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Steel Frame Design Manual

API RP 2A WSD 21st


API RP 2A-WSD 21st
Steel Frame Design Manual

for

ISO SAP102816M10 Rev. 0 October 2016


Proudly developed in the United States of America
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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT, AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT
AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS
THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE
DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.

THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN.


HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF
THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE
FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED.

THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED


AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE
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USED.
Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Units 1

1.2 Axes Notation 1

1.3 Symbols 1

2 Member Design 4

2.1 Safety Factors 4

2.2 Tension Check 4

2.3 Compression Check 5

2.4 Flexure Check 5

2.5 Shear Check 6

2.6 Hoop Buckling Check 6

2.7 Axial Tension and Bending Check 7

2.8 Axial Compression and Bending Check 7

3 Joint Design 9

3.1 Joint Geometry 9

3.2 Punching Shear Method 10


3.2.1 Design Loads 10
3.2.2 Allowable Stresses 10
3.2.3 Axial and Bending Check 11
3.2.4 Overlapping Joints 12

3.3 Nominal Load Method 12

i
Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Introduction

3.3.1 Allowable Capacities 12


3.3.2 Axial and Bending Check 13
3.3.3 Overlapping Joints 13

4 Supplements 2 and 3 14

4.1 Joint Design 14


4.1.1 Allowable Capacities 14
4.1.2 Axial and Bending Check 16
4.1.3 Overlapping Joints 16

5 References 17

Units ii
1 Introduction

This manual describes the steel frame design algorithms in the software for API Recommended
Practice 2A-WSD 21st Edition (American Petroleum Institute, 2000). The design algorithms in
the software for API RP 2A-WSD 21st cover allowable stress checks for typical structural
elements used in offshore steel structures, as detailed in this manual. Such elements are tubular
members and tubular joints. For other types of structural elements, the software uses AISC ASD
9th Edition. Requirements of the code not documented in this manual should be considered
using other methods.

This manual documents the design details for cylindrical sections having thickness t ≥ 6mm, D/t
< 300. Members of other section shapes are designed in accordance with AISC ASD 9th Edition
(American Institute of Steel Construction, 1989).

It is important to read this entire manual before using the design algorithms to become familiar
with any limitations of the algorithms or assumptions that have been made.

1.1 Units
The API RP 2A-WSD design code is based on kip, inch, and second units and as such, so is this
manual, unless noted otherwise. Any units, imperial, metric, or MKS may be used in the
software in conjunction with API RP 2A-WSD design.

1.2 Axes Notation


The software analysis results refer to the member local axes system, which consists of the 2-2
axis and the 3-3 axis. The API RP 2A-WSD design code refers to x-x and y-y axes, which are
equivalent to the software 3-3 and 2-2 axes, respectively. These notations may be used
interchangeably in the design algorithms, although every effort has been made to use the design
code convention where possible.

1.3 Symbols
The following table provides a list of the symbols used in this manual, along with a short

Units 1
Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Introduction

description. Where possible, the same symbol from the design code is used in this manual.

A Cross sectional area, in2


C Critical elastic buckling coefficient
Ch Critical hoop buckling coefficient
Cm Reduction factor
D Outside diameter, in
E Young’s modulus of elasticity, ksi
fa Design tensile stress, ksi
Fa Allowable compressive stress, ksi
fb Design bending stress, ksi
Fb Allowable bending stress, ksi

Fe Euler stress, ksi
fh Hoop stress due to hydrostatic pressure, ksi
Fhc Critical hoop buckling stress, ksi
Fhe Elastic hoop buckling stress, ksi
Ft Allowable tensile stress, ksi
fv Design beam shear stress, ksi
Fv Allowable beam shear stress, ksi
fvt Design torsional shear stress, ksi
Fvt Allowable torsional shear stress, ksi
fx Design compressive stress, ksi
Fxc Inelastic local buckling stress, ksi
Fxe Elastic local buckling stress, ksi
Fy Yield strength, ksi
g Gap distance, in
Ip Polar moment of inertia, in4
K Effective length factor
l Unbraced length, in
l Circumference of brace contact with chord, neglecting overlap, in
L Length between stiffening rings, diaphragms, or end connections, in
l1 Circumference of brace portion that contacts the chord, in
l2 Projected chord length of overlapping weld, in
M Bending moment, kip-in
M Geometric parameter

