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HAVER NIAflow

Process Simulation Software

AGGREGATES / MINING
MANUAL
Release November 2016

Table of Contents
1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 6
1.1 General ............................................................................................................................. 6
1.2 Important Notes ................................................................................................................ 7
2 Software installation ................................................................................................................. 8
2.1 Operating system requirements ........................................................................................ 8
2.2 Registration procedure...................................................................................................... 8
2.3 First Login ....................................................................................................................... 10
2.4 Installation process ......................................................................................................... 12
2.5 Installation Problems....................................................................................................... 14
2.6 Language settings .......................................................................................................... 14
2.7 Installing software updates and releases ........................................................................ 14
2.8 Uninstalling the software ................................................................................................. 15
3 Software functions ................................................................................................................. 16
3.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 16
3.2 Starting ........................................................................................................................... 16
3.3 Configuration .................................................................................................................. 16
3.4 Function Tabs ................................................................................................................. 17
3.4.1 File 17
3.4.2 Project ................................................................................................................... 18
3.4.2.1 Project list ............................................................................................................ 18
3.4.2.2 Project Definition .................................................................................................. 19
3.4.2.3 Insert Project File ................................................................................................. 22
3.4.3 Flowsheet .............................................................................................................. 22
3.4.3.1 Label Layers ........................................................................................................ 22
3.4.3.2 Operation Mode ................................................................................................... 24
3.4.4 Edit 26
3.4.5 Tools...................................................................................................................... 26
3.4.5.1 Settings ................................................................................................................ 26
3.4.5.2 Customize print layout .......................................................................................... 28
3.4.6 Help ....................................................................................................................... 30
3.5 Object menu ................................................................................................................... 30
3.5.1 Object groups ........................................................................................................ 30
3.5.2 Object Introduction................................................................................................. 33
3.5.2.1 Store .................................................................................................................... 33
3.5.2.2 Convey ................................................................................................................. 43
3.5.2.3 Screen.................................................................................................................. 51
3.5.2.4 Crush ................................................................................................................... 59
3.5.2.5 Grind .................................................................................................................... 65
3.5.2.6 Sort ...................................................................................................................... 69
3.5.2.7 Wash .................................................................................................................... 77

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3.5.2.8 Slurry ................................................................................................................... 82
3.5.2.9 Dedust.................................................................................................................. 86
3.5.2.10 Mix/Pack .............................................................................................................. 90
3.5.2.11 Control ................................................................................................................. 93
3.5.2.12 Various ................................................................................................................. 98
3.6 Tool bar ........................................................................................................................ 103
3.7 Calculation Button......................................................................................................... 104
4 Tutorials ............................................................................................................................... 105
4.1 Three Stage limestone Quarry ...................................................................................... 105
4.1.1 Setup the project.................................................................................................. 105
4.1.2 Flowsheet ............................................................................................................ 105
4.1.3 Store: Stockpile.................................................................................................... 105
4.1.3.1 General .............................................................................................................. 107
4.1.3.2 Material .............................................................................................................. 107
4.1.4 Screen: 2 Deck Screen ........................................................................................ 109
4.1.4.1 General .............................................................................................................. 110
4.1.4.2 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 111
4.1.5 Crusher: Jaw Crusher .......................................................................................... 113
4.1.5.1 General .............................................................................................................. 113
4.1.5.2 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 114
4.1.5.3 Sieve Analysis .................................................................................................... 115
4.1.6 Setup Secondary ................................................................................................. 115
4.1.7 Cone Crusher ...................................................................................................... 119
4.1.7.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 119
4.1.8 Setup Tertiary (crushing and screening station) ................................................... 120
4.1.9 Visualization features of NIAFlow ........................................................................ 124
4.1.10 Validation of an object.......................................................................................... 131
4.1.11 Optimization and Print.......................................................................................... 134
4.2 Chamber Filter Press .................................................................................................... 142
4.2.1 Silo 142
4.2.1.1 Material .............................................................................................................. 142
4.2.1.2 Sieve Analysis .................................................................................................... 143
4.2.2 Water Tap ............................................................................................................ 145
4.2.2.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 145
4.2.3 Chamber Filter Press ........................................................................................... 146
4.2.3.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 146
4.2.4 Label Layers ........................................................................................................ 147

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4.3 Sand Washing .............................................................................................................. 151
4.3.1 Silo: 00.00............................................................................................................ 151
4.3.1.1 Material .............................................................................................................. 151
4.3.1.2 Sieve Analysis .................................................................................................... 152
4.3.1.3 Sorting Properties .............................................................................................. 154
4.3.2 Bucket Wheel: 01.00 ............................................................................................ 155
4.3.2.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 155
4.3.2.2 Cut Function ....................................................................................................... 155
4.3.3 Dewatering Screen: 02.00 ................................................................................... 156
4.3.3.1 General .............................................................................................................. 156
4.3.3.2 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 157
4.3.4 Hydro Cyclone: 07.00 .......................................................................................... 158
4.3.4.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 158
4.3.4.2 Cut Function ....................................................................................................... 158
4.3.5 Blade Clarifier: 08.00 ........................................................................................... 159
4.3.5.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 159
4.3.5.2 Cut Function ....................................................................................................... 159
4.3.6 Belt Filter Press: 09.00......................................................................................... 160
4.3.6.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 160
4.3.6.2 Cut Function ....................................................................................................... 160
4.3.7 Water Tap: 11.00 ................................................................................................. 161
4.3.7.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 161
4.3.8 Pond: 14.00 ......................................................................................................... 161
4.3.8.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 161
4.4 Fine Sand Recovery ..................................................................................................... 162
4.4.1 Stockpile: 01.00 ................................................................................................... 162
4.4.1.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 162
4.4.1.2 Material .............................................................................................................. 163
4.4.1.3 Sieve Analysis .................................................................................................... 163
4.4.1.4 Sorting Properties .............................................................................................. 165
4.4.2 Water tap: 02.00 .................................................................................................. 166
4.4.2.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 166
4.4.3 Screen: 03.00 ...................................................................................................... 166
4.4.3.1 General .............................................................................................................. 166
4.4.3.2 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 167
4.4.4 Upstream Sorter: 07.01........................................................................................ 168
4.4.4.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 168
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4.4.4.2 Cut Function ....................................................................................................... 168
4.4.5 Water Tap: 04.00 ................................................................................................. 169
4.4.5.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 169
4.4.6 Upstream Sorter 2: 07.02 ..................................................................................... 169
4.4.6.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 169
4.4.6.2 Cut Function ....................................................................................................... 170
4.4.7 Water Tap: 05.00 ................................................................................................. 170
4.4.7.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 170
4.4.8 Pond: 09.00 ......................................................................................................... 171
4.4.8.1 Sizing ................................................................................................................. 171
5 Glossary .............................................................................................................................. 172

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1 Introduction
With a team of qualified engineers and specialists, HAVER & BOECKER develops and produces
packing and screening machines for the raw material processing industry and offers innovative
solutions for packing, storing, logistics and mineral processing technology.
HAVER & BOECKER is a traditional family-led midsize company. Under a single roof the company
unifies the divisions of Wire Weaving and Machinery.
The Wire Weaving Division produces thousands of various types of wire mesh for screening,
filtration and measurement technology. The Machinery Division is the specialist for the sector of
packing and mineral processing technology. It produces and markets machines and plants for
filling and processing loose materials in bulk.
As an ambitious global supplier, HAVER & BOECKER constantly develops trend-setting products
and production processes that not only fulfil the needs of the market, but that are also optimized to
meet the needs of growing globalization. Also with the newest development of HAVER &
BOECKER, the process simulation software NIAflow.
NIAflow instantly analyzes existing or proposed processes; records plant statuses, and recognizes
potential for plant optimization. NIAflow supports the user in every engineering phase, from drafting
flow diagrams for product pre-calculation to plant start-up and simulating parameter changes.
NIAflow allows users to analyze more than 90 different process equipment pieces, from crushers
and vibrating screens to material washers and conveyers. Beyond equipment, the system uses
scientific-based methods to monitor the operation’s input, output and waste piles. The program
calculates the mass and volumetric flow rates as well as the valuable content with machine-specific
operating parameters.

Figure 1: NIAflow

1.1 General
In the following chapters the Process Simulation Software HAVER NIAflow
BASIC / AGGREGATES / MINING will be explained in detail.

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1.2 Important Notes
Liability
The maximum extent permitted by law, and notwithstanding anything to the contrary in
the contract, in no event shall HAVER & BOECKER be liable, whether as a result of
breach of contract, warranty, guarantee, indemnity, tort (including negligence), strict
liability, statutory duty or otherwise, for loss of profits or revenues, loss of use of
equipment, loss of production or downtime cost, loss of opportunity, loss of contract,
loss of goodwill, or consequential or punitive damage, in each case whether direct or
indirect, arising out of the use or the inability to use the software. This includes but is
not limited to the loss of data or loss of profit, even if HAVER & BOECKER was
advised of the possibility of such damages. In jurisdictions that limit the scope of or
preclude limitations or exclusion of remedies or damages, or of liability, such as liability
for gross negligence or willful misconduct or do not allow implied warranties to be
excluded, the limitation or exclusion of warranties, remedies, damages or liability set
forth herein is intended to apply to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law.
The Licensee may also have other rights that vary by state, country or other
jurisdiction.
HAVER & BOECKER shall not be liable for the loss of data and/or programs,
databases etc. through the installation of the software, especially if the loss is due to
the Licensee’s omission to use anti–virus software or implement backup strategies to
ensure the restoration of lost data. The plea of comparative negligence on the part of
the Licensee remains open to HAVER & BOECKER.

We reserve the right to effect technical changes due to enhancements of the NIAflow Software
dealt with in these operating instructions without making any changes to these instructions.

All rights in these operating instructions, in the enclosed drawings and other documents as well as
any power of disposal, such as the right to copy and to propagate, shall rest with HAVER &
BOECKER, also in case of any applications for industrial property rights.

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2 Software installation

2.1 Operating system requirements


Hardware: minimum screen resolution is 1280 x 800

Software: Microsoft Windows 7 (32 Bit) Service Package 1 and higher, Microsoft Framework 4.5.1

HAVER & BOECKER recommends that the designated hardware is permanently connected to the
internet.

For the proper use of the service package, a connection to the internet is in any case necessary at
least once a calendar month.

2.2 Registration procedure


Before the installation of NIAflow can be conducted, a registration is mandatory:
 To run the latest release of NIAflow
 To use the update function out of NIAflow
 Or to visit www.niaflow.com and download latest release

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The registration process can be done under www.niaflow.com. The „Sign up“ button has to be
used for doing so.

Figure 2: NIAflow online Window

After clicking “Sign up”, a form with personal questions has to be filled out.

Figure 3: User Details Window

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After finishing the form, a password has to be chosen and confirmed again.

Figure 4: Password for NIAflow login

At least a couple of check-marks has to be set.

Figure 5: Terms and Agreement Checkboxes


In the next step of the registration process, a e-mail will be sent out to the users’s e-mail account.
This e-mail will be simular to the one below. To finish the registration process, the link in the e-mail
needs to be clicked. The e-mail adrress and the registration data of the user are confirmed now
and the registration procedure is finished.

Figure 6: E-mail confirmation link

2.3 First Login


Login into a NIAflow account can be done under www.niaflow.com.

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Figure 7: NIAflow Login
After a successull login, the current release of NIAflow can be downloaded by following the
instructions.

Figure 8: Downloading NIAflow

First startup
 The computer needs to be connected to the internet to verify the licensing data.
 Should NIAflow have been installed under a different user account e.g. an admin
account the user needs to sign in with its regular account prior to start NIAflow.
Otherwise the licensing check may fail.
 The first startup may take a few minutes depending on your connection speed.

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2.4 Installation process
Table 2-1: Installation progress
No. Procedure Screen display under Windows 8
1 Call of the downloaded set-up
program "NIAflowSetup.msi“
→ Double click

3.2 Setup of the NIAflow software


→ Next

3.3 Insertion of the license agreement


for NIAflow installation
→ Next

3.4 Location for NIAflow program


package
→ Next

3.5 Message during the installation of


the NIAflow software

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3.6 Successful completion of the setup
of the program NIAflow
→ Close

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2.5 Installation Problems
If you have any problems with your installation, please visit https://www.niaflow.com/Home/FAQ to
get help.

Figure 9: NIAflow FAQs online

2.6 Language settings


English is the language of the standard configuration of the NIAflow program.

2.7 Installing software updates and releases


NIAflow software updates and releases are supplied automatically by HAVER & BOECKER. After
an update or a new release is available, it will be transferred to the user’s computer as soon he is
connected with the internet. With the next start of the NIAflow software, user’s software is updated
or released.

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2.8 Uninstalling the software
Uninstalling NIAflow software with "Programs and Features" under Microsoft.

Figure 10: Uninstalling NIAflow

Clicking on “Uninstall” deletes all the sub-directories in the NIAflow program folder with all its
contents, registrations and the program start icon on the desktop.

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3 Software functions

3.1 General
NIAflow exist in three versions: Basic, Aggregates and Mining
The Mining version is characterized by a wider range of functions than the Aggregates Version.
These additional functions are also described in this manual.
The basic version is a minimized trial freeware of the aggregates version. The functions of the
Basic version will be not part of this documentation.
The software user interface consists of a calculation button, an object menu and a tool bar as well
as different function tabs that are structured according to certain program functions.

3.2 Starting
The NIAflow program can be started by double clicking on the NIAflow icon, which appears after
installing the software.

Figure 11: NIAflow icon

3.3 Configuration
Once installed, the software has a standard configuration as showed below.

Function Tabs
Tool Bar

Object Menu

Calculation Button

Figure 12: NIAflow start up window

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3.4 Function Tabs

3.4.1 File
(Ctrl + N); By pressing this button, a new project is
created.
(Ctrl+ O); By pressing this button you can open an
existing project
(Ctrl + S); By pressing this button, the current project is
saved.
By pressing this button, the project will be saved, and a
new storage location can be determined.
With this button, the „Flowsheet “or the „Project “can be
printed.

With this button, the print process of the Flowsheet can be


adjusted.
With this button, all objects will
be printed
With this button only objects
marked as complete will be
printed.
With this button only the plant
lists and equipment lists will be
printed
With this button only the
equipment lists will be printed

With this button, the layout of the „Flowsheet “or „Project


“can be changed.

With this button, the flowsheet page can be arranged.


With this button, the flowsheet page can be arranged.

With this button the preview of the „Flowsheet” or the


“Project” can be showed.

With this button, the print preview of the flowsheet can be


showed.
With this button, the project print
preview of all objects can be
showed.
With this button, the project print
preview of all completed objects
can be showed.

