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Effects of Mother Tongue Based Multi- Lingual Education (MTB-MLE) to Grade 1 pupils

at Tumauini South Central School

Presented by:

Ma. Victoria V. Daludado


Researcher

Presented to:

LORNA M. MINA
Research Professor

Chapter 1
The Problem

Introduction

Language is one of the most important characteristic forms of Human behavior. Is has

accordingly always had a place in the academic world. Determining what language will be used to teach

children are one of the most important decisions that ministries of the education make.1 The language

used in the classroom dramatically affects children’s opportunity and ability to learn. Yet, this decision is

often made without a careful consideration of implications for learning outcomes. Furthermore, education

improvement efforts rarely consider the impact that language of instruction will have when designing

education projects. Instead the mother tongue or familiar languages are dismissed as a “political or

national issue”. Language plays a vital role in facilitating the learning of pupils and academic

achievement.

The population of the Philippines includes over 11 million indigenous peoples, most of who can

be considered socio economically deprived, especially in terms of access to government services and

educational programmers. They often the least educated and the least able to benefit from the national

curricula and other opportunities due to factors such as the distance of schools from the communities. 2 No

priorities were given to them on their mother tongue because only the national language, Filipino was

used for the delivery of basic education.

Consistent with the 1987 constitutional mandate and a policy declared by the national Board of

Education in bilingualism in the schools, the Department of Education culture and Sports promulgated its

language policy, Which is as follows; the policy of bilingualism of education aims at the achievement of

competence in both Filipino and English at National level, through the teaching of languages and their use

as medium of instruction at all levels.


Regional language, example Ybanag shall be used as auxiliary language in grades 1-3. This

means that Filipino and English shall be used as medium of instruction, and the regional languages

(Mother tongue) shall be used as auxiliary medium of instruction, and its initial language for literacy.

In 2009, the department of Education Challenged the bilingual Education policy by issuing the

order that called for the institutionalization of mother tongue based multilingual education (MTB-MLE).

This orders requires the use of the learners first language as the medium of instruction for all subjects

areas in pre- kindergarten through grade 3 with Filipino and English being taught as a separate subjects. 3

Mother tongue shall be used as medium of instruction and as a subject from grades 1 to grade 3. Another

order was issued in 2012 that offered more specific guidelines for MTB-MLE and embedded the reform

in the newly adopted “K to 12 Basic Education Program.4 This order shifted from the original mother

tongue approach by specifying the regional languages to be used as the language of instruction. This order

requires teachers to use their mother tongue as a medium of instruction provided government issued

materials in their regional languages but are expected to adapt them to reflect the student’s first language.

In learning language one does not learn in language if he does not understand. When the beginning

language learner thinks, he uses the language that he grew up with. Children can learn to read with

understanding within the first few years of schooling in a language they used and in a language they

understand. And this is the reason why children should listen, speak, read and write first in a language

that they used and understand their mother tongue.

Gradual Implementation started with grade one pupils in 2012 and will be followed by grades two

and grade three in 2013 and 2014. The used of Mother Tongue is an expression of one’s culture, it aims to

develop the young learners an awareness and appreciation of their own culture. The MTB-MLE aims

improve the pupil's language and cognitive development as well as his or her socio-cultural awareness.

The mother tongue as a subject focuses on the development of reading and speaking from Grades 1 to 3.

As a medium of instruction, the mother tongue is being used in all learning areas from kinder to Grade 3..

Filipino is introduced on the second semester of Grade 1 for oral fluency (speaking). "For reading and
writing purposes, it will be taught beginning in the second semester of Grade 1. The four other macro

skills which are listening, speaking, reading and writing in Filipino will continuously be developed from

Grades 2 to 6. English as a subject will be introduced in the second semester of Grade 1 while reading and

writing in English will start in the first semester of Grade 2.

In implementing the MTB-MLE, DepEd cites local and internationals studies which have shown

that using the language that is being used at home (mother tongue) inside the classroom during the

learners' early years of schooling produce better and faster learners. They can also easily adapt to learn a

second (Filipino) and third language (English).

Institutionalization of teaching MTB-MLE as one of the subjects from Grade 1 to Grade 3 and as

the medium of instruction from kinder to Grade 3 can develop well-rounded and life-long learners under

the K to 12 basic education reform program. In MTB-MLE the beginning reader develop and gains

control of oral language, grows and aware of sound–symbol relationship, developing listening to reading

comprehension. Three outcomes cited in the 2009 order focused on the speed in which pupils will gain

literacy under the MTB-MLE reform, the learners learn to read more quickly when their first language

(L1), Pupils who have learned to read and write in their first language learn to speak read, and write in a

second language (L2) and third language (L3) more quickly than those who are taught in a second or third

language first, In terms of cognitive development and its effects on the other academic areas, pupils

taught to read and write in their first language acquire such competencies more quickly. 5 Mother tongue-

based education prescribes the use of the language learners speak at home in delivering lessons and in

classroom discussions. MTB-MLE is implemented from pre-school up to Grade 3 and in the alternative

learning system. Learning to use effective oral communication is one of the important aspects in learning

of one’s child.

Because of language contact and the new education functions that our native languages have

been asked to perform, it is inevitable that new patterns and practices relative to pronunciation,
vocabulary development, code-mixing, etc. will emerge and become more diversified. Through

constant use and experimentation, we hope to arrive at the best possible orthographic strategies that we

can use to educate our children for mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE).

Statement of the Problem

This study is an assessment of the effect of Mother Tongue Based- Multilingual Education on

grade one pupils in Tumauini South Central School.

