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FAMILY DISASTER
RISK
MANAGEMENT
PLAN

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ABSTRACT
Raising awareness for disaster risk reduction and shaping family attitudes is at the heart of all the

endeavors for building resilience in the community. Family Disaster Risk Management Plan is

conceived as a result of recognizing that the process of building resilience is slower as compare

to the increasing trend of vulnerability because of risks posed by a multiplicity of natural and

man-made disasters like earthquakes, fire, floods, etc, where loss of life and assets is at

unacceptable levels. Disaster risk reduction should be concern of everybody. Too often, families

make mistake of waiting until a crisis occurs to react, this prevents most families from planning

their responses to disasters. FDRMP is a unique tool for each family for the use of their own

safety before as well as at the time of the crisis. It can help to alleviate fears about potential

disasters, reduce the level of stress and save precious time during an emergency, thus enabling

the family to become more disaster resilient. FDRMP aims to enhance the state of preparedness

and capacity of the family to anticipate and respond to emergencies and reduce physical risks,

anticipate the disaster and think of response strategies to help survive in crisis. It guides the

family on how to assess and plan to reduce their risks, take physical protection measures, and

increase their response capacity with skills and material provisions. It is not so much the ‘plan’

as the ‘planning process’ that is the key cultural change needed to build resilience in the family.

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Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1. Background

The purpose of the research is for the Disaster Risk Reduction – DRR. The core thrust in the
research is to make all the members of the family aware about the hazard vulnerability risk
and capacity in their homes, working place and in the vicinity of their neighborhood,
ultimately building resilient in the family. This aims to enhance their existing Knowledge,
Attitude and Practices – KAP of the members of the family on natural and man-made
disasters. Since the individual and family are the first responders in disasters.

Family Disaster Risk Management Plan (FDRMP) is a novel, simple and personalized
plan for the family, to enhance its preparedness and capacity to anticipate and respond to
emergencies. DRR is an upcoming field. The shift from risk reduction to resilience is the
most recent one. My experience in the implementation of Disaster Risk Reduction
activities in the communities and in schools has enhanced my skills in building resilience
in the targeted population. The following are the driving forces which have encouraged
me to write thesis on FDRMP to build resilience in the family:

 Disasters occur frequently



 The Family is the first responder in a crisis

 People believe the myth that ‘It will not happen to me’

 ‘Disaster is an act of God’ is the notion of most of the families.

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 Basic services are cut off

 Normal life is disrupted

Disasters can strike at any time without warning. The vulnerability of the family is high
because of risks posed by a multiplicity of natural and man-made disasters like
earthquakes, fire, floods, etc, where loss of life and assets is at unacceptable levels.
Family is the first responder in crisis. Too often, families make mistake of waiting until a
crisis occurs to react.

‘It will not happen to me’ is a myth that prevents most families from planning their
responses to disasters.

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India has a high level of vulnerability to natural disasters due to its unique geo-physical
and climatic conditions. Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides are
recurring phenomena. Hazard profile of India revels that:

 54% of landmass is prone to earthquakes



 40 million hectares land is prone to floods

 8% of area is prone to cyclone

 68% of the area is susceptible to drought

 30 million people are affected by disaster every year.

The growing incidence of disasters correlates strongly with the increasing vulnerability
of households and communities in developing countries. Recent experience confirms that
investment in mitigation and a strong commitment to the implementation of a
participatory mitigation strategy can lower the risks and vulnerabilities of poor
households.

The idea of the FDRMP is conceived as a result of recognizing that citizens themselves
are first responders needing education about the steps to be taken in times of emergency.
FDRMP is unique for each family and for the use of their own safety before as well as at
the time of the crisis. It is a personalized action plan with allocated responsibilities for
each member of the household. A functional FDRMP can help to alleviate fears about
potential disasters, reduce the level of stress and save precious time during an emergency,
thus enabling the family to become more disaster resilient.

Preparing a disaster management plan reduces the potential anxiety and fear during a
disaster as well as any physical losses that may occur. A relatively small investment in

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disaster preparedness saves thousands of lives as well as vital economic assets. It also
reduces the cost and period of the overall relief assistance.

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There is growing evidence to show that most top down disaster management and
response programs fail to address the specific needs of vulnerable families and ignore the
potential to use the prepared families in particular and the society at large.

To address the need of a family as a first responder in the aftermath of an emergency, the
FDRMP was conceived. A FDRMP is a personalized action plan that prepares each
member of the family to take key decisions that directly improve their safety and security
in a disaster scenario. By preparing a plan a family can bring down the level of risk as
well as minimize losses as much as possible.

It is assumed that a prepared family is a safer family. With this plan the family can
reduce risks and minimize losses. The initiative addresses key issues related to risks
faced by a family during crisis. The FDRMP can help to prevent injuries and loss of
assets in the targeted families through disaster risk reduction initiatives.

It is not so much “the plan” as the “planning process” that is the key cultural change
needed. This important aspect of the research work has great potential of being explored
and the outcome would be having interest and helps many.

The best way is to try out the importance of the proposed research work, as planned, to
understand the expected results and possible policy implications as an outcome of the
research work.

It is expected that the below mentioned supports will be available

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 Support of the family, community / society leaders and volunteers in training


initiation - and follow up of the intervention.

 Documents on ‘do’s and don’ts of disasters’, first aid and details of local hazards
and emergency contact detail.

 Traditionally monetary reason was considered as the key aspect that retains /
motivates human resources. It is expected that this notion will stand negated.

 The aspects of ethics and integrity within the community / society volunteers in
rendering support to family to complete their plans.

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The above expected results would be of great value today, as most of the community /
family would be able to better invest their time to get the best to secure their lives and
livelihoods.

Development research tells us that the success and the sustainability of interventions at the
community / family level depend, among a number of factors, on the availability of relevant
local culture, knowledge and indigenous practices that can combine with new ideas to
generate innovation. The participation and integration of these communities / families in all
disaster-related processes as a necessary means for pursuing the importance of their DRR
knowledge in assisting to mainstream disaster risk reduction practices.

Good practices and lessons learned from experiences in the DRR aims to build resilience
in the community /family as an effective tool for reducing risk from natural disasters. By
improving the understanding of DRR knowledge and providing concrete plan of how it
can be successfully used, I hope this study will inspire all practitioners and policy makers
to consider the knowledge held by local communities / families and act to integrate this
practices into future disaster-related work.

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1.2. Research Problem

Most of us have witnessed an increase in the number of natural disasters worldwide; and
India is not an exception to this. The family is the first responder in any disaster as
emergency services cannot reach the site of the disaster to assist those affected
immediately. People trapped, marooned or injured during the disaster need immediate
help in order not to become casualties. The initial hours, which are defined largely by the
response of the family affected, are crucial in saving lives.

 What types of disaster are prone in the city / village?



 What are the vulnerable areas and safe places within building and in vicinity?

 Where will the members of the family when disaster strikes?

 How will the family members find each other and where is their meeting point?

 How will family ensure that their children are safe?

 Who will take care of senior citizens and disabled in the family?

 Whether family knows dos and don’ts of disasters?

 How will family protect all their important documents?

 How to break the disaster myth ‘It will not happen to me’ of the family?

 Is family prepared?

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1.3. Objectives & Scope of Study

The main objective of the research is to develop the ‘Family Disaster Risk
Management Plan’ so as to make the family safe during crisis situation.

The specific objectives are as under:

 To evaluate and compare what family knows about the disasters that are most
likely to happen in their living zone and their impact.

 To know the state of preparedness of family to respond in crisis.

 To guide family how to protect assets, documents and records.

 To encourage family to learn the do’s and don’ts of different disasters, basic first
aid and to keep an emergency kit ready.

 To inculcate ethos in family to anticipate the disaster and think of the response
plan.

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Chapter 6. Findings, suggestions and conclusion

6.1. Summary of findings

The Comparative study of the two case studies gave very interesting inferences which
are described below.

 60% families have not faced disasters.




 60% families have not experienced disaster. 40% families have experienced
disasters like: flood (56%), fire (15%), civil unrest (27%) and bomb blast /
terrorist attack (2%).

 89% families have not anticipated any disasters and have not prepared their
response plan.

 40% families have experienced disasters. Out of those 40% who have
experienced disasters, 59% reported loss of livelihood where as 41% responded
as no impact of disaster.

 60% families were not aware how to respond to disasters.


 81% families responded that they were not prepared to respond to disaster.

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 Reponses of the families for the most vulnerable groups to disasters are as under:

 16% responded that children are most vulnerable.

 33% responded that senior citizens are most vulnerable.

 8% responded that widows are most vulnerable.

 23% responded disabled are the most vulnerable.

 20% responded all the groups stated in the questionnaire were most
vulnerable

 Factors which influence vulnerability of the people were responded as under:



 35% Lack of awareness

 18% Lack of preparedness

 21% Exposure to hazards

 10% Lack of government support

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 16% all the factors that were described in the questionnaire were affects
vulnerability of the people.

 Disaster preparedness was described by the responder as under:



 46% Activities / Measures taken in advance

 17% Early warning

 10% Evacuation drills

 17% Plan for effective response

 10% all the factors narrated in the questionnaire


 48% families were not aware of the dos & don'ts of disasters that were prone in
their City / Village.

 70% families of both the clusters responded that no disaster awareness


programmes implemented.

 61% families in Byculla responded that the disaster awareness programmes


were implemented in their cluster, while 39% family responded that the
disaster awareness programmes were not implemented. It appears that 39%
families were unaware of the disaster awareness initiatives in their cluster.

 100% family in Ravalpada responded that no disaster awareness


programmes done in their cluster.

 Those 61% families in Byculla who have responded that the disaster awareness
programme implemented in their cluster gave further responses as under:

65% Awareness sessions done.

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16% Fire demonstration conducted

13% Emergency trainings were
conducted6% Mock drills were
executed

 95% families responded that the schools where their children go were not
equipped and prepared to handle disasters.

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 95% members (including children of age 12 years and above) do not have the
contact detail of all family members that can be used in emergency if the mobile
battery is discharged.

 97% members (including children of age 12 years and above) don't know blood
group of all family members.

 66% family members do not have life insurance.


 36% family members do not have health insurance (Mediclaim).


 83% families have not insured their assets.


 43% families were unaware of the vulnerable areas within home for the most


 53% families were unaware of the vulnerable areas within neighborhood for the
most likely hazard.

 47% families were unaware of the safe places within home for the most likely
hazard.

 67% families were unaware of the place where the family member will meet /
reunite in crisis.

 86% families don't know basic first aid.


 48% families do not know at least three contact numbers of emergency services.

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 46% families do not know how to turn off utilities; electricity, gas and water at
the time of any emergency.


 97% families have not kept an 'emergency kit' (Containing first aid box, portable
radio, torch, candle, match box, whistle, knife, important documents, clothing,
drinking water, dry foods, powdered milk etc.) ready to survive in crisis.

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 84% families were unaware of the safe shelter (A safe shelter is a place where
your family is evacuated in crisis and offers protection from immediate hazards
for at least 72 hours in emergency) to evacuate in crisis.

 86% families don’t know the emergency exit / route from their house / building to
evacuate in crisis.

 87% families have not protected all their important documents by keeping the
photocopies in a sealed packet in their bank lockers or at their out of state
relative's place or by scanning and saving it on CD or in their email?

 13% families were not in favor of preparing the Family Disaster Risk
Management Plan for their families if the relevant documents, guidelines
booklets provided to them. and

87% families, however, overwhelmingly responded in favor of preparing the

Family Disaster Risk Management Plan for their families if the relevant documents,
guidelines and booklets provided to them.

In both the case studies, it reveals that the family has inherent desire to be aware and
prepared for the safety and security of their love ones. Families in both the clusters have
patiently responded interview and raise query to learn how to reduce disaster risk.
Though educating family was not the prime objective of the case study but it is observed
during conversations that family wanted more information. There is a great scope for the
implementers; governing body of the housing societies, community organizations, civil
centers to build resilience in their habitats.

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It is also observed that the families in Byculla were more aware and prepared as
compared to Ravalpada. Though the families were fully prepared for the flood hazard,
being the recurring crisis but needs more information on other hazards.

The time constraint is the common discouraging factors to implement intervention in a


mega city and urban areas like Mumbai. Family hardly gets time to meet together to
anticipate disaster and prepared their response plan.

As a outcome of my research and on the basis of my conclusion on study, I have


prepared documents, training manual and collected materials for the family to update

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their knowledge and skill in dos & don’ts of disasters, first aid, fire safety as a package
for the holistic implementation of the initiative. This is just one of the steps to build
resilience in the family. There is a scope for further research and modification.

Families are now very susceptible for precautionary measures. I hope the initiative will
form a strong base for the further research in developing the planned document for the
family and for the individual to build resilience.

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6.2. Conclusions Case Study 1

The analysis of the Interview Questionnaire of the Case Study 1 is summarized below in

Table S.

Table S

Interview Questionnaires for the Family Disaster Risk Management Plan

- FDRMP Case Study 1 Living Zone Byculla in South Mumbai


Please tick mark or fill detail in the blanks provided, Additional
information, if any, may be added at the end of each answer

Sr. Particulars Yes or Affirmative No or Negative

No. Responses Responses

Responses % Responses %

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Have you faced any disasters? 11 22 40 78


3
Which of the following 11 22 40 78
disasters you have experienced
(Total 11 responses for fire,
civil unrest and Bomb Blast /
Terrorist Attack)

Earthquake 0 0 0 0

Flood 0 0 0 0

Cyclone 0 0 0 0

Tsunami 0 0 0 0

Drought 0 0 0 0

Fire 3 27 0 0

Civil Unrest (Riot etc) 7 64 0 0

Bomb Blast / Terrorist Attack 1 9 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

Have you anticipated any 6 12 45 88


disasters and have prepared a
response plan?