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With this button, the project print
preview of the plants and
equipment lists can be showed.
With this button, the project print
preview of the equipment lists can
be showed.

With this button the user can exit the program.

3.4.2 Project

3.4.2.1 Project list

Access to all edited Projects.

Figure 13: Project list

Checks the listed projects if the file


path is still valid.
This button adjusts the number of
showed saved NiaFlow data sets.
By using this button, saved NiaFlow
data sets can be searched on the
computer.
With this button, the process is
stopped.
Inserts the selected Project data into
the actual loaded project data.
Loads the actual selected project data.

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3.4.2.2 Project Definition

First step towards setting up a NIAflow project.

Project Data

Figure 14: Project Definition- Project Data


A new window opens where you can name your project and fill in some further information like
Request, Scope, Quotation Number, Project Number, Project status, Project revision etc. If already
known you can also add the voltage and frequency. This data is important because voltage varies
from country to country and this information helps the vendor with machine manufacturing. Instead
of filling this information for every object individually, NIAflow with the help of project definition sets
this data for all the objects and plants. Active sorting feature lets you select the sorting criterion
incase if a sorter is being used in the project.
Whenever the project status is edited it reflects in the project report with the name and details of
the people responsible for the last edit.
More information like texts or sketches (copy & paste) regarding the project can be filled in the
white blank space at the bottom. It is important to start with a text otherwise the program may not
recognize the picture or the sketch.
Project Team

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Figure 15: Project Definition- Project Team
If you entered all the given information you can click on the tab “Project Team” and write down
Company and Contact information. The Project team always has a default entry from the logged-in
user’s details. Therefore there will always be one entry in project team. You have the options of
filling in multiples names. This is for documentation purposes, since the data here could be used
for future references or by suppliers and vendors
On the right side you can also choose the amount of information you want to print. After the input
data has been provided click on OK to save it. The “Don’t print” option lets you hide the data you
don’t want to print.
Plant Data

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Figure 16: Project Definition- Plant Data
Within this tab, you can fill in the location of the plant and the operation schedule. In the bottom
white area, you can add some more plant specific data like some plant sketch, pictures etc. You
can have more than one Plant in a project and details for each of them can be filled in individually
here. Location and operation details here acquaint the suppliers with the working conditions at a
particular location and operating conditions.
Paint Specification

Figure 17: Project Definition- Paint Specification

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At first, do not write anything into the left box, because this will be printed as your special paint
specification. If you uncheck “Special paint specification”, you can setup the paint specification in
detail for the machine body.
Once you have entered all the information you can have a look at the print preview. After that, you
can print your data sheet which contains all the information you have entered earlier.
Video: Set up the Project

3.4.2.3 Insert Project File

Refer to the tutorial.

3.4.3 Flowsheet
Connection lines are showed only orthogonal.
Connection lines are showed only diagonal.
With this button, the machine labels are showed or hidden.

3.4.3.1 Label Layers


To create a label right click on the object or a connecting line and choose the option “Add Label”.
Several labels can be created for one object like for its Name, Position, Mass flow etc. To manage
these labels and maintain uniformity the Label Layers option is used. More than one label layers
can be created and the labels on the flowsheet can be grouped together depending on the
information they hold and then can be assigned to one layer.

Figure 18: Label Layer


Editing status is by default the 0th layer and cannot be edited. The other layers can be edited as
per the user’s requirement. More layers can be added or deleted using the plus and minus button
in the window.
The active option here indicated the label layer that is active which means that every label being
created on the flowsheet gets assigned to this layer and inherits all its format data. The active layer
cannot be deleted.

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The visible option shows the labels for the layer that has a check mark against the visibility option
on the flowsheet. This way the flowsheet can be kept clutter free in situation where many labels
might be required.
For the validation of the project we have the “Editing status” option.
When the visiblity for the Editing Status layer is checked, three symbols appear on the screen
corresponding to all the objects.
- Red Hourglass indicates editing still in progress
- Green check indicates Information completed (object-data complete option checked)
- Red cross indicates some wrong input data
The “editing status” is especially helpfully for a flowsheet with a large number of objects or when
more than one user is working on a project.Selecting this option will make spotting the error and
thev misleading data easy.In case of multiple users it will also also make it convenient for the users
to know about objects that have been completely set up and donot need any further editing.
Therefore it is a good practise to check the “Object-data complete” option at the bottom left corner
of the general window of every object once the object has been completely set up.

Figure 19: Object data complete- Editing Status

Figure 20: Flowsheet with Editing Status option visible


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Labels:

Figure 21: Label type classification by colour

The label categories are classified by different colours:


- Blue is for all the general information regarding the object.
- Orange is for all the machine based information.
- Green is for the material information. It can be product (for storing and conveying objects)
or feed (for sorting, crushing, grinding etc. objects)

This options helps switch between different operations modes


of a plant

3.4.3.2 Operation Mode


A plant can be set up in various operational modes depending on the how the objects that control
the feed rate are set up. The objects that can revise the flow rate of the material depending on their
settings are: Stockpile, Silo, Pond, Water Tank, 2 Way Splitter and a 3 Way Splitter.
For example for a stockpile, silo pond or a water tank if the “Input Passed through” option is
unchecked then the feed rate can be entered manually and monitored. Similarly the splitter settings
can be changed and with all these options various operational modes can be created using this
option.
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Figure 22: Operation Mode
This option is under the Flowsheet menu. To create a new mode:
- First set the plant up with desired settings. Then open the operation mode.
- Here using the “+” or “-“option number of modes can be added or subtracted. Click on “+” to
add a mode.
- Highlight the new mode to edit the name and then click on record. This options records all
the current setting of the objects with a variable output as discussed above.
- Repeat the process with new settings and add a couple of more modes as described in the
images below.

Figure 23: Operation mode with splitter setting 100/0

Figure 24: Operation modes with splitter setting 0/100 and 50/50

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- Now to use a particular mode click on it and click apply and simulate the plant. The
information regarding the plant in use is shown in the white box below the mode names.

3.4.4 Edit
Re-establishes all the deleted objects, since the last saving
process
(Ctrl. + Z); Re-establishes the last deleted object, since the
last saving process
(Ctrl. + C); By pressing this button, all the marked objects are
copied.
(Ctrl. + V); By pressing this button, all the previously copied
objects are inserted.
(Ctrl. + A); By pressing this button, the whole content of the
Flowsheet is marked.

3.4.5 Tools

3.4.5.1 Settings
Program settings.

General

Figure 25: User settings- General


Here Basic setting for the software can be selected.
On checking the option “Start NIAflow with Last Project”, Every time NIAflow is started it opens with
the last project in use by the user.
Label Defaults

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Figure 26: User settings- Label Defaults
The position of the label can be set here. The larger rectangle in the center with the black border
represents the position of the object. The blue highlighted rectangle represents the current position
of the label corresponding to the object.
There is an option of creating a label with the object; if the user doesn’t want it the option can be
unchecked.
Calculations

Figure 27: User settings- Calculation


Certain Calculation related details can be set here.
For a closed circuit flowsheet the number of iterations and maximum calculation loss can be set
here for better results.
Graphics

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Figure 28: User settings- Graphics
Graphical details related to the flowsheet can be edited here as showed in the above image.

By clicking on “Update”, NIAflow updates to the


latest version. (Internet connection required)
Shows Error Log and can be sent it to the NIAflow
service, when necessary
Tries to repair the local data base and registry
entries.
Tries to repair the personal data base.

Customize the flowsheet with company logo and


watermark

3.4.5.2 Customize print layout

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Figure 29: Customizing printout options
This feature lets the user customize the flowsheet with their company and department logo. It also
gives a watermark on the flowsheet.
- The first option is for setting the company logo.
- The second option is for setting a watermark. The opacity of the watermark can also be
adjusted.
- The third option is for setting the department logo.
The positions of these logos can be seen in the print preview of the flowsheet. However for the rest
of the project report only the Company logo appears on the right top corner of the page as shown
in the below image. Any kind of image files can be used here.

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Figure 30: Project Definition- Print Preview
To remove the customized logo and go back to default just click on the clear option in the
customizing window.

3.4.6 Help
This button opens a window with general information about
the correct NIAflow version like license time, user profile,
Version, Contact etc.
This button transmits automatically to the website of
NIAflow.
The user manual of the software is available here.
Video tutorial for the software can be watched here.

3.5 Object menu

3.5.1 Object groups

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Storage is a place or a facility for storing material or immaterial
Objects.
This could be different kinds of storages like stockpiles, silos, water
tanks or trucks for bulk material, chemicals, water or solids.

A conveyer system is a common piece of mechanical handling


equipment that moves materials from one location to another.
It is especially useful in applications involving the transportation of
heavy or bulky materials.

Screening is the practice of taking raw material and separates it into


multiple grades of particle sizes.
Also grids can be used here to screen the material.

Comminution devices:
At this section, a crusher which is suitable for the product can be
picked.
You can select crushers which are made for different sizes of material
and are producing different sizes of material.

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In this section you can choose a suitable grinder for the product to
obtain finer material particles.

A sorter can help sort the material particles based on their size,
colour, density etc. or sort the waste from the material. You can
choose a sorter based on

Wet processing:
Choose different machines to clean the material, or to isolate one
material from another in different ways.

These machines are used in the wet processing to dewater the


material.

With devices from here, the air being let out into the atmosphere can
be de-dusted and cleaned.

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With these machines, the different parts of minimum two separate raw
materials get one new product.

At this tab there is a control cabinet, control valves and other


measuring devices.

Next to the common objects, some special processing objects can be


found under various.

3.5.2 Object Introduction

3.5.2.1 Store

3.5.2.1.1 Stockpile
A storage location for raw material and end products.
Stockpile (Input: 1 / Output: 1)

3.5.2.1.1.1 General

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Figure 31: Stockpile- General
Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the stockpile, size
limits and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the
object specification.These details are also helpful for documentation puprposes as they can be
given to the vendor for manufacturing puprpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.
*The Line thickness and the object colour options at the bottom right corner let you change the
object appearance. The size of the object can be changed using the “size” option in the functions
tab.

3.5.2.1.1.2 Sizing

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Figure 32: Stockpile- Sizing
This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing:
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set limits
for the machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
The calculation data is essential for the basic flow calculations of the plant simulation.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data under the extended and detailed
categories acts as limits to the objects and ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world.
The technical data does not affect the calculations of the software.

3.5.2.1.1.3 Material

35
Figure 33: Stockpile- Material
As the name suggests material specific data can be added here. Information like the material feed
rate (in total or in solids), water content in the material (volume or percent), density, angle of
repose, comminution indexes and some more material properties can be filled in here.
The feed rate, water content and the bulk density (dry) are especially important here since they
decide the output of the stockpile and the moisture content in the material.
The Convert Unit button converts units from Metric to Imperial or vice versa.

3.5.2.1.1.4 Sieve Analysis

Figure 34: Stockpile- Sieve Analysis


Here information about the percentages of different particle sizes in the bulk material can be
added. This information is usually obtained from the sieve analysis of sample tests of the material.
Test sieve openings and corresponding percentages are displayed depending on the selected
options for retained/passing and fraction/cumulated. Added, deleted or edited data pairs are also
reflected in the graphical display.
36
Points also can be added manually using the mouse and the context menu or can be chosen from
the Norm Sieves (Check-Mark + Add) or can be added by right-clicking into the graph.
Points can be modified by dragging and dropping the data points on the graph

Here you have three possibilities to adapt the chart.


- Enter the numerical analysis manually in the table on the left side
- Move some points on the plot directly until the desired result is achieved
- Select the data provided by the software from the selection views on the right side of the
window.This can be done as follows:
At the beginning, the sieve steps should be chosen. Standard Sieves R20/3, R20, R40/3,
Tyler and US# can be chosen or entered manually also when the sieve does not exist as
norm. For the choice of the norm sieves, open the menu “Standard sieves” and choose the
particular sieves with a check mark and with clicking “Add” after that.

Figure 35: Sieve Analysis- Standard Sieves


The selected sieves are added to the sieve analysis and furnished with virtual values.
These selected sieves can be altered through clicking into the corresponding field. Sieves,
which aren’t needed, can be deleted completely, with marking the whole line. Choose the
option “delete row” with the right mouse button.

Figure 36: Sieve Analysis- Data Table


After entering the data, the display format of the sieve analysis can be changed.
View Options:

37
Figure 31: Sieve Analysis- Interpolation and Grid settings
1. Interpolation:
a. 3D+ gradation is interpolated as cubical spline where possible. Sections that would result in
extremes are interpolated linear
b. Linear interpolation

Depending on the type of interpolation chosen the data between two known sieves might vary a
little.
2. Grid:
a. Linear both axis are linear
b. Log x-axis logarithmic , y-axis linear
c. Log-Log both axis logarithmic. Particularly used to estimate crusher products. (Many
crusher products display a linear behavior in the double logarithmic grid)
d. RRSB -Rosin, Rammler, Sperling and Bennet discovered that the particle size distribution
of many mechanically crushed or milled materials will follow an exponential behavior and
display a linear graph in the RRSB grid, particularly used to estimate mill products

3. Passing or Retained:
a. Material fractions are linked to the test sieve on which they are retained or through which
they have passed

4. Fraction or Cumulated:
a. Individual fractions of material are display or fractions are added up to 100%.

Possible Combinations:
 Passing Cumulated
 Passing Fraction
 Retained Cumulated
 Retained Fraction
5. Scaling:
a. The dynamic graph can be switched in every direction.
b. The x and y-axis can be zoomed also.
c. The “Specification “fields are used to define min-max specs and display the corresponding
percentages. “Read” creates a label reading the percentage at the given sieve.
d. The buttons: “Sieve Analysis”, “Full Screen”, “Drawing Tools” and “Standard Sieves” can
hide their respective information. When clicked again, they appear again. At the right side,
the sieve, which is in use, can be chosen. After that you can add the standardized values
for the selected machine.
The “Add Specification” button at the bottom left corner can be used to add up to two reference
curves.

3.5.2.1.1.5 Sorting Properties


Firstly to get this tab follow the below mentioned steps:
- Goto “Project Definition” on the Project function tab.

38
- Check the desired sorting option there under the “Active sorting features for this project”
option.
- Click OK.

This tab is important only when a sorter is being used. Here various sorting properties for the
material can be defined. The sorting can be carried out on the basis of Density, Size, Colour or
depending on magnetic properties of the material.

