its own lifestyle.

5.7 Values that the Republic of Serbia should present

The chosen tourist vision should present the Republic of Serbia as a


country to the world:

1. who gladly accept guests from all over the world, with whom they establish
intimacy, understanding, tolerance, or personal and professional appreciation;

2. through tourism expresses its pride, identity, and all its cultural and historical
values and characteristics;

3. appreciating, and which is maximally dedicated to the preservation and


protection of all its natural and cultural goods;

4. Which international market accepts as a safe, interesting, authentic and


above all a clean tourist destination with a recognizable identity;

5. which counts on different products in tourism, derived from the rich and
evenly distributed resource base and structure of attractions, with the goal of
being employed throughout the year;

50
6. whose populations, intellectual and political elites accept tourism and tourism
as an important factor of political integration, economic development and long-
term economic prosperity;

7. Being aware that well-being through tourism can not be achieved without
quality infrastructure and suprastructure, knowledge, education and new
technologies, or their transfer to all actors in tourism;

8. The active and innovative tourism policy of integral and sustainable


development in the next ten years significantly increases tourism turnover and
income and becomes a serious participant in the global tourism industry.

Since the central elements of the key attractions as well as the global
trends and opportunities for success in tourism in the Republic of Serbia have
already been indicated, the assessment of the solution in a real competitive
circle remains in relation to the chosen strategic tourism in tourism. It must be
noted that strategic positioning and the brand of the Republic of Serbia as a
tourist destination must stimulate interest in traveling to the Republic of Serbia
based on only a limited number of products, which are already ready or ready
for an international commercialization. First of all, it is about products:

1. City Breaks;
2. events ("Events");
3. Circuit tours ("Touring");
4. MICE;
5. Cruising;
6. special interests (smaller number).

Having everything exposed in mind, the key words for defining the
general brand of the Republic of Serbia should be:

1. Serbian culture;

51
2. People tend to party;
3. Serbian art and literature;
4. Hospitality of people with an open heart;
5. passion and pride;
6. a blend of traditional and modern.

This approach to the branding of the Republic of Serbia as a state should


contribute to the positioning of a general picture of the Republic of Serbia, with
a focus on the key spiritual and emotional values of people and a new Republic
of Serbia, created to give reasons not only for tourists to visit, but also and the
reasons for investors and the international community to support the Republic
of Serbia in its reforms.

Chapter 6 POTENTIAL AND THE IMPORTANCE OF


TOURISM OF EVENTS AT THE TERRITORY OF
SERBIA

Tourism is the key to the development of the world economy, that is,
Tourism - these are jobs, infrastructure and development. These tourism
definitions by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) best illustrate the
importance and changes that this economic activity brings to the world
economy. Tourism, therefore, has a huge but also growing importance for the
global economy, and especially for the economies of the developing countries.
That is why great attention is being paid to the military activity and invest
significant resources in the development of tourism. This specific branch of the
economy is the driving force for the development of other economic activities,
especially infrastructure and agriculture. The important characteristic of
tourism, in the light of the current economic crisis, is its potential to be the driver
of the economic recovery and the increase in the employment of the population.

52
Tourism is generally given an increasing importance, but also the
expectations of tourists are growing, as well as their desire for specific
experiences. This is where the special role of special events in contemporary
tourism is reflected. They are an integral part of tourism, but also an inseparable
part of human civilization since its creation. Therefore, events are a global
phenomenon that is increasingly gaining importance through the industry of
events. Potentials of Serbia in the field of tourism are very significant. This
particularly refers to the possibility of creating tourist offers prepared for
different categories of tourists and adapted to current world trends in tourism.

Exit festival
Source: www.exitfest.org

Events provide great opportunities for attracting tourists (domestic and


foreign) and the economic effects of their arrival, which are contained in the
number of trolleys, number of overnight stays, services used, consumption, etc.
According to the research of the Tourist Organization of Serbia (TOS), the
events are the first on the list of tourist motives for the arrival of foreign tourists
to our country. This is the reason why the tourism of the event is highlighted in
the "Strategy of Tourism Development of Serbia" as a very important segment
of tourism development in Serbia, but also as a comparative advantage of
domestic tourism. At the same time, they are an inseparable part of the tradition
of our people, but also a powerful means of attracting tourists to visit organized
events. Annually in Serbia there is an extremely large number of about 1000!

53
In relation to the number of inhabitants, we are certainly among the first in the
world, and the slogan is imposed - SERBIA LAND MANIFESTATION.

The advantages of Serbia are reflected in the following set of


parameters:
• Serbia's proximity to emitting tourism markets, primarily EU members;

• Affordable prices for visitors from abroad;

• Insufficient knowledge and attractiveness of Serbia as a tourist


destination;

• Variety of well-preserved natural and civilizational traits;

• Possibility to create favorable tourist arrangements for various types of


tourists (young people, seniors, families, business people, adventurers, etc.);

• Potentials of Belgrade as an attractive cultural - istrian destination, a


regional business center, and the world capital of entertainment (declared at
the end of 2009 by the famous tourist guide Lonely Planet);

• Great potential for City Break and Miny Break tourism;

• Attractiveness and global recognition of Serbian manifestations (which


every year
attracts an increasing number of visitors).

Based on these parameters, it is concluded that Serbia has an excellent


basis for the significant development of tourism events. In relation to many
countries that had to create their own and then develop their potentials if they
wanted to develop in the field of tourism events or tourism in general, Serbia is
a country with traditions in their maintenance and rich in natural and cultural
resources of tourist significance. However, these significant potentials are not
enough for the women to use or are misused.
54
The events, which represent one of the most important tourist resources
of Serbia, are not paid enough attention, as well as their organization and
romance. They are one of the most important tourist resources precisely
because of the large number of them that are held over the year and which
attract a significant number of both domestic and foreign tourists. Some Serbian
festivals such as Exit and Gua in recent years and the BeerFest Belgrade
BeerFest are already well known and popular in the world and the aim is to
continue this trend and expand it to other events that have been held in Serbia
for years Bad marketing strategies are not too well known within the country. In
order to increase the number of events worldwide, the task of domestic tourist
mediators is to raise organizational standards and promote attractive events
through a plan and a defined marketing strategy.

