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Name: _____________________________________________ Level: ________________ Date: ________________

PRESENT PERFECT: This tense is mainly used to talk about an event in the past that has consequences in
the present. In other words, the present perfect expresses a link between the past and the present.
GRAMMAR: SENTENCE STRUCTURE

AUXILIARY: have / has


MAIN VERB IN THE PAST PARTICIPLE FORM: worked / been / visited / bought / tried / gotten / studied / written

INFORMATIVE QUESTIONS (WH-WORDS) CONTRACTIONS


_How long_ _have_ _you_ _lived_ _in Quito_ ?
AFFIRMATIVE
WH-WORD AUXILIARY SUBJECT MAIN VERB COMPLEMENT
HAVE / HAS PAST PARTICIPLE I have = I’ve
AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES You have = You’ve
She has = She’s
_I_ _have_ _lived_ _here since 2014_ . He has = He’s
SUBJECT AUXILIARY MAIN VERB COMPLEMENT
HAS / HAVE PAST PARTICIPLE It has = It’s
NEGATIVE SENTENCES We have = We’ve
You have = You’ve
_I_ _haven’t_ _seen_ _you for two weeks_ . They have = They’ve
SUBJECT AUXILIARY MAIN VERB COMPLEMENT
HASN’T / HAVEN’T PAST PARTICIPLE NEGATIVE
YES/NO QUESTIONS I have not = I haven’t
_Have_ _you_ _visited_ _your friends this year_ ? You have not = You haven’t
AUXILIARY SUBJECT MAIN VERB COMPLEMENT She has not = She hasn’t
HAVE / HAS PAST PARTICIPLE He has not = He hasn’t
SHORT ANSWERS It has not = It hasn’t
_Yes_ , _I_ _have_ . // _No_ , _I_ _haven’t_ . We have not = We haven’t
SUBJECT AUXILIARY SUBJECT AUXILIARY You have not = You haven’t
HAVE / HAS HAVEN’T / HASN’T They have not = They haven’t