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4 State the impact of disasters. 11 22 40 78


(Total 11 responses for loss of
livelihood and no impact)

Loss of life of family members 0 0 0 0

Loss of property / assets 0 0 0 0

Loss of livelihood 4 36 0 0

Physical injuries 0 0 0 0

Psychological Trauma 0 0 0 0

No impact 7 64 0 0

Others (Please Specify) 0 0 0 0

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Sr. Particulars Yes or No or Negative
No. Affirmative Responses
Responses

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Responses % Responses %
10
Are you aware to respond 17 33 34 67
disaster?

Are you prepared to respond 14 27 37 73


disaster?

In your opinion, who are the 51 100 0 0


most vulnerable to disasters?

Children < 12 years 6 12 0 0

Senior Citizen 18 35 0 0

Women 6 12 0 0

Disabled 10 20 0 0

All the above 11 21 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

What are the factors that affect 51 100 0 0


vulnerability of the people?

Lack of awareness 21 41 0 0

Lake of preparedness 12 23 0 0

Exposure to hazards 6 12 0 0

Geographic location 0 0 0 0

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Social status 0 0 0 0

Economic status 0 0 0 0

Lack of government support 7 14 0 0

All the above 5 10 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

What do you understand by 51 100 0 0


disaster preparedness?

Measures taken in advance 26 51 0 0

Early warning 7 14 0 0

Evacuation Drills 4 8 0 0

Plan for effective response 9 17 0 0

Building stockpile 0 0 0 0

All the above 5 10 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

Are you aware of the dos & 35 69 16 31


don'ts of disasters that are
prone in your City / Village?

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Sr. Particulars Yes or No or Negative
No. Affirmative Responses
Responses

Responses % Responses %

11 Is any disaster awareness 31 61 20 39


programme done in your
society / community?

12

14

13

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Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0
If yes, what are the 31 61 20 39
Does the schools where your 4 8 47 92
programmes done? (Total 31
children go are equipped and
responses for Awareness
prepared to handle disasters?
sessions, Fire demonstration,
Emergency training and Mock
Do all the members (including 5 10 46 90
drills)
children of age 12 years and
Awareness sessions 20 65 0 0
above) have the contact detail

Fire demonstration of all family members


5 that
16 can 0 0
be used in emergency if the
Emergency training mobile battery4is discharged?
13 0 0

Mock drills 2 6 0 0

15 Do all the members (including 3 6 48 94


children of age 12 years and
above) know the blood group
of all family members?

16
How many family members 96 / 162 59 66 / 162 41
have the life insurance?
17
How many family members 157 / 162 97 5 / 162 3
have the Mediclaim (health
insurance)?

18
Have you taken general 14 27 37 73

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insurance for all your assets
(property, shop and other
assets)?

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Sr. Particulars Yes or No or Negative
No. Affirmative Responses
Responses

Responses % Responses %

19 Do you know the vulnerable 31 61 20 39


areas within home for the most
likely hazard?

20 Do you know the vulnerable 23 45 28 55


areas within neighborhood for
the most likely hazard?

21 Do you know the safe places 29 57 22 43


within home for the most
likely hazard?

22

23

25

24

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26
Do you know the place where 16 31 35 69
the family member will meet /
reunite in crisis?

Do you know basic first aid? 11 22 40 78

Give the contact numbers of 36 71 15 29


any three emergency services?
Police Fire Brigade
Ambulance State Disaster
Control Room and Others
(Please specify) (Total
responses 36 for Police & Fire
Brigade only)

Do you know how to turn off 34 67 17 33


utilities; electricity, gas and
water at the time of any
emergency?

Have you kept an 'emergency 3 6 48 94


kit' (Containing first aid box,
portable radio, torch, candle,
match box, whistle, knife,
important documents,
clothing, drinking water, dry
foods, powdered milk etc.)
ready and at the accessible

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place to survive in crisis?

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Sr. Particulars Yes or No or Negative
No. Affirmative Responses
Responses

Responses % Responses %
27
Do you know the safe shelter 15 29 36 71
(A safe shelter is a place
where your family is
evacuated in crisis and offers
protection from immediate
hazards for at least 72 hours in
emergency) to evacuate in
crisis?

Do you know the emergency 13 25 38 75


28
exit / route from your house /
building to evacuate in crisis?

29 Have you protected all your


important documents by Please give
keeping the photocopies in a your
sealed packet in your bank suggestions /
lockers or at your out of state comments, if
relative's place or by scanning any.
and saving it on CD or in
your email?

30 Would you like to prepare


'Family Disaster Risk
Management Plan' for
your family, if the relevant Suggestions and Comments of
documents, guidelines and the Responders:
booklets provided to you?

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10 20 41 80

Responses for suggestions /


comments are described below

46 90 5 10

 Family head should share the detail of insurance with youngsters



 Disaster Risk Reduction programmes should be done regularly, not once in a
while

 Some special programmes for awareness should be kept for family

 How to find out the vulnerable areas and safe areas in a house and in the
neighborhood?

 Children and senior citizens are less informed about disasters

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 Woman and girls are better informed and as such they should be trained in
Disaster Risk Management

 This is waste of time, What is decided by God is bound to happen

 We never discuss about disasters in our family

 Who should bear the cost of repairing / retrofitting, an owner or the leave &
licensee?

 Who will set up an alert for crisis and how to receive an early warning about any
crisis?

 From where should we get a copy of the dos & don’ts of disasters?

 Do we get soft copies / hard copies with pictures in first aid to teach our children
and grand children?

 Senior citizen takes more time to respond in crisis

 The concept of emergency kit is not very clear.

 Suppose we anticipate disaster and make preparation and nothing will happen,
why then we spent time and money?

 If crisis beyond control how preparedness will help?

 Now days, everything is on-line, do you advise us yet to protect documents at our
relative’s place outside hometown?
 Will the emergency service respond in time in crisis?

 Good questionnaires

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6.3. Conclusions Case Study 2

The consolidated result of the Interview Questionnaire of the Case Study 2 is

summarized below in Table T.

Table T

Interview Questionnaires for the Family Disaster Risk Management Plan

- FDRMP Case Study 2 Living Zone Ravalpada, Dahisar (East) in North


Mumbai Please tick mark or fill detail in the blanks provided, Additional
information, if any, may be added at the end of each answer)

Sr. Particular Yes or No or Negative


No. Affirmative Responses
Responses

Responses % Responses %

1 Have you faced any disasters? 30 59 21 41

2 Which of the following 30 59 21 41


disasters you have
experienced

Earthquake 0 0 0 0

Flood 23 77 0 0

Cyclone 0 0 0 0

Tsunami 0 0 0 0

Drought 0 0 0 0

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Fire 3 10 0 0

Civil Unrest (Riot etc) 4 13 0 0

Bomb Blast / Terrorist Attack 0 0 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

3 Have you anticipated any 5 10 46 90


disasters and have prepared a
response plan?

4 State the impact of 30 59 21 41


disasters.(Total 30 responses
for loss of livelihood and no
impact)

Loss of life of family 0 0 0 0


members

Loss of property / assets 0 0 0 0

Loss of livelihood 20 67 0 0

Physical injuries 0 0 0 0

Psychological Trauma 0 0 0 0

No impact 10 33 0 0

Others (Please Specify) 0 0 0 0

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Sr. Particular Yes or No or Negative
No. Affirmative Responses
Responses

Responses % Responses %

5 Are you aware to respond 24 47 27 53


disaster?

6 Are you prepared to respond 5 10 46 90


disaster?

7 In your opinion, who are the 51 100 0 0


most vulnerable to disasters?

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Children < 12 years 10 20 0 0

Senior Citizen 16 31 0 0

Women 2 4 0 0

Disabled 14 27 0 0

All the above 9 18 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

What are the factors that 51 100 0 0


10
affect vulnerability of the
people?

Lack of awareness 15 29 0 0

Lake of preparedness 6 12 0 0

Exposure to hazards 16 31 0 0

Geographic location 0 0 0 0

Social status 0 0 0 0

Economic status 0 0 0 0

Lack of government support 3 6 0 0

All the above 11 22 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

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What do you understand by 51 100 0 0
disaster preparedness?

Measures taken in advance 21 40 0 0

Early warning 10 20 0 0

Evacuation Drills 7 14 0 0

Plan for effective response 8 16 0 0

Building stockpile 0 0 0 0

All the above 5 10 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

Are you aware of the dos & 18 35 33 65


don'ts of disasters that are
prone in your City / Village?

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Sr. Particular Yes or No or Negative
No. Affirmative Responses
Responses

Responses % Responses %

11 Is any disaster awareness 0 0 51 100


programme done in your
society / community?

12
If yes, what are the N/A N/A N/A N/A
programmes done?

Awareness sessions N/A N/A N/A N/A

Fire demonstration N/A N/A N/A N/A

Emergency training N/A N/A N/A N/A

Mock drills N/A N/A N/A N/A

Others (Please specify) N/A N/A N/A N/A


13
Does the schools where your 1 2 50 98
children go are equipped and
prepared to handle disasters?

14
Do all the members (including 0 0 51 100
children of age 12 years and
above) have the contact detail

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of all family mobile
membersbattery
that can
is discharged?
be used in emergency if the

15 Do all the members (including 0 0 51 100


children of age 12 years and
above) know the blood group
of all family members?

16
How many family members 16 / 170 9 154 / 170 91
have the life insurance?
17
How many family members 55 / 170 32 115 / 170 68
have the Mediclaim (health
insurance)?
18
Have you taken general 3 6 48 94
insurance for all your assets
(property, shop and other
assets)?

Do you know the vulnerable 27 53 24 47


19
areas within home for the
most likely hazard?

Do you know the vulnerable 25 49 26 51


20 areas within neighborhood for
the most likely hazard?

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Sr. Particular Yes or No or Negative
No. Affirmative Responses
Responses

Responses % Responses %

21 Do you know the safe places 25 49 49 51


within home for the most
likely hazard?

22

26

23

24

27

25

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Do you know the place where 18 35 33 65


the family member will meet /
28 reunite in crisis?

Do you know basic first aid? 3 6 48 94

Give the contact numbers of 17 33 34 67


any three emergency services?
Police Fire Brigade
Ambulance State Disaster
Control Room and Others
(Please specify) (Total
responses 17 for Police & Fire
Brigade only)

Do you know how to turn off 21 41 30 59


utilities; electricity, gas and
water at the time of any
emergency?

Have you kept an 'emergency 0 0 51 100


kit' (Containing first aid box,
portable radio, torch, candle,
match box, whistle, knife,
important documents,
clothing, drinking water, dry
foods, powdered milk etc.)
ready and at the accessible

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place to survive in crisis?

Do you know the safe shelter 1 2 50 98


(A safe shelter is a place
where your family is
evacuated in crisis and offers
protection from immediate
hazards for at least 72 hours
in emergency) to evacuate in
crisis?

Do you know the emergency 1 2 50 98


exit / route from your house /
building to evacuate in crisis?

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Sr. Particular Yes or No or Negative


Affirmative Responses
No.
Responses

Responses % Responses %

Have you protected all your 3 6 48 94


29 important documents by
keeping the photocopies in a
sealed packet in your bank
lockers or at your out of state
relative's place or by scanning
and saving it on CD or in your
email?

Would you like to prepare 43 84 8 16


'Family Disaster Risk

30 Management Plan' for your


family, if the relevant
documents, guidelines and
booklets provided to you?

Please give your suggestions Responses for suggestions / comments


/ comments, if any. are described below

Suggestions and Comments of the Responders:

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 I got irritated in the beginning but I appreciate your patience to get responses
from me

 Now I can perceive what is disasters and how to get prepared

 How do we plan for the security and safety of our cattle’s in our native place?

 What is the emergency contact number of the State Disaster Control Room?

 We have good tie-up with the families from my native place, they always
accommodate our family when we evacuate during flood.

 I wish to volunteer to assist the family to make them aware and prepared for
crisis.

 It is useless and time consuming

 During interview discourse, I have learnt a lot

 We could not afford to buy insurance.

 Thanks to Social Welfare Worker for providing coverage for health insurance.

 We are residing since last 18 years, but government / municipality never bothered
to look for hazards in our slum

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 No disaster awareness programmes or emergency training is conducted in our
areas

 We have top priority for earning livelihood, disaster preparedness is less
important.

 Our neighbors helped us a lot in floods, last year

 There is no unity in our chawls hence no programmes could be implemented

 What precaution should we take to be secured as we are 6 members living in a 12
x 12 room

 Ladies and senior citizens should be made aware more about disaster risk
reduction

 Could you give us any document to prepare our plan

 The right time to fill in questionnaire is between 9.30 pm 10.00pm

 How does hazard hunt in home and in the vicinity useful as we hire house on
leave licensee for 11 months and we are always in transit?

 Till date we were unaware how to protect our important documents. Thanks for
the information.

 From where do we get booklets on First Aid

Summary of the consolidated responses in Case Study 1 & Case Study 2 are summarized
below in Table U

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Table U

Interview Questionnaires for the Family Disaster Risk Management Plan

- FDRMP Consolidated Case Study 1 & 2

Please tick mark or fill detail in the blanks provided, Additional information, if any,
may be added at the end of each answer may be added at the end of each answer

. Particular Consolidated Responses


Case Study 1 &
No. 2
Yes or Affirmative No or Negative

Responses Responses

Responses % Responses %

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Have you faced any 41 40 61 60


4
disasters?
Which of the following disasters 41 40 61 60
you have experienced?

Earthquake 0 0 0 0

Flood 23 56 0 0

Cyclone 0 0 0 0

Tsunami 0 0 0 0

Drought 0 0 0 0

Fire 6 15 0 0

Civil Unrest (Riot etc) 11 27 0 0

Bomb Blast / Terrorist Attack 1 2 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0

Have you anticipated any 11 11 91 89


disasters and have prepared a
response plan?

State the impact of disasters. 41 40 61 60

Loss of life of family members 0 0 0 0

Loss of property / assets 0 0 0 0

Loss of livelihood 24 59 0 0

Physical injuries 0 0 0 0

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Psychological Trauma 0 0 0 0

No impact 17 41 0 0

0 0 0 0
Others (Please Specify)

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Sr.
Particular Consolidated Responses

No. Case Study 1 & 2


Yes or Affirmative No or Negative

Responses Responses

Responses % Responses %

Are you aware to respond 41 40 61 60


5
disaster?