6.1 Festival Exit

Exit is a music festival that takes place once a year on the Petrovaradin
Fortress in Novi Sad, starting in 2000 and usually lasting four days. It is one of
the biggest music festivals in South East Europe. The Association of the
Seventy-Biggest European Festivals awarded Exit 2007 for the best music
festival of the year. Exit also supports a large number of social campaigns as
well as campaigns in the local community. It is estimated that 200,000 people
visit the festival each year and the music genres are: rock, pop, electronics,
hevi metal, hip hop, drum & bass, punk. The positive effects of such events can
be seen from the impressions of foreign visitors.

So some of the foreign visitors, at the end of the 11th. and Exit Festival,
interviewed by the reporter of the Novi Sad radio "021". Interviewed visitors
pointed out that their attendance to the festival helped them learn a lot about
Serbia and introduced some of its areas, people, food, and the impressions
were extremely positive. Interlocutors from England, Norway, Australia, brought

55
a good experience from festivals and stay in Novi Sad, guaranteed a return visit
to our country, so it is safe to say that such events are a great way to promote
the country and culture as well as to connect people. What is so important in
terms of promoting Serbia as a tempting tourist destination is that if the event
itself and their stay in Serbia were a positive experience for them, they will bring
the picture with them and their friends, impressions and observations, which
actually represents the best possible advertising.

Source: www.exitfest.org ethno that are shifted to about seven stages or popular
studios.

Chapter 7 POTENTIAL AND IMPORTANCE OF


TOURISM EVENTS IN VRNJAČKA BANJA

7.1 VRNJAČKA BANJA AS A TOURIST DESTINATION

The history of the use of mineral waters is in the deep past, at a time
when these Cretaceous settlements were inhabited by the Scordisci. After the
Roman conquest of the Balkans in the last centuries of the ancient era and
several centuries of the new era of mineral water, they were used for drinking
and bathing, as evidenced by the founding Roman source when capturing the
warm mineral water in 1924 and the numerous new figures with the figures of

56
the Roman Emperors. It is very likely that in the Middle Ages the new Slavic
Slavs knew about the healing properties of the Vrnjačka voda. After the Turkish
conquest of the Balkans, there is almost no information that the mineral water
has been in use, except in several unreliable legends that say that at the end
of their rule the Turks still knew about the healing properties of water and that
they were used as such. After the liberation from the Turks 19th century Prince
Milos hired a Saxon geologist Baron Herder to examine mineral resources in
Serbia, and so hot mineral water was tested.

There are reliable data that the people of the village of Vrnjac and the
environment used warm mineral water for treatment in the middle of the 19th
century; bathing and drinking was used by the bishop of Janja. Nevertheless,
the history of the modern spa in Vrnjci dates back to 1868, when Kruševac's
district chief Pavle Mutavdži visited several generations of well-being and
people from Kruševac, Karavnovac (Kraljevo) and Trstenik and formed the
Founding Foundation of Sour-Hot Water in Vrnjci. In the same year, the
excavation of two sources of warm mineral water was carried out and the
construction of spa facilities, primarily baths, began. The first season of 1869
confirmed the justification for the establishment of such an association and the
perspective of a new spa. After several years of stagnation due to the lack of
funds for the construction of the healthcare facility, and a bit of a failure of the
state, in the eighties, when the spa in Vrnjci was transferred to state hands, and
especially after the construction of the villa of General Jovan Belimarkovic, the
mayor of King Alexander Obrenovic, Vrnjacka Banja began to develop to a
modern health resort. In 1885, the People's Inn of Koste Petrovića-Rakice was
operating as a real catering facility. The precious people from the surrounding
cities raise their villas and guesthouses, the central spa zone is being arranged,
and in the mid-1990s the first regulation plan of Vrnjacka Banja was made.

57
Vrnjacka Banja in the 30's of the last century
Source: http://www.vrnjackabanja.co.rs

The number of visitors has grown from year to year. Order the spa
experience in the years before the Balkan wars. Vrnjačka Banja then received
a large number of modern guesthouses, a new bathroom was built, a cinema
was in operation, and the construction of the other was in preparation. Prior to
the wars near Vrnjacka Banja, Stala-Pozega railroad passed, so Banja got
good traffic connections, with most of the bigger cities in Serbia. Stagnation
affects Vrnjacka Banja in the wars of 1912/18. In 1915 there were several Allied
hospitals housed in spa pensions and resting stumps. After the First World War,
a rapid rise was recorded, whose peak will be reached in the late 1930s.

The flight did not apply even in the years of the economic crisis: modern
villas, sanatoriums (St. George, Zivadinovi}, were built), a large sewage of
warm mineral spring 1924/25 was made. Modern bathroom was erected, the
regulation of the Vrnjacka river was executed, the park parks were erected, the
parks were constructed, and the water supply and sewage network was
expanded. According to the 1933 census, there were 133 crafts and shops in
Vrnjacka Banja. Buoy and cultural life, kermes, concerts of serious music are
organized, and renowned theaters. The Tourist Company "Go" is being

58
established, and after the adoption of the Law on Spas there is a strict
categorization of boarding houses and villas, which according to the census
from 1935 was 257. That year there was a visit of 28,080 guests, which was by
far the most in relation to all other tourist sites in Yugoslavia. After the Second
World War, the structure of guests changed: now the state sends patients to
treatment, the level of services has dropped, a large number of exclusive spa
facilities were no longer operational. The renewal of Vrnjacka Banja was
experienced in the fifties and sixties with an increase in the number of visitors
and the construction of new facilities. The biggest visit to Banja was in the
1980s - close to 200,000 p sensors that made two million overnight stays.