PRESENT PERFECT: USES


There are different situations in life when we need to use the Present Perfect. Here are some common cases:
1. SOMETHING THAT STARTED IN THE PAST AND CONTINUES IN THE PRESENT (How long…?) (For/Since)
For a period of time: …for a long time. / …for many years. / …for two days. / …for ages. / …for a while. / … for hours.
Since the moment it started: …since Monday. / …since last week. / …since April. / …since 2012. / …since yesterday.
…since I was a kid. / …since summer. / …since I graduated. / …since two days ago.*
WH-Question: How long have you studied English at CEC?
Answer: I have studied here for ______________. / I have studied here since _______________.
WH-Question: How long have you had the same hairstyle?
Answer: I’ve had the same hairstyle for ____________. / I’ve had the same hairstyle since _____________.
Y/N-Question: Have you lived here long?
Affirmative: Yes, I’ve lived here for ______________. / Yes, I’ve lived here since _______________.
Negative: No, I haven’t. I’ve only lived here for _____________. / I’ve only lived here since _____________.
2. REPEATED ACTIONS IN THE PAST (How many times…?) (Many times/Several times/Once/Twice/Any number)
WH-Question: How many times have you been to the beach this year?
Affirmative: I have been to the beach ________________ this year.
Negative: I haven’t been to the beach this year.
WH-Question: How many girlfriends/boyfriends have you had in your life?
Affirmative: I’ve had _________________________ in my life.
Negative: I haven’t had any.
WH-Question: How many books have you read this year?
Affirmative: I have read __________________ this year.
Negative: I haven’t read any books this year.
Y/N-Question: Have you seen many good movies this month?
Affirmative: Yes, I have. I’ve seen ______________________ this month.
Negative: No, I haven’t seen any good movies this month.
3. RECENT PAST (Lately/Recently)
WH-Question: What have you done recently?
Affirmative: I have recently _____________________________________________________________.
Negative: I haven’t done much recently.
WH-Question: What have you been up to lately?
Affirmative: I have ____________________________________________________________________.
Negative: I haven’t been up to much lately.
Y/N-Question: Have you eaten pizza recently?
Affirmative: Yes, I have.
(When and where?) _______________________________________.
(How often?) ____________________________________________.
(When next?) ____________________________________________.
Negative: No, I haven’t eaten pizza recently.
(Why?) _________________________________________________.
(Last time?) _____________________________________________.
(Would you like?) ________________________________________.
4. EXPECTED TO HAPPEN (Have you … yet?) (Not yet) (Already)
Y/N-Question: Have you finished elementary school / high school / university yet?
Affirmative: Yes, I have. I finished __________________________, but I haven’t finished _______________ yet.
Negative: No, I haven’t finished _________________ yet.
Y/N-Question: Have you gotten a job yet?
Affirmative: Yes, I have. I have already gotten a job. I started working ________________________________.
Negative: No, I haven’t gotten a job yet. (Why?) _______________________________________________.
Y/N-Question: Have you already seen Avengers: Infinity War?
Affirmative: Yes, I have. I have already seen it.
(Where? With whom? When?) I watched the movie ____________________________________.
Negative: No, I haven’t seen it yet.
(Why?) ____________________________________________________________.
(Would you like? When?) ______________________________________________.
5. LIFE EXPERIENCES (Ever/Never)
Y/N-Question: Have you ever traveled abroad?
Affirmative: Yes, I have.
(How many times?) ________________________________________.
(When and where?) ________________________________________.
(When next?) _____________________________________________.
Negative: No, I haven’t. I’ve never traveled abroad. / I haven’t ever traveled abroad.
(Why?) __________________________________________________.
(Would you like?) _________________________________________.
Y/N-Question: Have you ever practiced any extreme sports?
Affirmative: Yes, I have. (What?) I have __________________________________.
(How many times?) ________________________________________.
(When and where?) _______________________________________.
(When next?) ____________________________________________.
Negative: No, I haven’t. I’ve never done it.
(Why?) __________________________________________________.
(Would you like? What?) ___________________________________.
6. VERY RECENT PAST (Just)
Question: When did you do it? Answer: (BrE) I’ve just done it. / (AmE) I just did it.
NOTES
a) Be vs go / in vs to
She’s been to Quicentro Shopping many times this month. ( -visited- She went and came back.)
She’s been in Quicentro Shopping all day. (She’s still there.)
She’s gone to Quicentro Shopping. (She’s still there or on her way there.)
b) There are no rules to conjugate the Past Participle form of irregular verbs. However, there are groups of
verbs that have similar conjugations. Write four examples for each group:

ring-rang-rung hit-hit-hit buy-bought-bought sit-sat-sat


________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
write-wrote-written know-knew-known feed-fed-fed send-sent-sent
________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

c) Present perfect vs Past simple


 Shakespeare has written many books. (NOT CORRECT – Shakespeare can’t write more books because he’s dead.)
 Shakespeare wrote many books when he was alive. (CORRECT – It’s past. It’s over.)
 Paulo Coelho has written many books in his life. (CORRECT – He can still write more books.)
 Paul Walker has played the role of Brian O’Conner six times in The Fast and the Furious movies.
(NOT CORRECT – He can’t participate in movies anymore because he’s dead.)
 Paul Walker played the role of Brian O’Conner six times in The Fast and Furious movies.
(CORRECT – It’s past. It’s over.)
 Johnny Depp has played many unusual roles in his movies. (CORRECT – He can still participate in more movies.)
 I went to Atacames many times when I lived in Ecuador. (I live in a different country, and I won’t return to
Ecuador only to visit Atacames.)
 I’ve been to Atacames a couple of times this year. (I still have the chance to go to Atacames.)
 I lost my keys the other day, and I had to call my parents for help. (It’s past. It’s over.)
 I think I have lost my keys because I can’t find them in my pockets. (Past event with a present consequence.)
 I went to the movies on Sunday. (Specific event in the past. It’s past. It’s over.)
 I have been to the movies many times this month. (Repeated actions in the past. It’s still possible to happen.)
d) Common words that go with the present perfect and the simple past
PRESENT PERFECT PAST SIMPLE
yet, already, recently, lately, for, since, ever, never two days ago, yesterday, last week, in 1999, on Friday
many times, this year, all day, in ages, all my life as a teenager, for one year, when I was a kid, last night

