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Notes on Philosophy and Logic

Chapter 1

Introduction

Philosophy: Meaning and Nature

The important thing to keep in mind, though, is that Greek philosophy from the start was
an intellectual activity. It was not a matter only of seeing or believing, but of thinking, and
philosophy meant thinking about basic questions with an attitude of genuine and free inquiry.
(Stumpf & Fieser, Socrates to Sartre and Beyond, 2008)

The term was coined by Pythagoras, derived from two Greek words ‘’philo’’ and ‘’sophia’’
which literally means love of wisdom.

The concentration of philosophy focuses on two: object and man. As to former, during
pre-Socratic era, and from Socrates to present is all about man, his nature, human knowledge,
values, appreciation to beauty including emotions, his society, state, environment, and other
related issues.

Parts / Branches of Philosophy


The following are branches of philosophy:

1. Theology – is the study of God, regarding proof of His existence.

2. Logic – deals with correct argument or inference. It also discusses incorrect thinking or
relative to fallacious statement.

3. Metaphysics – It deals with the nature and reality of things or the existence of the
material world.

4. Ethics – deals with morality; and principles of human conduct.

5. Aesthetics – deals with appreciation of beauty, art, emotions, and feelings.

6. Epistemology – is the study on the limit of human knowledge.

7. Social Philosophy – is the study of society and community.

8. Political philosophy – is the study of state and government.

Philosophy of Discipline
This refers to the particular area of study. The following are examples of philosophy of
discipline or area:

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1. Philosophy of law
2. Philosophy of psychology
3. Philosophy of mathematics

Philosophy of Subject
This refers to the related issues or topics of discussion. The following examples are:
1. Philosophy of love
2. Philosophy of feminism
3. Philosophy of sport

Chapter 2

The Ideas of the Ancient Greek Philosophers

The beginnings of great era in philosophy accordingly started in Western civilization as


the cradle of such philosophical thoughts during the time of pre-Socratic philosophers. For
which, they conducted search and inquiry about the reality and nature of the world or physical
environment. The following selected philosophers gave their contributions based from their
brilliant perspectives about these objects or things.

Thales
He said, that “all things are full of gods.” Accordingly, this idea does not contain any
theological significance for him. It means the term gods differ from God in form and substance.

Anaximander
According to him, the basic stuff neither water nor any other element as he termed as
indeterminate boundless reality, unlike of his teacher Thales who argued that water was the
primary element on physical reality.

Anaximenes
For him, air as the primary substance. He argued, like our soul, air simply needs for
breathing.

Pythagoras
His idea of form is meant limit, and this limit accordingly relates to figure, and figure to
number. Based on history, the teaching of Pythagoras, literally followed by Plato, especially his
concepts of number and form, and the latter is associated to soul by Plato himself.

Heraclitus
In his attempts to explain change, order and balanced of the world, his suggested
element was fire as the primary substance to represent. For him, Fire and God is one having
same attributes.

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Parmenides
The logic of his theory, starts with his idea that regard to opposites, or for him,
something exist, and something does not exist. As an example, there is a cow, and unicorn on
the other hand, does not exist in reality.

Anaxagoras
According to him, the nature of reality is being understood though its contents, the
presence of mind and matter. The former has influenced the shape and behaviour as well of the
latter, as this matter exists.

Democritus
According to him, “by the senses we know in truth nothing sure, but only something that
changes according to the disposition of the body and of the things that enter into it or resist it.

Chapter 3

The Group of Sophists and the Time of Socrates and His Successors

This era presents the start to concentrate on man’s ethical behaviour rather than the
presence of objects or things. The philosophers in this time addresses the problem of human
knowledge and existence, including the problem of good and evil, and the other questions about
searching for truth in life such as happiness, human experience and other virtues.

Protagoras
His famous statement, he said that “man is the measure of all things.” This means to
say, that subject of emphasis is on the individual, as subject term (man), is responsible for the
achievement of (his) knowledge and its limitation based on his perception and human
capacities.

Gorgias
His argument consists of propositions which states that, “Nothing exists, if anything
exists, it is incomprehensible, and even comprehensible, it cannot be communicated.” This
propositions refer to words which typically as symbols. It concludes that, knowledge can never
be communicated. Certainly, no reliable knowledge or truth according to him.

Socrates
His popular statement, “knowledge is virtue; ignorance is vice”. This logically states the
relation of subject and object are the same; philosophically, knowledge is the opposite of
ignorance. On account of soul, he said, that it was the structure of personality.

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Logically, he introduced that, “terms have definite meanings,” and giving importance of
definitions in which contains a particular and universal conceptions. For an object to be
considered as “beautiful” for instance, does not pertain only to its particular aspect, but also
defines that object into its being “Beauty,” as it is in a universal or general idea.