7.2 Characteristics of the spa destination

Vrnjacka Banja is the economic, political and cultural center of the


municipality and covers a space of 239 km2, inhabited by 27,332 inhabitants,
which are spatially located in 13 settlements and one municipal center. 76 It is
located in the central part of the Republic of Serbia at 43 ° 37 'north latitude and
20 ° 54' east longitude along the Green Line, about 200 km south of Belgrade
on the Kraljevo-Krusevac corridor corridor. Spacious, Vrnjacka spa belongs to
a group of smaller municipalities in Serbia. Banja Spa is ranked as the first
category of tourist destinations in Serbia.

In direct territorial contact with the municipalities of Kraljevo, Trstenik


and Aleksandrovac. Vrnjacka Banja belongs territorially to the Raska District,
where there are also Raska, Novi Pazar and Tutin, whose administrative and
political center is Kraljevo. The spa settlement is partly located on the wooded
slopes of the mountain Go, which are slightly waved towards the West Morava
and partly in the pitiful valleys of Vrnjačka and Lipovačka rivers. Depending on
the position of some parts of the settlement, the altitude ranges from 220 to
300m. From the south, east and west it is sheltered by mountain Goc and its
slopes while protecting the woman from the north with the wreaths of Gledić

59
Mountains. The mountain range of the Vrnjacka Spa, with the Goc mountain, is
part of the huge forest and mountain complex of Kopaonik, which represents
the hinterland of Vrnjacka Banja and extends to the south. In addition to Goc,
there are mountains Zeljin, Jasterbac and Stolovi.

The climate of the Vrnjacka Spa is another in the series of trumpets that
this destination possesses. The main destination in the summer days is for
many families with children, elderly people, middle-aged people, and
increasingly younger populations due to the moderate-continental climate. The
influence of the nearby mountains gives the micro climate of the Vrnjačka spa
a special character and makes it very pleasant. The years are moderately warm
with fresh tomorrows and evenings, and the winters are snowy and free of frost.
The mean annual temperature is 10.6 ° C (winter -0.5 ° C, in the spring 10.5 °
C, flying 20 ° C, in the autumn 11.4 ° C). Warm weather with a temperature of
more than 15 ° C lasts 5 months. Air pressure is directly related to air
temperature. The mean annual pressure will be around 989.3 mbar. The
average relative humidity of the air is quite high 78%.

The most complete month is August and wetter December. In terms of


precipitation, the Vrnjačka spa belongs to the continental pluviometric regime,
since it has the maximum precipitation in the spring and the minimum in the
summer. The number of precipitation days is 152. A large amount of
precipitation is excreted in the form of snow. The average snow cover duration
is 50 days. In the area of the municipality of Vrnjačka Banja, a hydrographic
network has been developed, which makes a large number of rivers, streams,
and sources. The municipality's area is rich in water. The largest river of
Vrnjacka River is the Western Morava, which is about 20 km in length across
the Vrnjacka municipality. Through Vrnjacka itself itself, two rivers flow:
Vrnjacka Reka, which belongs to the West Morava River Basin and the
Lipovacka River, which is a tributary of the Vrnjacka River.

At the 10 km from Vrnjacka Banja, near the village of Podunavci, there


is a region of the Danube bars, created by the exploitation of gravel. As found
near the Western Sea, spontaneously the gravel was filled with water. 22 ponds
60
are registered, whose water surface is about 24 ha, while the total complex
extends to approximately 50 ha of surface area. The water in the bars is
chemically unpolluted. Danube pubs today use only fishermen because they
are rich in fish. Great activities are needed to make these damaged or deformed
areas reactivate and put into service and benefit people and regions as a whole.
At the pier is an expedient solution that will valorize these areas, where some
natural elements have already been restored, and create a valuable
recreational and tourism potential, which will complement the tourist offer of
Vrnjacka Banja, as well as the development of rural tourism in Podunavci.

What Vrnjacka spa makes is really special is the fact that in relatively
small area there are seven sources of healing waters that satisfy scientifically
established standards. They imply that these waters have a source of over 1 g
per liter of solid matter, biologically active microelements and free soluble
gases. These waters fit into standards related to a certain temperature and
radioactivity, and are considered to be very suitable for use in the treatment
and therapy of humans. Famous sources of healing waters in Vrnjacka Banja
are:

 Warm mineral spring, located in the spa core, and is known as the
source of Warm Water,
 Snežnik, which is in the Vrnjačka river zone, Slatina in the Lipovačka
river zone,
 spring Lake in the spa park, White spring near the Lipovačka river,
 source Borjak, located 700m from Snežnik, and Vrnjacka Banja spring.

61
7.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM EVENTS FOR
VRNJACKA BANJA

Although they were created a few decades ago, tourist events in the
world are becoming more numerous and their impact on the development of
tourism is becoming more and more important. The characteristic of the event
as a tourist product is an effective adaptation to the demands of the market,
regardless of the state of existing resources in tourism. When a country sets a
goal to develop local units or equal regional imbalance in the development of
tourism, it will often focus on the development of this product that does not
require large investments and no significant resources. Thanks to events in the
tourism industry, seasonality can be reduced, and the revenue from tourism at
local and national levels can be significantly increased. Studies by many
authors who have studied tourism events have shown that central factors
depend on the successful integration of individual events into the general brand
of destination: the differentiation of events, the tradition that is associated with
them, the joint planning of key actors and media support.