Symbols 2
Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Introduction

Ma Allowable brace bending moment, kip-in


Mt Torsional moment, kip-in
p Hydrostatic pressure, ksi
P Axial force, kip
Pa Allowable brace axial load, kip
Pper Brace axial load component perpendicular to the chord, kip
P⊥ Allowable axial load component perpendicular to the chord, kip
Qf Chord load factor
Qg Gap factor
Qu Ultimate strength factor
Qβ Geometric factor
r Radius of gyration, in
SFb Safety factor for bending
SFh Safety factor against hydrostatic collapse
SFx Safety factor for axial force
t Wall thickness, in
tw Minimum of the weld throat thickness and thinner brace thickness,
V iTransverse shear force, kip

vp Acting punching shear stress, ksi


Vp Acting punching shear, kip
vpa Allowable punching shear stress, ksi
vwa Allowable shear stress of weld between braces, ksi
ν Poisson’s ratio
θ Angle between the chord and the brace

Symbols 3
2 Member Design

This chapter provides the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that
are used for cylindrical member design and checking at each output station in accordance with
API RP 2A-WSD.

Cylindrical members subjected solely to axial tension, axial compression, bending, shear, or
hydrostatic pressure are designed in accordance with API RP 2A-WSD Sections 3.2.1 to 3.2.5,
respectively. Cylindrical members subjected to combined loads without hydrostatic pressure are
designed in accordance with API RP 2A-WSD Sections 3.3.1 and 3.3.2. Cylindrical members
subjected to combined loads with hydrostatic pressure are designed in accordance with API RP
2A-WSD Sections 3.3.3 and 3.3.4.

2.1 Safety Factors


The safety factors used in calculating allowable stresses in the following sections are defined as:

Table 1 - Safety factors

Loading

Design Condition Axial Axial Bending Hoop


Tension Compression Compression
Basic allowable stresses 1.67 2.0 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 ⁄𝐹𝐹𝑏𝑏 2.0
One-third increase in allowable 1.25 1.5 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 ⁄(1.33𝐹𝐹𝑏𝑏 ) 1.5
stresses is permitted

2.2 Tension Check


Members subjected to axial tension are checked for the following condition:

𝑓𝑓𝑎𝑎
≤ 1.0 [API 3.2.1]
𝐹𝐹𝑡𝑡

The allowable tensile stress, Ft, is defined as:

Safety Factors 4
Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Member Design

𝐹𝐹𝑡𝑡 = 0.6𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 [API Eq. 3.2.1-1]

2.3 Compression Check


Members subjected to axial compression are checked for the following condition:

𝑓𝑓𝑎𝑎
≤ 1.0 [API 3.2.2]
𝐹𝐹𝑎𝑎

The allowable compressive stress, Fa, is defined as:

(𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ⁄𝑟𝑟)2
⎧ �1 − � 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦
⎪ 2𝐶𝐶𝑐𝑐2
⎪ for 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ⁄𝑟𝑟 < 𝐶𝐶𝑐𝑐
3(𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ⁄𝑟𝑟) (𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ⁄𝑟𝑟)3
𝐹𝐹𝑎𝑎 = 5⁄3 + 8𝐶𝐶 − [API Eq. 3.2.2-1]
⎨ 𝑐𝑐 8𝐶𝐶𝑐𝑐3
2
⎪ 12𝜋𝜋 𝐸𝐸

for 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ⁄𝑟𝑟 ≥ 𝐶𝐶𝑐𝑐
⎩23(𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ⁄𝑟𝑟)2

where,
1⁄2
2𝜋𝜋 2 𝐸𝐸
𝐶𝐶𝑐𝑐 = � �
𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦

𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 for 𝐷𝐷⁄𝑡𝑡 ≤ 60


𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 = �min(𝐹𝐹 , 𝐹𝐹 ) for 𝐷𝐷⁄𝑡𝑡 > 60
𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥

For members with D/t > 60, the yield strength, Fy, in the above equations is replaced by the
critical local buckling stress, defined as the minimum of Fxe or Fxc.