Plato
His most significant contribution focused on the theory of Forms. The latter (Forms)
refers to changeless, eternal or non-material essence, or a mere perfect copies or pattern of the
things in this world. The form is basically associated to the concept of soul. He agued that, “the
highest degree of reality consists of the Forms, as reflected with shadows and visible objects as
well. In which, the notion of Form for Plato, also linked to his four states of mind: the intelligence
(as the highest), thinking (next to highest), belief (as third), and imagining (as the lowest).

Aristotle
He has separate notions about form and substance as compare to his teacher Plato.
Aristotle emphasized “Theory of Moderation or Golden Mean.” It is not virtue accordingly if it
lacks or have excessive idea or practice of a thing.
He was introduced logic, in the form of syllogism, as the common example “Man is
rational. (major premise) Juan is a man. (minor premise), therefore, Juan is rational.
(conclusion). The given example constitutes a deductive reasoning.
The notion about the importance of knowledge since at the time of Socrates, he adopted
by arguing though modifying partly the idea saying that “metaphysically, all men desire to know.”
Accordingly, for the sake of this knowing or knowledge for something, we have this desire. I
think the question here, is why metaphysical at this instance.

Chapter 4

Classical philosophy After Aristotle

This was the moved of philosophy into a new direction concerning for the more
immediate world of an individual and union with God. The Stoicism and Skepticism
philosophical foundations were introduced. It also shows Epicureanism in relation to the
principle of pleasure, God and death.

Epicureanism as philosophy
For Epicurus, as philosopher, his idea that, “the chief aim of man in his life is pleasure.”
He tried to give another definition of this pleasure into good saying, pleasure as the basis of
conduct.

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On the idea of God and death, Epicurus said, people or men do not have fear from God,
because He does not control man’s destiny or action.
As for death, he said, it does not for a thing to be bothered by man, because only the
living individual person has a sensation either of pain or pleasure, accordingly, after the event of
death, there is no such thing as sensation, since atoms make up of body and mind come apart.
(supra, Socrates to Sartre and Beyond, p. 95).

Stoicism
As a school of thought, Zeno as the founder of this philosophy, sought happiness though
wisdom. With regard to knowledge, it was the start of principle saying mind is blank at birth and
only build up or develop through constant exposure to objects or things. The only problem of the
Stoics bound on the statement that, “a judgment or inference is something true which a product
of the mechanical process of impression,” in which the question of how do we really account for
this general idea.

Skepticism
As skeptic person, the attitude to be certainly associated is of being “doubt.” The old
notion means “seekers” or “inquirers” just like what the well-known philosophers did before.
They conducted an inquiry before making any proposition or theory of the reality of the things or
the world, as in the case of Skeptics who really keep on searching.

This philosophy accordingly is not a denial of the possibility of finding or knowing truth
nor the basic facts of such human experience, rather Sextus says, “to every proposition an
equal proposition is opposed.” Seemingly, it means that an arguments opposed to each other
has a tendency to correct. As Skeptics trying to suspend judgment, or refrain from denying or
affirming anything in reality in order to arrive a conclusion or idea for a better mental state.

There is a need to evident versus non-evident matters. If ask how we know a thing is
true, there is also an answer yet for we do not know that thing. Simply, giving criterion or basis
for the evident and non-evident matter or thing.

Another idea to be insisted by the Skeptics is the necessity of implying the so-called
“probability,” because there is no absolute or certain knowledge. This could refer to the example
of morality which is possible without intellectual certainty, on account of morality to behave
sensibly.

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REFERENCES:

Bauzon, Prisciliano T. (2002). Handbook in Social Philosophy. San Juan, Metro Manila:
National Book Store.

Maboloc, Christopher Ryan B., MA and Edgar B. Pascua II, LLB. (2008) Elements of Logic: An
Integrative Approach. Quezon City: Rex Book Store Printing.

Mendoza, Anna Clarissa D. and Edgar M. Apolinar. (2008). Philosophy of Man: Towards
Perfection. Quezon City: National Book Store.

Stumpf, Samuel E. and James Fieser. (2008). Socrates to Sartre and Beyond: A History of
Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill Education (Asia).
Tubbs, Nigel. (2004). Philosophy’s Higher Education. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic
Publishers.

Zulueta, Francisco M. (2010). Introduction to Philosophy. Mandaluyong City: National


Book Store.

EVALUATION

Attendance 10%
Activity/Assignment 15%
Quiz 20%
Recitation 25%
Major Exams
(Midterm/Final) 30%
____
Total 100%

Prepared by:

EDWARD Y. MANANSALA
Instructor