From the point of view of tourism, an important feature of the event is


attracting great media attention that opens the possibility for a wider auditorium
to discover much more the area of the city in which the event occurs, and thus
results in a long-term improvement of the tourist image and commitment of the
destination. The special importance of such events was seen by people from
the Tourist and Sports Center of Vrnjačka Banja creating events from which the
Carnival of Vrnjci and then The Love Fest were developed, for a short time they
developed into one of the most visited in the country, realizing its primary
purpose, which is the tourist development destination and turn in her image.
Every year, Vrnjacka events gather an increasing number of participants, as
well as visitors and journalists. This leads to full filling of accommodation
capacities, which increases the profit of the budget of the Municipality of
Vrnjačka Banja, as well as the promotion of Vrnjačka Banja and its tourist offer.

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During the carnival days, and after that, you can see newspaper articles and
hear statements about the performance of Vrnjacki carnival, as well as the
tourist offer, the beauty and potentials of Vrnjacka Banja. It is such a
commercial, when witnesses of the events convey their experiences and
impressions, and thus the wider circle of potential guests is also the most
important for each destination. The proof of the good organization and
performance of the special dignity such as the Vrnjacki Carnival is the award
"Tourist Flower", which is awarded in the category for the best tourist event.
This award is given by the Tourist Organization of Serbia.

In order to enable the quality development of tourism events in Vrnjacka


Banja, one of the prerequisites is to use contemporary research and constant
market research in order to recognize and adequately respond to changes in
the needs of tourists in order to attract them and retention of their interest.
Presenting and analyzing the potential of tourism events for the overall tourism
development and progress of the Municipality of Vrnjačka Banja, this paper
presents the enormous importance that this segment of tourism has in overall
tourism development in this destination.

7.4 Existing events in Vrnjacka Banja

The cultural life of the Spa is rich in a variety of events, a series of cultural
programs and events from the most diverse areas of culture, such as literature,
theater, film, music, fine arts, During the great part of the year, Vrnjacka Banja
is a stage of imaginative events, which bring a large number of people to this
tourist place from both the country and the region, as well as from the distant
countries. Culture takes a significant place in the tourist development of
Vrnjacka Banja. During the year, a large number of events and various events
from all spheres of culture and art are held in the banner: literary books and
book promotions, theater performances, numerous painting exhibitions,
concerts of different genre content, film screenings, etc.

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The organization of cultural events is in the hands of the Cultural Center
Vrnjacka Banja. The founder of the Cultural Center is the Municipal Assembly
and he represents the public institution. It has several cultural cultural
institutions: Culture Castle, Amphitheater with an area of 900 m 2 and has 2,000
seats, a theater and cinema hall with a capacity of 300 seats and an area of
approximately 700 m 2, the National Library. The Cultural Center as a public
institution has the following competencies: Protection of cultural assets, natural
and other sights; The activity of the native museum, galleries and museum
collections; The work of art institutions; Artistic and literary creativity, as well as
creativity in the field of performing arts; Cinematography and video production
and distribution; Publishing books, brochures and magazines and other
activities. Under the cover of "For hundred days of events", the Cultural Center
organizes one of the most important events in the field of culture in Serbia "The
Return of a Cultural Festival". The program of this manifestation consists of:

International Classical Music Festival (numerous concerts and


educational program with violin and chamber music courses), Literary Year
(literary portraits of writers, promotions of books, manifestations and winners of
literary awards, discussions with various topics related to social sciences,
history, philosophy, theology, politics, etc.) Festival of Fine Arts (Center for
Contemporary Graphics, Synthesis Program, Festival of Landscapes, Summer
Academy of Fine Art, Sculpture Symposium, Biennial of Sculpture), Theater
Days of Serbian Theater (revue performances from the repertoire of Serbian
theaters with premiere of theater hits, drama classics and a vanguard
performance, acting portraits, etc.) Film Scenario Festival (Presentation of
current film achievements, Awarding of film screenplay, Symposium on
Screenplay, Summer School of Film Dramaturgy).

Other cultural events (events on the promenade, the setting of museum


collections, theater performances, film and music festival on the summer
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stage). The center of cultural events in Vrnjačka Banja is the Castle of Culture,
located in the Castle "Belimarković". The area of the castle is 800 m2 and within
it there are: exhibition space, gallery, local museum and archives of the
museum. It has a rich cultural and artistic life - concerts of classical music, book
promotions, drama collages, various lectures, schools and academies are
organized. The Zava Tea Museum has three permanent settings: Landrišče -
the prehistory of Vrnjac, the ethnographic heritage of Vrnjacka Banja and the
memorial room of the general of Belimarkovic.

Castle of culture
Source: evrnjackabanja.com

The most famous reindeer event, certainly, is the Grand International


Carnival, which turns Vrnjacka Banja Street from year to year into a colorful
mask, a stage of play and songs, performances, costumes and parties.

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In addition to the already mentioned in Vrnjacka Banja, a number of other
events that decorate its cultural milieu and make life in Banja are unusual for
such a small place. The rehearsal of the spa is proud to host the whole range
of events, of which the most popular are Lo V Fest, Festival of Film Scripts,
Longest Kiss, Valentine's Day, Night Museums, a multitude of sports
tournaments, then Festival of Flowers, Honey Festival, Book Fair, concerts and
others. Of these, it is surely the most important Love Fest that will be discussed
in the future.

