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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK

KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

LAB CODE: L4

TITLE: DETERMINATION of DRY DENSITY / MOISTURE CONCEPT –


Proctor Test

10 THEORY

The Proctor test is a test that is used in geotechnical engineering to


find out the maximum density that can be practically achieved for a soil or
similar substance. The Proctor soil compaction test is performed by
measuring the density, or dry unit weight, of the soil being tested at
different moisture content points. The aim of the soil test is usually to
determine the optimum moisture content for the soil.

Soil testing equipment used for the Proctor test usually consists of a
mold of a standard shape and size, and a device, such as a hammer, for
compacting the soil into the mold. When soil testing machines are used,
they must be able to measure how much force is applied to the soil in the
mold. The hammer or other compacting tool is used to compact the soil in
the mold. In this scenario, compacting the soil means increasing its density
by forcing air out of the soil.

By compacting the soil at different moisture contents, an engineer


can determine what is the optimum moisture content and compaction level
of the soil for a specific use in a particular engineering or construction
project. An example of where the Proctor test may be used in a
construction project might be in the selection of which aggregate to use in
the foundation of a building.

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

20 OBJECTIVE

The objective of the test is to determine the relationship between the


moisture content and the dry density of soil.

30 PROCEDURE

1. 4 to 5 kg (nominal mass) of air dry soil is taken, the soil is pulverize


sufficiently to run through the No.4 sieve, and then initial amount of water
is mixed. This water is mixed into the soil carefully.
2. The compaction mould is weighted using calipers to determine its volume.
3. Either the standard or modified compaction method is used as specified by
the instructor, a cylinder of soil in 3 layers is compacted and with 25 blows
per layer.
4. Both the top and the base of the compacted cylinder of soil is carefully
strike off with the steel straightedge.

Note: If the last compacted layer in the mould is not above the collar joint,
do not add soil to make up the deficiency - redo this test point. You can
avoid this unpleasant situation by carefully watching and if, after about 10
blows on the last layer, the soil is below the collar joint, add enough
material to fill above the collar joint and then continue with the remainder
of the blows. On the other hand, you should try not to have more than 6mm
of the soil above the collar joint. If you have much more than this amount
of excess and are not careful, you will remove the last layer of compacted
soil cake when remove the collar. If you do this, redo the test, since you
can never replace the soil cake properly.

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

5. The mould and cylinder of soil are weight and the mass is recorded.
6. The cylinder of soil is extruded from the mould, then is split, and three
water- content samples are taken - one near the top, one on the middle and
the other near the bottom - of as much as the moisture cups will hold (60 to
80 g).
7. Next more water is added on the original sample mass of 3 or 4 kg. Remix
carefully and Steps 3 through 6 until, based on wet masses is repeated.

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

40 RESULT

4.1 Test Method

Mould Type : Proctor

Rammer (kg) : 2.5

Drop of Rammer
: 300
(mm)
No. Layers : 3

NO. Blows of Layer : 25

Test Sample : SINGLE

Mould’s Diameter
: 11
(cm)

Mould’s Height (cm) : 11.5

Mould’s Volume
: 1092.881
(cm3)

Total Mass of Sample


: 5.00
(kg)

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

Table 1: Test Compaction Result

TEST NO. 1 2 3 4 5

Added (ml) 350 350 350 350 350

+ Soil (g) 5892.5 6058.5 6184.5 6250.5 6152.0

(g) 4402 4402 4402 4402 4402

cted Soil (g) 1490.5 1656.5 1782.5 1848.5 1750.0

Volume (cm3) 1092.882 1092.882 1092.882 1092.882 1092.882

ensity, 1.364 1.516 1.631 1.691 1.601


3
m )

nit Weight, γwet 13.377 14.867 15.995 16.584 15.701


)

sity, ρd (Mg/m3) 1.329 1.473 1.579 1.631 1.485

it Weight, γd 13.034 14.446 15.485 15.995 14.563


)

ner No. 1a 1b 1c 2a 2b 2c 3a 3b 3c 4a 4b 4c 5a 5b

oil + Container 83. 102.0 89.5 95.0 76.5 76.5 93.0 92.0 78.5 60.5 113.5 70.5 116.5 139.5
5

il + Container 76. 91.5 80.0 72.5 74.0 70.5 77.5 87.0 64.5 53.5 90.5 61.5 89.5 106.5
0

ner (g) 23. 20.5 28.5 40.0 20.5 27.5 26.5 28.0 18.5 41.5 21.0 23.0 20.0 21.0
0

re Loss (g) 7.5 10.5 9.5 22.5 2.5 6.0 15.5 5.0 14.0 7.0 23.0 9.0 27.0 32.5

il (g) 53. 71.0 51.5 32.5 53.5 43.0 51.0 59.0 46.0 12 69.5 38.5 69.5 85.5
0

URE CONTENT 2.1 3.00 2.71 6.43 0.71 1.71 4.43 1.43 4.00 2.00 6.57 2.57 7.71 9.29
w 4

GE MC (%) , w 2.62 2.95 3.29 3.71 7.81

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

Graph of dry unit weight versus moisture content

The maximum dry density is 15.995 kN/m3 and the optimum moisture content is
3.71%.