Figure 37: Stockpile- Sorting Properties


Select the input material object from the first drop down menu.
The second (Sort Type) as the name suggests allows selection of the type of sorting that needs to
be performed.
The third menu (Fraction) allows input of different sorting properties for different segment of grain
sizes as derived from the test sieve sizes from the sieve analysis tab. In case if the properties are

39
same for all the segments of particle sizes then click on the “Apply for all fractions of sieve
analysis” option below the table on the bottom left side of the window.
Under the Fraction option there is a table where the sorting values and their respective
percentages can be filled in. The sum of all the entries under the “percentage” column must add up
to 100.
The right side of this window shows the graphical representation of the values from the table.
**The “General”, ”Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” and “Sorting Properties” settings are same for the
storage objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its usability and
this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the Store category
only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.1.2 Silo
A big and high storage to save bulk material.
Silo (Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The features and set up of a Silo is identical to a stockpile. Therefore, please refer to the section
3.5.2.1.1 Stockpile for any help with Silo set up.

3.5.2.1.3 Mining Truck


An off-highway, rigid dump trucks specifically engineered for
use in high-production mining and heavy-duty construction
Mining Truck
environments.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.1.1 Stockpile.

3.5.2.1.3.1 Sizing

Figure 38: Mining Truck- Sizing


The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.
The Volume Capacity and Payload need to be calculated by taking into consideration the material
flow across the entire plant. The values need to optimum such that at any given time they don’t
overload the plant neither do they keep the plant empty. These values should also not exceed the
actual capacity of the truck i.e. the values here must not be greater than the values put in
“Maximum Feed Rate” under the General tab.

40
3.5.2.1.4 Front Loader
A Loader is a heavy equipment machine used to move raw
Front Loader materials into or onto another type of machinery.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Front Loader is similar to that of a Mining Truck. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.1.3 Mining Truck

3.5.2.1.5 Road Truck


A Truck used for transporting loose material.
Road Truck (Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Road Truck is similar to that of a Mining Truck. Therefore the settings remain
the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.1.3 Mining Truck.

3.5.2.1.6 Silo Truck


A Truck, which transports free flowing bulk material.
Silo Truck (Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Silo Truck is similar to that of a Mining Truck. Therefore the settings remain
the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.1.3 Mining Truck.

3.5.2.1.7 Water Tank


A container for storing liquid.
Water Tank (Input: 1 / Output: 1)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.1.1 Stockpile.

3.5.2.1.7.1 Sizing

Figure 39: Water tank- Sizing


The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.
Calculation details regarding the output volume of the tank must be filled in here.

41
3.5.2.1.8 Pond
A body of standing water, either natural or artificial.
Pond (Input: 1 / Output: 1)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.1.1 Stockpile.

3.5.2.1.8.1 Sizing

Figure 40: Pond- Sizing


The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.
The Output Volume of the pond must be given here.

3.5.2.1.9 Water Tap


Water supplied to a tap (valve), for wet processing.
Water Tap (Input: 0 / Output: 1)

As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.1.1 Stockpile.

3.5.2.1.9.1 Sizing

42
Figure 41: Water Tap- Sizing
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.
The calculation data of the tap can be added here. The output volume of the tap decides the
amount of water that would be circulated across the plant.

3.5.2.1.10 Excavator Ship


It is a vessel that excavates material out of water bodies.
Excavator Ship (Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The setup of an Excavator ship is identical to a stockpile. Therefore, please refer to the section
3.5.2.1.1 Stockpile for any help with the excavator ship set up.

3.5.2.2 Convey

3.5.2.2.1 Belt Conveyer


A belt conveyer system consists of two or more pulleys, with
an endless loop of carrying medium that rotates about them.
One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and
Belt Conveyer
the material on the belt forward.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)

3.5.2.2.1.1 General

43
Figure 42: Conveyer Belt- General
Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the belt conveyer like the volume, feed rate, size limits and
ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the object
specification.These details are also helpful for documentation puprposes as they can be given to
the vendor for manufacturing purpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition

3.5.2.2.1.2 Sizing
This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing-
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set limits
for the machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.

44
Figure 43: Conveyer Belt- Sizing
All the technical details related to the belt can be filled in under Calculation data in the above
image.
The rest of details regarding the conveyer system can be filled in elaborately under the “Sizing” tab
as showed in the images below.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data under the extended and detailed
categories acts as limits to the objects and ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world.
The technical data does not affect the calculations of the software.

3.5.2.2.1.3 Material

Figure 44: Conveyer Belt- Material


This window just gives an overview of all the material properties and input data provided at the
initial store unit .Nothing in this tab can be edited.

3.5.2.2.1.4 Sieve Analysis


45
Figure 45: Conveyer Belt- Sieve Analysis
This window shows information regarding the various particle sizes of the material on the belt in a
tabloid as well as graphical format. Nothing can be edited here as well.

3.5.2.2.1.5 Sorting Properties

Figure 46: Conveyer Belt- Sorting Properties


No information can be added or subtracted here. The sorting properties of the material on the belt
can be viewed here.
**The “General”, ”Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” and “Sorting Properties” settings are same for the
conveying objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its usability
and this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the Convey
category only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.2.2 Vibrating Feeder

46
An instrument that uses vibration to feed material to a process
Vibrating Feeder or machine.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)

As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.2.1 Belt Conveyer.

3.5.2.2.2.1 Sizing

Figure 47: Vibrating Feeder- Sizing


Technical details regarding the inclination of the feeder can be put in here. The amplitude with
which the feeder will vibrate and transfer material can also be added here.

3.5.2.2.3 Reciprocating Feeder


A machine that moves back and forth repeatedly to feed
Reciprocating Feeder material to a process or machine.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Reciprocating feeder is similar to that of a Vibrating feeder. Therefore the
settings remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the
section 3.5.2.2.2 Vibrating Feeder.

3.5.2.2.4 Apron Feeder


It is used for extracting or feeding large, lumpy, abrasive and
Apron Feeder heavy material under severe hard conditions.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of an Apron feeder is similar to that of a Vibrating feeder. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.2.2 Vibrating Feeder.

3.5.2.2.5 2 Way Splitter


It distributes the bulk material coming from one way into two
2 Way Splitter other directions.
(Input: 1 / Output: 2)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.2.1 Belt Conveyer.

3.5.2.2.5.1 Sizing
47
Figure 48: 2 Way Splitter- Sizing
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.
Here under calculation data information regarding splitting the material can be provided. There are
two ways to do it:
1. Either split the material by percentage
2. Or split it by tonnage.
Depending on the output one of the two methods can be chosen.

3.5.2.2.6 3 Way Splitter


It distributes the bulk material coming from one way into three
3 Way Splitter other directions.
(Input: 1 / Output: 3)
The functionality of a 3 Way Splitter is similar to that of a 2 Way Splitter. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.2.5 2 Way Splitter.

3.5.2.2.7 Bucket Elevator


A mechanism for hauling bulk materials vertically. (feed and
Bucket Elevator discharge in one direction)
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.2.1 Belt Conveyer.

3.5.2.2.7.1 Sizing

48
Figure 49: Bucket Elevator- Sizing
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.

3.5.2.2.8 Bucket Elevator


A mechanism for hauling bulk materials vertically. (feed and
Bucket Elevator discharge in one direction)
(Input: 1 (Material) Output: 1 (Material))
The functionality of this Bucket Elevator is similar to that of the previous Bucket Elevator. Therefore
the settings remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to
the section 3.5.2.2.7 Bucket Elevator.

3.5.2.2.9 Screw Conveyer


It is a mechanism that uses a rotating helical screw blade for
Screw Conveyer transporting bulk material
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.2.1 Belt Conveyer.

3.5.2.2.9.1 Sizing

49
Figure 50: Screw Conveyer- Sizing
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.
Technical data about the dimensions of the screw conveyer can be filled in here.

3.5.2.2.10 Rotary Valve


A type of valve in which the rotation of a passage in a
transverse plug regulates the flow of liquid or gas through the
Rotary Valve
attached pipes
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.2.1 Belt Conveyer.

3.5.2.2.10.1 Sizing

Figure 51: Rotary Valve- Sizing

50
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.

3.5.2.2.11 Chute
A sloping channel or slide for conveying things to a lower level.
Chute (Input: 1 / Output: 1)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.2.1 Belt Conveyer.

3.5.2.2.11.1 Sizing

Figure 52: Chute- Sizing


The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.

3.5.2.3 Screen

3.5.2.3.1 1 Deck Screen


It is used for separating material into two grades by particle
1 Deck Screen size.
(Input: 1 (2 spray water) / Output: 2)

3.5.2.3.1.1 General

51
Figure 53: 1 Deck Screen- General
Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the stockpile, size
limits and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the
object specification.These details are also helpful for documentation puprposes as they can be
given to the vendor for manufacturing puprpose.
On the right side of the window under the “Machine” option,specific series and type of machine out
of the Haver screen machine library can be chosen as per the user requirement.Howvever if the
user wants to use some other variety that is also possible by selecting the “Add Machine Vendor”
option and input all the machine specifications manually.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.

3.5.2.3.1.2 Machine Data


This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing-
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set limits
for the machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.

52
Figure 54: 1 Deck Screen- Machine Data
If a pre-defined machine is being used then the Technical details appear by default. But in case of
a new vendor the technical details of the machine must be added here.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data acts as limits to the objects and
ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world. The technical data does not affect the
calculations of the software.

3.5.2.3.1.3 Sizing

Figure 55: 1 Deck Screen- Sizing


Here cut offs and opening sizes for the indivuidual decks are defined.To change the layer
thickness the angle inclination needs to be adjusted accordingly.By changing the Deck number
using the up/down arrow buttons you can navigate through the different decks and edit their
settings.

53
Figure 56: Sizing- Show Media Options
The “Show Media Options” at the bottom right corner is a library that contains appropriate opening
size for a specific cut size as showed in the image above. The required opening size can be
selected by double clicking on the option.
The media option provides a variety of media to select from along with its coressponding opening
shape and orientation. The opening along with the media plays a vital role in determining the
performance of the screen.
Once the appropriate media has been chosen you can hit the guess button to check the open area
percentage.The more the Open Area percentage the better the screen performance.
If you filled in all the given information, you can click on calculate, to get a rough estimate of the
feed and product particle size distrubution in graphical representation on the bottom right corner of
the window.

3.5.2.3.1.4 Material

54
Figure 57: 1 Deck Screen- Material
Most of the data here is obtained from the previous input steps; therefore not many parameters
here can be changed.

3.5.2.3.1.5 Sieve Analysis

Figure 58: 1 Deck Screen- Sieve Analysis


Most of the data here also is obtained from the previous input steps; therefore nothing here can be
edited.

3.5.2.3.1.6 Sorting Properties

55
Figure 59: 1 Deck Screen- Sorting Properties
No information can be added or subtracted here. The sorting properties of the material on the
screen can be viewed here.

3.5.2.3.1.7 Vendor

Figure 60: 1 Deck Screen- Vendor


If a machine which is not listed in the selection is used,then the new machine can be added with its
technical information as discussed earlier.On choosing that option a new “Vendor” tab gets
added,here all information regarding the vendor can be added.
**The “General”, “Machine Data”, ”Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” “Sorting Properties” and “Vendor”
settings are same for the screening objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object
depending on its usability and this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the
objects from the Screen category only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.3.2 2 Deck Screen

56
It is used for separating material into three grades by particle
2 Deck Screen size.
(Input: 1 (2 spray water) / Output: 3)

As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.3.1 1 Deck Screen.

3.5.2.3.2.1 Sizing

Figure 61: 2 Deck Screen- Sizing; Deck 1

Figure 62: 2 Deck Screen- Sizing; Deck 2


The up/down arrow buttons under the deck options helps navigate between the decks as showed
in above images. Each deck can be customized individually and as per user requirement. All the
other setting and options are similar to that of 1 Deck Screen.

57
3.5.2.3.3 3 Deck Screen
It is used for separating material into four grades by particle
3 Deck Screen size.
(Input: 1 (2 spray water) / Output: 4)
The functionality of a 3 Deck Screen is similar to that of a 2 Deck Screen. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.3.2 2 Deck Screen.

3.5.2.3.4 4 Deck Screen


It is used for separating material into five grades by particle
4 Deck Screen size.
(Input: 1 (2 spray water) / Output: 5)
The functionality of a 4 Deck Screen is similar to that of a 2 Deck Screen. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.3.2 2 Deck Screen.

3.5.2.3.5 Variable Screen


A screen which can be customized more than the standard
Variable Screen screen. (opening sizes, number of decks, various cuts per
deck)
The functionality of a variable Screen is similar to that of a multiple Deck Screen. The maximum
number of decks that you can add here is 6. The settings for this screen are the same as that for a
1 Deck or 2 Deck screen, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section 3.5.3.3.1 1
Deck Screen or 3.5.3.3.2 2 Deck Screen.

Figure 63: Variable Screen options

3.5.2.3.6 Stationary Grid


A Grid which separates waste from material to be processed
Stationary Grid (Input: 1 / Output: 2)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.3.1 1 Deck Screen.

3.5.2.3.6.1 Sizing

58
Figure 64: Stationary Grid- Sizing
The cut and opening sizes for the machine can be set here along with the appropriate angle of
inclination media. Click on the Guess button to calculate the open area. Once all the data has been
satisfactorily filled in click on Calculate and the plot on the right hand side shows the approximate
particle distribution curves.

3.5.2.3.7 Grizzly Feeder


A feeder which separates waste from material to be processed
Grizzly Feeder (Input: 1 / Output: 2)
The functionality of a Grizzly Feeder is similar to that of a Stationary Grid. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.3.2 2 Deck Screen.

3.5.2.3.8 Roller Screen


A mechanical screening machine used to separate materials
Roller Screen most suitable for viscous and sticky material.
(Input: 1 / Output: 2)
The functionality of a Roller Screen is similar to that of a Stationary Grid. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.3.2 2 Deck Screen.

3.5.2.3.9 Sieve Bend


A stationary sieve which separates slurry from light material.
Sieve Bend (Input: 1 / Output: 2)
The functionality of a Sieve Bend is similar to that of a Stationary Grid. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.3.2 2 Deck Screen.

3.5.2.4 Crush

3.5.2.4.1 Jaw Crusher

59
A heavy duty machine, which is designed to reduce large
Jaw Crusher material into smaller material.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)

3.5.2.4.1.1 General

Figure 65: Jaw Crusher- General


Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the object, size limits
and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the object
specification.These details are also helpful for documentation purposes as they can be given to the
vendor for manufacturing purpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.

3.5.2.4.1.2 Sizing

60
Figure 66: Jaw Crusher- Sizing
This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing:
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation purpose.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
The calculation data is essential for the basic flow calculations of the plant simulation.
Here it is very important to fill up information either regarding the Closed Side Setting (CSS) or the
Product Particle Size Distribution (PSD) for the software to calculate the product curve of the
crusher. Some defaults values for the Product PSD Parameters already appear when the tab is
opened; the user can either use these values for the calculations or can put in their own values.
Once this data has been filled in, hit the Calculate button to see the product curve on the right hand
side of the window.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data acts as limits to the objects and
ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world. The technical data does not affect the
calculations of the software.