7.5 Love Fest - promotion of music, art and urba rather than
youth culture

The Love festival


Source : lovefest.org

The Music Festival in Vrnjacka Banja under the title - The Love Festival
- has been in existence since 2007 and is held on the Summer stage, an open
amphitheater from the 1950s, an ideal place for festivals. It is 100 meters above
sea level and has a capacity of 3,000 visitors. The festival was created in 2007,
and since the city party held this summer in just over a year, it has grown into
a musical, and today the biggest youth festival in central Serbia. Over the
course of seven years, some of the most famous names in the world of

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electronic music came to the festival. Various music directions are on the
festival, and a special light motive is the promotion of electronic music in the
central part of Serbia. The idea of organizing the festival was born in 2006 and
the cause was the lack of cultural events in central Serbia. Since then, great
support for the festival has been provided by the Municipality of Vrnjačka Banja,
Tourist Organization, Special Hospital Merkur, as well as the media from all
over Serbia.

The idea for the name "LoveFest" stems from the fact that Vrnjacka Spa
is slowly becoming the destination of love couples, because there is also the
MoE of Love, unique in Serbia, where the first party is organized, precedes the
festival. Love as the driving force and inspiration of the organizer influenced the
decision that The Love Festival from 2011 instead of 2 last 3 days and that the
LoveFest Camp, situated near Vrnjacki Lake, with the help of the Municipality
of Vrnjacka Banja provide visitors with a perfect enjoyment in nature, music and
culture. After a great success in organizing LoveFest, a group of socially active,
young people, in April 2009 decided to establish the Association of Citizens
"LoveFest Vrnjacka Banja" and thus directly participates in the creation of social
events and actions, thus contributing development of the region, but also of the
entire social order in the Republic of Serbia.

The Association of Citizens "LoveFest Vrnjačka Banja" is a non-


governmental, non-profit association that is committed to solving the basic
problems of citizens, social groups and the entire society in Serbia. It is focused
on organizing activities that contribute to the development of democracy and
the achievement of equality and solidarity among people, with an emphasis on
actions that have humanitarian, social, ecological, cultural, educational, sports
and similar character. In addition to The Love Festival, which has become a
traditional, Association of Citizens "LoveFest Vrnjacka Banja "in 2010
organized humanitarian actions" Food for All ", donation to the National Cuisine
in Vrnjacka Banja and the HIV Prevention Campaign in cooperation with the
youth of JAZAS.

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Love fest, in a very short time from the party, became a local community
organization, which was nominated for the prestigious UK Festival Awards this
year. The Love Fest from Vrnjacka Banja is competing along with the most
famous festivals for the best world festival. UK Festival Awards nominated
Lovefest for the best festival outside the UK. He found himself in the race with
the top 50 with veteran music events such as Tomorrowland, Burning Man,
Ultra Music Festival, Rock in Rio, Ibiza Rocks and many others. The Love
Festival has made a complete turn in the eventual offer of Vrnjacka Banja.
Although this festival was primarily organized for the local youth who wanted
this sound and energy, nobody could have imagined the popularity of the
situation. For several thousand young people Vrnjacka Banja is the main
destination in August, and a great part of them remains after the festival in order
to rest and enjoy everything that the Spa can offer.

Based on the facts and experience, we conclude that such a festival is


of great importance for tourism and creating an image of this destination.
Because of the fairy-tale location, the brilliant energy, the message it carries
and the excellent music, but also the fact that this festival with him and Vrnjacka
Banja are mentioned on the British site http://www.festivalawards.com, will
surely find the way to more wider audience. It is worth mentioning that the
organizers of this festival have been organizing for the second year in a row a
promotional party called Love District, which they plan to expand to the
countries of the region, thus showing the shared atmosphere of this festival,
which has already already decided to visit many Vrnjacka Banja and attend the
main event.

Vrnjacki Carnival with Guca and Exit is the biggest tourist event in Serbia
and certainly represents the crown of events during the season. This event
brings together over 200,000 visitors. During one week in July, Vrnjacka Banja
is one big scene where a great number of masks, festival of exhibitions,
concerts, theater performances, sports events are held, and certainly the
central event of the carnival is the "Big International Carnival Parade". A large
number of carnival groups from all over the veto guarantee good entertainment
and spending these days. From year to year, Carnival brings together an
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increasing number of participants and visitors from both the country and the
rest of the world. The recognition for the previous work is "Tourist Flower" for
the best tourist event. This prestigious award is awarded by the T urist
organization of Serbia with the support of the Ministry of Trade, Tourism and
Services. Since the founding of a modern spa in Vrnjci, which dates back to
1868, the Vrnjacians have attached great importance to bales, masquerades,
cermes. This spirit has remained to this day.

The date of the founding (July 14th) of the first tourist organization in the
Balkans (The founding foundation society of hot water in Vrnjci) was taken as
the reason for the establishment of an event called "Vrnjacki Carnival". Carnival
events are the dates of the week that are related to this date. In addition to
cermes and other entertainment, masquerades were certainly the most visited
events of that era. In the 50's and 60's of the last century, hotels "Sloboda",
"Zvezda" and "ROPS" were the organizers of these events during which they
were proclaimed best masks. In the '80s, this role was taken over by the coffee
"Lipa" and with a couple of organized masks continued the tradition of masks
in Vrnjacka Banja. The 90s were masquerading organized in the cafe "Elegant
Draskovic" with numerous performances, acting schools, musical workshops.
In 2002, it was the first year of the organization of masks in the cafe "Savka",
and since then, this kind of event has been traditionally held every year.

According to the old Vrnjci in the early 60's, Vrnjacka Banja became a
carnival city. During the following years, several carnival parades were
organized, but unfortunately soon after the act they lost their significance and
slowly went to oblivion, until the Tourist Sport Center "Vrnjačka Banja" takes
the initiative and establishes "International Vrnjacki Carnival". The first
"International Vrnjacki Carnival" was held in the period from 12.07. until
17.07.20 05. and has united over 40 different entertainment, cultural and
sporting events. The central event of the Vrnjacka Carnival is a great
INTERNATIONAL CARNIVAL POVERTY which in 2005 brought together 34
carnival groups from the country and abroad. Carnival procession counted
more than 1,500 participants. Already during the second Carnival, a children's
carnival procession was formed, and the Vrnjacki Carnival became a member
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of the Federation of European Carnival Cities (FECC). The Carnival Carnival
takes a significant place in the calendar of world carnival events.