The elastic local buckling stress, Fxe, is defined as:

𝐹𝐹𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 2𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶 𝑡𝑡⁄𝐷𝐷 [API Eq. 3.2.2-3]

where the critical elastic buckling coefficient, C = 0.3.

The inelastic local buckling stress, Fxc, is defined as:

𝐹𝐹𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 �1.64 − 0.23(𝐷𝐷⁄𝑡𝑡)1⁄4 � ≤ 𝐹𝐹𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 [API Eq. 3.2.2-4]

2.4 Flexure Check


Members subjected to bending are checked for the following condition:

𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏
≤ 1.0 [API 3.2.3]
𝐹𝐹𝑏𝑏

Compression Check 5
Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Member Design

The allowable bending stress, Fb, is defined as:

𝐷𝐷 1500
⎧0.75𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 for ≤
⎪ 𝑡𝑡 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦
⎪ 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 𝐷𝐷 1500 𝐷𝐷 3000 [API Eq. 3.2.3-
𝐹𝐹𝑏𝑏 = �0.84 − 1.74 � 𝐹𝐹 for < ≤
⎨ 𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸 𝑦𝑦 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 𝑡𝑡 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 1a, 1b, and 1c]
⎪�0.72 − 0.58 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 𝐷𝐷 � 𝐹𝐹

for
3000 𝐷𝐷
< ≤ 300
⎩ 𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸 𝑦𝑦 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 𝑡𝑡

2.5 Shear Check


Members subjected to beam shear are checked for the following condition:

𝑓𝑓𝑣𝑣
≤ 1.0 [API 3.2.4a]
𝐹𝐹𝑣𝑣

The maximum beam shear stress, fv, and the allowable beam shear stress Fv are defined as:

𝑉𝑉
𝑓𝑓𝑣𝑣 = [API Eq. 3.2.4-1]
0.5𝐴𝐴
𝐹𝐹𝑣𝑣 = 0.4𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦 [API Eq. 3.2.4-2]

2.6 Hoop Buckling Check


Members subjected to external pressure are checked for the following condition:

𝑓𝑓ℎ ≤ 𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑐𝑐 ⁄𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆ℎ [API Eq. 3.2.5-1]

The hoop stress due to hydrostatic pressure, fh, is defined as:

𝑓𝑓ℎ = 𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝⁄2𝑡𝑡 [API Eq. 3.2.5-2]

The critical hoop buckling stress, Fhc, is defined as:

𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑒𝑒 for 𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑒𝑒 ≤ 0.55𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦



⎪0.45𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 + 0.18𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑒𝑒 for 0.55𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 < 𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑒𝑒 ≤ 1.6𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦
𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑐𝑐 = 1.31𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 [API Eq. 3.2.5-6]
⎨1.15 + �𝐹𝐹 ⁄𝐹𝐹 � for 1.6𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 < 𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑒𝑒 ≤ 6.2𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦
⎪ 𝑦𝑦 ℎ𝑒𝑒
𝐹𝐹
⎩ 𝑦𝑦 for 𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑒𝑒 > 6.2𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦

The elastic hoop buckling stress, Fhe, is defined as:

𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑒𝑒 = 2𝐶𝐶ℎ 𝐸𝐸 𝑡𝑡⁄𝐷𝐷 [API Eq. 3.2.5-4]

Shear Check 6
Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Member Design

The critical hoop buckling coefficient, Ch, is defined as:

0.44 𝑡𝑡⁄𝐷𝐷 for 𝑀𝑀 ≥ 1.6 𝐷𝐷⁄𝑡𝑡


⎧ 3
⎪0.44(𝑡𝑡⁄𝐷𝐷 ) + 0.21(𝐷𝐷⁄𝑡𝑡) for 0.825 𝐷𝐷⁄𝑡𝑡 ≤ 𝑀𝑀 < 1.6 𝐷𝐷⁄𝑡𝑡
𝐶𝐶ℎ = 𝑀𝑀4
⎨0.736 ⁄ (𝑀𝑀 − 0.636) for 3.5 ≤ M < 0.825 𝐷𝐷⁄𝑡𝑡
⎪0.755⁄(𝑀𝑀 − 0.559) for 1.5 ≤ 𝑀𝑀 < 3.5
⎩0.8 for 𝑀𝑀 < 1.5

The geometric parameter, M, is defined as:

𝐿𝐿
𝑀𝑀 = (2 𝐷𝐷⁄𝑡𝑡)1⁄2 [API Eq. 3.2.5-5]
𝐷𝐷

2.7 Axial Tension and Bending Check


Members subjected to combined axial tension and bending loads, without hydrostatic pressure,
are checked for the following condition:

2 2
�𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 + 𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
𝑓𝑓𝑎𝑎 [API Eq. 3.3.1-2]
+ ≤ 1.0
0.6𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 𝐹𝐹𝑏𝑏

Members subjected to combined axial tension, bending, and hydrostatic pressure are checked
for the following condition:

𝐴𝐴2 + 𝐵𝐵2 + 2𝜈𝜈|𝐴𝐴|𝐵𝐵 ≤ 1.0 [API Eq. 3.3.3-1]

where,

𝑓𝑓𝑎𝑎 + 𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏 − (0.5𝑓𝑓ℎ )


𝐴𝐴 = (𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑥𝑥 )
𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦

𝑓𝑓ℎ
𝐵𝐵 = (𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆ℎ )
𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑐𝑐

2.8 Axial Compression and Bending Check


Members subjected to combined axial compression and bending, without hydrostatic pressure,
are checked for the following conditions:

Axial Tension and Bending Check 7


Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Member Design

2 2

𝐶𝐶𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 𝐶𝐶𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏


�� +�
𝑓𝑓𝑎𝑎 � 𝑓𝑓 � [API Eq. 3.3.1-4]
1− ′ 1 − 𝑎𝑎′
𝑓𝑓𝑎𝑎 𝐹𝐹𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐹𝐹𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
+ ≤ 1.0
𝐹𝐹𝑎𝑎 𝐹𝐹𝑏𝑏

2 2
�𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 + 𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
𝑓𝑓𝑎𝑎 [API Eq. 3.3.1-2]
+ ≤ 1.0
0.6𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 𝐹𝐹𝑏𝑏

where,

12𝜋𝜋 2 𝐸𝐸
𝐹𝐹𝑒𝑒′ = [AISC H1]
23(𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ⁄𝑟𝑟)2

The reduction factors, Cmx and Cmy are calculated according to AISC H1.
𝑓𝑓
If 𝐹𝐹𝑎𝑎 ≤ 0.15, the previous two conditions are substituted by the following condition:
𝑎𝑎

2 2
+ 𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
𝑓𝑓𝑎𝑎 �𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 [API Eq. 3.3.1-3]
+ ≤ 1.0
𝐹𝐹𝑎𝑎 𝐹𝐹𝑏𝑏

Members subjected to combined axial compression, bending, and hydrostatic pressure are
checked for the following conditions:

𝑓𝑓𝑎𝑎 + (0.5𝑓𝑓ℎ ) 𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏


(𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑥𝑥 ) + (𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑏𝑏 ) ≤ 1.0 [API Eq. 3.3.4-1]
𝐹𝐹𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦

𝑓𝑓ℎ
𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆ℎ ≤ 1.0 [API Eq. 3.3.4-2]
𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑐𝑐

If 𝑓𝑓𝑥𝑥 > 0.5𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑎𝑎 , the following condition is also satisfied:

𝑓𝑓𝑥𝑥 − 0.5𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑎𝑎 𝑓𝑓ℎ 2


+ � � ≤ 1.0 [API Eq. 3.3.4-3]
𝐹𝐹𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 − 0.5𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑎𝑎 𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑎𝑎

where,

𝐹𝐹𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
F𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 =
𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑥𝑥
𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑒𝑒
𝐹𝐹ℎ𝑎𝑎 =
𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆ℎ

𝑓𝑓𝑥𝑥 = 𝑓𝑓𝑎𝑎 + 𝑓𝑓𝑏𝑏 + (0.5𝑓𝑓ℎ )

Axial Compression and Bending Check 8


3 Joint Design

This chapter provides the details of the joint punching load check algorithms that are used for
tubular joints in accordance with API RP 2A-WSD Sections 4.3.1 and 4.3.2.

API RP 2A-WSD allows the joints to be designed on the basis of punching shear or nominal
loads in the braces. Both methods are available and documented in the following sections.

3.1 Joint Geometry


Figure 1 illustrates some of the geometric parameters used in the punching load check.

d Brace diameter, in
D Chord diameter, in
g Gap distance, in
t Brace thickness, in
T Chord thickness, in
θ Angle measured from the chord to the brace

Joint Geometry 9
Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Joint Design

Brace
t

g Brace
T Chord

θ
D

Figure 1 - Joint geometry

The following geometric parameters are derived from those in Figure 1.

𝑑𝑑 𝐷𝐷 𝑡𝑡
𝛽𝛽 = 𝛾𝛾 = 𝜏𝜏 =
𝐷𝐷 2𝑇𝑇 𝑇𝑇

3.2 Punching Shear Method

3.2.1 Design Loads


The acting punching shear, Vp, is defined as:

𝑉𝑉𝑝𝑝 = τf sin 𝜃𝜃 [API Eq. 4.3.1-1]

where f is the nominal axial, in-plane bending, or out-of-plane bending stress. The acting shear
is kept separate for each stress type.

3.2.2 Allowable Stresses


The allowable punching shear stress, vpa, in the chord wall is defined as:

𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦
𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 𝑄𝑄𝑞𝑞 𝑄𝑄𝑓𝑓 ≤ 0.4𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 [API Eq. 4.3.1-2]
0.6𝛾𝛾

The chord load factor, Qf, can be automatically calculated or user input. When automatically
calculated it is taken as 1.0 when all extreme fiber stresses in the chord are tensile, otherwise it
is defined as:

Punching Shear Method 10


Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Joint Design

𝑄𝑄𝑓𝑓 = 1.0 − λγ𝐴𝐴2

where,

0.030 for brace axial stress


𝜆𝜆 = �0.045 for brace in − plane bending stress
0.021 for brace out − of − plane bending stress

̅ 2 + 𝑓𝑓𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼
�𝑓𝑓𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 ̅ 2 + 𝑓𝑓𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂
̅2
𝐴𝐴 =
0.6𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦

The factor Qq is determined based on API Table 4.3.1-1.

Table 2 – Factor, Qq

Brace Action
Joint Class Axial Axial In-plane Out-of-plane
Tension Compression Bending Bending
K overlap 1.8

K gap (1.10 + 0.20⁄𝛽𝛽)𝑄𝑄𝑔𝑔

T&Y (1.10 + 0.20⁄𝛽𝛽) (3.72 + 0.67⁄𝛽𝛽) (1.37 + 0.67⁄𝛽𝛽)𝑄𝑄𝛽𝛽

Cross w/o diaphragm (1.10 + 0.20⁄𝛽𝛽) (0.75 + 0.20⁄𝛽𝛽)𝑄𝑄𝛽𝛽

Cross w/ diaphragm (1.10 + 0.20⁄𝛽𝛽)