3.5.2.4.1.3 Material

61
Figure 67: Jaw Crusher- Material
This window just gives an overview of all the material properties and input data provided at the
initial store unit .However the data for the product of the crusher can be changed and edited here,
to do so select “Product of the Crusher” from the drop down menu on the left top corner of the
window.

Figure 68: Jaw Crusher- Material; Product Data

3.5.2.4.1.4 Sieve Analysis

62
Figure 69: Jaw Crusher- Sieve Analysis
The crusher results obtained practically from the field vary from that obtained from NIAflow
simulations. Therefore to keep the further processes as close as possible to the results from the
field we alter the values for “Product of Jaw Crusher”.
These two results can also be compared using the “Add Specification” option. In that case you
need not alter the values for “Product of Jaw Crusher”, instead you can change some parameters
of the crusher and certain other preceding objects and try to match the two curves as closely as
possible.
The sieve data for the “Feed to crusher” cannot be altered here, only the product data can be
altered.

3.5.2.4.1.5 Sorting Properties

Figure 70: Jaw Crusher- Sorting Properties

63
No information can be added or subtracted here. The sorting properties of the material in the
crusher can be viewed here.
**The “General”, ”Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” and “Sorting Properties” settings are same for the
crushing objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its usability and
this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the Crush category
only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.4.2 Cone Crusher


A heavy duty machine, which is designed to reduce medium-
Cone Crusher sized material into smaller material.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Cone Crusher is similar to that of a Jaw Crusher. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.4.1 Jaw Crusher.

3.5.2.4.3 Roll Crusher


A roll crusher uses compression with two rolls rotating about a
shaft, towards the gap between the rolls. The gap between the
Roll Crusher
rolls is set to the size of the desired product output.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Roll Crusher is similar to that of a Jaw Crusher. Therefore the settings remain
the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.4.1 Jaw Crusher.

3.5.2.4.4 HSI (Horizontal shaft impactor)


These crushers break rocks by impacting the rocks with
HSI (Horizontal shaft hammers that are fixed upon the outer edge of a spinning
impactor): rotor.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.4.1 Jaw Crusher.

3.5.2.4.4.1 Sizing

Figure 71: HSI- Sizing


This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing:
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
64
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation purpose.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
The calculation data is essential for the basic flow calculations of the plant simulation.
Here it is very important to fill up information either regarding the Rear Apron Gap or the Product
Particle Size Distribution (PSD) for the software to calculate the product curve of the crusher.
Some defaults values for the Product PSD Parameters already appear when the tab is opened; the
user can either use these values for the calculations or can put in their own values. Once this data
has been filled in, hit the Calculate to see the product curve on the right hand side of the window.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.

3.5.2.4.5 VSI (Vertical shaft impactor)


These crushers use a different approach involving a high
VSI (Vertical shaft speed rotor with wear resistant tips and a crushing chamber
impactor) designed to “throw” the rock against.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a VSI is similar to that of a HSI. Therefore the settings remain the same for
both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section 3.5.2.4.4 HSI.

3.5.2.5 Grind

3.5.2.5.1 Sag Mill


It is generally used as a primary or first stage grinding solution.
Sag Mill (Input: 1 / Output: 1)

3.5.2.5.1.1 General

Figure 72: Sag Mill- General


Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out

65
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the object, size limits
and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the object
specification.These details are also helpful for documentation purposes as they can be given to the
vendor for manufacturing purpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.

3.5.2.5.1.2 Sizing

Figure 73: Sag Mill- Sizing


This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing-
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set limits
for the machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
The calculation data is essential for the basic flow calculations of the plant simulation.
Here it is very important to fill up information either regarding the Mill Gate Opening or the Product
Particle Size Distribution (PSD) for the software to calculate the product curve of the crusher.
Some defaults values for the Product PSD Parameters already appear when the tab is opened; the
user can either use these values for the calculations or can put in their own values. Once this data
has been filled in, hit the Calculate to see the product curve on the right hand side of the window.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data acts as limits to the objects and
ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world. The technical data does not affect the
calculations of the software.

3.5.2.5.1.3 Material

66
Figure 74: Sag Mill- Material
This window just gives an overview of all the material properties and input data provided at the
initial store unit .However the data for the product of the crusher can be changed and edited here,
to do so select “Product of the Mill” from the drop down menu on the left top corner of the window

Figure 75: Sag Mill- Material; Product Data

3.5.2.5.1.4 Sieve Analysis

67
Figure 76: Sag Mill- Sieve Analysis
The mill results obtained practically from the field vary from that obtained from NIAflow simulations.
Therefore to keep the further processes as close as possible to the results from the field we alter
the values for “Product of Sag Mill”.
These two results can also be compared using the “Add Specification” option. In that case you
need not alter the values for “Product of Sag Mill”; instead you can change some parameters of the
crusher and certain other preceding objects and try to match the two curves as closely as possible.
The sieve data for the “Feed to Sag Mill” cannot be altered here, only the product data can be
altered.

3.5.2.5.1.5 Sorting Properties

Figure 77: Sag Mill- Sorting Properties


No information can be added or subtracted here. The sorting properties of the material in the
grinder can be viewed here.

68
**The “General”, ”Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” and “Sorting Properties” settings are same for the
washing objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its usability and
this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the Wash category
only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.5.2 Ball Mill


It is a typical grinder partially filled with balls used to
breakdown coarser material into finer one with the help of
Ball Mill
friction.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Ball Mill is similar to that of a Sag mill. Therefore the settings remain the
same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section 3.5.2.5.1
Sag Mill.

3.5.2.5.3 Rod Mill


A rotating drum causes friction and attrition between steel rods
Rod Mill and ore particles for grinding here.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Ball Mill is similar to that of a Sag mill. Therefore the settings remain the
same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section 3.5.2.5.1
Sag Mill.

3.5.2.6 Sort

3.5.2.6.1 Spiral Separator


It is a device for separating slurry components by density for
Spiral Separator sorting particles by shape.
(Input: 2 / Output: 2)

3.5.2.6.1.1 General

Figure 78: Spiral Separator- General


Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out

69
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the object, size limits
and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the object
specification.These details are also helpful for documentation purposes as they can be given to the
vendor for manufacturing purpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.

3.5.2.6.1.2 Sizing

Figure 79: Spiral Separator- Sizing


This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing:
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set limits
for the machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data acts as limits to the objects and
ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world. The technical data does not affect the
calculations of the software.

3.5.2.6.1.3 Cut Function

70
Figure 80: Sipral Separator- Cut Function
Under the top drop down menu the sorting type can be selected depending on the appropriate type
of sorter.
The sort value is a material property, for example here it defines the density of the particles since
spiral sorter is a density based sorter. The above table and the corresponding graph indicate:
- In the sorting process there are 0% chances of particles with density 0, 5 going to the pile
of heavier particles.
- For particles with density 2 the chances of getting sorted into heavier or lighter pile are 50-
50.
- And finally for particles with density 3, 5 the chances of getting sorted into the heavier pile
are 100%.
To edit the data in the table highlight the corresponding row and add the new values. The same
way data can be deleted as well. Another way to edit the data is to move the points on the curve
with the cursor.

3.5.2.6.1.4 Material

71
Figure 81: Spiral Separator- Material
Most of the data here is obtained from the previous input steps,therefore nothing here can be
edited

3.5.2.6.1.5 Sieve Analysis

Figure 82: Spiral separator- Sieve Analysis


Most of the data here also is obtained from the previous input steps,therefore nothing here can be
edited.

3.5.2.6.1.6 Sorting Properties

72
Figure 83: Spiral Separator- Sorting Properties
Here we can see how the particles have been split and sorted by the sorter based on their
densities. By using the drop down menu on the left top corner of the screen the distribution of the
particles can be seen.
**The “General”, “Cut Function”, “Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” and “Sorting Properties” settings are
same for the sorting objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its
usability and this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the Sort
category only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.6.2 Jig Sorter


It pulsates the water to cause the material with lower density to
Jig Sorter settle on top of higher density material leading to their sorting.
(Input: 2 / Output: 2)

As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.6.1 Spiral Separator

3.5.2.6.2.1 Sizing

73
Figure 84: Jig Sorter- Sizing
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.
Physical dimensions of the sorter can be provided here, which will act as limits for the sorter and
make sure the sorter is not overloaded.

3.5.2.6.3 Upstream Sorter


This sorting device uses an upstream of water to sort materials
Upstream Sorter based on differences in their densities or sizes
(Input: 2 / Output: 2)
The functionality of an Upstream Sorter is similar to that of a Jig sorter. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.6.2 Jig Sorter

3.5.2.6.4 Optical Sorter


It separates material based on colour difference in particles
Optical Sorter (Input: 2 / Output: 2)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.6.1 Spiral Separator

3.5.2.6.4.1 Sizing

74
Figure 85: Optical Sorter- Sizing
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.
Under the Technical data the sorter width can be altered. The more the width the more the
tonnage/hour of material passing through the sorter.

3.5.2.6.5 Air Separator


A device that uses an air current to separate a material from
another of greater density or particles from others of greater
Air Separator
size.
(Input: 2 / Output: 2)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.6.1 Spiral Separator .

3.5.2.6.5.1 Sizing

Figure 86: Air Separator- Sizing


75
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.
The air pressure for this sorter can be varied and adjusted as per the particle densities and their
sorting point.

3.5.2.6.6 Belt Magnet


This sorter is used for separating ferromagnetic material from
Belt Magnet non-ferromagnetic material.
(Input: 2 / Output: 2)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.6.1 Spiral Separator .
A belt magnet is normally used in combination with a belt conveyer. Therefore it only sorts the
material but does not affect the feed rate of the material in anyway.

3.5.2.6.6.1 Machine

Figure 87: Belt Magnet- Machine


The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object.
The Belt width and velocity can be fed in here, these value affect the sorting speed.

3.5.2.6.7 Eddy Current


Eddy Current Separators are used to separate non-ferrous
conducting metals such as aluminum, copper and magnesium
Eddy Current
from a given product stream.
(Input: 2 / Output: 2)
As discussed earlier except for “Sizing” the settings for the rest of the tabs remain the same, for
any assistance refer to section 3.5.2.6.1 Spiral Separator

3.5.2.6.7.1 Sizing

76
Figure 88: Eddy Current- Sizing
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data under the extended and detailed
categories acts as limits to the objects and ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world.
The technical data does not affect the calculations of the software.

3.5.2.6.8 Floatation Cell


This device can be used to achieve specific separations from
Floatation Cell complex ores.
(Input: 2 / Output: 2)
The functionality of an Upstream Sorter is similar to that of a Jig sorter. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.6.2 Jig Sorter.

3.5.2.6.9 Magnetic Separator


It helps separate magnetically susceptible material from the
Magnetic Separator product stream using magnetic force.
(Input: 2 / Output: 2)
The functionality of an Upstream Sorter is similar to that of a Jig sorter. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.6.2 Jig Sorter.

3.5.2.7 Wash

3.5.2.7.1 Hydro-Clean
A machine to clean the material with the use of water propelled
Hydro-Clean at high speeds.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)

3.5.2.7.1.1 General

77
Figure 89: Hydro Clean- General
Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the object, size limits
and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the object
specification.These details are also helpful for documentation purposes as they can be given to the
vendor for manufacturing purpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.

3.5.2.7.1.2 Sizing

Figure 90: Hydro Clean- Sizing


This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing-
78
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set limits
for the machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data acts as limits to the objects and
ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world. The technical data does not affect the
calculations of the software.

3.5.2.7.1.3 Material

Figure 91: Hydro Clean- Material


This window just gives an overview of all the material properties and input data provided at the
initial store unit. Nothing in this tab can be edited.

3.5.2.7.1.4 Sieve Analysis

79
Figure 92: Hydro Clean- Sieve Analysis
This window shows information regarding the various particle sizes of the material in the washer in
a tabloid as well as graphical format. Nothing can be edited here as well.

3.5.2.7.1.5 Sorting Properties

Figure 93: Hydro Clean- Sorting Properties


No information can be added or subtracted here. The sorting properties of the material in the
hydro-clean can be viewed here.
**The “General”, ”Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” and “Sorting Properties” settings are same for the
washing objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its usability and
this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the Wash category
only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.7.2 Friction Clean

80
A machine to clean the material with friction and a small
Friction Clean volume of water.
(Input: 2 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Friction Clean washer is similar to that of a Hydro-Clean washer. Therefore
the settings remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to
the section 3.5.2.7.1 Hydro-clean.

3.5.2.7.3 Drum Washer


A big horizontal rotating machine which uses water to clean the
Drum Washer material.
(Input: 2 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Friction Clean washer is similar to that of a Hydro-Clean washer. Therefore
the settings remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to
the section 3.5.2.7.1 Hydro-clean.

3.5.2.7.4 Bucket Wheel


A big wheel, which rotates slowly into slurry for dewatering it.
Bucket Wheel (Input: 2 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Friction Clean washer is similar to that of a Hydro-Clean washer. Therefore
the settings remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to
the section 3.5.2.7.1 Hydro-clean.

3.5.2.7.5 Sand Screw


Constructed, to isolate water from wet sand.
Sand Screw (Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The set up features of a Sand Screw washer is similar to that of a Hydro-Clean washer. Therefore
the settings remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to
the section 3.5.2.7.1 Hydro-clean.

3.5.2.7.6 Log Washer


A one or two shaft machine for destroying agglomerates
Log Washer (Input: 2 / Output: 2)
The set up features of a Log Washer is similar to that of a Hydro-Clean washer. Therefore the
settings remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the
section 3.5.2.7.1 Hydro-clean.

3.5.2.7.7 Hydro Cyclone


It separates or sorts particles in a liquid suspension based on
the ratio of their centripetal force to fluid resistance. This ratio
Hydro Cyclone is high for dense and coarse particles, and low for light and fine
particles.
(Input: 1 / Output: 2)
The set up features of a Friction Clean washer is similar to that of a Hydro-Clean washer.
Therefore the settings remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up
please refer to the section 3.5.2.7.1 Hydro-clean.

3.5.2.7.8 Pump Sump


Transports water and/or water-solid mixes between suction
Pump Sump pipe and pressure pipe.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The set up features of a Pump Sump is similar to that of a Hydro-Clean washer. Therefore the
settings remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the
section 3.5.2.7.1 Hydro-clean.

