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capacitively coupled hybrids

where 6 is the electrical length of the transmission


These devices can be used to line. The capacitive reactance of the coupling capaci-
tor is:

divide, combine, or phase-shift


where 2, is the impedance of the transmission line.
power for Amateur applications The line impedance is equal to the termination impe-
dance at each port. The value of capacitance is:

1
C , = ------ - 1
Do you need a device that can split or combine
2nfX, 27rf Z, tan 6
power? How about a phase shifter or a circular polar-
izer? Power can be divided, combined, sampled, or Because the device is reciprocal, a wave incident at
phase-shifted in any increment by using a hybrid. A port 2 is coupled to port 3 by the same coupling factor.
capacitively coupled hybrid is easily constructed and The hybrid described here is smaller than the Wil-
very compact. kinson hybrid (described in an earlier article1), easy to
The capacitively coupled hybrid is a four-port construct, and displays improved amplifier perform-
device consisting of two transmission lines. Output ance. The principal disadvantage of this hybrid is its
power at one port of the coupled transmission line is limited bandwidth of 10 percent. This, however, is
dependent on the direction of propagation in the still adequate for most Amateur use.
main transmission line. In fig. 1, a wave traveling
from port 1 (input) t o port 2 is coupled to port 4. 1 coupler operation
Ideally, no power appears at the isolation port 3. A A wave traveling to the right (port 1 to port 2) on
wave traveling in the opposite direction, from port 2 the main transmission line will have a portion of its
to port 1, is coupled to port 3, indicating any mis- energy coupled to the second transmission line at
match at port 4. The coupling factor determines the each end by capacitors. It is assumed that there is no
amount of power coupled from the main line to the inductive coupling. The two signals arriving from
power output at the coupled-line output port, assum- both paths at port 4 are in phase and combine. The
ing matched loads present at all ports. signals at port 3 are also equal (fig. 1B) but 180 de-
General expression grees out-of-phase and cancel. The longer path al-
ways has 180 degrees more phase shift because of
Coupling = 10 loglo ( P I / P 4 ) d B (1) the transmission lines. (The phase shifts that result
Coupling factor for the capacitively coupled hybrid
By Ernie Franke, WAZIEWT, 63 Hunting Lane,
Coupling (dB) = 20 loglo cos 0 (2) Goode, Virginia 24556

70 March 1983
from the coupling capacitors cancel out because Ideally, the directivity should be infinite - but a
they are present in both paths.) directional coupler with a directivity of 20 to 30 dB is
In case of a wave traveling in the reverse direction quite good. How high a directivity can be achieved is
(port 2 to port 11, the coupled energy combines at strongly dependent on the match at port 4, since re-
port 3 and cancels at port 4, with the capacitively flected power is readily transmitted back to port 3.
coupled transmission lines acting as a directional
coupler. A sample of the energy from a forward wave
appears at port 4. A sample of the reflected wave
appears at port 3. The ratio of power at port 3 to
power at port 4 yields the return loss.
return loss = - I0 loglo ( P 3 / P 4 )
= - 10 logln (reflected powur/Jorzuard powr~r)

directional coupler
One's first thought would probably be to use the
hybrid for measuring standing wave ratios. A detec-
tor placed at port 4 would indicate forward power,
while a detector at port 3 would indicate reflected
power. But how isolated are the two readings? How
well is port 3 isolated from port 47
Directivity is a measure of how well port 3 is iso-
lated from port 4 with respect to power entering at
terminal 1. Directivity is defined as:

directivity = I0 loglo p4
- (6)
p3

-.---.--.-.---.-...
> ---.-.---

IN-PHASE
- *
---.--.----.---.---------.- -*
3 4

0
.--.....--------------------. t

10 , ! ! 1
1 8 0 DOUT- OF-PHASE 0 9 0 1 0.94 1 0.98 1 102 1 106 1 110
092 096 100 104 108
3 4
NORMALIZED FREOVENCY

0
fig. 1. The capacitively coupled hybrid functions be- fig. 2. The theoretical response of the hybrid shows
cause of phased combining of signals from different that, for reasonable performance, it has about a 10 per-
paths. See text. cent bandwidth.