Specifically it will seek to answer the following problems:

1. What is the status of Implementation of Mother Tongue Base Multi-Lingual Education in Grade one of

TSCS in Terms of

a. Description of languages used

b. frequency of use

c. nature of Implementation

2. What are the effects of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education on learning of grade one pupils?

a. Listening

b. Speaking

c. Reading

d. Writing

3. What problems were encountered by the teachers in the implementation of MTB-MLE?


4. What recommendations may be proposed to further enhance the implementation of MTB-MLE by the

future teachers?

Scope and Delimitation

This study will generally cover the effects of Mother Tongue to grade one pupils in Tumauini

South Central School. The study will look into effects of Mother Tongue in grade 1 pupil in terms of

Cognitive development, reading readiness and Socio Cultural development. It also discussed the problems

that were encountered by the teacher in implementation of MTB-MLE, as well as the recommendation

may be proposed for the future teachers.

However, this study did not deal on the other school.

Significance of the Study

In implementing the MTB-MLE, DepEd cites local and internationals studies which have shown

that using the language that is being used at home (mother tongue) inside the classroom during the

learners' early years of schooling produce better and faster learners. They can also easily adapt to learn a

second (Filipino) and third language (English).

These research findings may be significance of the following because it could also serve as a

basis for establishing the effect of Mother Tongue Based Multi- lingual Education to the pupils.

Administrator. This would motivate the administrators to motivate and support the mother tongue

based multilingual Education regarding the importance of first language.

Teacher. The experience shared by the teachers would serve as feedback for the learner’s

development. Their insight would necessary strengthen the instructional preparation and opportunities to

improve the pupils in reading readiness by the used of mother tongue as a first language.
Pupils. Competent pupils are proficient participants that would benefit the pupils themselves

making them ready to become language learner.

Parents. They would be aware and actively participate in implementation of mother Tongue

based Multi-lingual Education. However understand better the pupils competency as well as the

opportunity to assist their own teacher.

Researcher. To the proponent and other researchers, the information drawn by the study could be

input for the future studies

Notes

1
MTB-MLE Network www. Mlenetwork. Org (online beginning September , 2011)

2
Improving the quality of Mother Tongue- based literacy and learning: Case Study from Asia and

South America. Bangkok UNESCO,2008, p90.

3
Philippine Department of Education, 2009

4
Philippine Department of Education, 2011 DepEd Order 31,s 2012

5
Philippine Department of Education 2009 p1
CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter Reviews the related literature and studies by other researcher that are the same and

related to the current study. The related review examines relevant studies in the effects of Mother Tongue

based Multi –Lingual Education in Grade One Pupils In Pulba Elementary School. The problem

encountered by the teachers in implementation of Mother Tongue and also the recommendation maybe

proposed to the future teachers. With the determination of the effects of mother tongue, the review
includes a detailed description of literature and studies conduct in the places. This will also include the

conceptual paradigm, theoretical paradigm and definition of terms.

Related Literature

Language policy is relatively new academic field that has evolved immensely since the 1960. It

began with a philosophy of modernization through national development and focused more on linguistic

than language preservation. The MTB-MLE policy in the Philippines is indicative of this shift in

perspective at a National level. Our knowledge of language is complex and abstract, the experience of

knowledge we receive is limited our minds could not create such complex knowledge on the basis of such

information.1 The United Nations Declaration on the rights of indigenous people particularly article 14

provides that the indigenous individual specially the children have the right to all levels and forms of

education of the state without discrimination where possible in their own culture and language .2 Cultural

diversity recognizes strong relationship among biodiversity, cultural diversity, and linguistic diversity.

The position paper of the said organization viewed mother tongue instruction as the means

improving educational quality while multilingual education as the means to promote social and gender

quality.3 Mother tongue Based Multi Lingual Education, a key element of linguistically diverse societies.

It also looked at the language as essential component of inter- cultural education to encourage

understanding between groups.

The impression being pursued is to start learning how to read and write with the language learner.

Theoretically, this is the beginning with the known and moving progressively to unknown. Skills in the

first language of literacy should be considered before the second is mastered preferably during at least

three years of study.


The depEd started small with 100 to 200 schools. It’s a massive undertaking but it is something

we need to do. Quijano asserts partnership with local and international non-government organization as

well as advocacy groups such as SIL, and direct active involvement of all sectors concerned are

important.4

Macro Skills in learning language, Ermetes (2012)5 cited the important of macro skills in teaching

a particular language involve listening, speaking, reading and writing. He said that in speaking, it is

important that the child must be able to talk to someone, of making utterance with intentional and

unintentional dealings or of a dialect of a person really speaks. In Mtb-Mle pupils will practice their

speaking abilities if they will used their mother they can express more what really in their mind. In this

situation the teachers and the pupils will have an interaction with each other. Pupils will exercise their

ability for oral expressions. The child must be developed their listening skills as most important in

communication. When the pupils listen he undergoes processing of sounds. The pupils must understand

well. Learning language cannot complete without reading. It is important as listening and speaking. It

involves process such as word recognition, comprehension, fluency and, motivation. The pupils can get

more information from written letter or words. And learners need to practice writing; it is thinking

process which is characterized by a purposeful selection and organization of experience.

Related Studies

There are several related studies that were reviewed and presented which gave direction and serve

as the guide in completing the present study.

The mother tongue but in teaching literature was the contribution of Arino 6 the study said that

teaching literature in mother tongue bears a significant impact on the teaching and learning process and

more importantly on our culture, both study recognized the use of mother tongue and the effect of it to the

pupils.
The choice of language specifically on the unique teaching methods used at the university of the

Philippines integrated school was conducted by Burkdart and Gomez7 The study concentrated with the

effectiveness of Filipino as the language of Instruction is crucial learning the fundamental skills of

subjects. This study is the same to the present study because it is also dealt to the medium of instruction

which is the Mother Tongue.