81
3.5.2.7.9 Pump
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or
Pump sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The set up features for a Pump are very similar to Hydro-Clean washer. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.7.1 Hydro-Clean

3.5.2.8 Slurry

3.5.2.8.1 Chamber Filter Press


It is a device used for liquid solid separation through pressure
Chamber Filter Press filtration.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)

3.5.2.8.1.1 General

Figure 94: Chamber Filter Press- General


Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the object, size limits
and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the object
specification.These details are also helpful for documentation purposes as they can be given to the
vendor for manufacturing purpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.

3.5.2.8.1.2 Sizing

82
Figure 95: Chamber filter Press- Sizing
This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing-
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set limits
for the machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data acts as limits to the objects and
ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world. The technical data does not affect the
calculations of the software.

3.5.2.8.1.3 Cut Function

83
Figure 96: Chamber filter Press- Cut Function
In Slurry objects separation of particles happens based on their sizes.
The sort value is a material property, for example here it defines the size of the particles since
Chamber Filter Press is used for dewatering the material and in the process based on their sizes
some particles get drained away with water. The above table and the corresponding graph
indicate:
- In the sorting process there are 0% chances of particles with size 0, 5 getting drained with
water.
- For particles with density 2,5 the chances of getting drained 50%.
- And finally for particles with density 5,5 the chances of getting dewatered are 100%.

3.5.2.8.1.4 Material

Figure 97: Chamber Filter Press- Material


Most of the data here is obtained from the previous input steps; therefore not many parameters
here can be changed.

84
3.5.2.8.1.5 Sieve Analysis

Figure 98: Chamber Filter Press- Sieve Analysis


Most of the data here also is obtained from the previous input steps; therefore nothing here can be
edited. However two additional curves can be seen here which project the PSD of particles after
passing through the chamber filter press.
**The “General”, ”Cut Function”, “Material” and ”Sieve Analysis” settings are same for the slurring
objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its usability and this data
is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the Slurry category only the
“Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.8.2 Belt Filter Press


It is a device used for liquid solid separation .The process of
filtration here is primarily obtained by passing a pair of filtering
Belt Filter Press
cloths and belts through a system of rollers.
(Input: 2 / Output: 2)
The set up features for a Belt Filter Press are very similar to Chamber Filter Press. Therefore for
any assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.8.1 Chamber Filter Press.

3.5.2.8.3 Thickener
The thickener uses the principle of gravity sedimentation to
separate solids from a liquid. It thickens the solid using a
Thickener
thickening agent to increase its density.
(Input: 1 / Output: 2)
The set up features for a Thickener are very similar to Chamber Filter Press. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.8.1 Chamber Filter Press.

3.5.2.8.4 Flocculence Unit


This unit makes the flocculants that helps with faster
Flocculence Unit sedimentation in thickeners, clarifiers etc.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The set up features for a Flocculence Unit are very similar to Chamber Filter Press. Therefore for
any assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.8.1 Chamber Filter Press.

3.5.2.8.5 Blade Clarifier

85
It is used to separate sediment-able solid from liquids with the
Blade Clarifier help of friction between the angled blades and the material.
(Input: 1 / Output: 2)
The set up features for a Blade Clarifier are very similar to Chamber Filter Press. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.8.1 Chamber Filter Press.

3.5.2.8.6 Centrifuge
This is a rotating device that uses centrifugal force to separate
Centrifuge solids from liquid.
(Input: 1 / Output: 2)
The set up features for a Centrifuge are very similar to Chamber Filter Press. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.8.1 Chamber Filter Press.

3.5.2.8.7 Disk Filter


It is used in heavy duty applications such as dewatering of ores
Disk Filter and other beneficiation process.
(Input: 1 / Output: 2)
The set up features for a Disk Filter are very similar to Chamber Filter Press. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.8.1 Chamber Filter Press.

3.5.2.9 Dedust

3.5.2.9.1 Bag House


It is an air pollution control device that removes particulates out
Bag House of air or gas released from commercial processes.
(Input: 1 / Output: 2)

3.5.2.9.1.1 General

Figure 99: Bag House- General


Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.

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In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the object, size limits
and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the object
specification. These details are also helpful for documentation purposes as they can be given to
the vendor for manufacturing purpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.

3.5.2.9.1.2 Sizing

Figure 100: Bag House- Sizing


This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing:
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set limits for the
machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data acts as limits to the objects and
ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world.

3.5.2.9.1.3 Material

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Figure 101: Bag House- Material
This window just gives an overview of all the material properties and input data provided at the
initial store unit

3.5.2.9.1.4 Sieve Analysis

Figure 102: Bag House- Sieve Analysis


This window shows information regarding the various particle sizes of the material in the bag
house in a tabloid as well as graphical format.

3.5.2.9.1.5 Sorting Properties

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Figure 103: Bag House- Sorting Properties
Sorting properties of the material in the bag house can be viewed here.
**The “General”, ”Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” and “Sorting Properties” settings are same for the
dedusting objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its usability
and this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the Dedust
category only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually

3.5.2.9.2 Aero Cyclone


The working principle of this device is similar to that of a hydro
cyclone except for this uses air as the working media and it is
Aero Cyclone
majorly used for de-dusting purposes.
(Input: 1 / Output: 2)
The functionality of an Aero Cyclone washer is similar to that of a Hydro Cyclone washer.
Therefore the settings remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up
please refer to the section 3.5.2.7.7 Hydro Cyclone.

3.5.2.9.3 Air Blower


It is a mechanical device for moving air or other gases.
Air Blower (Input: 0 / Output: 2)
The set up features for an Air Blower are very similar to the Bag House. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.9.1 Bag House.

3.5.2.9.4 Vent
A vent is an opening that allows air, gas, or liquid to pass out of
Vent or into a confined space.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The set up features for an Air Blower are very similar to the Bag House. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.9.1 Bag House.

3.5.2.9.5 Silo Top Filter


It collects all the dust coming out of the silo and the de-dusts
Silo Top Filter the air before releasing it into the atmosphere.
(Input: 0 / Output: 0)
The set up features for a Silo Top Filter are very similar to the Bag House. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.9.1 Bag House.

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3.5.2.9.6 Funnel
It is a vertical channel or pipe which conducts dusts typically
Funnel through the roof of a storing unit.
(Input: 1 / Output: 0)
The set up features for a Funnel are very similar to the Bag House. Therefore for any assistance
please refer to section 3.5.2.9.1 Bag House.

3.5.2.10 Mix/Pack

3.5.2.10.1 Pelletizing Disk


A big disk, which rotates and mixes the inner material into soft
Pelletizing Disk pellets which then need to be screened and cured
(Input: 2 / Output: 1)

3.5.2.10.1.1 General

Figure 104: Pelletizing Disk- General


Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the object, size limits
and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the object
specification. These details are also helpful for documentation purposes as they can be given to
the vendor for manufacturing purpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.

3.5.2.10.1.2 Sizing

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Figure 105: Pelletizing Disk- Sizing
This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing:
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set
limits for the machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data acts as limits to the objects and
ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world. The technical data does not affect the
calculations of the software.

3.5.2.10.1.3 Material

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Figure 106: Pelletizing Disk- Material
Most of the data here is obtained from the previous input steps; therefore not many parameters
here can be changed.

3.5.2.10.1.4 Sieve Analysis

Figure 107: Pelletizing Disk- Sieve Analysis


Most of the data here also is obtained from the previous input steps; therefore nothing here can be
edited.

3.5.2.10.1.5 Sorting Properties

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Figure 108: Pelletizing Disk- Sorting Properties
No information can be added or subtracted here. You can just view the sorting properties of the
material in the crusher.
**The “General”, “Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” and “Sorting Properties” settings are same for the
mixing/packing objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its
usability and this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the
Mix/Pack category only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.10.2 Mixer
A machine which mixes two materials and water to make a
Mixer slurry
(Input: 2 / Output: 1)
The set up features for a Mixer are very similar to Pelletizing Disk. Therefore for any assistance
please refer to section 3.5.2.10.1 Pelletizing Disk

3.5.2.11 Control

3.5.2.11.1 Hand Valve


Hand Valve It is a manually operated valve that regulates the flow of fluids.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)

3.5.2.11.1.1 General

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Figure 109: Hand Valve- General
Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the object, size limits
and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the object
specification. These details are also helpful for documentation purposes as they can be given to
the vendor for manufacturing purpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.

3.5.2.11.1.2 Sizing

Figure 110: Hand Valve- Sizing


This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing:
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
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2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set limits for the
machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data acts as limits to the objects and
ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world.

3.5.2.11.1.3 Material

Figure 111: Hand Valve- Material


Most of the data here is obtained from the previous input steps; therefore not many parameters
here can be changed.

3.5.2.11.1.4 Sieve Analysis

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Figure 112: Hand Valve- Sieve Analysis
Most of the data here also is obtained from the previous input steps; therefore nothing here can be
edited.

3.5.2.11.1.5 Sorting Properties

Figure 113: Hand Valve- Sorting Properties


No information can be added or subtracted here. The sorting properties of the material can be
viewed here.
**The “General”, “Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” and “Sorting Properties” settings are same for the
various objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its usability and
this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the Various category
only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.11.2 Motor Valve

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Motor Valve This is a mechanically operated valve.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The set up features for a Motor Valve are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve.

3.5.2.11.3 Pneumatic Valve


Pneumatic Valve This valve uses pressurized air for operation.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The set up features for a Pneumatic Valve are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve

3.5.2.11.4 Hydraulic Valve


Hydraulic Valve This valve uses pressurized liquids for operation.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The set up features for a Hydraulic Valve are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve

3.5.2.11.5 Float Valve


Float Valve It is an automatic valve whose opening and closing are
controlled by a float at the end of a lever.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The set up features for a Float Valve are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve

3.5.2.11.6 Check Valve


Check Valve It is a valve that permits flow in one direction only.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The set up features for a Check Valve are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve

3.5.2.11.7 Conveyor Scale


Conveyor Scale It is an industrial scale for in motion weighing of material on the
conveyor.
(Input: 0 / Output: 0)
The set up features for a Conveyor Scale are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve

3.5.2.11.8 Pressure Gauge


Pressure Gauge It is a device used for measuring pressure.
(Input: 0 / Output: 0)
The set up features for a Pressure Gauge are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve

3.5.2.11.9 Level Control


Level Control These devices monitor the levels of conductive liquid or non-
conductive material. They control the actuation of pumps or
valves to regulate levels.
(Input: 0 / Output: 0)
The set up features for a Level Control are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve

3.5.2.11.10 Bulk level Control

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Bulk level Control It is a continuous non-contact level measurement that sends
microwave signals towards the medium from above. Using the
received microwave signals, it determines the distance to the
product surface and calculates the level from it
(Input: 0 / Output: 0)
The set up features for a Bulk Level Control are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve

3.5.2.11.11 Flow Meter


Flow Meter It is a device used for measuring the fluid movement.
(Input: 0 / Output: 0)
The set up features for a Flow Meter are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any assistance
please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve

3.5.2.11.12 Switch Cabinet


Switch Cabinet A cabinet for electrical or electronic equipment to prevent
electrical shock to equipment users and protect the contents
from the environment.
(Input: 0 / Output: 0)
The set up features for a Switch Cabinet are very similar to a Hand Valve. Therefore for any
assistance please refer to section 3.5.2.11.1 Hand valve

3.5.2.12 Various

3.5.2.12.1 Free Text


A label in which the users may enter their own text.
Free Text

Figure 114: Free Text


This feature can be used to add text or remarks anywhere on the flowsheet. The texted can be
formatted and saved under any desired label layer as per the user’s requirement.

3.5.2.12.2 Plant

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With this symbol, you can group all the machines to one plant.
Plant
This feature enables regrouping and classification of machines to specific plants based on their
processes. For example screening and washing machines can be combined into one plant and can
be separated from the dewatering objects making the Dewatering plants as shown in the flowsheet
screenshot below.

Figure 115: Plant usage

3.5.2.12.3 Drum Dryer


This machine dries the liquid out of the raw material.
Drum Dryer (Input: 1 / Output: 1)

3.5.2.12.3.1 General

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Figure 116: Drum Dryer- General
Object identification details like number and name of the object can be entered here. The number
is very important, because this is the list entry number for the final equipment list. In the print-out
the object list will be sorted by this number. The numbering of units keeps the flowsheet slim even
if there are identical units.
In this window other details regarding the object like the volume, feed rate of the object, size limits
and ambient temperature can be filled in. These details help set realistic limits based on the object
specification.These details are also helpful for documentation purposes as they can be given to the
vendor for manufacturing purpose.
Some additional details, sketches and pictures can be added in the white box in the bottom left
corner as done in the project definition.

3.5.2.12.3.2 Sizing

Figure 117: Drum Dryer- Sizing


This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing:
100
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential technical details appear
on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic documentation and also to set limits
for the machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose.
This process data can be printed, or the print preview can be seen.
The General Data under this tab is again common for all the objects in this category, only the
Technical Data varies from object to object. The technical data acts as limits to the objects and
ensures proper functioning of the plant in real world. The technical data does not affect the
calculations of the software.

3.5.2.12.3.3 Material

Figure 118: Drum Dryer: Material


This window just gives an overview of all the material properties and input data provided at the
initial store unit. Nothing in this tab can be edited.

3.5.2.12.3.4 Sieve Analysis

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Figure 119: Drum Dryer- Sieve Analysis
This window shows information regarding the various particle sizes of the material in the dryer in a
tabloid as well as graphical format. Nothing can be edited here as well.

3.5.2.12.3.5 Sorting Properties

Figure 120: Drum Dryer- Sorting Properties


No information can be added or subtracted here. The sorting properties of the material can be
viewed here.
**The “General”, ”Material”, ”Sieve Analysis” and “Sorting Properties” settings are same for the
washing objects. Only the technical data varies from object to object depending on its usability and
this data is captured in the “Sizing” tab. Hence for the rest of the objects from the Wash category
only the “Sizing” tab has been discussed individually.

3.5.2.12.4 Fluidized Bed Dryer

102
It is used for drying the material to get the desired moisture
Fluidized Bed Dryer content in the product.
(Input: 1 / Output: 1)
The functionality of a Fluidized Bed Dryer is similar to that of a Drum Dryer. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.12.3 Drum Dryer.

3.5.2.12.5 Drum cooler


It is used for cooling the material down once it is out of the
Drum cooler dryer.
(Input: 1 / Output: 2)
The set up features of a Drum Cooler is similar to that of a Drum Dryer. Therefore the settings
remain the same for both the objects, for any assistance with the set up please refer to the section
3.5.2.12.3 Drum Dryer.

3.6 Tool bar


Open Menu: The menu at marked objects can be opened

Delete: Marked objects can be deleted.

Flip Object: All objects can be flipped on y-axis.

Change Size: Object sizes can be changed.