Are you prepared to respond 19 19 83 81


6 disaster?

In your opinion, who are the 102 100 0 0


most vulnerable to disasters?
7

Children < 12 years 16 16 0 0

Senior Citizen 34 33 0 0

Women 8 8 0 0

Disabled 24 23 0 0

All the above 20 20 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

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8 What are the factors that 102 100 0 0


affect vulnerability of the
people?

Lack of awareness 36 35 0 0

Lake of preparedness 18 18 0 0

Exposure to hazards 22 21 0 0

Geographic location 0 0 0 0

Social status 0 0 0 0

Economic status 0 0 0 0

Lack of government support 10 10 0 0

All the above 16 16 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

9 What do you understand by 102 100 0 0


disaster preparedness?

Measures taken in advance 47 46 0 0

Early warning 17 17 0 0

Evacuation Drills 11 10 0 0

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Plan for effective response 17 17 0 0

Building stockpile 0 0 0 0

All the above 10 10 0 0

Others (Please specify) 0 0 0 0

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Sr. Particular Consolidated Responses
No. Case Study 1 & 2
Yes or Affirmative No or Negative

Responses Responses

Responses % Respon %
ses

10 Are you aware of the dos & 53 52 49 48


don'ts of disasters that are
prone in your City / Village?

11 Is any disaster awareness 31 30 71 70


programme done in your
society / community?

12

13

14

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Others (Please specify) - - - -
If yes, what are the - - - -
Does the schools where your 5 5 97 95
programmes done? (Total 31
children go are equipped and
responses for Awareness
prepared to handle disasters?
sessions, Fire demonstration,
Emergency training and
Do all the members (including 5 5 97 95
Mock drills)
children of age 12 years and
Awareness sessions - - - -
above) have the contact detail of

all family members that can be


Fire demonstration - - - -
used in emergency if the mobile

Emergency training battery is discharged?


- - - -

Mock drills - - - -

15
Do all the members 3 3 99 97
(including children of age 12
years and above) know the
blood group of all family
members?

16 How many family members 112 / 332 34 220 / 66


have the life insurance? 332

17 How many family members 212 / 332 64 120 / 36


have the Mediclaim (health 332
insurance)?

Have you taken general 17 17 85 83


18
insurance for all your assets

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(property, shop and other
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Sr. Particular Consolidated Responses
No. Case Study 1 & 2

Yes or No or Negative
Affirmative Responses
Responses

Responses % Responses %

19 Do you know the vulnerable 58 57 44 43


areas within home for the
most likely hazard?

20
Do you know the vulnerable 48 47 54 53
areas within neighborhood for
the most likely hazard?

21
Do you know the safe places 54 53 48 47
within home for the most
likely hazard?

22

23

24

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Do you know the place where 34 33 68 67


25
the family member will meet
/ reunite in crisis?

Do you know basic first aid? 14 14 88 86

26
Give the contact numbers of 53 52 49 48
any three emergency
services? Police Fire Brigade
Ambulance State Disaster
Control Room and Others
(Please specify) (Total
responses 36 for Police &
Fire Brigade only)

Do you know how to turn off 55 54 47 46


utilities; electricity, gas and
water at the time of any
emergency?

Have you kept an 'emergency 3 3 99 97


kit' (Containing first aid box,
portable radio, torch, candle,
match box, whistle, knife,
important documents,
clothing, drinking water, dry
foods, powdered milk etc.)
ready and at the accessible

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place to survive in crisis?

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Sr.

No.

30

27

28

29

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89 87 13 13
Particular Consolidated Responses
Would you like to prepare
Case Study 1 & 2
'Family Disaster Risk
Yes or No or Negative
Management Plan' for your
Affirmative Responses
family, if the relevant
Responses
documents, guidelines and
Responses % Responses %
booklets provided to you?

Do you know the safe shelter 16 16 86 84


(A safe shelter is a place
where your family is
evacuated in crisis and offers
protection from immediate
hazards for at least 72 hours
in emergency) to evacuate in
crisis?

Do you know the emergency 14 14 88 86


exit / route from your house /
building to evacuate in crisis?

Have you protected all your 13 13 89 87


important documents by
keeping the photocopies in a
sealed packet in your bank
lockers or at your out of state
relative's place or by scanning
and saving it on CD or in
your email?

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6.4. Comparison of Case Study 1 & Case Study 2

The comparison of the case studies 1 & 2 is illustrated with the graphs and charts.

Case Study 1, herein after referred as ‘Byculla’ and Case Study 2, herein referred as
‘Ravalpada’ are compiled.

The responses to the questionnaires for both the case studies have helped to understand
the existing status of the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice – KAP of the family.
Captioning the questions under the categories; Knowledge, Attitude & Practice may little
bit differ and debatable. It is exclusively my perceptions which I have derived on the
basis of my learning in implementing Baseline / End line studies undertaken for the
disaster awareness in community; disaster safety in housing societies, schools and
hostels. Following is the breakup of the questions, responses to which will reveal their
status of KAP.

 Knowledge: Question Nos. 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 11, 19, 20, 21, 25, 27, and 28

 Attitude: Question Nos. 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 13, 22, 23, 24, and 30.

 Practice: Question Nos. 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 26 and 29.

The Comparative study of Byculla and Ravalpada gave very interesting inferences.
Learning from these case studies has helped me in designing the tool / document that is
the Family Disaster Risk Management Plan – FDRMP. The following is the summary of
findings; articulated in visual charts and narratives.

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Question No. 1. Have you faced any disasters?

Case 1 Case 2

78%

59%

41%

22%

Yes No

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

Most of families in Byculla have not faced disasters while 59% families in Ravalpada
have faced disaster. During case study it was observed that families in Byculla were
exposed to hazard like civil unrest and bomb blast / terrorist attack, but the return period
was very long whereas flood hazard in Ravalpada was recurring almost every year. It
shows that vulnerability is dependent not only on exposure to hazard but also on its
return period.

Question No. 2. Which of the following disasters you have experienced?

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Case 1 Case 2

77%
64%

27%
10% 13% 9%
0% 0%

Flood Fire Civil Unrest Bomb Blasts

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

Responses were given by those families who have faced disasters. Major hazards in
Byculla were civil unrest and flood was the major hazard in Ravalpada, while fire hazard
is common in both the clusters.

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Question No. 3. Have you anticipated any disasters and have prepared
a response plan?

Case 1Case 2
88% 90%

12% 10%

Yes No

Responses reveal the attitude status of the family.

More than 88% families in either cluster have not anticipated disaster. In spite of
execution of DRR awareness programmes in Byculla, families could not anticipate
disaster. It implies that most of the families are not anticipatory but reactive when crisis
strikes.

Question No.4. State the impact of disasters

Case 1 Case 2

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67% 64%

36%
33%

Loss of livelihood No impact

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

Responses were given by those families who have faced disasters. Major responders in

Byculla stated that there was a loss of livelihood due to close of business on account of
civil unrest and terrorist attack whereas in Ravalpada it was on account of flood.

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Question No. 5. Are you aware to respond disaster?

Case-I Case-II

67%

53%

47%

33%

Yes No

Responses reveal the attitude status of the family.

53%, and above, were not aware how to respond to disasters. It is observed that the
disaster awareness programmes were executed in Byculla; in spite families were
unaware. Whereas families in Ravalpada has experienced the recurring flood hazard.

Question No. 6. Are you prepared to respond disasters?

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Case-I Case-II

90%

73%

27%

10%

Yes No

Responses reveal the practice status of the family.

More than 73% responded that they were not prepared to respond to disaster. It reveals
that in spite of their exposure to hazard like fire, civil unrest, flood etc. the families were
unprepared.

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This is very alarming response. It reveals that the there is no ethos in family to anticipate
disaster and think of the response plan. It endorses the objective of my research to
inculcate ethos in family to anticipate disaster and think of the response plan.

Question No. 7. In your opinion, who are the most vulnerable to disasters?

Case 1Case 2

35%31%
27%

20% 20% 21%18%

12% 12%

4%

Children < 12 Senior Women Disabled All

years Citizen

Responses reveal the attitude status of the family.

Families identified 16% children, 33% senior citizens, 8% widows, 23% disabled and
20% reported all the groups were most vulnerable. Responses were relatively more
rational in Byculla which was due to the Disaster Risk Reductions activities executed in
their cluster.

Question No. 8. What are the factors that affect vulnerability of the people?

Case 1 Case 2
41% 31%

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29%
23% 22%

12% 12% 14%6% 10%

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

Factors which influence vulnerability of the people were responded rationally in each
cluster. These indicate the overlapping impact of their geographic status in and around
the vicinity of hazards. It is observed that lack of awareness and lack of preparedness are
the major factors which increase vulnerability of the family.

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Question No. 9. What do you understand by disaster preparedness?

Case 1 Case 2

51%
40%
20%
17%16%

14% 8% 14% 10%10%

Measures Early Evacuation Plan for All


taken in Warning drills effective
advance response

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

Almost 50% responses in either culture have reported that disaster preparedness means
understanding for the measures taken in advance, if you add the option of ‘All’. This show

that intend of the majority of the habitants of two distinct cultures and they have the
inherent desire for the security and safety of their lives and assets. This response gave the
right clue to my research. These responses help to prepare the framework and to design a
tool as the outcome of the endeavors.

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Question No. 10. Are you aware of the dos & don'ts of disasters that are prone in your
City / Village?

Case 1 Case 2

69%
65%

35%
31%

Yes No

Responses reveal the attitude status of the family.

The attitude of the families in Byculla cluster is more matured since they had attended
the sessions in Disaster Risk Reductions activities and measures. The families in
Ravalpada cluster have faced recurring hazards; floods and fire, yet they were not aware

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of the dos & don’ts; before, during and after the hazards prone in their clusters in specific
and in their city / village in general.

Question No. 11. Is any disaster awareness programme done in your society /
community?

Case 1 Case 2

100%

61%

39%

0%

Yes No

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

This is the vital information which has helped to identify strategies and

pedagogies for the Disaster Risk Reduction initiatives for the family.

There were no Disaster Risk Reductions programmes implemented in Ravalpada cluster.


Whereas the Disaster Risk Reduction activities such as Disaster Awareness Programme,

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Community Emergency Response Team Training, Community Crisis Management

Plan, Mock Drills in Evacuation and Rescue etc were implemented in Byculla cluster. It
means that the families who have attended the Disaster Risk Reduction programmes in
their clusters were well informed and aware about disasters and gave the positive
response. This also means that the Disaster Risk Reduction activities at the community
level plays a vital role in creating awareness and reduces the risk and vulnerability of the
community thereby building disaster resilience in the community. The responses of the
families in Byculla cluster highlight the needs of the innovative initiatives to be taken at
the family level to make the community well aware on the Disaster Risk Reduction
strategies.

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Question No. 12. If yes, what are the programmes done? (Total 31 responses for
Awareness sessions, Fire demonstration, Emergency training and Mock drills)

Case 1 Case 2

65%

16%
13%
6%
0% 0% 0% 0%

Awareness Fire Emergency Mock drills


Sessions Demonstration training

Responses reveal the attitude status of the family.

It is observed that no disaster awareness programmes were implemented in Ravalpada.


Reponses in Byculla endorsed that the Awareness Sessions, Fire Demonstration,
Emergency Training and Mock drill were executed in their cluster. It is revealed that the
awareness for the risk reduction relates positive impact in the family.

Question No. 13. Does the schools where your children go are equipped and prepared to
handle disasters?

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Case 1 Case 2

98%
92%

8% 2%

Yes No

Responses reveal the attitude status of the family.

It is observed that there is no ethos of disaster safety at the family level for the security
and safety of their children in school. Disaster risk reduction begins at school. Disaster
risk reduction is about stronger building codes, sound land use planning, better early

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warning systems, environmental management and evacuation plans and, above all,
education.

It is about making communities and individuals aware of their risk to natural hazards and
how they can reduce their vulnerability.

I am the member of the Inter Agency Group – IAG of the National Disaster Management
Authority – NDMA, Ministry of Home Affairs, and Government of India has taken
initiative in 2010, to implement the National School Safety programmes initially in 8,600
schools in 43 districts in 22 states in the earthquake zones 4 & 5. It is expected that the

initiative will create awareness for the disaster risk reduction amongst the family through
children as the ‘change agent’ It is expected that the children, being the best ambassadors

to, bring the attitude and behavior changes to inculcate the ethos of Disaster Risk
Reduction in their family.

Question No. 14. Do all the members (including children of age 12 years and above)
have the contact detail of all family members that can be used in emergency if the mobile
battery is discharged?

Case 1 Case 2

100%
90%

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10%
0%

Yes No

Responses reveal the practice status of the family.

It is observed that 90% families in Byculla and all the families in Ravalpada do not carry
extra copy the emergency contacts. They have a myth that they will survive with the
storage of the emergency detail in their mobile.

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Question No. 15. Do all the members (including children of age 12 years and above)
know the blood group of all family members?

Case 1 Case 2

94% 100%

6% 0%

Yes No

Responses reveal the practice status of the family.

It is observed that 94% families in Byculla and 100% family don't know blood group of
their family members. However they do have record in their family medical report file.

Question No. 16. How many family members have the life insurance?

Case 1 Case 2
91%

59%

41%

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9%

Yes No

Responses reveal the practice status of the family.

96 / 162, i.e. 59% members of the families in Byculla and just 16 / 170 i.e. 9% members

of the families in Ravalpada have life insurance. Insurance is the best tools for the risk
transfer. There could be two reasons that prevent family to buy insurance to get secured.
The first is that the family could not see the human value but just see that there is no
tangible return except as a saving tool with minimal return on investments. The second is
that the family prioritize livelihood and have left no savings to buy insurance.

The government and BPO, under the Corporate Social Responsibility – CSR and other
NGO, CBO, Credit institutions etc should provide subsidy on the premium for the life
insurance to the people living below subsistence level.

