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# Annex D

INSTRUMENT/TOOL

## FORCE AND MOTION

Content Standard: Newton’s three laws of motion and uniform circular motion

Learning Competencies:

a. investigate the relationship between the amount of force applied and the mass

## of the object to the amount of change in the object’s motion

b. infer that when a body exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is

exerted back on it

## c. demonstrate how a body responds to changes in motion

RATIOANLE:
When you are riding a trisikad going to school, the foot of the driver
pushes against the pedal. When it starts moving, it speeds up. The push makes
the wheels of the trisikad move.

Most of the motions we come across in our daily life are non-uniform and
the primary changes in motion is FORCE. In the following activities, the students
will learn about force and its effects on motion.
ACTIVITY 1
FORCE MO YAN TEH!
OBJECTIVE
In this activity, you should be able to learn what force is by identifying
situation and object around the school and home with given pictures.

DIRECTION
Write PUSH or PULL in the given pictures below.
GENERALIZATION

## A PUSH or a PULL is a FORCE. So, a good definition for force is a push or

pull in a particular direction. Forces affect how objects move. They may cause
motion; they may also slow, stop, or change the direction of motion of an object

ACTIVITY 2

## USING FORCE AND MOTION

OBJECTIVE
In this activity, you should demonstrates what happens when a force is
applied to an object.

Materials:

## Per group of four:

o 2 L plastic bottle
o water
o rope
o yardstick
o shoe boxes or other boxes of similar size

PROCEDURES

Group the class into 4 groups. Each group of four should be assigned a
specific job: runner, reporter, recorder, and timekeeper.

1. Pass out supplies to each group's runner. Have each runner fill the 2 L bottle
halfway with water.
2. Explain to the students that their challenge is to create a simple machine that
will move the water bottle at least 12 inches. Students are not allowed to directly
touch the bottle when moving it. They may use the rope, the yardstick and blocks
to accomplish the task. Have them come up with as many possible solutions as
they can in 30 minutes.

3. The timekeeper should keep the group moving and aware of the time. The
recorder should record the group's observations and write down any problems that
were encountered. The recorder should also record any solutions that the group
comes up with. Each group should draw pictures of their solutions.

4. As the group works together, have them consider some questions that you post
on the board:

Guide Questions:

## 1. Does your machine move the water bottle successfully 12 inches?

2. Could you change the speed or direction of the water bottle with your machine?

3. What kinds of forces did your group use to accomplish the task?

4. Did anything unusual or unique occur that you can share with the group?

5. At the end of the time, have the class come together as a whole group. Allow
each group's reporter to share their machines and results with the class.

6. Ask students to form conclusions that they could state from these activities. Did
they discover that they could use a pulley or a lever (simple machines) to lift the
bottle? Did anyone create something more complex? Have students record their
experiments and observations in their science journals.
7: Ask students to explain why objects at rest will not move unless a force is applied
to them. Ask them to compare the forces of pushing and pulling.

GENERALIZATION

________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________

## Forces can affect motion in several ways:

→ They can make objects start moving
→ They can make objects move faster
→ They can make objects move slower
→ They can make objects stop moving
→ They can make objects change direction
→ They can make objects change shape
Since force cause changes in the speed or direction of an object, we can say that
forces cause changes in velocity, so…. Forces cause acceleration!
FORCE FACTS:
→ Forces are measured in Newtons (N)
→ Forces usually act in pairs
→ Forces act in a particular direction
→ Forces usually cannot be seen, but their effects can

ACTIVITY 3
E-ACTING NYO!
OBJECTIVE
In this activity, infer that when a body exerts a force on another, an equal
amount of force is exerted back on it

PROCEDURES

Group the students into 2 groups. Each group should have different
situation given and will act after.

Group 1
Situation: Your teacher instructed your group to push the table from the center to
the corner. Your group cannot agree on which corner is closer is it to the left or
right corner, so you were divided into 2 who were positioned to push the table. You
push the table with equal force on opposite ends.

Guide Questions:
1. Make a sketch of this table-pushing situation using arrows to represent the
forces on the table.

2. Use your sketch to explain whether the forces on the table are balanced or
unbalanced.

3. Re-draw the sketch with force arrows illustrating a more effective way for your
group to get the table to the corner.
4. Another member of your group added to the other side of the table to push it.
Does it affect the result of the table by pushing? If not, why not?

Group 2
Situation: You and your brother have equal strength. You been to a situation
which you are having tug-of-war of your clothes because both you wanted that
dress which brought by your mother.

Guide Questions:
1. Make a sketch of this tug-of-war situation using arrows to represent the forces.

2. Use your sketch to explain whether the forces on the situation are balanced or
unbalanced.
3. Re-draw the sketch with force arrows illustrating a more effective way for you
to get that dress from your brother.

4. Your older brother to you in pulling the clothes. Does this affect the result of the
tug-of-war? If not, why not?

GENERALIZATION:
________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________

More than one force can act on an object at a time. The forces can push or
pull in any direction. What happens to the object when the forces act depends on
two things:
→ How strong the forces are
→ The direction of the forces
When more than one force acts on an object, the forces combine to form a
net force. The combination of all the forces acting on an object is the net force.
Forces may work together or they may be opposite forces. Two or more opposite
forces are balanced forces if their effects cancel each other and they do not cause
a change in an object's motion. If two forces of equal strength act on an object in
opposite directions, the forces will cancel, resulting in a net force of zero and no
movement.
If the effects of the forces don't cancel each other, if one force is stronger
than others, the forces are unbalanced forces. Unbalanced forces cause a change
in motion; speed and/or direction.
When two forces act in the same direction on an object, the net force is
equal to the sum of the two forces.
When two unequal forces act in opposite directions on an object, the net
force is the difference of the two forces
The final force and its direction are called a resultant.