March 1983 71
The theoretical response of the capacitively coup-
led hybrid is shown in fig. 2. The input return loss
and directivity are better than 20 dB (VSWR I 1.2: 1)
- 0 0 . 0 .
over a 10 percent bandwidth. The deviation from its
nominal coupling is plotted for coupling from port 1

SO -
I
Backed by over 54 years of experience, Harvey 45 - -101

continues to offer the broadest selection and finest


service available for the amateur radio community.
-I 02
This experience has taught us that the ham needs -
-
0
D
40 -

u, 35 -
a
n't have something
it for you-or-tell - 1 10
0
Z

092 096 100 I04 108

- -- MEASURE0
10-

A 52MHZ
35

0 435MHz

30

25
v

P
10
0 9 0 094 098 102 106 110
092 0 9 6 100 104 I08

NORMALIZED FREOUENCY

fig. 3. Models constructed using semi-rigid coax per-


form close to theoretical at VHF.

72 a March 1983
*.- . .-7---
-- . .. ' I
?*
q

;
. ".I",
t,

. . % ,
' I

Micro strip hybrid. Transmission line hybrid.

, .., . .

Lumped-constant hybrid.
I Artwork for 435-MHz 3 dB coupler.

March 1983 73
to port 4. The results from several experimental 3 dB
table 1. Design equations for transmission line models formed using eighth-wave semi-rigid trans-
and p i lumped-constant hybrids. mission lines are shown in fig. 3. The theoretical re-
sponse is shown as a solid line. photographs are
shown of transmission line, lumped-constant, and

c, = 1
~ tan 0
Z I T Zo
transmission-line hybrid

p i lumped-constant hybrid

where K = 10 loglo ( P I / P 4 )absolute


, coupling
Z, = termination impedances
6 = electrical transmission line
length

COUPLING

:::
" T o SECTION "PI" SECTION 5
-
--- - ---
lode
0
2048 !k\

COMPLETE HYBRID
r--..----- ---------

NORMILlZED FREQUENCY

fig. 5. The theoretical response of the lumped-constant


fig. 4. (A) The hybrid may be formed by using the T or p i version of the hybrid is not as good as that of the trans-
section artificial lines. IB) A complete hybrid. mission-line model.

74 a March 1983
microstrip hybrids. The artwork for a 435-MHz, 3-dB than capacitors.
coupler is also shown for use on 1116-inch, one- The values for the T artificial line are given as:
ounce Teflon-glass printed-wire board.
LT = Z (1 - cos8)/2?rfsin 6 (7)
lumped constant coupler
The capacitively coupled hybrid may be formed CT = sin 8/Z 21rf (8)
with lumped constants in place of the coaxial cables.
where Z refers to the input and output impedances
An artificial transmission line may be formed using
and 8 is the phase delay through the network.
lumped constants configured as a T section or a pi
For a pi network the needed inductance and
section, as shown in fig. 4A. The pi section is usually
capacitance are calculated from:
chosen t o simulate the transmission line because it
involves only one inductor and acts as a lowpass fil- Lp = Zsin 6/2?rf (9)
ter. The lowpass filter decreases harmonic energy,
and inductors are more difficult t o measure exactly C p = (I -cosI3)/Z21rfsin 0 (10)

table 2. Component values for transmission-line and pi lumped-constant hybrids.

line coupling series shunt


length fractional capacitance inductance capacitance
coupling 0 wavelength ( + f in MHz) I + f in MHz) ! - f i n MHz)
(dB1 (deg. J (A/AoJ (pFI (nH) IpF)
3 45.0 0.125 3183 5,627 1.318
4 50.9 0.141 2589 6,174 1,514
5 55.8 0.155 2165 6,580 1,685
6 60.0 0.167 1838 6,886 1,835
10 71.6 0.199 1061 7.549 2,294
15 79.8 0.222 575.2 7,831 2.659
20 84.3 0.234 320 7,918 2,879
25 86.8 0.241 179.3 7,945 3,007
30 88.2 0.245 100.7 7,954 3,084

table 3. Component values for Amateur band transmission-line and pi lumped-constant hybrids.