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Question No. 17. How many family members have the Mediclaim? (Health Insurance)

Case 1 Case 2

97%

68%

32%

3%

Yes No

Responses reveal the practice status of the family.

The observation is very encouraging in Byculla as 157 / 162, i.e. 97% members of the
family have taken protection for any injuries in disasters. It is very less encouraging
status in Ravalpada as only 56 / 170, i.e. 32% members of the family have bought
Mediclaim. The higher percentage of the insurance is mainly due to the cost in health
sector has been increased exponentially.

Question No. 18. Have you taken general insurance for all your assets (property, shop
and other assets)?

Case 1 Case 2

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94%

73%

27%

6%

Yes No

Responses reveal the practice status of the family.

It is observed that only 27% in Byculla and 6% families in Ravalpada have their assets
insured, while 73% families in Byculla and 94% families in Ravalpada have not insured
their assets. This will add to their vulnerability as insurance is one of the best tools to
increase the coping capacity of the family during disasters. The culture of risk transfer is
not fully developed in a family. Moreover insurance companies have very stringent

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condition to cover disasters like earthquake etc. The government and BPO, under the
Corporate Social Responsibility – CSR and other NGO, CBO, Insurance agencies etc

should provide subsidy in the premium to the people living below subsistence level to
protect their property and assets. A special scheme like ‘Afat Vimo’ should be launched

for the families of income band at the Lower Medium Income Group and below.

Question No. 19. Do you know the vulnerable areas within home for the most likely
hazard?

Case 1 Case 2

61%
53%

47%

39%

Yes No

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

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61% families in Byculla knew the vulnerable areas in their homes due to awareness
sessions executed in their cluster. Whereas 39% families in Ravalpada knew vulnerable

area their homes due to recurring hazards of flood and fire.

Question No. 20. Do you know the vulnerable areas within neighborhood for the most
likely hazard?

Case 1 Case 2
55%
49% 51%
45%

Yes No

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Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

This is very rational response but restricted to their neighborhood only. Very
comprehensive awareness strategies should be employed to enhance hazard hunt for the
risk identification in the family.

Question No. 21 Do you know the safe places within home for the most likely hazard?

Case 1 Case 2
57%
51%
49%

43%

Yes No

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

It is observed from the analysis that 57% families in Byculla knew the safe places within
home for most likely hazard, this is due to the awareness sessions engaged in their cluster
whereas 49% families in Ravalpada knew safe places for flood hazard due to its short

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returning period. It is observed that families need such information to respond for the
multi hazards.

Question No. 22. Do you know the place where the family member will meet / reunite in
crisis?

Case 1 Case 2

69%
65%

35%
31%

Yes No

Responses reveal the attitude status of the family.

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It is observed that almost 1/3rd families knew the meeting point for the members of the
families to assemble in crisis. Family needs more information about the different safe
shelters and the safe evacuation route for the specific hazards. Question No. 23. Do you
know basic first aid?

Case 1 Case 2

94%

78%

22%

6%

Yes No

Responses reveal the attitude status of the family.

It is observed that most of the families in either cluster were not aware about first aid.

Families need a detailed booklet on first aid.

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Question No. 24. Give the contact numbers of any three emergency services? Police Fire
Brigade Ambulance State Disaster Control Room and Others (Please specify) (Total
responses 36 for Police & Fire Brigade only)

Case 1 Case 2

71%
67%

33%
29%

Yes No

Responses reveal the attitude status of the family.

71% families in Byculla cluster and 33% families in Ravalpada cluster knew the

emergency contact detail of the Police and Fire Brigade.

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It is very essential that all the members of age about 12 years should know the contact
detail of the emergency services such as tertiary hospital, ambulance; ordinary and
ambulatory, District and State Disaster Control Rooms.

Question No. 25. Do you know how to turn off utilities; electricity, gas and water at the
time of any emergency?

Case 1 Case 2

67%
59%
41%
33%

Yes No

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

It is observed that 67% families in Byculla and 41% families in Ravalpada knew how to
shut off utility services. The higher responses in Byculla cluster are due to awareness
sessions executed in their cluster. This is the prime step of preparedness in disasters and
should also be embedded in the tool while designing the Family Disaster Risk
Management Plan.

Question No. 26. Have you kept an 'emergency kit' (Containing first aid box, portable
radio, torch, candle, match box, whistle, knife, important documents, clothing, drinking

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water, dry foods, powdered milk etc.) ready and at the accessible place to survive in
crisis?

Case 1 Case 2

94% 100%

6% 0%

Yes No

Responses reveal the practice status of the family.

More than 94% families have not kept an 'emergency kit' ready to survive in crisis. Since
very few families have experienced disasters and there are no much recurring hazards,

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families gave least importance to this practice. Families were not very apprehensive
about the concept of the emergency kit.

Question No. 27. Do you know the safe shelter (A safe shelter is a place where your
family is evacuated in crisis and offers protection from immediate hazards for at least 72
hours in emergency) to evacuate in crisis?

Case 1 Case 2

98%

71%

29%

2%

Yes No

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

It is observed that more than 71% families were unaware about the safe shelter,
evacuation and the safe evacuation route. Families should be well aware about the safe
shelters to evacuate in crisis.

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Question No. 28. Do you know the emergency exit / route from your house / building to
evacuate in crisis?

Case 1 Case 2

98%

75%

25%

2%

Yes No

Responses reveal the knowledge status of the family.

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More than 75% families in either cluster were not aware about the emergency exit and
secured route from their house to evacuate in crisis.

Question No. 29. Have you protected all your important documents by keeping the

photocopies in a sealed packet in your bank lockers or at you’re out of state relative's
place or by scanning and saving it on CD or in your email?

Case 1 Case 2

94%

80%

20%

6%

Yes No

Responses reveal the practice status of the family.

More than 80% families have not protected their important documents as they were not
aware how to protect their documents.

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It is observed during the field visit that most of the families have expressed their desires
to protect their documents. It seems that interviews have helped to inculcate ethos in
families to protect their documents as a part of their preparedness.

Question No. 30. Would you like to prepare 'Family Disaster Risk Management Plan' for
your family, if the relevant documents, guidelines and booklets provided to you?

Case 1 Case 2
90%
84%

10% 16%

Yes No

Responses reveal the attitude status of the family.

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More than 84% families have agreed to prepare their Family Disaster Risk Management

Plan.

These responses endorsed fully the importance of the outcome of this research work.

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6.5. Conclusions and the Step Forward

The finding reveals the needs of the precise package containing document, tool for the
family to prepare their plan. The package should also provide the key guidance to family

how to prepare their plan. In addition family has also expressed that the booklets on the
dos & don’ts of different disasters and on the elementary first aid and fire safety should

also be the part of the package.

Copy of the draft Family Disaster Risk Management Plan – FDRMP is appended below.
There is a good scope to improve, modify to make the plan more users friendly. The
process of explaining the planned documents and supportive material, local community
volunteers should be trained to encompass the preparedness in all the families in the
cluster. A Training manual for volunteers to implement programme in their building /
society / clusters is also prepared.

Step Forward

The content of the proposed package is as under. The draft copies are appended.

 Family Disaster Risk Management Plan – FDRMP document



 Guidance for family to prepare their plan

 Booklet on dos & don’ts of disasters

 Booklet on elementary first aid

 Training Manual for volunteers to implement FDRMP.

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6.5.1. Family Disaster Risk Management Plan – FDRMP document

If Disaster Strikes!!!

How will you ensure Safety

Of

  Your child in School?


 Your seniors / disabled, who need help?
 Your important documents?

A Prepared Family = A Safe Family

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Be Prepared and Get Secured

_________________________________________________________

Developed by Mehboobali Sadruddin Ajani for Research study

Learn to prepare your

FAMILY DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT

PLAN

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Family Disaster Risk Management Plan

1. Family Details 2. General Insurance

Name Age Blood Contact Whether Assets Whether


Group Details Adequately Adequately
Insured (Yes / No) Insured

Life Mediclaim (Yes / No)

Property

Shop

Others

3. Family Members at Risk (children < 5 years, senior citizens, disabled,


pregnant women etc)

Name Problems Assistance Responding Members


Required

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4. Hazards and Vulnerability and Safe Places for Meeting Point for family

Most Vulnerable Area Safe Meeting Point for Family

Likely Within Within Places Within Outside


Hazards Home Neighborhood Within Building Neighborhood

Home Society

Fire

Earthquake

Flood

Cyclone

Civil unrest

Others

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5. Checklist

Sr.
Details Yes If No, Date for

No. / No implementation

We have learnt the “do’s & don’ts” of the disasters that


1
are likely to affect us. (Please refer the book ‘Dos &

Don’ts of Disasters’)

We know how and when to call local Emergency

2 Services numbers for help

We know how to turn off the utilities (water, gas,


and electricity) at the time of any emergency.
3

We have conducted a home hazard hunt. (Please


refer to the Guidance for Family to prepare FDRMP)
4

We have kept an ‘emergency kit’ ready.

5
We know basic first aid.(Please refer to the book
‘First Aid’)

We know the emergency exit from our house and


building.

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We have identified the safest places within and


outside our premises.
9

We know the place(s) where our family will


meet/reunite in crisis.

10
We know the safe shelter, where our family can
seek shelter in crisis and we know the safe route to
access the safe shelter.

11 We have delegated the responsibility to escort


children, elders and other person(s) requiring
assistance.

We have adequate life and mediclaim insurance


12 for all our family members and the coverage has
been uninterrupted.

Our properties and other assets are adequately


insured against flood, fire, riots, robbery etc and
this coverage have been uninterrupted.
13
We have protected all our important documents.

14 We have prepared the plan to secure pets and


livestock, if applicable

15

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6. Emergency Kit

Family should keep the ‘Emergency Kit’ ready to survive family in crisis. It should
contain the First aid box: Contains adhesive bandages, roller gauze bandage, triangular
bandages, non-latex gloves, adhesive tape, antibacterial ointment, scissors, assorted sizes
of safety pins, cotton balls, thermometer, aspirin and non-aspirin pain reliever, anti-
diarrhea medication, antacid (for stomach upset), laxative vitamins etc.

Other items: Portable, battery-powered radio and extra batteries, battery torch and extra
batteries, knife, clothes, matches in a waterproof container, candles, whistle and
important documents. Drinking water, dry foods, special foods for infants or persons on
special diets, powdered milk.

7. Emergency Contacts

Particulars Name Contact Particulars Name Contact


Details Details

T Close Relative Gas Company


in City / Village
h
Close Relative Family Doctor
i outside State

s Close Relative Hospital


Abroad
p
Work Place Ambulance

l School / College Medical Store


/ Institution
a
Police Member, In charge

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n
District Control 1077 State Control Room 1070
Room

Fire Brigade Trained Volunteers


m
Safe Shelter for Safe Route to access Safe Shelter:
u ______ Disaster

Safe Shelter for Safe Route to access Safe Shelter:


s
______ Disaster
t
Safe Shelter for Safe Route to access Safe Shelter:

b ______ Disaster
e updated every year

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6.5.2. Guidance for family to prepare FDRMP

Family should discuss the following issues in their family meeting. It is important
that all the members of the family should participate in the discussion: Questions
to consider:

 Which types of disasters are most likely to happen?


 Where might family members be when a disaster occurs? (family should


think of disaster scenario)

 If all the family members are not at the same place, how will you
locate/meet each other?

 How will you ensure your children are safe when a disaster occur?

 Who will take care of senior citizens or disabled person in case of
emergency?

 Do you live in areas that are prone to civil unrest or floods or cyclone or
earthquake?

 Do you live in or very close to a dilapidated building?

 Is there an electric transformer or an overhead live electric wire in close
proximity of your house?

 How old is the electrical wiring of your house?

 Have you replaced the rubber tube of your LPG cylinder in last two years?

 Is your workplace in a potentially hazardous area, such as close to industry
or petrol pumps etc?

 Who will secure your pets and livestock?

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 Ensure all family members know how to turn off the utilities: electricity
mains switch, LPG/ piped gas line and water supply.

 Familiarize your family members with the safe escape routes in case of
emergency. Different escape routes should be mapped out for different
crises. If possible, list optional escape routes from each room.

 Locate the safe places in the house for each type of disaster.

 Make the family members aware about media for information during
emergencies. For example Radio, Television, Mobile etc.

 Ensure that each member has the list of emergency telephone numbers with
him. These must be displayed in the house at a visible prominent place.

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 Teach children how to use the phone, how to make STD/ISD calls. List
numbers of important persons/relatives living in other cities.

 Protect your important documents (such as passports, PAN Cards, ration
cards, proof of residential address, insurance documents, deeds, I card, birth
certificates, degree certificates, driving licenses etc).

 Keep photocopies of all the important documents in a sealed packet in your
bank locker or at a relative or friend’s home, away from your home town.
You can also protect documents by scanning and saving them onto a CD or
in your email.

 Guide the Family on how to prepare an ‘Emergency Kit’.

 Advice family to have adequate life, property and Mediclaim insurance.

Instructions for filling in FDRMP form:

 Family Data:

For each member, fill in the blood group. Write Yes or No against insurance
details.

 General Insurance:
Write Yes or No.

 Family Members at risk (Children under 5 years, senior citizens, disabled,

pregnant women):

Write the name(s) of the family members at risk, their situation, type of
assistance required in an emergency and name of the assigned family member
who will assist them in crisis.

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1. Hazard & Vulnerability and safe places:

This is the most important information for the family to establish during
hazard hunt, taking into account situations where they may or may not be at
home when a disaster strikes.

They should identify appropriate safe meeting places which may be different
in different disasters.

2. Checklist:

The family must tick each item on the checklist to confirm completion. For
any outstanding items the family should commit the earliest date by which
they are able to comply with that requirement.

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3. Emergency Kit:

The items that are needed to make the emergency kit are specified in the
documents. Each family should keep the emergency kit ready.

4. Emergency Contacts:

Local emergency numbers would be provided by trained Incharges /


Volunteers. The family is expected to fill in the remaining details.