Vrnjacka Banja is now one of the most important events in the country,
whose central event is certainly the Carnival Process when Vrnjačka Banja
becomes the carnival capital of Europe. Audiences, visitors and guests are
presenting about 35 carnival groups from Serbia and abroad. Vrnjacka Banja
is then crowded with visitors, overcrowded capacities, and concerts and various
games are starting to change constantly. The days and nights that follow are
filled with carnival spirit. Vrnjacka Banja then becomes the capital of colors,
games, music and good entertainment. Music, theater and stand up comedy
groups are entertained by their carnival program, which lasts until deep into the
night.

7.5.1 Influence of Carnival on tourist development of Vrnjacka


Banja

The tourist offer of Vrnjacka Banja in the period before 2005 was largely
uniform and attracted mostly the same category of visitors. Although during that
period there were events such as the traditional "Festival of Film Scenery",
"Return of the Cultural Festival", "Classical Music Festival", and according to
which musical concert, such an offer was not enough to attract visitors of all
ages which would remain in Vrnjacka Banja for a longer period. This destination
needed a tourist attractive, and therefore a profitable event that would become
the brand of Spa and provide an increase in length of stay. Orientation to the
wider category of visitors was the key to tourism progress. Thus, the employees
of the then Tourist Center Vrnjacka Banja, came to the idea of organizing a
carnival in Vrnjacka Banja, which would eventually become like that held in
Brazil. At the initiative of several employees of this company, in October 2004,
at the session of the Vrnjacka Banja Municipal Assembly, a proposal was made
for the maintenance of the first Vrnjacki carnival in the period from July 12 to
July 17, years.
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The entire organization was entrusted to the then Tourist-Sports Center,
with the help of the Vrnjacka Banja Municipality and the Ministry of Trade,
Tourism and Services. After successfully holding the first Vrnjačka carnival and
achieving the set goals regarding the visit, the decision was made to make this
a traditional event that would be held in the middle of July, the positive effect of
maintaining such an event was evident even after the first Vrnjacki carnival and
these positive effects are reflected in the following:

• Maintenance of such a tourist event undoubtedly contributes to the


improvement of the quality of the tourist offer of Vrnjacka Banja, because
beside the primary motive of the visit (visit to the destination) there is an
additional motive that will enrich the experience and very likely to extend the
time of stay.

• The organization of cultural and tourist events plays an important role in


attracting visitors and tourists who visit cultural and tourist sites for the first time,
while on the other hand, the presentation and interpretation of heritage through
the organization of events, as accompanying contents, adds value to cultural
sites and in terms of increasing the visit.

• Vrnjacki Carnival is an international carnival where participants from different


countries show their carnival but also national identity. In this way, the
participants have the opportunity to get acquainted with the elements of the
culture of this local community, that is, destinations. Primary elements of the
relentless event are elements of the immaterial culture, such as: music, poem,
play, customs, costumes and the act of living of the local population. This is
very important precisely because the event is international and the participants
themselves are potential guests who will share their positive experience with
their friends, family, acquaintances.

• As the main carnival events are mostly a visitor's reservation for evening
classes, tourists are free to spend their time on other interesting activities such
as wellness centers, open and closed pools, visits to cafes and restaurants, or
a ferry ride through a ban park. All this contributes to the fact that exactly in
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these carnival days, Vrnjacka Banja has an increased income. Especially in the
evening when carnival events are in full swing, additional growth of sales of
services and products to tourists is realized, and thus makes this event
significant for the tourist and economic development of the local community.

Vrnjacka Banja has been a leading Serbian spa destination for decades
and, as such, attracts a large number of tourists seeking eagerness, a
psychiatric revival, and those whose motive is the healing of various diseases
for which healing medicines are provided with thermomineral water or a stay in
a specialized hospital "Merkur" . With this image of the Vrnjačka spa, as it has
already been mentioned in the paper, for years attracted a fairly uniform profile
of tourists. What was needed was the fashion of the offer and the attraction of
visitors to all ages. The classic spa offer had to be modernized and got a fun
character that would provide greater visibility, but changing the image and
attitude, primarily in the younger population, is of utmost importance, that the
spa is the sole destination for the elderly or the sick.

What was needed was to look at Banja as well as the investment and
tourist destination and to make the most of the cultural identity of the city.
Tradition, cultural and tourist events must be more efficiently used, ie used as
a means in the branding process. Cultural and artistic facilities combined with
tourist attractions and events are very strong instruments for branding the site.
In order for the city / city to get new and / or reflect the old "du h", it is necessary
to create storms and create new "myths" about the city, new events in which
the locality will be recognizable even in wider contexts. Local "attractions" can
be material objects and things, but also events / events that are interesting and
interesting in nature. By organizing cultural and tourist events in public places,
collective feelings should be encouraged and collective awareness of the place
of belonging (topophilia) should be created. Before managers in charge of city
marketing there are great opportunities to create "image and myth" that will
make the city different from other sites.

This gave rise to the idea of organizing an event that would surely attract
tourists of all ages and profiles and which could become a new feature of
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Vrnjačka Banja as a destination that seeks to progress and modernize its offer
- Vrnjačka carnival. The organizers found the idea for this event in kermes
(something similar to charity bazaars when actors performed on the streets,
caterers cooked wine and brandy, and all the money collected was charity) and
masquerades that were held in the streets of the streets in the past. The return
of the carnival as we know it today was organized only in 2005 and since then
has attracted an increasing number of visitors and participants.