The geometric factor, Qβ, is defined as:

0.3
for 𝛽𝛽 > 0.6
𝑄𝑄𝛽𝛽 = �𝛽𝛽(1 − 0.833𝛽𝛽) [API Table 4.3.1-1]
1.0 for 𝛽𝛽 ≤ 0.6

The gap factor, Qg, is defined as:

1.8 − 0.1 𝑔𝑔⁄𝑇𝑇 ≥ 1.0 for 𝛾𝛾 ≤ 20


𝑄𝑄𝑔𝑔 = � [API Table 4.3.1-1]
1.8 − 4 𝑔𝑔⁄𝐷𝐷 ≥ 1.0 for 𝛾𝛾 > 20

3.2.3 Axial and Bending Check


Joints with braces subjected to combined axial and/or bending loads are checked for the
following conditions:

Punching Shear Method 11


Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Joint Design

2 2
𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝 𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝
� � +� � ≤ 1.0 [API Eq. 4.3.1-3a]
𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂

2 2
𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝 2 𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝 𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝
� � + arcsin�� � +� � ≤ 1.0 [API Eq. 4.3.1-3b]
𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 𝜋𝜋 𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂

where the arcsin term is in radians. The subscripts AX, IPB, and OPB correspond to axial, in-
plane bending, and out-of-plane bending, respectively.

3.2.4 Overlapping Joints


Joints classified as K Overlap are checked for the following condition:

𝑃𝑃𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝
≤ 1.0 [API 4.3.2]
𝑃𝑃 ⊥

where Pper is the brace axial load component perpendicular to the chord, defined as:

𝑃𝑃𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 𝑃𝑃 sin 𝜃𝜃

The allowable axial load, perpendicular component is defined as:

𝑃𝑃 ⊥= �𝑣𝑣𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑇𝑇𝑙𝑙1 � + (2𝑣𝑣𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑡𝑡𝑤𝑤 𝑙𝑙2 ) [API Eq. 4.3.2-1]

3.3 Nominal Load Method

3.3.1 Allowable Capacities


The allowable brace axial load, Pa, is defined as:

𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 𝑇𝑇 2
𝑃𝑃𝑎𝑎 = 𝑄𝑄𝑢𝑢 𝑄𝑄𝑓𝑓 [API Eq. 4.3.1-4a]
1.7 sin 𝜃𝜃

The allowable brace bending moment, Ma, is defined as:

𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 𝑇𝑇 2
𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑎 = 𝑄𝑄𝑢𝑢 𝑄𝑄𝑓𝑓 (0.8𝑑𝑑) [API Eq. 4.3.1-4b]
1.7 sin 𝜃𝜃

These allowables are increased by 1/3 when applicable.

The chord load factor, Qf, can be automatically calculated or user input. When automatically
calculated it is taken as 1.0 when all extreme fiber stresses in the chord are tensile, otherwise it
is defined as per Section 3.2.2 above.

The ultimate strength factor, Qu, is determined based on API Table 4.3.1-2.

Nominal Load Method 12


Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Joint Design

Table 3 – Factor, Qu

Brace Action

Joint Class Axial Axial In-plane Out-of-plane


Tension Compression Bending Bending
K (3.4 + 19𝛽𝛽)𝑄𝑄𝑔𝑔

T&Y (3.4 + 19𝛽𝛽)


(3.4 + 19𝛽𝛽) (3.4 + 7𝛽𝛽)𝑄𝑄𝛽𝛽
Cross w/o diaphragm (3.4 + 19𝛽𝛽) (3.4 + 19𝛽𝛽)𝑄𝑄𝛽𝛽

Cross w/ diaphragm (3.4 + 19𝛽𝛽)

The geometric factor, Qβ, and the gap factor, Qg, are defined in Section 3.2.2 above.