3/ Graph Dry Density, pd (Mg/m3) with Different Air Void against Moisture
Content, w (%)

50 CALCULATION

5.1 Calculation for container 1a

i. For Compacted Soil:

Compacted Soil = (Mould + Soil) – Mould

= 5892.5- 4402

= 1490.5g

ii. For Bulk Density, ρ :

Bulk Density, ρ = Compacted SoilMould's


Volume

= 1490.51092.882

= 1.364 g/cm3

iii. For Unit Weight, γ :


wet

Bulk Unit Weight, wet = Bulk Density × 9.807

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

= 1.364 × 9.807

= 13.377 kN/m3

iv. For Dry Density, ρ d:

Dry Density, ρ d = 100100+w×ρw

= 100100+2.62×1.364

= 1.329 kN/m3

v. For Dry Unit Weight, d:

Dry Unit Weight, d = Dry Density × 9.807

= 1.329× 9.807

= 13.034 kN/m3

vi. For Moisture Loss:

Moisture Loss = (Wet Soil + Container) – (Dry Soil + Container)

= 83.5- 76.0

= 7.5 g

vii. For Dry Soil:

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

Dry Soil = (Dry Soil + Container) – Container

= 76.0- 23.0

= 53.0 g

viii. For Moisture Content:

The Moisture Content = Moiture LossDry Soil×100%

= 7.553.0×100%

= 2.14 %

x. For Average Moisture Content:

Average MC = container 1a+Container 1b+Container 1c3

= 2.14+3.00+2.713

= 2.62 %

* Same calculation applied for the other containers.

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

5.2 Calculation (Dry Density at 0%, 5%, 10% air Void);

i) For Dry Density at 0%:

Dry Density,ρ d = 1- Va 1001ρs + w


100ρw

= 1-010012.65+2.62
100×1

= 2.477 Mg/m3

*assume the ρs = 2.65 kg/m3

ii) For Dry Density at 5%:

Dry Density,ρ d = 1- Va 1001ρs + w


100ρw

= 1-
510012.65+2.6210
0×1

= 2.354 Mg/m3

*assume the ρs = 2.65 kg/m3

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

iii) For Dry Density at 10%:

Dry Density,ρ d = 1- Va 1001ρs + w


100ρw

= 1-
1010012.65+2.621
00×1

= 2.230 Mg/m3

*assume the ρs = 2.65 kg/m3

* Same calculation applied for the others.

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

6.0 DISCUSSION

Compaction is the process of increasing the bulk density of a soil or


aggregate by driving out air. For any soil, for a given amount of
compactive effort, the density obtained depends on the moisture content. At
very high moisture contents, the maximum dry density is achieved when
the soil is compacted to nearly saturation, where (almost) all the air is
driven out. At low moisture contents, the soil particles interfere with each
other; addition of some moisture will allow greater bulk densities, with a
peak density where this effect begins to be counteracted by the saturation
of the soil.

In the experiment we found difficulties that cause the experiment to be


conducted more than the given time. First is the equipment error where the
mould we used was not fit and disturbing the compaction. Second, from the
manual lab we were guided to compact three layers but while conducting
the experiment we found that two layer is more suitable.

From the result, in the fifth sample the mass of compacted mould and
mould is lower than the fourth. Then we stopped taking the sixth sample as
we know that at the fifth sample that we get achieving the objective. The
reason why the mass of the fifth sample is lower than the fourth could be
the changing masses of soil to water that fulfil the mould.

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

7.0 CONCLUSION

From the graph that we plotted, we find that the relationship of


moisture content between dry densities is, when the moisture contents at a
lower value the dry density also in a lower value to. This because at the low
value of water content most soil tends to stiff and difficult to compact.
When the moisture content at the optimum (optimum water content), the
maximum value of dry density will obtain. However, the dry density will
decreases with the higher water content because an increasing proportion of
the soil volume being occupied by water.

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

Reference

Craig, K.F (1997). Soil Mechanic (6th ed.). London and New York : Spon Press

Powrie William (1997). Soil Mechanic Concept and Application. London: E & FN
Spon.

Conjecture Corporation (2003 – 2010). What Is the Proctor Test?. Retrieved


August 12, 2010 from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-proctor-test.htm

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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY REPORT 3

Appendix

APPARATUS

Figure 1: Compaction mould with base plate and collar.

Figure 2 : Compaction rammer (24.5 N x 0.305 m drop or 44.5 N x 0.46 m drop)


10 to 12 moisture cans.

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