The organization of this event turned out to be the right move because
not only did the number of tourists increase significantly, it covered all targeted
tourist groups, but the main intention was just achieved, which is the change of
image and the creation of the Vrnjačka carnival as a brand of a new modern
spa. The carnival itself was a springboard for many of the events that followed,
aimed at attracting young people and creating a variety of entertaining deals.
Vrnjacki carnival is a positive example of the so-called city branding, which will
surely year after year, as it develops, bring more benefits to Ban and enable it
to become an atractive destination to tourists both outside the country.

7.5.2 Visiting during Carnival

According to the Calendar of events of the Tourist Organization of Serbia


and the Internet portal www.manifestacije.com annually in Serbia there are
about 1,800 tourists of attractive events that are most similar to each other,
economically and tourists are unsustainable, they do not have information on
the number and structure of visitors and they are not rare incompatible with
strategic goals and priorities at the local and national levels. The largest number
of such events is held in July and August, they are mostly local in nature and
average visits range from 10,000 to 50,000 visitors. The most frequent age
structure of visitors is between 18 and 25 years for individual and 25 to 55 years
for group visits. The main motive for the arrival of a tourist is the presence at

73
the event itself, while the secondary relates to the attraction of events,
gastronomy and nightlife.

With the problem of the lack of records on the official number and
structure of visitors, this event is also a big disadvantage, since its development
and the influence on the change in the tourist segments that visit it can not be
fully monitored in this regard. What is certain is that in those days Vrnjacka
Banja is visited by members of all age groups because the content of the
program is adapted to different categories of audience.

7.6 Survey: Testing the Importance of Tourism Event

The behavior of consumers in tourism is stimulated and motivated by


numerous economic, demographic, sociological, psychological, political and
other factors and reasons that are almost impossible to control completely,
therefore it is necessary for the tourist enterprise to find out and determine the
main motives and other factors that affect the behavior of tourists and adjust
marketing strategies and actions. The key way tourism companies learn about
consumers is to determine the facts (collecting and analyzing data) about their
past and present purchases and the extent to which they are satisfied with the
choice and quality of the tourist product. The subject of the study included the
analysis of attitudes of t urist in terms of the significance of the tourism event.

The aim of the research was to examine the significance, tourism of


events for a specific tourist destination, as well as the testing of tourist habits in
Serbia. The main motive of the survey is to investigate how much is a special
event (Vrnjacki carnival), an important reason for visiting a destination, as well
as examining the habits of visiting a local character. A survey was used to
collect relevant data. The investigator was specially created for the given
research and covered 5 questions closed by the type. The sample consisted of

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85 respondents and the survey was conducted through an on-line survey
respondents across Serbia.

The survey was attended by respondents of different ages (21-60) in


order to gain insight into the popularity and importance of tourism events. The
results showed that the interviewed group of respondents are happy to visit
local events and thus get to know their country. As the respondents from
different age groups participated in the survey, we can see that tourism is
something that attracts all ages.

Graph no. 1: Do you attend events of a local character?

To the first question: "Do you observe events of a local character," we


can see that 84.71% of the respondents, or 72, answered affirmatively, which
tells us that it is most likely that most of those who practice visit to happenings
of the local rocket. Only 15,29% of respondents, 13 responded that they did not
attend such events. 72 respondents out of 85 who belong to different age
groups, level of education, and payment powers are regular visitors of a local

75
event. This tells us that such events are of great tourist importance because
they attract all types of visitors.

Chart 2: Did you visit a place for the first time or decided on a trip due
to some event?

Answers to the second question also support this research, which seeks
to highlight the importance of events for the development of tourism. 76.19% of
them, due to some event, first visited a new place or decided to travel. Of the
85 participants in the survey, 64 respondents will find it easier to visit a new site
if there are tourist attractions such as festivals, concerts, carnivals and other
events taking place there. 23.81% ie 20 respondents chose not as an answer
while one respondent skipped this question.

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Chart No.3: Have you ever visited an event called "Return Carnival"
traditionally held in Vrnjačka Banja?

Based on the answer to the third survey question, we see a not so big
difference between those who are and those who have never visited an event
called "Vrnjačka carnival". Of the 85 respondents, 54 were those who visited
him and 31 still did it. Although Carnival visitors are still in the majority (63.53%),
it can be concluded that much more should be invested in the marketing of
Carnival itself in order to be heard more and then work on the constant
development of program content and thus attract more visitors.

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Graph 4: To what extent is the maintenance of this event a motive for
visiting Vrnjacka Banja?

Question no. 4. It was aimed at showing me where the Vrnjacki Carnival


is attractive to me. how important is the motive for visiting Vrnjacka Banja.
Thanks to the answers, we have come up with interesting results that show that
this event represents a very strong motive for the visit, but what is most
important is that it offers a kind of supplement to the offer. It can be a significant
stimulus for traveling, ie. something that will decide in choosing a destination
but does not present the main motivation for coming. This suggests that
Vrnjacka Banja is an attractive destination where events are an additional
motive for a visit and certainly a reason for prolonging their stay. In particular,

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for 21.43% and 18 of them, the presence of Carnival is the main motive for the
visit, while for 22.62% (19 respondents), staying at the destination is the main
motive for the visit. The largest number of those who believe that staying at the
destination and attending Carnival are equally important motive for the visit,
which is why we made the above conclusions. Five respondents believe that
Carnival does not contribute to the offer of Spa and one respondent skipped
this question.

Chart no. 5: Do you think that this type of events are a good way to
improve the tourist offer and the development of tourism in Serbia?