Note: The family should contact trained Incharges / Volunteers of the Housing
Societies / Tenant Association / Faith-based Organizations to seek further
guidance.

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6.5.3. Dos & Don’t of Disasters

(A Copy to be given to family along with the Family Disaster Risk Management
Plan document)

Introduction:

Raising awareness for disaster risk reduction and shaping family attitudes are at
the heart of all the endeavors for building resilience in the family. Family Disaster
Risk Management Plan is conceived as a result of recognizing that the
vulnerability to disaster is growing faster than resilience because of risks posed by
a multiplicity of natural and man-made disasters like earthquakes, fire, floods, etc,
where loss of life and assets is at unacceptable levels. Disaster risk reduction
should be concern of everybody.

Too often, families make mistake of waiting until a crisis occurs to react, this
prevents most families from planning their responses to disasters. FDRMP is a
unique tool for each family for the use of their own safety before as well as at the
time of the crisis.

It can help to alleviate fears about potential disasters, reduce the level of stress
and save precious time during an emergency, thus enabling the family to become
more disaster resilient. FDRMP aims to enhance the state of preparedness and
capacity of the family to anticipate and respond to emergencies and reduce

physical risks, anticipate the disaster and think of response strategies to help
survive in crisis. It guides the family on how to assess and plan to reduce their

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risks, take physical protection measures, and increase their response capacity with
skills and material provisions. It is not so much the ‘plan’ as the ‘planning
process’ that is the key cultural change needed to build resilience in the family.

DISASTER AWARENESS

About Disasters:

A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that seriously disrupts the functioning of


a community or society and causes human, material, economic or environmental

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losses that exceed the community's or society's ability to cope using its own
resources.

A disaster is:

 Either natural (flood, earthquake, tsunami, etc) or man-made (fire, riots,


stampede, etc)

 Relatively sudden

 Highly disruptive

 For a limited time (though effects may be long lasting)

Types of Disasters:

Natural Man-made

Earthquake Riots

Floods Terrorist Attack

Cyclones War

Tsunami Building collapse

Fire Fire

Pandemic/epidemic Chemical

Landslide Accident

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Drought Bomb blasts

Lightening

Sun stroke

Accident

Any other

What are the effects of a disaster?

 Loss of human lives



 Injuries/disability

 Loss of homes

 Loss of economic assets

 Loss of livelihood

 Displacement

 Mental trauma

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How can we minimize the negative effects of a disaster?

To control and mitigate the devastating effects of a disaster, natural or Man-made,


it is necessary for all members of a community to maintain a state of preparedness

for any upcoming disaster so as not to be caught unaware. This can be achieved
by imbibing general awareness on Do’s and Don’ts before, during and after

disaster, adopting safe practices at home, at the workplace and in public


areas/institutions and knowing about safe sites to gather at during
disasters/emergencies.

Prepare a `ready-to-go emergency kit’ as prescribed below to take with you in a


disaster. Keep one in your house and keep one family member in charge of it.

The “Ready-to-go” emergency kit should have:

 Copies of your important documents (insurance policies, driver’s license,


ration card, passport copy, list of important contact numbers, birth certificate,
blood group of every family member, tax payment records, etc.) in a
waterproof container

 First Aid kit (also include prescribed and non-prescribed medicines)

 Bottled water (min. of 3 litres per person per day)

 A three-day supply of non-perishable food

 One flashlight with extra batteries Battery-operated radio with extra batteries

 Candles and Matches in a waterproof container

 Whistle

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 Personal hygiene items (toothbrush, toothpaste, soap, shampoo, etc)

 Change of clothes, sturdy footwear and rain gear

 Special items for babies, senior citizens, pregnant women, etc.

 Cash and credit cards

Maintain the kit: It is equally essential to maintain kit.

 Check and update your “Ready to go” Emergency Kit every 6 months

 Replace batteries

 Replace the clothes with fresh ones

 Renew the water and food supply

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 Check the expiry dates on the medicines regularly

How to respond before, during and after common disasters:

It is important that the family should have the books / literature on dos & don’ts
of disasters and all the members of the family should discuss dos & don’ts of the
disasters that are prone in their city / village. It is wise to know dos and don’ts of

all the general disasters in addition to that they are prone, as it is difficult to

predict where the family members will be when disaster strikes.

The following is the extract taken from the booklet published by UNDP and

GSDMA and other similar publications for the awareness of the family. Family is
advised to take formal training on ‘First Responder’ or on ‘Disaster Management’

from the competent authority.

Floods

A flood is an overflow of water, an expanse of water that submerges

land, a deluge.

Before a Flood – Flood Preparedness:

 Insure your life and the lives of members of your family as well as insure your
home, shop/office, household articles and other valuables, crops, etc.

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 Store dry food such as high energy biscuits, dry fruits, dry snacks for
emergency use

 Take training on First Aid

 Identify and memorize the safest and the shortest escape route from your
house to the nearest safe site as identified by the community

 Train your entire family, including children in the correct evacuation
procedure to be followed in times of disaster

 Listen to the radio/TV to get the latest news updates.

 On receiving a flood warning for your area, move to a safer place or higher
ground, e.g. a nearby hill.

 Switch off electricity when the water level increases.

 Tie all valuables, documents, household articles etc to a high roof for safety.

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 Remove cattle to a highland and store sufficient fodder and water for them.

 Clear away any accumulated debris from the surrounding naala, streams or
drainage channels.

 Dig canals, channels to divert the flowing flood water to the nearest river or
creek. Park your vehicle/s on higher ground.

 Don’t venture out from shelter during the flood

During a Flood – Evacuation:

 If there is enough time, raise furniture, clothing and valuables onto beds,
tables and into roof space (electrical items highest) before leaving

 Turn off all power, water and gas in the house

 When you are leaving take your ‘Ready-to-go emergency kit’ and your mobile
phone/ portable Radio with you.

 Lock your house and leave using the recommended evacuation routes for your
area.

 Don’t drive in water of unknown depth and current.

 Don’t leave the shelter to go back home until advised by the relief authority.

After a Flood - On your return:

 Keep listening to weather forecast on radio/television to know when it is safe


to return home.

 Always boil water for drinking and food preparation- let it boil for at least 20
minutes before consuming.

 Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly before consumption.

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 Spray DDT/kerosene on still water to kill mosquitoes and other harmful
bacteria.

 If possible, get immunized for typhoid fever and cholera.

 Beware of insects or poisonous snakes that may have entered your home along
with the flood water.

 Don’t enter flood waters and don’t allow children to play in, or near them.

Cyclone

A cyclone is a storm accompanied by high speed whistling and howling winds. It


brings torrential rains. When a cyclonic storm approaches, the skies begin to

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darken accompanied by lightning and thunder and a continuous downpour of
rain. A cyclone causes heavy floods, uproots electricity supply and
telecommunication lines.

Before a Cyclone:

 Assess your home for the risk of cyclone before the season starts. Repairing, if
any, should be carried out prior to cyclone season.

 It is necessary to create awareness in all the family members. Discuss the
effect of cyclone and its do’s and don’ts.

Such preparedness will help family to respond to cyclone effectively. It
reduces fear and anxiety for the deadly impact of cyclone.

 Talk to children and explain to them what happens in a cyclone (without
scaring them). Keep your emergency kit ready.

 Keep torches with spare batteries and lanterns filled with kerosene ready at the
accessible but secured places.

 Disabled, sick, senior citizen and young children need assistance to respond in
crisis. Assign special responsibility to other member to assist them.

 As a part of preparedness keep blankets, bed sheets photos of family
members for the identity, cotton bandages etc ready to be used after cyclone.

 Wooden boards to be kept ready to shield window during storm.

 Falling of trees very common during cyclone, trimmed shrubs and trees,
remove decayed and dried branches of trees so that winds blow through.
 Extra drinking water should be stored in closed vessel

 Secure all doors, windows and openings.

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During a Cyclone:

 During cyclone be calm. Keep listening radio bulletin for alerts, be in touch
with local officer on emergency duty, check and keep battery operated radio
set ready.

 Keep listening radio bulletin for alerts, be in touch with local officer on
emergency duty, check and keep battery operated radio set ready

 Do not ventured out during storm, unless otherwise advised to evacuate

 If advised, evacuate to safe place. Plan in advance to protect your assets.

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 Stay at home in a cyclone. If you have urgent work outside of home, be
cautious and leave early prior to onset of cyclone.

 On cyclone alert, fisherman should anchor boats and rafts at a safe place, and
stay home and should not venture out near and into sea water.

 Avoid the top floor. Stay close to the ground Avoid taking shelter near
old/damaged buildings or near trees. Do not touch power lines. You may be
electrocuted.

After the Cyclone:

 Wait till it is announced on radio and TV networks that “All Clear”. Before
venturing out ensure that the cyclone has subsided.

 Take care of the glass pieces, sharps items in debris. Be aware of snakes and
insects. Call for assistance for sting and bite, if any. Follow the advice of
emergency duty officers and workers. Emergency Relief Team takes time to
arrive at the site. Wait to avail for the emergency support.

 Cyclone may cause flooding, stay away from such area.

 After cyclone subsides, fishermen should resume fishing only after 24 hours.

 Community volunteers should assist in assessment of damage and should help
evacuated people to go back to their homes. Trained volunteers should
provide first aid to wounded and donate blood for the casualties

 If required, locate places where dead bodies can be kept temporarily

 Organize a clearing-up operation for your neighborhood

Earthquake

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An earthquake is the shaking of the Earth caused by a sudden movement of rock
beneath its surface.

Before an Earthquake: Earthquake Preparedness

 Insure your life and the lives of members of your family as well as insure your
home, shop/office, household articles and other valuables, crops, etc.

 Make sure your family members know the facts about earthquakes.

 Make sure all new buildings near you are built using earthquake-resistant
construction methods and that all old buildings are strengthened.

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 Community people should take first responder training which includes first
aid and fire safety

 Glass is very fragile; keep beds away from glass window.

 Heavy and fragile things should be kept on the floor.

 Photo frames, glasses or mirrors should be hang away from bed and should be
bracketed to avoid falling.

 Prepare and keep an “Ready to go” emergency kit in your house and car

 Identify medical and technical and other special skills of the neighbors to avail
their services in emergency.

During Earthquake: Staying safe

 Be calm, do not panic. Stay indoors, when you are inside.

 Wherever you are, Drop, Cover and Hold on table, sturdier desk and hold on
till shaking stops.

 Drop on the floor, if fire breaks out and crawl towards exit.

 During earthquake, if you are out door, keep away from trees, overhead
electric wire and buildings.

 Be quite and calm and escape to open space,

 When driving, move and park your car away from traffic and stop.

 If you are under trees, electric pole, overhead hotlines, hoardings, bridges,
skywalk, overpasses etc immediately move out.

 If you in car and away from traffic, stay inside till shaking stops.

 Children in school should do duct, cover and hold on, under desk of table to
protect your head, till shaking stops.

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 Shake out drill: (a) inside: 1. DROP to the ground. In a real earthquake, the
ground might shake forcefully and throw you down. 2. Take COVER under
something sturdy.

If you cannot get under something, stay low and cover your head and neck
with your arms. 3. HOLD ON to it until the shaking stops.

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(b) In a hi-rise: Drop, Cover, and Hold On; do not use elevator (c) in

bed: Hold on and stay there; protect your head with a pillow ( d) while driving:

Stop at the side of the road away from hazards; Stay protected i nside the vehicle

(e) in a theater: Stay at your seat; protect your head and neck with your arms (f)
near the ocean: D rop, Cover, and Hold On until the shaking stop s; then evacuate
to higher ground (g) in a wheelchair: Protect your head and neck with a pillow or
your arms and be nd over to protect yourself

After the Earthquake: Keeping calm

 Do not be afra id of aftershocks



 Listen to the radio or TV for government announcements on the situation

 Check for inj uries to yourself and those around you. Take first aid where you
can

 Extinguish fire, if any

 Examine wall s, floors, doors, staircases and windows to m ake sure that the
building is not in danger of collapsing

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 Do not enter u nsafe or severely damaged houses or buildings



 Inspect for Ga s leaks. If you smell gas or hear blowing or his sing noises,
open a window and quickly leave the building.

 Do not light your kitchen stove if you suspect a gas leak.

 Do not keep t elephone lines busy unnecessarily

 Switch off electricity

Fire

Fire is the energy released in the form of heat & light due to a chemical reaction
in which three e lements viz. Fuel, heat and Oxygen (Air) unite. Follow the
following slogans:

“What burns neve r returns”

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“Kill fire before it kills you”

“Prevent fire, avoid destruction”

Before a Fire: Fire Preparedness/Safety measures

 Insure your life and the lives of members of your family as well as insure
your home, shop/office, household articles and other valuables, etc.

 In the kitchen, use only an ISI-Marked ‘Suraksha’ LPG tube

 Change the LPG rubber tube once in two years

 Clean the LPG rubber tube frequently to avoid it being eaten away by rats.

 Switch off the regulator especially at night

 Wear a cotton apron while cooking

 Switch off the regulator of the LPG cylinder and open the doors and
windows in case of gas leakage

 Don’t tamper with the LPG cylinder and allied equipments

 Don’t use your ‘dupatta’ to handle utensils

 In the house and the office, avoid installing too many switches, gadgets and
wires (i.e. the ‘electrical octopus’)
 Replace broken or frayed electrical cords immediately

 Maintain electrical appliances properly

 Repair or replace defective appliances

 Know the place of the main switch in your house

 Install an MCB (Main Circuit Breaker)
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 Install florescent signage for emergency exits and evacuation routes.

 Don’t run electrical cords/wires under carpets

 Don’t overload electrical outlets

 Always ensure proper Electrical Safety in your house and housing society

 Install smoke detectors

 Install smoke/fire detectors and fire extinguishers

During a fire: Staying Safe

 Don’t panic

 Call the fire brigade (Dial 101) and inform them of the location and type of
fire (if known)

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 Shut off power supply or fuse

 Close doors and windows prior to evacuating (to avoid spread of fire)

 Cary Ready-to go Emergency Kit

 Proceed to nearest exit in an orderly fashion.