Add Label: Labels can be added for each object.

Delete Label: Labels can be deleted by clicking this button.

Show Object Labels: By clicking this button, object labels appear, when
hidden before.
Hide Object Labels: Machine labels can be hidden, by clicking this
button.
Show Label Connection Line: By clicking this button, connection lines
appear, when hidden before.
Hide Label Connection Line: When connection lines are selected, they
can be hidden by clicking this button.
Transfer Object Data: Transferring data from one object to another of the
same character
Transfer Label Formatting: Transfer label design from one label to
another
Transfer Label Formatting and Data Setup: Transfer label design and
range of data.
Diagonal Connection Line: selected line becomes diagonal

Orthogonal Connection Line: selected line becomes orthogonal

Align Bottom: When different objects are marked, align them at the
bottom by using this button.
Align Top: When different objects are marked, align them at the top by
using this button.
Align Left: When different objects are marked, align them at the left side
by using this button.
Align Right: When different objects are marked, align them at the right
side by using this button.
Center Horizontally: When different objects are marked, center them
horizontally by using this button.
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Center Vertically: When different objects are marked, center them
vertically by using this button.
Distribute Vertically: By using this button, the machines get a consistent
vertically distance.
Distribute Horizontally: By using this button, the machines get a
consistent horizontally distance.

Only colored buttons can be used for the machine, label, connection line etc. which are marked. All
the other buttons are showed grayed.

Example:

When this machine is marked, there is the possibility to use the activated options.

3.7 Calculation Button


Calculate Calculation of all mass and volume balances as well as
procedural specific values based on the Flowsheet.

104
4 Tutorials

4.1 Three Stage limestone Quarry


The introductions to the various object data shall be carried out with the help of a tutorial for a
basic flowsheet for better understanding. The below tutorial also explains the complete set-up
validation of a project along with all the inclusive features of NIAflow.

4.1.1 Setup the project


At first you have to click on the tab “Project” and choose “Project Definition”. Set up project
definition as discussed in section 3.4.2.2 Project Definition.
Video: Set up the Project

4.1.2 Flowsheet
This flowsheet represents a Three stage Limestone Quarry. Through this project you shall learn to
simulate a basic flowsheet in NIAflow.

Figure 121: Three stage Limestone Quarry

4.1.3 Store: Stockpile


Set up the feed: To begin with, you have to choose your feed at the tab “Store” and drag and drop
into the field. (Hold the left mouse button, keep it pressed and move it to the right position)

105
Figure 122: Drawing an object on screen
The object data can be opened either by double clicking the object symbol or by clicking on the
symbol once and then clicking on the open menu after that.

Figure 123: Opening Object properties


A new window will open. The menu looks almost similar for every symbol.

106
4.1.3.1 General

Figure 124: Stockpile


In general start with numbering and naming the object as showed in the image above.

4.1.3.2 Material

Dry Bulk Density

Figure 125:Stockpile- Material


If the auto naming option in the General tab is checked then the “Edit name” option here will be
deactivated.
The information regarding the Feed Rate can be filled as total (water+solids) or only the quantity of
the solid material can be specified. Using the radio button switching between Solids and Total is
possible and the suitable unit can be chosen using the drop down menu. Similarly the water
content can be filled in as Percentage or Volume.
The Convert Unit button converts standard units from Metric to Imperial or vice versa.

107
Figure 126:Stockpile-Sieve Analysis
Here information about the percentages of different particle sizes in the bulk material can be
added. This information is usually obtained from the sieve analysis of sample tests of the material.
Test sieve openings and corresponding percentages are displayed depending on the selected
options for retained/passing and fraction/cumulated. Added, deleted or edited data pairs are also
reflected in the graphical display.
The curve is generated using either linear or 3D interpolation methods and can be viewed on
Linear, Log, Log-Log and RRSB scales .If the Passing/Retained Cumulated/Fraction arear is
highlighted with green colour, it indicates correct input of entries; Red colour indicates an error
which is explained in the white area below the table.

Figure 127: Sieve Analysis- Interpolation and Grid settings


Here you have three possibilities to adapt the chart.
- Enter the numerical analysis manually in the table on the left side. Highlight the row to edit
it.

Figure 128: Sieve Analysis- Data Table


- Move some points on the plot directly until the desired result is achieved.

108
- Select the data provided by the software from the selection views on the right side of the
window.This can be done as follows:
At the beginning, the sieve steps should be chosen. Standard Sieves R20/3, R20, R40/3,
Tyler and US# can be chosen or entered manually also when the sieve does not exist as
norm. For the choice of the norm sieves, open the menu “Standard sieves” and choose the
particular sieves with a check mark and with clicking “Add” after that.

Figure 129: Sieve Analysis- Standard Sieves


The selected sieves are added to the sieve analysis and furnished with virtual values.
These selected sieves can be altered through clicking into the corresponding field. Sieves,
which aren’t needed, can be deleted completely, with marking the whole line. Choose the
option “delete row” with the right mouse button.
The “Add Specification” button at the bottom left corner can be used to add up to two reference
curves.
Video: Set up the Feed

4.1.4 Screen: 2 Deck Screen


Setting up primary: First add a scalping screen (2 Deck Screen) and connect it with the Stockpile.
On moving the cursor over the object you will see some green and blue dots .The green dots are
the input points and the blue dots are the output points.
Connecting two objects: Click on the blue dot and move your mouse, without holding any button.
Now you can see a red line, which is the connection between the symbols. Click on the green dot
of the second symbol to connect them with each other. After simulating the project each line
represents a different colour depending on its content.
Blue = water
Brown=solids
Green=water+solids
Pink=empty

109
Figure 130: Connecting objects

4.1.4.1 General

Figure 131: Screen- General


Here user can select a machine as per his requirement either from a predefined vendor or can add
a new vendor and provide the machine specifications.

110
4.1.4.2 Sizing

Figure 132: Screen- Sizing; Deck 1


Here cut offs and opening sizes for the indivuidual decks are defined.The Layer thickness has to
be somewhere around 8 times the size of the cut size but it also depends on the size of the
machine and the quantity of the material
The media option provides a variety of media to select from along with its coressponding opening
shape and orientation. The opening along with the media plays a vital role in determining the
performance of the screen.
Once the appropriate media has been chosen you can hit the guess button to check the open area
percentage.The more the Open Area percentage the better the screen performance.When using
the “Show Media options” to select an appropriate opening size the guess button should not be
used.
If you filled in all the given information, you can click on calculate, to get a rough estimate of the
feed and product particle size distrubution in graphical representation on the bottom right corner of
the window.The optimum size of the machine can be selected once the desired results are
obtained from the percentages of theb overs and the fines.
By changing the Deck number using the up/down arrow buttons you can navigate through the
different decks and edit their settings.

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Figure 133: Screen- Sizing; Deck 2
Once you have filled in all the information for the screen next you can add a Jaw Crusher, a belt
conveyer and a second stockpile to your flowsheet and connect everything with the connection
lines.The connections would look like as showed in the image below.

Figure 134: Finishing the Primary Plant


The belt conveyer is a scaleable item, so that you can stretch it to any length you want to.To get
straight connection lines, you have right click on the symbol and click on “Optimize Incoming
Lines”.We shall be going with the default setting of the conveyer.Theerfore nothing needs to be
changed there.

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Figure 135: Optimizing Incoming lines

4.1.5 Crusher: Jaw Crusher


Once you have the crusher on your flowsheet you have to double click on the crusher symbol to
open the setup window.

4.1.5.1 General

Figure 136: Jaw Crusher-General


The general window is similar to the general windows of the other objects.All the general
information can be filled in here.

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4.1.5.2 Sizing

Figure 137: Jaw Crusher- Sizing


The calculation data is essential for the basic flow calculations of the plant simulation.
Here it is very important to fill up information either regarding the Closed Side Setting (CSS) or the
Product Particle Size Distribution (PSD) for the software to calculate the product curve of the
crusher. Some defaults values for the Product PSD Parameters already appear when the tab is
opened; the user can either use these values for the calculations or can put in their own values.
Once this data has been filled in, hit the Calculate button to see the product curve on the right hand
side of the window.

Figure 138: Jaw Crusher- Sizing, calculation dialogue box


If the CSS value is being used for the product curve calculation, click on the “Ja” button when the
dialogue box as shown in the image above appears.

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4.1.5.3 Sieve Analysis

Figure 139: Jaw Crusher- Sieve Analysis


Here you can see the PSD curves for the feed to the crusher and the product of the crusher.
In order to make sure all the open ends are connected properly and for a further understanding of
how NIAflow works we shall now be moving towards setting the secondary circuit up.
Video: Setup Primary

4.1.6 Setup Secondary


Lets start this with adding a triple deck screen to your existing plant. As a next step, you need to
right click onto the belt conveyer and choose “AddPoint”, so that you can connect it with the just
created screen.

Figure 140: Setting up the Secondary


After that you have to double click the second screen and select your machine at the right side into
the “General” menu.
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Figure 141: Secondary 2 Deck Screen
Since we have selected a predefined screen for this tutorial,we don’t need to to fill in any technical
specification about the machine.The machines used is 1500x5000 HT T-Class from the vendor
Haver Niagara GmbH.
Click on the sizing tab and add the the cut off and opening data as discussed earlier.In case if your
unsure of what opening size to use for a particular cut size then just go to the “Show media option”
at the bottom right corner of the screen.Here the software helps you pick an appropriate opening
size for a specific cut size. Look through the media table and copy it into the opening field with a
double click.

Figure 142: Screen-Sizing; Show Media Options


After you have done it for the first Deck you can similarly fill in the information for the other decks.

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Figure 143: Screen 2: Sizing; Deck 1
Afterwards, you can add a cone crusher right beside the screen and connect them using a
connection line.Under the second screen you have to add also a second stockpile and connect
them.

Figure 144: Screen 2: Sizing; Deck 2

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Figure 145: Screen 2: Sizing; Deck 3
The product of your cone crusher will be conveyed to the vibrating screen. So add two belt
conveyers in opposite directions and connect everything. ( Crusher with one belt conveyer, the belt
conveyers with each other and the belt conveyer back to the vibrating screen as showed in the
below image).

Figure 146: Secondary Crusher

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4.1.7 Cone Crusher

4.1.7.1 Sizing

Figure 147: Cone Crusher- Sizing


The calculation data is essential for the basic flow calculations of the plant simulation.
Here it is very important to fill up information either regarding the Closed Side Setting (CSS) or the
Product Particle Size Distribution (PSD) for the software to calculate the product curve of the
crusher. Some defaults values for the Product PSD Parameters already appear when the tab is
opened; the user can either use these values for the calculations or can put in their own values.
Once this data has been filled in, hit the Calculate button to see the product curve on the right hand
side of the window.

Figure 148: Cone Crusher- Sizing, calculation dialogue box


If the CSS value is being used for the product curve calculation, click on the “Ja” button when the
dialogue box as shown in the image above appears.

Video: Setup Secondary


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4.1.8 Setup Tertiary (crushing and screening station)
First you have to select a tertiary crusher and feed it by a belt conveyer. Then you have to connect
the belt conveyer with the middle deck and the bottom deck of the screen and the tertiary crusher.
After that you have to add a new triple deck screen and connect it with the crusher. When finished
add a new screen and two new belt conveyers and connect everything appropriately as showed in
the below screenshot.

Figure 149: Setting up the Tertiary


Then you can setup the tertiary crusher. Open the set up wizard for the crusher.The General
windows is the same as we have seen previously.Next move on to the sizing tab and fill in the
information you have, click on “calculate” and then on “OK”.Setting up the Cone crusher is similar
to a Jaw crusher.
Refer to the below image to fill in the Calculation details for the cone crusher under the sizing
tab.The Closed Side Setting used here is 5 mm for Cone Crusher and 10 mm for Cone Crusher 2.

Figure 150: Cone Crusher 2- Sizing


The calculation data is essential for the basic flow calculations of the plant simulation.

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Here it is very important to fill up information either regarding the Closed Side Setting (CSS) or the
Product Particle Size Distribution (PSD) for the software to calculate the product curve of the
crusher. Some defaults values for the Product PSD Parameters already appear when the tab is
opened; the user can either use these values for the calculations or can put in their own values.
Once this data has been filled in, hit the Calculate button to see the product curve on the right hand
side of the window.

Figure 151: Cone Crusher 2- Sizing, calculations dialogue box


If the CSS value is being used for the product curve calculation, click on the “Ja” button when the
dialogue box as shown in the image above appears.
Then add a third screen as a part of the Tertiary Set up.

Figure 152: Screen 3- Sizing, Deck 1


Here cut offs and opening sizes for the indivuidual decks are defined.To change the layer
thickness the angle inclination needs to be adjusted accordingly.
The media option provides a variety of media to select from along with its coressponding opening
shape and orientation. The opening along with the media plays a vital role in determining the
performance of the screen.
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Once the appropriate media has been chosen you can hit the guess button to check the open area
percentage.The more the Open Area percentage the better the screen performance.
If you filled in all the given information, you can click on calculate, to get a rough estimate of the
feed and product particle size distrubution in graphical representation on the bottom right corner of
the window.
By changing the Deck number using the up/down arrow buttons you can navigate through the
different decks and edit their settings.

Figure 153: Screen 3- Sizing, Deck 2

Figure 154: Screen 3- Sizing, Deck 3


As a last step you have to add three new stockpiles because you receive three new products from
this tertiary screen. Connect all decks with unconnected outputs (three) to the stockpiles.

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Figure 155: Setting up Tertiary Stockpiles
If you want to get all the stockpiles at the same height, you can use one of the drawing functions.
First of all you have to mark all the stockpiles (hold the left mouse click and window select all).
After that you click on “Align Bottom” option at the top of the window.

Figure 156: Aligning the stockpiles


Video: Setup Tertiary
Once all the objects have been set up and connected properly hit the calculate button to simulate
the flow and obtain the product results. The three stage Limestone quarry is actually a combination
of three screening and crushing plants namely: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. So we have
divided the equipment based on their functions into three pants as shown below

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Figure 157: Simulation Results after hitting the Calculation button

4.1.9 Visualization features of NIAFlow


Simulate the above created flowsheet for the first time by clicking on “Calculate” button in the
bottom left corner of the screen. Now all the screen openings show the correct values. To see the
process flow, you have to use the visualization. First of all, drag the object descriptions out of the
way and change the design. For a different design you have to right click on the description and
choose “label options”. Here you can change the color, the form etc.

Figure 158: Editing Labels


To adopt this setting also for the other stockpiles, rightclick on the already changed Label and
choose “transfer label formating”, hold your control key on the keybord and click at the other
stockpiles.