3.3.2 Axial and Bending Check


Joints with braces subjected to combined axial and/or bending loads are checked for the
following conditions:

𝑀𝑀 2 𝑀𝑀 2
� � +� � ≤ 1.0 [API Eq. 4.3.1-5a]
𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑎 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑎 𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂

𝑃𝑃 2 𝑀𝑀 2 𝑀𝑀 2
� � + arcsin�� � + � � ≤ 1.0 [API Eq. 4.3.1-5b]
𝑃𝑃𝑎𝑎 𝜋𝜋 𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑎 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑎 𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂

where the arcsin term is in radians. The subscripts AX, IPB, and OPB correspond to axial, in-
plane bending, and out-of-plane bending, respectively.

3.3.3 Overlapping Joints


Joints classified as K Overlap are checked for the following condition:

𝑃𝑃𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝
≤ 1.0 [API 4.3.2]
𝑃𝑃 ⊥

where Pper is the brace axial load component perpendicular to the chord, defined as:

𝑃𝑃𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 𝑃𝑃 sin 𝜃𝜃

The allowable axial load, perpendicular component is defined as:

𝑙𝑙1
𝑃𝑃 ⊥= �𝑃𝑃𝑎𝑎 sin 𝜃𝜃 � + (2𝑣𝑣𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑡𝑡𝑤𝑤 𝑙𝑙2 ) [API Eq. 4.3.2-2]
𝑙𝑙

Nominal Load Method 13


4 Supplements 2 and 3

These supplements include changes to the joint punching checks as described in the following
sections.

This chapter provides the details of the API RP 2A-WSD 21st Supplements 2 (American
Petroleum Institute, 2005) and 3 (American Petroleum Institute, 2007), released in 2005 and
2007, respectively, which are considered when the supplement option is set to include these.

4.1 Joint Design


Joint design was changed in these supplements to follow the nominal load method described in
Section 3.3 above. The following sections provide details of the punching checks as
implemented for these supplements. The chord yield strength, Fyc, is limited to 0.8Fu.

4.1.1 Allowable Capacities


The allowable brace axial load, Pa, is defined as:

𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 𝑇𝑇 2
𝑃𝑃𝑎𝑎 = 𝑄𝑄𝑢𝑢 𝑄𝑄𝑓𝑓 [API Eq. 4.3-1a]
𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 sin 𝜃𝜃

The allowable brace bending moment, Ma, is defined as:

𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 𝑇𝑇 2 𝑑𝑑
𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑎 = 𝑄𝑄𝑢𝑢 𝑄𝑄𝑓𝑓 [API Eq. 4.3-1b]
𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 sin 𝜃𝜃

where the safety factor, FS = 1.60.

The chord load factor, Qf, is defined as:

𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝑃𝑃𝑐𝑐 𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝑀𝑀𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
𝑄𝑄𝑓𝑓 = �1 + 𝐶𝐶1 � � − 𝐶𝐶2 � � − 𝐶𝐶3 𝐴𝐴2 � [API Eq. 4.3-2]
𝑃𝑃𝑦𝑦 𝑀𝑀𝑝𝑝

The parameter, A, is defined as:

14
Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Supplements 2 and 3

2 2 0.5
𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝑃𝑃𝑐𝑐 𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝑀𝑀𝑐𝑐
𝐴𝐴 = �� � +� � � [API Eq. 4.3-3]
𝑃𝑃𝑦𝑦 𝑀𝑀𝑝𝑝

where the safety factor, FS = 1.20 where the 1/3 increase is applicable. Pc is the nominal axial
load and Mc is the nominal bending resultant in the chord.

2 2
𝑀𝑀𝑐𝑐 = �𝑀𝑀𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 + 𝑀𝑀𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 [API 4.3.4]

The coefficients, C1, C2, and C3, are determined based on API Table 4.3-2.

Table 4 – Coefficients, C1, C2, and C3

Joint Type C1 C2 C3
K axial 0.2 0.2 0.3
T&Y axial 0.3 0 0.8
X axial 𝛽𝛽 ≤ 0.9 0.2 0 0.5
X axial 𝛽𝛽 = 1.0 -0.2 0 0.2
All joints moment 0.2 0 0.4

The ultimate strength factor, Qu, is determined based on API Table 4.3-1.