 Don’t stop to collect personal belongings.

 Don’t use the lift.

 If there is smoke, exit by crawling on the ground by as the smoke is always
about 8 -10” above the ground
 Assemble at the nearest safe site/Assembly Point

 Don’t operate electrical switches

 Don’t light matchsticks

 Don’t use water for fighting an electrical fire.

 Don’t re-enter the affected area until further notice

 If your clothes are on fire: Stop, Drop and Roll

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After a fire:

 Keep close to your family, friends/neighbors



 Do not re-enter the site of the fire till the emergency services safe

Explosions

Explosion is manmade disaster. It is a blast causing severe injuries and deaths, It

could happen suddenly. There is little time; few minutes or seconds to save your

life. Few hints and tips to save the life are as under:

During explosion:

 Exit the premises immediately. Carry emergency kit



 Use staircase, don’t use lift

 While entering premises, check for fire, check entry door for heat

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 If exit is impossible, hide under a sturdy object like table, deskor use
furniture or objet as a shield

 Immediately exit from the premises



 In case of smoke, crawl low while exiting

 Cover nose and mouth, if possible with the wet cloth to avoid smoke

 To feel heat touch the door with back of your palm

 Look for another exit, do not open hot door to exit

 Do not re-enter premises unless otherwise declare as safe

 Search for your family members and take care of youn

 children

 If your cloth on fire, stop, drop and role to stop fire

 Call family member to gather at the meeting point

 Use staircase, do not use lift

If caught in debris:

 Do not move unnecessarily which triggers dust



 To signal to rescuers, tap on pipe/wall or object, use whistle or flashlight

 Call loudly for help

 Avoid inhaling harmful dust which cause choking

 Do not ignite match stick

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 Cover your mouth and nose with cloth

Bomb Blast

Bomb Safety Precautions:

 Do not touch suspicious/abandoned articles



 Do not panic or spread rumor

 Inform the police immediately

If there is a suspicious package/article near you

 Inform the police immediately



 Do not submerge it in water

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 Do not smoke or keep it near fire

 Do not cut any wires, strings or tape

 Do not switch on the radio

Heat Stroke

Before

To prepare for extreme heat, you should:

 Install temporary window reflectors (for use between windows and drapes),
such as aluminum foil-covered cardboard, to reflect heat back outside.

 Weather-strip doors and sills to keep cool air in.

 Cover windows that receive morning or afternoon sun with drapes, shades,
awnings, or louvers. Keep storm windows up all year.

During

What you should do if the weather is extremely hot:

 Stay indoors as much as possible and limit exposure to the sun.



 Stay on the lowest floor out of the sunshine if air conditioning is not
available.

 Consider spending the warmest part of the day in public buildings such as
libraries, schools, movie theaters, shopping malls, and other community
facilities. Circulating air can cool the body by increasing the perspiration
rate of evaporation.

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 Eat well-balanced, light, and regular meals. Avoid using salt tablets unless
directed to do so by a physician.

 Drink plenty of water. Persons who have epilepsy or heart, kidney, or liver
disease; are on fluid-restricted diets; or have a problem with fluid retention
should consult a doctor before increasing liquid intake.

 Dress in loose-fitting, lightweight, and light-colored clothes that cover as
much skin as possible.

 Protect face and head by wearing a cap.

 Never leave children alone in closed vehicles.

 Avoid strenuous work during the warmest part of the day. Take frequent
breaks while working outdoors (Fields).

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Civil Unrest

Dos & Don’ts of Civil Unrest:

 Do not talk/communicate on phone/through electronic media ill about any


community, political parties/leaders etc

 Do not panic or spread rumor

 Stay indoors

 Avoid visiting or passing through sensitive area/location

 Watch T V/Listen Radio for the update on the situation

 Be calm, tolerate provocation

 Support government and statutory bodies to restore communal harmony

 Defend but do not get offended

 Follow the advice of police, local authorities and leaders

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6.5.4. Booklet on elementary first aid

What is First Aid?

During disaster/injuries, casualties need immediate help. The initial 10/15 minutes are
very critical in saving lives until medical aid arrives. Aid given before medical assistance
is made available is called First Aid.

The objectives of First Aid:

 To Save lives,

 To Promote recovery and

 To prevent condition of the injured/affected person from becoming worse.

A First Aider should:

 Be quick (should not waste time)



 Be calm (should not be panic or be frustrated)

 Be confident

 Reassure casualty and

 Shift casualties to the nearest doctor/hospital as soon as possible.

Casualty and First Aider Safety:

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“Dead heroes can’t save lives. Injured heroes are a nuisance. So check the scene for risk
before you jump in.”

Principles steps in First Aid:

 If the casualty responds, introduce yourself as a trained First Aider. If he/she agrees,
give first aid. If casualty refuses, call emergency services; 102 or 1298. If casualty
is confused or unconscious assume he/she wants you to help. Any risk to you or
casualty, if yes, put your safety first and remove the casualty from danger.

 Remember your limits.

 Shift casualty to safe place

 Loosen his/her clothing

 Reassure casualty

 Look the symptoms and follow accordingly:

- Check ABC; if no breathe, give artificial breathing, if no pulse, give CPR.

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- Stop severe bleeding.

- Relieve pain.

- If casualty in shock, treat for the shock.

- Avoid unnecessary movement.

- Shift casualty to the place of comfort

- Remain with the casualty and note vital parameters like temp pulse etc.

Emergencies:

1. Medical emergencies: Breathing problems, Choking, Heart Attack, Fainting,


Diabetes, Stroke, Seizure, Shock
2. Injury emergency: Bleeding; External & Internal, Head, Neck and Spine injuries

3. Environmental emergencies: Bites and Stings

What is First Aid?

First and foremost, the First Aider should know about the human body. This is crucial in
assessing the nature of the casualty’s injury/ state and coming up with the correct

response.

The Human Body – Skeleton:

The skeleton forms the supporting frame work of the body. It is made up of 206 bones. It
protects important organs like the brain, heart and lungs help to stand, sit and sleep, give
shape and size.

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 Skull: It enclosed brain.

 Spine or Backbone: It is made up of vertebrate arranged over
one another in a straight line.

 Ribs: Presents on both sides, attached to the backbone behind and chest bone in front.

 Collar bone: Extends from either side in the upper and outer part of the back of the
chest.

 Hip bone: Two bones are attached behind to backbone and in front to each other.

 Chest bone: Flat bone right in front of the chest.

 Upper Limb & Lower Limb: Has thirty bones in each limb.

 The Arm is made up of one bone between shoulder and elbow, two bones between
elbow and wrist

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 The Leg is made up of one bone between hip and knee and two bones between knee
and anchor

 Skin: There are four layers of skin, i.e. the skin, the top layer of fat, the deep layer of
fat and the bony layer. Skin provides protection, sensation and helps maintain body
temperature.

 Blood vessels: Veins, arteries and capillaries. Blood travels in every layer through
these capillaries.

 Veins are blue due to degenerated oxygen. They are used for collecting blood for
examination as well as glucose, blood and fluids are given through veins.

 Arteries carry oxygenated blood; pulse can be examined through artery.

Other facts: The normal pulse rate for a human being is 60 – 90 beats per minute.

Choking increases pulse rate.

 The normal breathing rate is 16 – 19 per minute



 The normal body temperature is 98.4 degree F or 37 degree C

 TPR mentioned in the case paper prepared by a doctor, hospital indicates
temperature, pulse and respiration of the patient respectively.

 In inhaling, the oxygen content is 21% while in exhaling it is 12 to 16%. To survive
casualty, 12 – 16% oxygen should be provided in administering mouth to mouth and
mouth to nose respiration.

 The brain, heart and lungs cease to function if oxygen- deprived for 3 to 4 minutes

ABC of First Aid

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Basic principles to be followed in case of unconscious casualty:

A – An open Airway

B – Breathing

C – Circulation

A – Airway (Opening Airway)

To make sure that the casualty is unconscious; shake, pinch and splash water on his/her
face. If casualty is unconscious, he/she will fail to respond. If the casualty is unconscious

 the head may tilt forward narrowing air passage,

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 the muscular control in the throat will be lost which may allow tongue to sag back
and block air passage

 the reflexes are impaired, saliva or vomit may lie in the back of the throat blocking
airways

Any of these situations can lead to death. Hence tilt the head behind and clear airway
immediately. After clearing airway, remove object if any, by turning casualty’s head to

one side, keeping it back, putting two figures inside the mouth and sweeping round the
mouth.

Once airway is cleared casualty may begin breathing. If so, put casualty in recovery
position. If casualty does not breath, begin artificial respiration.

B – Breathing (Checking Breathing)

In order to find out whether unconscious casualty is breathing, after first opening airway;
look, listen and feel for the signs of respiration.

 Continue holding casualty’s airway open, see and place your ear above his/her
mouth and nose

 Look along her chest and abdomen, if he/she is breathing, one can hear and feel
any breath and see movement along chest and abdomen.

 If casualty does not breath, begin artificial respiration.

Artificial Respiration

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When the casualty’s breathing is affected due to Asphyxia, Shock, etc artificial
respiration is given. The following methods are used:

Mouth to mouth respiration

Mouth to nose respiration

H N Method

Bag Mask Resuscitation

Mouth to Mouth respiration:

 Keep casualty’s head tilted backwards



 Place heel of one hand on the forehead with thumb and index finger towards nose

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 Pinch casualty’s nostrils with thumb and index finger to prevent air from escaping

 Take a deep breath, collect atmospheric air, form a tight seal with your mouth over
casualty’s mouth
 Blow four quick breaths without allowing lungs to deflate fully

 Watch casualty’s chest while inflating lungs, it should rise and fall

 Remove your mouth, allow casualty to exhale passively

 Repeat the procedure 10 – 12 times per minute.

Mouth to Nose respiration:

This is not a good technique. It should be used in case mouth to mouth respiration is not
possible because mouth can’t be opened, mouth bleeding and mouth profusely burnt.

Procedure is the same as mouth to mouth respiration, except pushing air through
casualty’s nostrils instead of his/her mouth

H N (Holger Neilson’s) Method:

This procedure is used in case of drowning or in case of inhalation of poisonous gases

where mouth to mouth respiration can be dangerous to the first aider.

 Put the casualty on his abdomen, hand under the forehead turned on one side (to
facilitate water to come out) neck extended to keep air ways clear.

 First aider knees towards head side of the casualty, holding casualty’s forehead
with one knee, to keep airway clear.

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 First aider puts his hand between two shoulder blades of the casualty and pressing
saying one & two with pressure – water come out.

 Pressure applied should be as per the bearing capacity of the casualt and the first
aider.

 Three & four – first aider slides his hands bring towards elbows.

 Five – first aider lifts up casualty’s elbow, allowing the chest cavity to expand and
air to go in.
 Continue the procedure till first aider is convinced no more water is coming out.

 Since one cycle takes 6 seconds to complete, procedure to be repeated 10 – 12
times per minute.

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Bag Mask: AMBU (Artificial Manual Breathing Unit) Bag: An AMBU bag is used. The
mask is put on casualty’s mouth. The bag which is filled with air is compressed and

released.

C – Circulation (Checking Circulation)

This is done by feeling the pulse. Best felt by placing finger tips between airway and
neck muscle. Before commencing heart massage, it is important to establish that the heart
is not beating.

There may be the cases where the breathing stops but heart continues to beat for some
time. But if heart arrest occurs, delivery of oxygen to brain ceases immediately.

Hence the heart has stopped one has to give CPR (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation) i.e.

heart massage and artificial respiration.

CPR – Procedure

 Put casualty on firm surface. Kneel close to the side of the casualty.

 With one hand feel the lower end of the chest bone (sternum) 4cm above this,
which means two fingers, so put two fingers of the other and above the tip of lower
end of the sternum.

 Put the palm of one hand the already placed palm, keeping the elbows straight,
press so that chest bone goes down at least 4cm.

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 Keep doing this minimum 60 times a minute.

 Do not put your hands over ribs, since this can cause rib fracture.

 Whole doing CPR, if two aiders available, they should sit on opposite side,
maintaining the ratio of 1: 30 (Mouth to mouth respiration: heart massage) if one
first aider is available maintain the ratio of 2: 30.

 Always begin with the artificial respiration.

 Keep checking after one minute and thereafter every five minutes to see the pulse
has come back.

 Compression should be regular and uninterrupted.

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Cases for Study:

Findings Status First Aid Procedure

No Pulse, Unconscious One Volunteer CPR !:15


No breathing Two Volunteers CPR 2:30

Pulse O K Unconscious Recovery position


Breathing O K

Pulse O K, Unconscious Heimlich method: Smack 5


No Breathing times on back and 5 times
abdominal thrusts in the
position similar to Recovery
position

No Pulse, Drowning One Volunteer CPR 1: 30


No breathing Unconscious Two Volunteers CPR 2: 30

Pulse O K Drowning H N Method


No Breathing Unconscious

Pulse O K Drowning Heimlich method: Smack 5


Breathing O K Conscious times on back and 5 times
abdominal thrusts

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Wounds & Bleedings

A wound is a break in the continuity of the skin. A wound causes two complications;
Bleeding and infection. There are different types of wounds depending upon the nature of
the injury.

Types of wounds

C – Contused Wound: Caused by a blunt heavy object. There is no external bleeding but
there is a pain and swelling e.g. black eye.

L – Lacerated Wound: Caused by irregular object or surface or claws of an animal. The


margins are irregular

I – Incised Wound: Caused by a sharp instrument like knife or blade, the margins are
clear cut.

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P – Punctured Wound: Caused by a sharp pointed object like knife, screw driver. Wound
looks small but actually deep.

S – Shot (Gun shot) or Bullet Injury: e.g. bullet injury. It could be mixture of any of the
above mentioned wound

Human body contains approximately five liters of blood. Loss of two liters could lead to
shock while loss of three liters could cause a casualty to into coma. Bleeding is a
common cause of death in accident. It caused by the rupturing of blood vessels because
of a severe injury.