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Figure 159: Labels
For the screen you can open the label options again and add information. For example the type.

e
Figure 160: Adding more information in the label
For the other screens you can also use the same labelling. Click on the previously changed screen
with your right mouse button and choose the option “transfer label formating and data”. (That
means, that the label will be formated the same way, but also receive the same instructions. Hold
your control key at the keybord pressed and click on the other screens.

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Figure 161: Editing Screen Labels
The crushers are not associated with a certain type, so that you can fill in a color only.
After that you can modify the display of your cut labels. Open the label options for the cut label,
select the information and the options you want to have in your label.As discussed above you can
transfer this to the other cut labels as well.

Figure 162: Label editing options


Finally, you can display your object numbers also. You have to add another label to your ROM
Stockpile. After that you have to set up this label as project number. To get a contrast to the other
labels you can also use a different color or a different form.

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Figure 163: Customizing the Labels
After that you have to create new labels for all of the object and can click “transfer Label
formatting” at the number which is already in existence and transfer it to the other labels.

Figure 164: Customized Labels


It is also important to add material information,to get that you can add a label on the connection
line. (right click on the connection line, add label)
Another way is to rightclick on the product stockpile and to also add a label. After that you have to
open the label option and to choose “product tonnage total” and another color.

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Figure 165: Customizing the Labels
You can add also labels for the other stockpiles, and transfer label formatting and data from the
already finished label to the just created labels. (Hold the control key and click on the labels)

Figure 166: Customizing the Labels


As a next step you can add specifications. You have to open the stockpile options and choose
“sieve analysis”. At the bottom you can fill in your specifications which will represent that value
entered by you on the corresponding plot as showed in the image below.

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Figure 167: Adding curve specifications
You can repeat the same for all the stockpiles.

Figure 168: Transferring Label Format


To obsereve the changes in the particle size distribution curves on hitting the Calculate button a
special lable called the PSD label is available.

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Figure 169: Adding a PSD label
By right clicking on the object this label can be obtained as showed in the image above.

Figure 170: editing a PSD label


This label can also be assigned to a label layer like other labels.The set up wizard of this lable
helps you do that.The “show connection line” option connects the respective object to its PSD label
as showed in the image and the “default for this kind of object” makes the connection line default
for all the objects from that group.
The drop down menu lets you select the suitable label layer.

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Figure 171: Label Layers

Figure 172: Setting up label layers


Label layers can be created as showed in the above image.Labels can be sorted and categorised
as per the information it contains.Under the visiblity option check mark the labels you want to see
and his the rest to keep the flowsheet tidy.
Video: Visualisation of an object

4.1.10 Validation of an object


The validation of an object means input of machine specification data from the machines available
in the market, which will help up generate simulations and results as close to the real world as
possible. These specifications also act as limits and help prevent unrealistic calculations. The
validation here is explained using the crusher. The procedure is the same for all the objects
Eg:Crusher Setup
At first you can add labels at the crushers to get to know how much material the crushers are
receiving. Right click on the crusher and choose “Add label”. After that, adapt the settings with a

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double click on the new label and choose “Product Tonnage Total” only. You can also change the
color or the form again.

Figure 173: Adding more label information


To formate the other labels in the same format, right click on the finished label and click “Transfer
Label Formatting and Data”, hold the control key and click on the other labels you want to have in
the same format.

Figure 174: Adding flow data


After that, you have to add information to the crusher. Enter the Crusher menu and open the tab
“General”. Enter the maximum feed rates and click “OK”. This data is obtained from the machine
specifications and also acts like limits for further calculations.Do the same for all the crushers.

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Figure 175: Minimum Feed Rates
Then you have to adapt the product label. Choose a detailed Label Collection and add “Volumetric
Utilization” and “Tonnage Utilization”. After that, click “Save” and do the same for the other product
labels. As a last step you have to click calculate, to see all the relevant information.

Figure 176: Crusher settings label

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Figure 177: Crusher settings labels
After everything has been set up use the editing status mode to validate the project and check its
status.
Video: Validation of an Object and Crusher setup

4.1.11 Optimization and Print


You can optimize your plant by changing the data you filled in. So you can change the crusher
information or screen information etc. When changed you can calculate the whole plant to see
what happened and if your change was valid .
As a next step you can print out your flowsheet and your project sheet.
Before you print out your sheets, you should setup the pages for the flowsheet. You can change for
example the format or the size of the borders.

Figure 178: Project data printing options

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Figure 179: Printing Options
You can also setup the pages for the project sheet.
As a next step you can directly control, if you are pleased with your settings by looking at the print
preview. (possibly for both – flowsheet and project sheet)

Figure 180: Project Print preview

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Figure 181: Print Preview
If you like your settings the sheets are ready to print.

Figure 182: Print


Print/Preview:
There are a lot of options, to print the information, you want to. But first of all you can have a look
at the preview. The preview menu is exactly the same as your print menu.
When the printing/preview point “Flowsheet” is clicked, a new window will open. There you can see
the whole plant, you created before. On the right side, there is different information like the title of
your project, the date of issue, the project number, the revision number, who has created the
project, who has edited the project and which user had modified this project last. NIAflow gets this
information from the “Project Data” which has to be filled in first.

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Figure 183: Project Definition- Project Data

Figure 184: Flowsheet Print Preview


There is also the possibility, to get a preview of the project. Within the project, you can choose the
data you want to print.
“All Objects” means, that you print all the information about everything you have created.
The first page is filled with general information about the project. That contains the project number
etc. The project team is showed, when filled in into the project first.

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Figure 185: Project Definition- Project Team
The order of the project team is created equal to the order at the drop down menu.

138
The „Project History“ shows, who has created the project, and who edited the project. When there
is more than one person, working on the project, there would be more entries.

Figure 186: Project Definition- Print Preview

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Another possibility is to choose “Plants and Equipments List”. This possibility first of all shows
the general information about the project like already described at “All Objects”. As a second step,
it creates an equipment list.

Figure 187: Equipment list- Print Preview


You can edit the Position number into the general menu of every object. To get into the object
general menu you have to double click on the object.

Figure 188: Object Numbering


The last choosing possibility is to get a preview of the “Equiptment List” only.
Autonaming:When doesn’t changed, NIAflow has a presetting called “product autonaming”. With
this presetting the different objects and their products are named automatically. But it is also
possible to give them own names. To create own names, its only needed to delete the checkmark
at “Use product autonaming” into the general menu of each object.

140
Figure 189: Autonaming
When you want to create an own name for the object’s product, you also have to delete the
checkmark into the general menu first of all.
After that, click on the button “Material” and after that “Edit Name”. When finished typing, adopt the
name with “Done”.

Video: Optimization and Print

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4.2 Chamber Filter Press

4.2.1 Silo

4.2.1.1 Material

Dry Bulk Density

Figure 190: Silo- Material

Figure 191: Silo- General explaining Auto naming


Since the auto naming option has not been checked in the General tab for this Silo, we can see
that under the Material tab the “Edit Name” option is activated.
The information regarding the Feed Rate can be filled as total (water+solids) or only the quantity of
the solid material can be specified. Using the radio button switching between Solids and Total is
possible and the suitable unit can be chosen using the drop down menu. Similarly the water
content can be filled in as Percentage or Volume. The bulk density that NIAflow uses is the Dry
Bulk Density of the material (without any moisture content).
The Convert Unit button converts standard units from Metric to Imperial or vice versa.

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4.2.1.2 Sieve Analysis

Figure 192: Silo- Sieve Analysis


Here information about the percentages of different particle sizes in the bulk material can be
added. This information is usually obtained from the sieve analysis of sample tests of the material.
Test sieve openings and corresponding percentages are displayed depending on the selected
options for retained/passing and fraction/cumulated. Added, deleted or edited data pairs are also
reflected in the graphical display.
The curve is generated using either linear or 3D interpolation methods and can be viewed on
Linear, Log, Log-Log and RRSB scales .If the Passing/Retained Cumulated/Fraction area is
highlighted with green colour, it indicates correct input of entries; Red colour indicates an error
which is explained in the white area below the table.

Figure 193: Sieve Analysis- Interpolation and Grid settings


Here you have three possibilities to adapt the chart.
- Enter the numerical analysis manually in the table on the left side. Highlight the row to edit
it.

Figure 194: Sieve Analysis- Data Table

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- Move some points on the plot directly until the desired result is achieved.

Figure 195: Sieve Analysis-Sieve analysis data plot


- Select the data provided by the software from the selection views on the right side of the
window.This can be done as follows:
At the beginning, the sieve steps should be chosen. Standard Sieves R20/3, R20, R40/3,
Tyler and US# can be chosen or entered manually also when the sieve does not exist as
norm. For the choice of the norm sieves, open the menu “Standard sieves” and choose the
particular sieves with a check mark and click “Add” after that.

Figure 196: Sieve Analysis- Standard Sieves


The selected sieves are added to the sieve analysis and furnished with virtual values.

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These selected sieves can be altered through clicking into the corresponding field. Sieves,
which aren’t needed, can be deleted completely, with marking the whole line. Choose the
option “delete row” with the right mouse button.
The “Add Specification” button at the bottom left corner can be used to add up to two reference
curves.

4.2.2 Water Tap

4.2.2.1 Sizing

Figure 197: Water Tap- Sizing


This tab has four options to choose from, at the bottom there are four levels of detailing:
1. Don’t print: In this mode the data doesn’t get printed in the final report.
2. Essential: As the name suggests, in this mode only the essential calculation or technical
details appear on the screen and are advised to be filled in for basic calculations,
documentation and also to set limits for the machine.
3. Extended: This mode provides some additional details along with the essential ones.
4. Detailed: This mode provides elaborate details and is especially useful for documentation
purpose
The “Output Volume” of the water tap is filled in here under the calculation data section.

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4.2.3 Chamber Filter Press

4.2.3.1 Sizing

Figure 198: Chamber filter Press- Sizing


Under the Technical Data the “Watercontent Coarse Material” can be added. This determines the
content of water in the material with coarser particles. If there is not enough water content in the
material then the software raises an error.
Cut Function

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Figure 199: Chamber Filter Press- Cut Function
The Chamber Filter Press performs sorting based on the particle size. Therefore under the “sort
type” menu size has been selected. The values for the cut function table can be edited by
highlighting the corresponding row. Cut function is a property of the machine.

4.2.4 Label Layers


To create a label right click on the object or a connecting line and choose the option “Add Label”.
Several labels can be created for one object like for its Name, Position, Mass flow etc. To manage
these labels and maintain uniformity the Label Layers option is used. More than one label layers
can be created and the labels on the flowsheet can be grouped together depending on the
information they hold and then can be assigned to one layer.

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Figure 200: Label Layers
Highlight the row to edit the name of the layer.
Editing status is by default the 0th layer and cannot be edited. The other layers can be edited as
per the user’s requirement. More layers can be added or deleted using the plus and minus button
in the window.

Figure 201: Label Layers- Adding and Renaming Layers


The active option here indicated the label layer that is active which means that every label being
created on the flowsheet gets assigned to this layer and inherits all its format data. The active layer
cannot be deleted.
The visible option shows the labels for the layer that has a check mark against the visibility option
on the flowsheet. This way the flowsheet can be kept clutter free in situations where many labels
might be required. To hide labels, uncheck the visibility option.

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The Name labels are hidden
here.

Figure 202: Label Layers-Hiding Labels


For the validation of the project we have the “Editing status” option.
When the visiblity for the Editing Status layer is checked, three symbols appear on the screen
corresponding to all the objects.
- Red Hourglass indicates editing still in progress
- Green check indicates Information completed (object-data complete option checked)
- Red cross indicates some wrong input data
The “editing status” is especially helpfully for a flowsheet with a large number of objects or when
more than one user is working on a project.Selecting this option will make spotting the error and
the misleading data easy.In case of multiple users it will also also make it convenient for the users
to know about objects that have been completely set up and donot need any further editing.

Figure 203 : Label Option

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Figure 204 : Label Formatting
The image on top shows the label layers created and assigned for every object in this project. The
properties of one label can be transferred to another by right clicking on the label (whose property
is to be transferred) and clicking either “Transfer Formatting” or “Transfer Formatting and Data”
and then hold the control button and click on all the labels you want to transfer the properties to.

Figure 205: Transferring Label properties


Once all the objects have been set up and connected properly hit the calculate button to simulate
the flow and obtain the product results.

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Figure 206: Simulation Results after hitting Calculation button

4.3 Sand Washing

4.3.1 Silo: 00.00

4.3.1.1 Material

Dry Bulk Density

Figure 207: Silo- Material


If the auto naming option in the General tab is checked then the “Edit name” option here will be
deactivated.
The information regarding the Feed Rate can be filled as total (water+solids) or only the quantity of
the solid material can be specified. Using the radio button switching between Solids and Total is
possible and the suitable unit can be chosen using the drop down menu. Similarly the water
content can be filled in as Percentage or Volume.
The Convert Unit button converts standard units from Metric to Imperial or vice versa.

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4.3.1.2 Sieve Analysis

Figure 208: Silo- Sieve Analysis


Here information about the percentages of different particle sizes in the bulk material can be
added. This information is usually obtained from the sieve analysis of sample tests of the material.
Test sieve openings and corresponding percentages are displayed depending on the selected
options for retained/passing and fraction/cumulated. Added, deleted or edited data pairs are also
reflected in the graphical display.
The curve is generated using either linear or 3D interpolation methods and can be viewed on
Linear, Log, Log-Log and RRSB scales .If the Passing/Retained Cumulated/Fraction arear is
highlighted with green colour, it indicates correct input of entries; Red colour indicates an error
which is explained in the white area below the table.

Figure 209: Sieve Analysis- Interpolation and Grid settings


Here you have three possibilities to adapt the chart.
- Enter the numerical analysis manually in the table on the left side of the window.
Highlight the row to edit it.

Figure 210: Sieve Analysis- Data Table

152
- Move some points on the plot directly until the desired result is achieved.

Figure 211: Sieve Analysis-Sieve analysis data plot


- Select the data provided by the software from the selection views on the right side of the
window.This can be done as follows:
At the beginning, the sieve steps should be chosen. Standard Sieves R20/3, R20, R40/3,
Tyler and US# can be chosen or entered manually also when the sieve does not exist as
norm. For the choice of the norm sieves, open the menu “Standard sieves” and choose the
particular sieves with a check mark and with clicking “Add” after that.

Figure 212: Sieve Analysis- Standard Sieves


The selected sieves are added to the sieve analysis and furnished with virtual values.
These selected sieves can be altered through clicking into the corresponding field. Sieves,
which aren’t needed, can be deleted completely, with marking the whole line. Choose the
option “delete row” with the right mouse button.
The “Add Specification” button at the bottom left corner can be used to add up to two reference
curves.