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The last question was aimed at rounding up this acronym and the key
answer is whether the events are a good way to improve the tourist offer and
the development of tourism in Serbia. The result of 97.62% (82 respondents
who answered the question affirmatively) compared to 2.38% (2 respondents
who chose a negative response), are convincingly a good way to improve the
offer and develop tourism. As already noted, this survey was filled out by
respondents of different age, level of education and payment power, so that the
answers represent an almost uniform view that events are something that
needs to be nurtured and promoted, thus contributing to the tourist
development of many places in Serbia.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Based on the results of this survey, we can find the importance of events
for the development of tourism. The positive effect of such events can be seen
from a variety of aspects, and one of them is the creation of loyalty. An event
like Vrnjacki carnival, can help the visitor additionally bind to a tourist
destination precisely because of the positive feelings and emotions that are
characteristic of such deferrals. A positive experience at the festival, if the stay
at the destination was such, is an additional satisfaction that will ensure a return
visit. It is considered that a higher level of visitor satisfaction will result in an
increase in loyalty, which will affect future visits, higher tolerance for higher
prices and improvement of the reputation of the destination itself.

For this reason, efforts must be made to improve the professionalism of


the employees in tourism, to improve the restaurant, accommodation and
cultural offer, to create a recognizable brand of products, with the ever-
increasing quality of the complete offer and services. In this way, the results will
not be absent and Vrnjacka Spa will regain its full luster and attract more and
more domestic and foreign visitors. Its positioning on the map of the more
important tourist destinations of the event requires a lot of effort, work and

80
investment, and it takes some time for all these requirements to be realized.
One thing is certain that Vrnjacka Spa is on the right track and that the events
of Vrnjacki Carnival are growing more and more year after year and that they
will only reach their full potential.

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Conclusion

From the point of view of the hypotheses from which we proceed, we


can conclude from the conclusion that the whole process of planning and
organizing, as well as the realization of special events is not a bit easy and
simple. For the successful realization of a special dog, first of all, it is necessary
to carry out extensive research, both the target groups and the concourse and
sponsors. It is necessary to conceptually conceive the whole event, to make a
mission and vision, to set goals, priorities and procedures, and present it all on
time to all potential partners, that is, stakeholders of the event. With this finding,
we confirmed that good organizers need good managers who will manage the
setting up and execution of events, as well as sponsors, of good promotional
activities, all in the service of creating a special companion that will be
presented to the desired auditorium.

The organization of special events from year to year becomes an


increasingly difficult task because competition is enormous, expectations are
getting bigger and more difficult to fulfill. That is why planning and creating an
event is a long-term process that requires, in addition to great effort, sacrifice,
team work and three basic elements that may be the key to a successful and
unforgettable event: fun, excitement, entrepreneurial. If the visitors of the event
have great fun, experience excitement and attend something unusual, this will
surely be a memory event that will achieve all the planned effects. From the
point of view of tourism, an important feature of the event is attracting great
media attention that opens the possibility for a wider auditorium to discover
much more the area of the city in which the event occurs, and thus results in a
long-term improvement of the tourist image and the destination of the
destination. Events not only attract tourists and influence the extension of their
stay in the destination, they provide the opportunity to overcome the seasonal
character of tourism. The maximum positive impact that an event may have on
positioning a destination on the market is accomplished by designing and
updating events that reflect the authenticity and unique characteristics of a
particular community. Traditionally, communities have always organized events

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for their social, cultural or sporting benefits and values. Serbia and Vrnjacka
Banja as one of its most important tourist destinations, are distinguished by the
richness of events that present an inexhaustible source and a huge p to the
development of tourism events.

Vrnjacki Carnival is a tourist product, which I will offer with my offer in


the most varied spheres of tourism, from culture and entertainment to sports
and education. Consequently, it has grown into a significant brand destination
that will further develop and expand its potential in the future. An event such as
The Love Festival is an event that has even grown out of a celebration of the
local event and became a brand for itself that began to be realized in the form
of parties organized in the capital and thus promoted this festival and the only
place. This type of promotion is something that gives clear results in the number
of visits, which increases from year to year. The most significant positive effect
of this event is the approaching of the spa destination for young people.

Events such as the Film Scene Festival and the Vrnjačka Cultural
Festival are events that best value the cultural wealth of the city, but require a
significant marketing strategy and the support of the Municipality in terms of
resources. In order to enable a further, high-quality development of tourism
events in Vrnjacka Banja, one of the preconditions is to use modern knowledge
in this field, but also recognizes the necessity of investing in research and
constant market research in order to recognize and adequately respond to
changes in the needs of tourists in order to attract and retain their interest.
Presenting and analyzing the wealth and potential of the events in Vrnjacka
Banja, this paper has proved the enormous importance that this segment of
tourism has in the overall development of tourism in this destination. On the
basis of the results of the survey, which is part of this paper, and which analyzed
in particular one of the most representative spa events: Vrnjacki Carnival, it has
been proven that Vrnjacka Banja as a tourist destination on the market is best
recognized by the nature of its natural beauty, history, culture and
manifestations, which again demonstrates that only comparable cultivation of
these resources can be achieved by the set goal.

83
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ANNEX: Survey

The impact of special events on the improvement of tourism in Vrnjacka Banja


1. Do you attend events of a local character?

2. Did you visit a place for the first time or decided on a trip due to an event?

Yes
Not

3. Have you ever visited an event called "Vrnjacki karneval" traditionally held in
Vrnjacka Banja?

Yes
Not

4. To what extent is the maintenance of this event a motive for visiting Vrnjacka
Banja?

Attending the Carnival - the main motive for the visit


Staying at the destination is the main motive of arrival
Both
Carnival does not contribute to Spa offer

5. Do you think that this kind of happenings are a way to promote a tourist
offers and development of tourism in Serbia?

Yes

Not

86