 If bleeding is from the surface, it is called external bleeding.



 Bleeding within the chest, skull or abdomen cannot be seen immediately but later
on comes out from the nose/ears or is vomited from the stomach.

 Bleeding may occur from arteries, veins or capillaries.

 Bleeding from the arteries has bright red color and comes out in jets; this may
cause death very quickly.

 Bleeding from the veins is dark red in color and comes in a continuous stream.

 Bleeding from capillaries comes out slowly.

 In case of bleeding from the mouth, do not wash or rinse the mouth as it will
disturb the clot

Management:

1. Bleeding from the limbs:

 Make the casualty lie down


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 Raise the bleeding limb to slow down the flow of blood

 Do not interfere with already formed clots

 Apply direct/indirect pressure

 Direct pressure: 1. Pressure is applied directly over the wounds by thumb or palm.
2. Dressings wound, if one dressing is not enough use another.

 Indirect pressure: The device used for applying indirect pressure at the pressure
point to stop bleeding is called Tourniquet. The pressure is applied elsewhere. 1.
Pressure Points: The pressure is applied to arteries against the underlying Bone. 2.
Tourniquet: A strips of cloth or rubber should be used for profuse bleeding. Used
only for limbs.

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The limb: Femoral (Leg), Popliteal (Below Knee) and Dorsally Pedi (Between 1st and
2nd toes)

2. Bleeding from nose:

Causes: Excessive heat, injury over nose, high altitudes and high blood pressure.

Management:

 Make the casualty sit down ahead bend forwards, in front of open window

 Apply pressure at the soft cartilaginous portion using two fingers.

 Pressure should be such that causality’s mouth opens and breathes through his
mouth.
 Cold compress can be applied.

 Bleeding usually stops in 10 – 15 minutes.

3. Bleeding from Tooth Socket:-

Apply pressure by plugging the socket using cotton, gauze piece and ask causality to
close his mouth.

4. Bleeding from Palm:-

Put a pad, cloth over the wound, close fingers over it to apply pressure.

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5. Bleeding from cut Tongue:-

Ask causality to take out his tongue, apply pressure by putting a gauze piece over the cut
area by two fingers, since the tongue is a slippery organ.

6. Bleeding from Ear:

Usually it indicates internal bleeding in the brain; may be due to fracture in base of the
skull.

 Make casualty lie down with head turned on the same side.

 Make a ring pad, put in round the ear and shift him fast as a lying down case.

In case of a suspected case of internal bleeding, keep the causality under observation and
look out for signs of shock.

Blood Donation:

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 An average male possesses 5 liters and a female 4.5 liters of blood

 Blood contains: Water – 90%, RBS, WBC, Platelets and Plasma – 10%

 One bottle donation means 300 – 350 ml of blood

 Any adult of age 18 – 60 years; having body weight 45 – 60Kg can donate blood
once in three months
 Donation of one bottle blood saves four lives

Fracture:

A fracture is the partial or complete bend, crack or breakage of a bone. It causes due to

the direct or indirect force/impact.

Types:

 Simple (closed) – no external injury seen



 Compound – along with fracture there is injury to the skin (fracture + wound)

 Complicated – along with fracture there is involvement of some internal organ i.e.
ribs & lungs; & heart; skull & brain

 Communicated – bone going inside at one point seen in flat bones e.g. chest bone,
hip bone, shoulder blade, upper part of skull

 Impacted – one bone breaks and get fixed into another

 Green stick – usually seen in small children where there is only bending of bone.
Symptoms: Pain, Swelling, Deformity, Loss of power, Tenderness, Crepitus
Management:

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 To reduce pain, to prevent further damage, manage shock. Sling and splints are
used to stabilize/immobilize fractured bone.

 A splint is a rigid piece of wood, plastic material or metal applied to a fractured
limb to support it and to prevent movement of the broken bone. In an emergency
anything firm can be used as splint. In an emergency anything firm can be used as
splint.

 Treat fracture on spot

 Never attempt to bring bones to normal position or reduce fracture.

Common fracture management:

Fracture – Skull, base of skull fracture:

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 Look for bleeding from ears. Make him lie down with head turned on the same
side.

 Maintain TPR

 Do not anything orally

 Do not arouse him

 Transport causality to hospital

Fracture – Lower jaw:

 Mouth remains open



 Causality unable to speak

 Jaw bandage

Fracture – Collar bone and shoulder blade:

 Causality’s shoulder droops towards the same side.



 Tie a triangular sling.

Fracture – Upper limb: Sling is a triangular type of bandage which is used to support
injured arms while a splint is a rigid piece of wood, plastic material or metal. It is applied
to fractured limb.

 Arm sling

 Cuff & Collar sling

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 Splint depending on the size of fracture

Fracture – Lower limb: Long splint

 Other lower limb; natural support

Dislocation – Bones displaced from its position. Symptoms are the same just as fracture.
In additions there is fixity of the joint. Management: - Same like fracture

Sprain: It is defined as tearing up of ligaments. Symptoms are the same as fracture.

Management:

 Cold compress

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 Support

 Pain killer

 Pan relieving balm or sprays – mild application

 Crepe bandage

Strain: Tearing up of muscle fibers. Management is the same as sprain

Dressings & Bandages:

Dressings and bandages are used:

 To control bleeding and



 To prevent infection

Before bandaging, the wound should be cleaned using antiseptic.

There are two types of bandages: Rollers and Triangular bandages. Triangular bandages
support the limbs. (Details are covered under Fractures/Slings)

Slings:

Slings are used to support injured arms and to prevent pull by upper limb of injuries to
chest, shoulder and neck.

Types of slings:

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 Arms Sling – tied in case of fracture in upper limb

 Triangular Sling – tied in case of fracture in collar bone or shoulder blade

 Cuff & Collar Sling – used to support the wrist

Arm Sling:

 It used for fractured ribs, injuries of arm, wrist and hands



 If fracture in right, put apex on the left arm pit

 One end on the uninjured shoulder

 Put the hand, tie on the same side of injury

 Tips of the fingers should be seen

Triangular Sling:

 It is used to support the fracture of the collar bone, arms and injured shoulders

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 Same as above. Put the hand underneath and knot on the opposite collar bone, apex
should be hidden.

Collar & Cuff Sling

 It is used to support the wrist only



 A clove-hitch is passed round the wrist and the ends tied in the hollow above the

collar bone on the injured side.

Splints: A splint is a rigid piece of wood or plastic material or wood or metal or body
part applied to fractured limb to support it and to immobilized the broken bone.

Sprains: A sprain is the tearing of the ligaments of a joint and the tissues around the
joint. It is caused by a sudden wrench or twist at the joint.

Symptoms: Pain in the joints, swelling, and the joint affected is painful to move.

Procedure: Elevate the limb to comfortable position, do not allow him to move the joint,
apply firm bandage to the joint, keep the bandage wet by cold water and call for the
medical aid.

Note: When in doubt of the case of sprain, dislocation or fracture, treat the casualty for a
fracture Schema shock is a depression of vital functions of the body, particularly
respiration. Causes:

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 Excessive loss of blood.

 Excessive loss of fluids (Vomiting, loose motions)

 Excessive loss of plasma, in case of burns

 Due to severe pain, in case of fractures, heart attack

 Exposure to extreme heat or cold

 Emotional upsets

There are two types of shocks:

 Primary or Nervous shock is caused by a strong emotional upset such as fear, pain,
or bad news and not due to serious injury. This does not need any treatment except
reassuring and sympathetic handling.

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 Secondary or True shock occurs due to severe bleeding, heart attack or crush
injuries. It may lead to death if aid is not given immediately.

Symptoms of shock:

 The casualty feels giddy, thirsty and cold



 The face, lips and tongue look pale and dry

 The pulse is fast but feeble

 Respiration short but fast i.e. gasping for breath

 Nausea and vomiting occurs

 The casualty becomes unconscious at later stage

Management:

 Loosen up his/her clothes



 Wrap him/her with blanket with neck below

 Reassure if the causality is conscious

 If conscious, give oral fluids, but in sips

 Check and maintain TPR chart

 Do not give fluids orally, if causality is unconscious.

 Do not rub or massage hands or feet

 If internal injuries to the chest and abdomen suspected if unconscious – check
ABC, if breathing & heart beat stopped- give CPR.

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 If casualty is breathing, and has pulse then shift him/her in recovery position. Keep
pillows below the legs

 Shift the casualty to the nearest hospital immediately

Asphyxia/Suffocation or Choking

Definition: It is a condition where the lungs are not supplied with sufficient quality of air.
Casualty if continue to remain in this state for 3 – 4 minutes, he/she may go into coma.
Causes:

P – Pressure around the neck (hanging/ strangulation)

O – Obstruction within the air passage due to foreign body/ food particle/ water in Case
of drowning

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I – Inhalation of poisonous gases e.g. CO, CO2, and Sewage Gas
S – Swelling of air passage

O – Opium and its derivatives

N – Nerveuses conditions like tetanus, polio.

Symptoms: Restless, fast but short breathing, the pulse gets faster and feebler, veins of
the neck are swollen and face, lips, fingernails & fingers become blue.

Management:

 Remove the cause of choking



 Loosen tight clothing, open and clear airways,

 Check the casualty’s breathing,

 Put the casualty in a recovery position,

 Give them artificial mouth to mouth respiration and external chest Compression

For Infants:

If a foreign body has entered into the food pipe of an infant, it is not serious as the air
ways are not obstructed. In such a case, no first aid is needed and the casualty should be
immediately shifted to a doctor or hospital.

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On the other hand, if the foreign body has entered into the wind pipe and the infant is
conscious; it should be given first aid. Catch the child by the leg and smack on the back
hard for 3/4 times.

For Adults:

If the adult is conscious administer the Heimlich Technique for adults i.e. stand behind
the casualty and smack them hard on the back 5 times. Wrap your arms around their
waist. Press your fist into their abdomen with a quick upward thrust. Repeat several times
to expel foreign body.

If the adult is unconscious:

 Remove the cause of choking



 Loosen tight clothing, open and clear airways,

 Check the casualty’s breathing,

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 Put the casualty in a recovery position,

 Give them artificial mouth to mouth respiration and external chest Compression

In case of drowning: If the person is unconscious and no heart and no lungs, give CPR. If
heart + but no lungs, administer the H N Method. But if casualty is conscious, they
should be treated using the Heimlich Technique

First Aid in Burns & Scalds:

Burn is defined as a type of injury caused by:-

F – Fire

I – Irritants (Acids and alkalis)

R – Rubbing or friction

E –Electrical burns

A burn is the damage occurring to the tissue cells of the skin due to dry heat while scalds
are the burns caused by liquid or steam. Shock or infection in burns cause death. In order
to assist a casualty suffering from burn injuries, it is important to assess the degree of the
burn, i.e. how bad the burns actually are. According to their seriousness, the burns are
classified into First Degree, Second Degree and Third Degree.

How to identify and treat different degrees of burns:

In First degree burns, the skin is red. (RSP i.e. Red, Swelling and Pain occurs). In such
cases, pour water till burning sensation stops within a minute of the burn occurring.

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In Second degree burns – there are blisters on the skin

In Third degree burns, destruction of the deeper tissues and charring occurs.

For second and third degree burns, the casualty should be hospitalized as soon as
possible.

What to do when someone is on fire?

The human body takes 30 seconds to get burnt. Hence, giving immediate assistance to
the person affected is crucial. If a person’s clothes have caught fire you should:

 Stop the burn by rolling the person on the ground or by pouring water over the
body.

 If necessary, assist in maintaining the casualty’s breathing. Give Mouth to Mouth
resuscitation or administer the HN Method.

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 Reassure and calm the casualty.

 Examine their body to assess degree of burn.

 Keep the burn area elevated.

 Cover the burn with a bed sheet and shift the casualty to the nearest hospital.

 Do not give water to drink

 Do not apply any oil, cream, butter, etc

 Do not remove clothes stuck to the body

 Do not touch/break blisters

 Do not leave the casualty alone

A burn of the eye/s should be thoroughly washed with water. The casualty should not be
allowed to rub their eyes. They should be shifted to the nearest doctor/hospital
immediately.

Management:

 Place the effected part of the body under running water for 15-20 minutes to
remove heat.

 Assess: percentage of burns (see picture)

 If casualty is conscious, give oral fluids preferably electrical water sip by sip.

 Do not cut open blisters.

 Do not keep wounds open

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 Do not remove burnt clothes sticking to the body.

Percentage of burn can be estimated by the ‘Rule of Nine’. To estimate the degree of
burn, our body is divided in 11 parts and each part represents 9 degree if burn in fire, as
shown below:

Emergency:

Heart Attack:

In this case heart muscle not supplied with adequate blood supply

Causes: Heredity, Choking of an artery, Smoking or Manual/mental stress

Symptoms:

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 Chest pain substantial radiating to left arm left part of neck and behind two
shoulder blades, restless, hand/leg becomes cool

 Vomiting

 Restlessness

 Breathlessness

 Body cold & sweating

Management:

 Reassurance

 No physical movement

 Shift along with chair or coat in ambulance

 Use an AMBU bag to ease breathing and keep a SORBITRATE under


tablet the tongue

 CPR or Heart Massage only if no pulse and no breathing

Fits / Epilepsy:

Definition: It causes due to hyper irritation in brain.

Causes: Injury to the brain, brain anoxia, brain tumor, hereditary

Symptoms:

 Aura

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 Body becoming rigid, falls down.

 Gets convulsions.

 Clenching of teeth, biting of tongue, eyes roll up, frothing of mouth.

Management

 No CPR or Heart Massage



 The situation is not to be considered serious.

 Support the casualty to avoid injury due to falling on the ground

 Do not try to open mouth or compressed body part

 Provide fresh air

 Just loosen clothes

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 If possible, keep the casualty in the recovery position

Handling & Transportation of Casualty

 In the early stage of any accident, it is important to decide whom to help first and
whether casualty should be treated at the site or to be transported to hospital.