Table 5 – Factor, Qu

Brace Action

Joint Axial Axial In-plane Out-of-plane


Class Tension Compression Bending Bending
K (16 + 1.2𝛾𝛾)𝛽𝛽1.2 𝑄𝑄𝑔𝑔 ≤ 40𝛽𝛽1.2 𝑄𝑄𝑔𝑔
30𝛽𝛽 2.8
T&Y + (20 + 0.8𝛾𝛾)𝛽𝛽1.6
≤ 2.8 + 36𝛽𝛽1.6 (5 + 0.7𝛾𝛾)𝛽𝛽1.2 2.5+(4.5 + 0.2𝛾𝛾)𝛽𝛽2.6
23𝛽𝛽 for 𝛽𝛽 ≤ 0.9 [2.8
X 20.7 + (𝛽𝛽 − 0.9) + (12 + 0.1𝛾𝛾)𝛽𝛽]𝑄𝑄𝛽𝛽
(17𝛾𝛾 − 220) for 𝛽𝛽 > 0.9

The geometric factor, Qβ, is defined as:

0.3
for 𝛽𝛽 > 0.6
𝑄𝑄𝛽𝛽 = �𝛽𝛽(1 − 0.833𝛽𝛽) [API Table 4.3.1-1]
1.0 for 𝛽𝛽 ≤ 0.6

The gap factor, Qg, is defined as:

1 + 0.2[1 − 2.8 𝑔𝑔⁄𝐷𝐷 ]3 ≥ 1.0 for 𝑔𝑔⁄𝐷𝐷 ≥ 0.05


𝑄𝑄𝑔𝑔 = � [API Table 4.3-1]
0.13 + 0.65𝜙𝜙𝛾𝛾 0.5 for 𝑔𝑔⁄𝐷𝐷 < −0.05

Joint Design 15
Steel Frame Design API RP 2A-WSD 21st Supplements 2 and 3

𝜙𝜙 = 𝑡𝑡 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 ⁄�𝑇𝑇𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 �

4.1.2 Axial and Bending Check


Joints are checked for the following condition:

𝑃𝑃 𝑀𝑀 2 𝑀𝑀
� �+� � +� � ≤ 1.0 [API Eq. 4.3-5]
𝑃𝑃𝑎𝑎 𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑎 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑎 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜

The subscripts IPB and OPB correspond to in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending,
respectively.

4.1.3 Overlapping Joints


Joints classified as K Overlap are checked for the following condition:

𝑃𝑃𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝
≤ 1.0 [API 4.3.2]
𝑃𝑃 ⊥

where Pper is the brace axial load component perpendicular to the chord, defined as:

𝑃𝑃𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 𝑃𝑃 sin 𝜃𝜃

The allowable axial load perpendicular component is defined as:

𝑙𝑙1
𝑃𝑃 ⊥= �𝑃𝑃𝑎𝑎 sin 𝜃𝜃 � + (2𝑣𝑣𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑡𝑡𝑤𝑤 𝑙𝑙2 ) [API Eq. 4.3.2-2]
𝑙𝑙

Joint Design 16
5 References

American Institute of Steel Construction. (1989). Manual of Steel Construction - Allowable Stress Design
(9th ed.). Chicago, Illinois, USA: American Institute of Steel Construction.

American Petroleum Institute. (2000). Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing
Fixed Offshore Platforms - Working Stress Design (21st ed.). Washington, District of Columbia,
USA: API Publishing Services.

American Petroleum Institute. (2005). RP 2A-WSD Errata and Supplement 2 (21st ed.). Washington,
District of Columbia, USA: API Publishing Services.

American Petroleum Institute. (2007). RP 2A-WSD Errata and Supplement 3 (21st ed.). Washington,
District of Columbia, USA: API Publishing Services.

17