e) Have got / Has got


Don’t confuse these words:
 I have got a new car. = I’ve got a new car. = I have a new car.
(SIMPLE PRESENT: HAVE GOT = HAVE – Verb for possession.)
 She has got black hair. = She’s got black hair. = She has black hair.
(SIMPLE PRESENT: HAS GOT = HAS – Verb for possession.)
 I have recently gotten a new job. = I’ve recently gotten a new job. (PRESENT PERFECT AMERICAN ENGLISH)
 I have recently got a new job. = I’ve recently got a new job. (PRESENT PERFECT – BRITISH ENGLISH)
f) Have never / Haven’t ever
I’ve never visited Guayaquil. = I haven’t ever visited Guayaquil. (CORRECT)
I haven’t never traveled to the coast. (NOT CORRECT – We don’t write double negatives in English)
g) American vs British
Sometimes North American English and British English have some small differences in spelling, pronunciation,
grammar or vocabulary. The past participle form of some irregular/regular verbs is one example:
American: get-got-gotten / learn-learned-learned
British: get-got-got / learn-learnt-learnt
h) Write Present Perfect sentences with the following words.
1. She / already / meet / all her neighbors ____________________________________________________________
2. The postman / not arrive / yet? ____________________________________________________________
3. You / have breakfast / yet? ____________________________________________________________
4. My son / already / go / to bed ____________________________________________________________
5. You / not get bored / in your job / yet? ____________________________________________________________
6. I / not be / in your new house / yet ____________________________________________________________
7. He / just / have / a shower ____________________________________________________________
8. The program / not start / yet ____________________________________________________________
9. We / watch / that film twice / already ____________________________________________________________
10. You / not miss / the bus / yet ____________________________________________, it’s leaving in a minute.

i) Based on the questions below, write ten more questions using the Present Perfect with your classmate.
1. Have you ever eaten something unusual? 17. Have you read any books or newspapers recently?
2. Have you ever run away from home? 18. Have you been to the beach, the Amazon region or the
3. Have you ever been to the countryside? countryside lately?
4. Have you ever climbed a mountain? 19. What have you done recently?
5. Have you ever written a book? 20. What have you been up to lately?
6. Have you ever eaten fast food? 21. Have you ever practiced any extreme sports?
7. Have you ever driven a Lamborghini or any other 22. Have you done anything interesting or unusual lately?
luxury cars? 23. What kind of music have you listen to recently?
8. Have you ever fought a friend? 24. Have you finished your homework yet?
9. Have you ever been to Cuenca? 25. Have you lived here long?
10. Have you ever eaten foreign food? 26. Have you studied any other languages?
11. How many times have you traveled this year? 27. Have you finished school/university yet?
12. How many times have you cleaned your house this 28. How long have you studied English?
month? 29. Have you gotten a job yet?
13. How many times have you done the laundry this 30. What sport have you practices lately?
month? 31. What kind of movies have you seen lately?
14. How many books have you read or bought this year? 32. How long have you worked for the same company?
15. How many times have you seen TV this week? 33. Have you been to the movies recently?
16. Have you practiced any sports recently?

YOUR QUESTIONS:

1) ____________________________________________________________________________________?
2) ____________________________________________________________________________________?
3) ____________________________________________________________________________________?
4) ____________________________________________________________________________________?
5) ____________________________________________________________________________________?
6) ____________________________________________________________________________________?
7) ____________________________________________________________________________________?
8) ____________________________________________________________________________________?
9) ____________________________________________________________________________________?
10) ____________________________________________________________________________________?