 Great care is required so that the casualty is not disturbed; transport must be safe,
steady and speedy.

 Throughout the transport, the condition of the casualty should be monitored
carefully.

 Various methods such as Cradle, Human crutch, Pick-a-back, Fire man’s lift and
carry, stretcher etc are used to carry the casualty.

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First Aid Mock Drill – State the immediate response for:

1. A 6 year-old girl has fallen into a 3 meter deep naala filled with water.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. A 22 year-old house wife has consumed 2 bottles of pesticide.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. An infant of 2 years has swallowed a 50- paisa coin.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. A 69 year-old lady has developed severe chest pain, sweating and palpitations.

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5. A 45 year-old mechanic gets a particle in his left eye from a grinding machine.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. A 12 year-old boy has fractured his left ankle while playing football.

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7. A 39 year-old woman has set herself on fire.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. A 77 year-old heart patient has become unconscious.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. A 3 year-old boy has put a peanut up his nose.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
rd

first

over hard concrete.

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Triage

First Aid Mock Drill – Immediate response for:

Assume the following scene at the site of a taxi accident at a traffic junction.

The status of the driver, passengers and pedestrians is as follows:

 A 16 year-old college girl has fractured her right leg and is crying with pain.

 A 61 year-old beggar has got a bang on the forehead; is amazed and worried.

 A 44 year-old taxi driver is not injured, but depressed and frightened.He isn’t
answering any questions.
 A 34 year-old porter is lying unconscious without pulse or breath.

 A 9 year-old schoolboy is lying unconscious with pulse and breath.

You are alone at the site with 5 casualties.

No help is expected in next 20 minutes.

Now suggest the first aid procedure:

Which patient should be attended first?

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What is the management?

Why?

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6.5.5. Training Manual for volunteers to implement FDRMP

The following issues should be discussed in a family meeting in order to prepare

the FDRMP. It is important that all members of the family should participate in

this discussion:

Questions to consider:

 Which types of disasters are most likely to happen?



 Where might your different family members be when a disaster occurs?
(Ask them to think of disaster scenario)

 If all family members are not at the same place, how will you locate/meet
each other?

 How will you ensure your children are safe when a disaster occur?

 Who will take care of senior citizens or disabled person in case of
emergency?

 Do you live in areas that are prone to civil unrest or floods?

 Do you live in or very close to a dilapidated building?

 Is there an electric transformer or an overhead live electric wire in close
proximity of your house?

 How old is the electrical wiring of your house?

 Have you replaced your LPG gas rubber tube in last two years?

 Is your workplace in a potentially hazardous area, such as close to industry
or petrol pumps etc?

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 Who will secure your pets and livestock?

 Ensure all family members know how to turn off the utilities: electricity
mains switch, LPG/ piped gas line and water supply.

 Familiarize all the family members with the safe escape routes in case of
emergency. Different escape routes should be mapped out for different
crises. If possible, list optional escape routes from each room.

 Locate the safe places in the house for each type of disaster.

 Make the family members aware about media for information during
emergencies. For example Radio, Television, Mobile etc.

 Ensure that each member has the list of emergency telephone numbers with
him. These must be displayed in the house at a visible prominent place.

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 Teach children how to use the phone, how to make STD/ISD calls. List
numbers of important persons/relatives living in other cities.

 Protect your important documents (such as passports, PAN Cards, ration
cards, proof of residential address, insurance documents, deeds, I card, birth
certificates, degree certificates, driving licenses etc). Keep photocopies of
all the important documents in a sealed packet in your bank locker or at a
relative or friend’s home, away from your home town. You can also protect
documents by scanning and saving them onto a CD or in your email.

 Prepare an ‘Emergency Kit’.

 Ensure that all the family members have adequate life and Mediclaim
insurance and this coverage has been uninterrupted.

 Ensure that properties and other assets are adequately insured against flood,
fire, riots, robbery etc and this coverage have been uninterrupted

Instructions for filling in FDRMP form:

1. Family Data:

For each member, fill in the blood group. Write Yes or No against insurance
details.

2. General Insurance:
Write Yes or No.

3. Family Members at risk (Children under 5 years, senior citizens,


disabled, pregnant women):

Write the name(s) of the family members at risk, their situation, type of
assistance required in an emergency and name of the assigned family member
who will assist them in crisis.

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4. Hazard & Vulnerability and safe places:

This is the most important information for the family to establish during
hazard hunt, taking into account situations where they may or may not be at
home when a disaster strikes.

They should identify appropriate safe meeting places which may be different
in different disasters.

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5. Checklist:

The family must tick each item on the checklist to confirm completion. For
any outstanding items the family should commit the earliest date by which
they are able to comply with that requirement.

6. Emergency Kit:

The items that are needed to make the emergency kit are specified in the
documents. Each family should keep the emergency kit ready.

7. Emergency Contacts:

Local emergency numbers would be provided by trained Incharges /


Volunteers. The family is expected to fill in the remaining details.

Note: The family should contact trained Incharges / Volunteers of the Housing
Societies / Tenant Association / Faith-based Organizations to seek further
guidance.

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Roles and Responsibilities of the family to prepare FDRMP:

 Hold a family meeting to prepare FDRMP



 Ensure that all the family members including children should participate in
the meeting.

 Discuss the need and importance of the FDRMP.

 Read the books on Dos & Don’ts of Disaster and First Aid provided with
the FDRMP document.

 Understand & discuss the dos & don’ts of the disasters, which are prone in
their city/village, with all the family members.

 Read the ‘Guidelines for the family to prepare FDRMP’.

 Prepare a plan and familiarize all the family members.

 Prepare an ‘emergency kit’.

 Update the plan annually.

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Frequently Asked Questions – FAQ

 What is the need for FDRMP? Since nothing has happened so far, do we
need such a plan?

Family is the first responder in the crisis. Too often, we make the mistake of
waiting until a crisis occurs to plan a reaction. It is difficult to predict where
your family members will be and whether they will be safe when a disaster
strikes.


The Family Disaster Risk Management Plan will help families enhance their
level of preparedness and capacity to respond in an emergency. This also
means minimum injuries and reduced damage to property and assets.



For example, during the earthquake in Bhuj, Gujarat in 2001, members of
families were scared and panicked as they were not sure if their family
members were safe? FDRMP aims to helps families plan for such situations.


 Why all members of the family are required to prepare plan?



All members of the family should participate in preparing Plan, so that they
should be familiar with their plan and should know where the plan is kept in
the house and how to use it in crisis.

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Each family member needs to know how to phone for help, escape out of the
house, and seek safe shelter in the house.


Each family member needs to know how to be safe when they are out of the
home (at work, school, and play).


Each family member needs to know how the family plans to reunite if it
becomes impossible to return to the home.

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Children in the family should know how to phone Police, Fire Brigade,
Ambulance, close relative etc for help and what sort of information they will
need to give on phone.

If you have a plan of what you will do during a disaster but you haven't
shared it with your family ahead of time, your plan may not work!

 What is the meaning of Hazard, Vulnerability and Capacity?



A disaster results from the combination of hazards, conditions of
vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential
negative consequences of risk.


Hazard – A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human
activity that may cause loss of life or injury, damage of assets, social and
economical disruption or environmental degradation. For example,
earthquake, flood, fire, civil unrest etc.


Vulnerability – The conditions determined by physical, social and
environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a
community to the impact of hazards; vulnerability can also be defined as a
set of prevailing or consequential conditions which adversely affect people’s
ability to prevent, mitigate, prepare for and respond to hazardous events.


For example, your home, work place, school in a low lying flood prone
areas or in a, accident prone location or in a dilapidated building etc.

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Capacity – A combination of all the strength and resources available within
a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk or the
effects of a disaster. It may also be referred to as capability.


For example, fire extinguisher is installed and family members know how to
use it, life, property, shop and other assets adequately insured and its
premium is paid without break, family members trained in fire safety, first
aid, basic search and rescue techniques etc.

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 How a hazard hunt is carried out? Are the building / society / neighborhood
also covered in a hazard hunt??

Your home should be safe to dwell in. It is possible that ordinary items in
the home can cause injury and damage. A hazard hunt aims to identify the
materials that can turn into life threatening in a disaster.


Some examples are:

- Anything that can move, fall, break or crush to cause injury,

- Your home in a low lying (flood prone) or other hazard prone areas.

- You home in a dilapidated building, proximity to electric


transformer/overhead live electric wire, aged electric wiring etc.
- Children’s school or day care center or work place or other places where
your family spends time is in close proximity to an accident prone or
potentially hazardous area.

This could be done by inspecting each room in your home to identify the
vulnerable area, and areas outside home, building, such as children’s school,

work place etc. All the members of the family should participate in this
search.

Hazard hunt includes the building, society and neighborhood in addition to


your home. It also include all other places; schools, workplace etc. outside
the home where your family members spend considerable amount of time.

 How to find secured places in and around my home?


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Secured places are the safe places in and around your home. For example, in
case of fire, the room other than the room in which the fire burst out is safe
if its door can be latched from inside and it has an emergency exit. In case of
an earthquake, the open ground/garden near your ground floor home. If your
home is on a higher floor, corner of the interior wall, beams, columns,
linters (wooden frame of the door), space below heavy wooden table or
furniture etc are relatively safe places to seek shelter.


Please read the booklets on Dos & Don’ts of Disaster and First Aid provided
to you along with FDRMP document.

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 What is an emergency exit? Why it is required?

An emergency exit is an alternate exit that may be used for
evacuation/rescue.


In a crisis, at times the main exit becomes inaccessible or unsafe for
evacuation. Emergency exit could be routed through a rear door, window,
balcony, terrace, openable window/grill etc.


In a crisis situation, family members can be rescued with the help of rope
ladders, net etc by the search and rescue volunteers or professionals.

 What is an Emergency Kit? What are its contents?



An emergency kit is a Ready-to-go kit that will meet your family’s
immediate needs in crisis, At times a family is left without power, water,
food, or phone connection for days. Moreover they may even have to
evacuate their home. Preparing a Ready-to-go Emergency Kit can help a
family cope better. Most of the items can be stored in a waterproof
plastic/rubber bag placed in an accessible closet in the home. Children can
prepare their own kit in a backpack. It is essential to change the food and
water supply every six months; and medicines before expiry.



Contents:

First aid box: Containing adhesive bandages, roller gauze bandage,
triangular bandages, non-latex gloves, adhesive tape, antibacterial ointment,
scissors, assorted sizes of safety pins, cotton balls, thermometer, Aspirin and

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non-aspirin pain reliever, anti-diarrhea medication, antacid (for stomach
upset), laxative vitamins etc.


Other items: Portable, battery-powered radio and extra batteries, battery
torch and extra batteries, knife, clothes, matches in a waterproof container,
candles and whistle.


Drinking water, dry foods, special foods for infants or persons on special
diets, powdered milk.

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Documents (Birth certificate, marriage certificate, driver’s license, PAN
cards, passports, wills, deeds, inventory of household goods, insurance
papers, immunization records, bank statement and credit card, stocks and
bonds, emergency contact list and phone numbers), cash and jewelry etc.

 How to protect documents?



Usually during major disasters, important documents may be buried, burnt
or washed away. To establish your identity and ownership becomes difficult
without documentary proof. To protect your documents, you can keep
photocopies of all the important documents in a sealed packet in your bank
locker or at a relative/friend’s home away from your home town. You can
also preserve them by scanning and then saving in CD or in your email.

 What are the dos and don’ts of local disasters?



These are the precautionary measures leaned in advance to respond to crisis
situation effectively. This will help to reduce fears and the impact of the
disasters, makes actual disaster situation less stressful and useful in reducing
injuries and protect assets.


It is to prepare and educate all your family members with the dos & don’ts;
before, during and after the disasters that are likely to affect you.


Please read the booklets on Dos & Don’ts of Disaster and First Aid provided
to you along with FDRMP document.

 Where to get emergency contact numbers? Whom to contact if we have


difficulty in preparing the plan?

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The contact details of the local emergency services can be accessed from the
Disaster Management Cell of the local Government / Municipality /
Panchayat.

Following are the important Emergency Contact Numbers:

Police: 100; Fire: 101; Ambulance: 108; State Disaster Management Cell:

1070; District Disaster Management Cell: 1077 and Children Help Line:
1098

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 How to ascertain what types of disasters are most likely to happen?

Family should discuss the disasters that have happened or are likely to
happen in their city/village, and its effects on the family.

City / Village Disaster Management Plan prepared by the local Government
/ Municipality / Panchayat have identified the disasters which are prone in
your city/village. Details can be sought from the competent authority.

 What is safe place for meeting/reuniting family in crisis?



Safe place is a place identified as being safe by the family members to take
shelter, assemble, meet or reunite during evacuation/crises. The pre
identified place should be known to all the family members. It may be
different for different disasters. You should identify three assembly points;
within home, within building/society and outside neighborhood.

 We have Fire Extinguishers in our building/society, how to use it?



It is very easy to use fire extinguishers. The instruction in
English/Hindi/Regional Language for how to use it is mentioned on the fire
extinguisher.

It is advisable that the residents of the building/society should practice to
extinguish fire, before expiry/recharging it.

 What about pets and cattle?



How you protect your pets and cattle will depend on the situation. If
required you should move your cattle to a safer place. You should prepare a
similar plan for them.

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The responding member of the family should be well versed with the plan.
For example, if your cattle are outdoors during an earthquake, they are
relatively safe, whereas during a flood you may choose to untie them and
move them to a safe place.

 Why the FDRMP once prepared is to be updated annually?



FDRMP should be updated annually to incorporate any changes in hazard,
vulnerability, risk group, emergency contact detail; scope for improvement
in checklist, up breast and refresh family members to respond in crisis

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effectively etc. It is done with the participation of all the members of the
family.

 Where to preserve FDRMP document?



It should be preserved with all other important documents. It should be
accessible in emergency to all the family members. All the family members
should have the copy of the information of the Sr. No. 1 to 5 of the
document.

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