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4.3.1.3 Sorting Properties

Figure 213: Silo Sorting Properties


With the help of the drop down menu under the “Sort Type” category the sorting criteria can be
chosen.
The “Fraction” option allows input of different sorting properties for different segment of grain sizes
as derived from the test sieve sizes from the sieve analysis tab. In case if the properties are same
for all the segments of particle sizes then click on the “Apply for all fractions of sieve analysis”
option below the table on the bottom left side of the window.
Under the Fraction option there is a table where the sorting values and their respective
percentages can be filled in. The sum of all the entries under the “percentage” column must add up
to 100.Highlight the corresponding row by clicking on to edit the values.
Uncheck the “Print Sort Value” if the sorting properties are the same for all fraction sizes to avoid
redundant printing of the same data multiple times.

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4.3.2 Bucket Wheel: 01.00

4.3.2.1 Sizing

Figure 214: Bucket Wheel- Sizing


Under the Technical Data the “Watercontent Coarse Material” can be added. This determines the
content of water in the material with coarser particles. If there is not enough water content in the
material then the software raises an error.

4.3.2.2 Cut Function

Figure 215: Bucket Wheel- Cut Function


The bucket wheel sorts material based on size. Therefore Size is chosen as the “Sort Type”. Edit
the table shown on the left side of the screen to generate the cut function curve. The values can be
edited by highlighting the corresponding curves. The Cut Function is a property of the machine.

155
4.3.3 Dewatering Screen: 02.00

Figure 216: Screen Properties


Dewatering Screen is a special horizontal screen with water input used for washing and dewatering
material. A Horizontal Screen with the water option can be chosen by checking both these options
when the dialogue box appears when setting up a screen on the flowsheet.

4.3.3.1 General

Figure 217: Dewatering Screen- General


Here select the dewatering screen has been selected from the Haver Niagara Dewatering screens
range.

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4.3.3.2 Sizing

Figure 218: Dewatering Screen- Sizing


Here cut offs and opening sizes for the indivuidual decks are defined.To change the layer
thickness the angle inclination needs to be adjusted accordingly.The Layer thickness has to be
somewhere around 8 times the size of the cut size but it also depends on the size of the machine
and the quantity of the material
The media option provides a variety of media to select from along with its coressponding opening
shape and orientation. The opening along with the media plays a vital role in determining the
performance of the screen.
Once the appropriate media has been chosen you can hit the guess button to check the open area
percentage.The more the Open Area percentage the better the screen performance.When using
the “Show Media options” to select an appropriate opening size the guess button should not be
used.
If you filled in all the given information, you can click on calculate, to get a rough estimate of the
feed and product particle size distrubution in graphical representation on the bottom right corner of
the window.The optimum size of the machine can be selected once the desired results are
obtained from the percentages of theb overs and the fines.

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4.3.4 Hydro Cyclone: 07.00

4.3.4.1 Sizing

Figure 219: Hydro Cyclone- Sizing


Under the Technical Data the “Watercontent Coarse Material” can be added. This determines the
content of water in the material with coarser particles. If there is not enough water content in the
material then the software raises an error.

4.3.4.2 Cut Function

Figure 220: Hydro cyclone- Cut Function


Hydro cyclone can perform sorting operations based on density or size of the particles. Since the
density of all our particles is more or less similar Size has been used as the sorting criteria here.
The mixed mode has also been set to 100% size.
The values for the cut function table can be edited by highlighting the corresponding row. Cut
function is a property of the machine and so the values are obtained as per the machine
specification.
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4.3.5 Blade Clarifier: 08.00

4.3.5.1 Sizing

Figure 221: Blade clarifier- Sizing


Under the Technical Data the “Watercontent Coarse Material” can be added. This determines the
content of water in the material with coarser particles. If there is not enough water content in the
material then the software raises an error.

4.3.5.2 Cut Function

Figure 222: Blade Clarifier- Cut Function


The Blade Clarifier performs sorting based on the particle size. Therefore under the “sort type”
menu size has been selected .The values for the cut function table can be edited by highlighting
the corresponding row. Cut function is a property of the machine and so the values are obtained as
per the machine specification.

159
4.3.6 Belt Filter Press: 09.00

4.3.6.1 Sizing

Figure 223: Belt Filter Press- Sizing


Under the Technical Data the “Watercontent Coarse Material” can be added. This determines the
content of water in the material with coarser particles. If there is not enough water content in the
material then the software raises an error.

4.3.6.2 Cut Function

Figure 224: Belt Filter Press- Cut Function


The Belt Press performs sorting based on the particle size. Therefore under the “sort type” menu
size has been selected. The values for the cut function table can be edited by highlighting the
corresponding row. Cut function is a property of the machine and so the values are obtained as per
the machine specification.

160
4.3.7 Water Tap: 11.00

4.3.7.1 Sizing

Figure 225: Water Tap- Sizing


The “Output Volume” of the water tap is filled in here under the calculation data section.

4.3.8 Pond: 14.00

4.3.8.1 Sizing

Figure 226: Pond- Sizing


The output of the Pond can be determined here. If the “Input passed through” option is checked
then all the contents of the pond are the output of the pond. If only a specific amount of water
needs to be sent out then uncheck the “Input passed through” option and fill in the desired amount
in the “Output Volume” option. The Pond in NIAflow always gives out clean water.
Once all the objects have been set up and connected properly hit the calculate button to simulate
the flow and obtain the product results.
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Figure 227: Simulation Results after hitting the Calculation button
The different colour of connection lines represent different material flowing through them:
Blue: Water
Pink: Empty
Olive Green: Slurry (Solid + Water)
Brown: Solid Material

4.4 Fine Sand Recovery

4.4.1 Stockpile: 01.00

4.4.1.1 Sizing

Figure 228: Stockpile- Sizing


Under the calculation data here the Output tonnage has been specifies and the “Input passed
through” option has been checked so that all the material from the stockpile is passed on to the
next connecting object.

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4.4.1.2 Material

Dry Bulk Density

Figure 229: Stockpile- Material


If the auto naming option in the General tab is checked then the “Edit name” option here will be
deactivated.
The information regarding the Feed Rate can be filled as total (water+solids) or only the quantity of
the solid material can be specified. Using the radio button switching between Solids and Total is
possible and the suitable unit can be chosen using the drop down menu. Similarly the water
content can be filled in as Percentage or Volume.
The Convert Unit button converts standard units from Metric to Imperial or vice versa.

4.4.1.3 Sieve Analysis

Figure 230: Stockpile- Sieve Analysis


Here information about the percentages of different particle sizes in the bulk material can be
added. This information is usually obtained from the sieve analysis of sample tests of the material.

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Test sieve openings and corresponding percentages are displayed depending on the selected
options for retained/passing and fraction/cumulated. Added, deleted or edited data pairs are also
reflected in the graphical display.
The curve is generated using either linear or 3D interpolation methods and can be viewed on
Linear, Log, Log-Log and RRSB scales .If the Passing/Retained Cumulated/Fraction arear is
highlighted with green colour, it indicates correct input of entries; Red colour indicates an error
which is explained in the white area below the table.

Figure 231: Sieve Analysis- Interpolation and Grid settings


Here you have three possibilities to adapt the chart.
- Enter the numerical analysis manually in the table on the left side. Highlight the row to edit
it.

Figure 232: Sieve Analysis- Data Table


- Move some points on the plot directly until the desired result is achieved.

Figure 233: Sieve Analysis-Sieve analysis data plot


- Select the data provided by the software from the selection views on the right side of the
window.This can be done as follows:
At the beginning, the sieve steps should be chosen. Standard Sieves R20/3, R20, R40/3,
Tyler and US# can be chosen or entered manually also when the sieve does not exist as

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norm. For the choice of the norm sieves, open the menu “Standard sieves” and choose the
particular sieves with a check mark and with clicking “Add” after that.

Figure 234: Sieve Analysis- Standard Sieves


The selected sieves are added to the sieve analysis and furnished with virtual values.
These selected sieves can be altered through clicking into the corresponding field. Sieves,
which aren’t needed, can be deleted completely, with marking the whole line. Choose the
option “delete row” with the right mouse button.
The “Add Specification” button at the bottom left corner can be used to add up to two reference
curves.

4.4.1.4 Sorting Properties

Figure 235: Stockpile- Sorting Properties


With the help of the drop down menu under the “Sort Type” category the sorting criteria can be
chosen.
The “Fraction” option allows input of different sorting properties for different segment of grain sizes
as derived from the test sieve sizes from the sieve analysis tab. In case if the properties are same
for all the segments of particle sizes then click on the “Apply for all fractions of sieve analysis”
option below the table on the bottom left side of the window.
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Under the Fraction option there is a table where the sorting values and their respective
percentages can be filled in. The sum of all the entries under the “percentage” column must add up
to 100.Highlight the corresponding row by clicking on to edit the values.
Uncheck the “Print Sort Value” if the sorting properties are the same for all fraction sizes to avoid
redundant printing of the same data multiple times.

4.4.2 Water tap: 02.00

4.4.2.1 Sizing

Figure 236: Water Tap- Sizing


The “Output Volume” of the water tap is filled in here under the calculation data section.

4.4.3 Screen: 03.00

4.4.3.1 General

Figure 237: Screen- General


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Here user can select a machine as per his requirement either from a predefined vendor or can add
a new vendor and provide the machine specifications.

4.4.3.2 Sizing

Figure 238: Screen- Sizing


Here cut offs and opening sizes for the indivuidual decks are defined.The Layer thickness has to
be somewhere around 8 times the size of the cut size but it also depends on the size of the
machine and the quantity of the material.
The media option provides a variety of media to select from along with its coressponding opening
shape and orientation. The opening along with the media plays a vital role in determining the
performance of the screen.
Once the appropriate media has been chosen you can hit the guess button to check the open area
percentage.The more the Open Area percentage the better the screen performance.When using
the “Show Media options” to select an appropriate opening size the guess button should not be
used.
If you filled in all the given information, you can click on calculate, to get a rough estimate of the
feed and product particle size distrubution in graphical representation on the bottom right corner of
the window.The optimum size of the machine can be selected once the desired results are
obtained from the percentages of theb overs and the fines.

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4.4.4 Upstream Sorter: 07.01

4.4.4.1 Sizing

Figure 239: Upstream Sorter- Sizing


Under the Technical Data the “Watercontent Coarse Material” can be added. This determines the
content of water in the material with coarser particles. If there is not enough water content in the
material then the software raises an error.

4.4.4.2 Cut Function

Figure 240: Upstream Sorter- Cut Function


The Upstream Sorter performs sorting based on the particle density and size. But here we are
sorting based on the size. Therefore under the “sort type” menu size has been selected and the
Mixer Mode has also been set to 100% size. The values for the cut function table can be edited by
highlighting the corresponding row. Cut function is a property of the machine and so the values are
obtained as per the machine specification.

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4.4.5 Water Tap: 04.00

4.4.5.1 Sizing

Figure 241: Water Tap Sizing


The “Output Volume” of the water tap is filled in here under the calculation data section.

4.4.6 Upstream Sorter 2: 07.02

4.4.6.1 Sizing

Figure 242: Upstream Sorter 2-Sizing


Under the Technical Data the “Watercontent Coarse Material” can be added. This determines the
content of water in the material with coarser particles. If there is not enough water content in the
material then the software raises an error.

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4.4.6.2 Cut Function

Figure 243: Upstream Sorter 2- Cut Function


Upstream Sorter can perform sorting operations based on density or size of the particles. Since the
material here is fine, the density of all our particles is more or less similar. Therefore size has been
used as the sorting criteria. The mixed mode has also been set to 100% density.
The values for the cut function table can be edited by highlighting the corresponding row. Cut
function is a property of the machine and so the values are obtained as per the machine
specification.

4.4.7 Water Tap: 05.00

4.4.7.1 Sizing

Figure 244: Water Tap-Sizing


The “Output Volume” of the water tap is filled in here under the calculation data section.

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4.4.8 Pond: 09.00

4.4.8.1 Sizing

Figure 245: Pond- Sizing


The output of the Pond can be determined here. If the “Input passed through” option is checked
then all the contents of the pond are the output of the bond if only a specific amount of water need
to be sent out then uncheck the “Input passed through” option and fill in the desired amount in the
“Output Volume” option. The Pond in NIAflow always gives out clean water.
Once all the objects have been set up and connected properly hit the calculate button to simulate
the flow and obtain the product results.

Figure 246: Simulation Results after hitting the Calculation button

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5 Glossary
1. Amplitude: The maximum extent of a vibration or oscillation, measured from the position of
equilibrium is known as amplitude.
2. Angle of repose: The angle of repose of a granular material is the steepest angle of descent or
dip relative to the horizontal plane to which a material can be piled without slumping.
3. Bulk Density: It is defined as the weight of many particles of the material divided by the total
volume they occupy. The total volume includes particle volume and their porosity.
4. CSS: Closed Side Setting is the minimum gap between the stationary and the moving part of the
crusher.
5. Cut: Cut gives the minimum and maximum specification limit for the material.
6. Cut Function: It is a property of the machine that gives a curve which acts as a deciding factor
for the sorting process.
7. Grate Opening: It sets the maximum size of the material particles that can pass through this
opening of a mill after the grinding process.
8. Linear: It defines a property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can
be graphically represented as a straight line.
9. Log –Log: It is a two-dimensional graph of numerical data that uses logarithmic scales on both
the horizontal and vertical axes.
10. Log: A logarithmic scale is a nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of quantities.
11. Open Area: It is the percentage of the total area on the screen that lets the material pass
through it.
12. Opening: Opening is the size of perforation on the sieve to allow the material to pass through it.
13. Passing Cumulated: It gives the percentage of the total material passed through a particular
size sieve.
14. Passing Fraction: It gives you the respective percentages of the material passed through a
sieve on the subsequent sieve from the stack of sieves used for a particular sieve analysis.
15. PSD: Particle Size Distribution gives the distribution of the particle sizes in a material across
various size ranges.
16. Retained Cumulated: It gives the percentage of the total material retained on a particular size
sieve
17. Retained Fraction: It gives you the respective percentages of the material retained on every
sieve from the stack of sieves used for a particular sieve analysis.
18. RPM: Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is a measure of the
frequency of rotation, specifically the number of rotations around a fixed axis in one minute.
19. RRSB: Rosin, Rammler, Sperling and Bennet discovered that the particle size distribution of
many mechanically crushed or milled materials will follow an exponential behavior and display a
linear graph in the RRSB grid, particularly used to estimate mill products.
20. RRSB Grid: This grid consists of the log-log scale on its Y axis and the log scale on its X axis.
21. Sort Value: Sort value is the property of fraction considered for sorting. For e.g. desnity
distribution, colour content etc.

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