coupling series shunt


frequency coupling capacitance inductance capacitance
(MHz) (dB) . (PFI (nH) (pF)
3.750 3 849 1,500 352
20 85.3 2,112 768
7.150 3 445 787 184
20 44.7 1.107 403
14.175 3 225 397 930
20 22.6 559 203
21 225 3 150 265 62.1
20 15.1 373 136
28.850 3 110 195 45.7
20 11.1 274 99.8
52 3 61.2 108 25.4
20 6.15 152 55.4
146 3 21.80 38.50 9.03
20 2.19 54.20 19.7
222 3 14.3 25.30 5.94
20 1.44 35.70 13
435 3 7.37 12.90 3.03
20 0.74 18.20 6.62
1296 3 2.46 4.34 1.02
20 0.25 6.11 2.22
1

March 1983 75
sion is shown in fig. 5. The graph of the input return
loss shows that the lumped constant version has
slightly less bandwidth than the lightly coupled trans-
mission line version I r 10 dB). At frequencies below
100 MHz the length of transmission line is too great
for compact implementation. Values for the con-
struction of transmission-line or lumped-constant,
capacitively coupled hybrids are catalogued in table
2. Values for each of the Amateur bands are given in
table 3.
Lumped-constant models were constructed for
several Amateur bands. The results for 3-dB and 20-
dB couplers are shown in figs. 6 and 7. The 3-dB hy-
brid is commonly used for power splittinglcombin-
ing, while the 20-dB hybrid is normally used as a

NORMALIZED FREOUENCY

fig.6. Several equal-split hybrids were constructed


using lumped constants.

By si~bstitutingthe coupling equation,

where K is the coupling between port 1 and port 4 in


decibels, into the above equations for the pi network
NORMALIZED FREQUENCY
and using a few trigonometry identities, we arrive at
the design equations for the lumped-constant,
capacitively coupled hybrid given in table 1. The 20-dB hybrid is used mainly for sampling
fig. 7.
A capacitively coupled hybrid is shown in fig. 48. power in a transmission line.
The predicted response of the lumped constant ver-

76 a M a r c h 1983
in fig. 8 combine at the output port 180 degrees out if peak detector diodes are used. A 3-dB quadrature
of phase to cancel out, fig. 9. The round trip path of hybrid may be used to induce circular polarization3 in
one interference-intermodulation signal is 180 de- a pair of crossed dipoles, fig. 10C. By using a 3-dB
grees longer than the round trip path to the other hybrid to establish a 90-degree phase shift, a receiver
transistor. mixer4can be formed, fig. 10D. The input signal and

PHASE SHIFTER CIRCULAR POLARIZER

3dB

2--- -3 SWR METER


ANTENNA
SIGNAL

2048 3dB
HYBRID

L 0

Except as Indlcwted, declrnal


ral!~.. of ~apcltanc.ere in rnlcro-
faredr ("F); olhere *re in picoh,.
ads IpFk nsisl.nc,r are in ohms.
L = 1.WO M I I.WO,OW @

fig. 10. The capacitively coupled hybrid may be used as an IA) phase shifter, IBJSWR meter, (CIcircular polarizer, and (DJ
mixer.

As long as each collector provides identical termi- local oscillator are isolated typically by 30 dB over a 4
nations t o the combiner hybrid, the level of the inter- percent bandwidth. The additional quarter-wave line
modulation signal at the output port should be re- at port 2 is used to establish an additional 90-degree
duced by the value of the input return loss, graphed phase shift with respect to port 4. Thus the mixer
for each hybrid. diodes are driven 180 degrees out of phase with re-
spect t o each other and the local oscillator signal is
other uses balanced at the i-f port.
The 3-dB coupler may be used as a phase shifter
for varying the phase in one leg of a phased array.2
references
See fig. 10A. These antenna systems typically cover
1. Ernie Franke, WAZEWT, "Wilkinson Hybrids," ham radio, January,
a single Amateur band. By varying the purely reac-
1982, pages 12-18,
tive load at ports 2 and 4 the phase may be adjusted 2. Henry S. Keen, WSTRS, "Electr~cally Controlled Phased Array." ham
over 180 degrees. The standing wave ratio coupler radio, May. 1975, pages 52-55.
shown in fig. 10B uses a 20-dB hybrid. The meas- 3. Reed E. Fisher, WZCQH, and Richard H . Turrin, W21MU, "UHF Direc-
tional Couplers," QST, September, 1970, pages 26-31.
ured return loss is given as 4. Kurt Bittmann, WBZYVY. "Easy-to-Make 1296-MHz Mixer," 73. July.
1972, pages 33-35
v3
return loss (dB) = - 20 loglo - (12)
v4 ham radio

78 March 1983