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Instrumental settings in Lully’s ballets de cour

Maria Petrescu
Muziek- en Cultuurgeschiedenis 2
March 2014
Achievements over time in architecture, painting, literature , philosophy, music and dance
made from France a place of interest for many artists around Europe.France was for centuries
the center of western culture particularly influential. The arts have been protected since the
Middle Age by the King himself.

Most flourishing period for the arts in general and music and dance in particular was during
the reign of Louis XIV, "le Roi Soleil". But achievements in music and dance during the reign
of Louis XIV were a culmination of a long tradition of patronage of the arts at the France
Royal Court, manifested through a rigorous organization of the musical institutions.

The existence of the Royal Court musical institutions, as they will be inherited by Louis XIV,
are documented as early as the fifteenth century. The known fact is that when François I took
the reign of France there were three important musical ensembles already well organized.

This three musical institutions whose tradition reaches to the time of Louis XIV are the
Musique de la Chambre, Musique de la Grande Écurie and Musique de la Chapelle Royale.
The number of all this Musiciens du Roi, as they were generally called, reached about 150 –
200 persons at the end of Louis XIV reign. These ensembles were able to cover a wide range
of events where music was needed and the ensembles were very often mixed, according with
the requirements of the music. A closer look at the internal structure of this ensembles and the
changes during the time can help us to illustrates the changes in the musical needs and style at
the French court in general.

Regarding the present paper, the groups that interest us most are the Musique de la Chambre
(which included also the Petits Violons du Roi, Lully’s main ensemble used for ballet de
cour) and Musique de la Grande Écurie, which supplied probably the needed wind players for
this big performances.

I. Instrumental ensembles at the French court 17th century

I.1. Music of the Chamber (Musique de la Chambre)

The existence of this ensemble trace back to François I times. This ensemble was designed for
more intimate occasions requiring royal court music (unlike the Grand Écurie which was
designed for festive events, as we shall see). This ensemble is of extented interest for the
present paper, it was used at the Royal Court also for the theater performances. It is necessary
to make a distinction between the use of the term of „chamber music” in that times and
nowdays. In XVIth century „chamber” does not refer to the size of the ensemble (as we will
see, it involved a large number the musician), but it refers mainly to the purpose of the
ensemble, as one available for Court private performances.

Responsible for the Music of the Chamber were the Surintendant de la Musique de la
Chambre, the Maître de Musique de la Chambre and the Compositeur de la Chambre. Each
of this three position were ocupied usually by one or two persons in the same time. There was
made a distinction in the tasks of the Compositeur; the title specify sometimes Compositeur
de la musique instrumentale de la Chambre or Compositeur des entrées des ballets (Anthony,
p. 20). This titles reflects the fact that usually the big musical works were not written by a
single composer. The entire music composed by a single musician – the first such a case is the
masquerade La galanterie du temps (1656), composed by Lully – it seems to have been
something new and unusual.

For the Music of the Chamber were employed soloists, more often from Italy: singers,
lutenists, cornetto players, and later organists, harpsichordists and viol players. Apparentely in
the second half of the XVIth century the violins and viols moved from the Grand Écurie to the
Chamber (Anthony, p.20). The hautboy players were usually in the service of Écurie and
borrowed by the Chambre when needed.

In the Chamber performed the most reknowed musiciens of that time. There are refferences to
very good singers as Delalande’s wife (Anne Rebel) and his two daughters, F. Couperins’s
cousin, Marguerite Louise, as well as very famous instrumentists as Robert de Visée (guitar
and theorbo), Michel de la Barre (flute), Marin Marais and Antoine Forqueray (viol), Jean
Hery D’Anglebert and François Couperin (harpsichord). As one can observe there are no
violin players listed above. This musicians were mostly involved in private concerts, which
accompanied King’s daily life during XVIIth century. The violins were apparentely no longer

appropriate for this small events. It seems that the violins were considered “principally
destined for dances, balls, ballets, masquerades, serenades, morning songs, festivals and all
joyous pastimes” (Anthony, p. 347)

The taste for the dance performances started to develop in France beggining with the end of
XVIth century. In 1581 the first performance of a Balet de cour took place. It involved
musicians from the Chamber. Balet comique de la Royne („Balet comique de la Reine” in
later refferences) was performed at the Petit Bourbon Palace in Paris. It seems that part of the
musicians were italian violonists brought to the court of Catherine de Médici by Maréchal de
Brissac. The performance was choreographed by Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx, which reffers to
this event as an „invention moderne”. Indeed, Balet comique de la Reine was the first and a
very important attempt of the France to unify poetry, dance, music and décor in one big

Important changes take place in the structure of this ensemble short after the performance of
Ballet de la Reine. The Italian musicians commissioned for this ballet returned home and
French performers took their place, forming one of the most reknown ensemble of the XVIIth
century in France: Les Vingt-quatre Violons du Roi. The ensemble gained this title in 1626,
during the reign of Louis XIII, but the existence of 22 Violons ordinaires de la Chambre du
Roi is documented back to 1609.

I.1.a. Les Vingt-quatre Violins du Roi (Les Vingt-quatre or the Grande Bande)

As James Anthony notes, Les Vingt-quatre was the first established ensemble based on a core
of bow-string instruments. The distribution of the parts was the (already) typical French one.
It is described in 1636 by Mersenne in Harmonie Universelle as a 5 parts ensemble divided as

- six dessus (first violins)

- four haute-contre

- four taille

- four quinte

- six basses (basse de violon, similar to the violoncello but tuned a whole tone lower; no
double-bass, which will much later, during Rameau time).

The three middle parts was played by three different-size instruments, tuned in the same way
(instruments à l’unisson, as described by Mersenne) The effect of different sizes was probably
related to the colour of the sound or / and the volume of the sound (Harris-Warrick 1993, p.

Les Vingt-quatre accompagnied all the festivities and official events at the Versailles Court.
Among others, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Féry Rebel, François Rebel and Jacques Aubert, also
performed in this ensemble.

The ensemble was disbanded in 1761, due to financial problems, and some of the musicians
occupied position in the Chapelle Royale.

I.1.b. Les Petits Violons (the Petite Bande)

The group was also known as the Petits Violons and it was created around 1648 for the young
King, perhaps as kind of a toy (Zaslaw: 2004). However, they are not mentioned in official
documents untill 1660s.

Under the guiddance of Lully the Petits Violons gained importance and distinct attributions.
Apparentely, the band consisted from fewer musicians than the Grande Bande. It is very
probably that the instruments were divided acording with the 5-parts musical writing, but it is
not very clear is the proportion between the instruments were the same with the Vingt-quatre.
It is very probably that in Lully’s orchestras about thirteen violins played the upper part (with
the possibility of doubling by ten oboes from the Écurie) (Haynes 2001, p. 61). Compared
with the Vingt-quatre, the Petits Violons seems to be more close to the italian view of the
ensemble, with more violons then violas and basses. In 1692 there are mentioned in the
ensemble also two “dessus de cromorne” (probably a type of oboe, not the old-fashiones
cromorne) and two bassons. This double-reed instruments joined the ensemble as early as
1654 for the opera and ballet performances (Marx, p. 10). The ensemble was disbanded in
1715, at Louis XIV’s death.

I.2. Music de la Grande Écurie (Music of the Great Stable)

Grande Écurie was designed to serve for solemn events, and very often implied out-door
ceremonies, like parades and carrousels (equestrian ballets organizes at court). From 1540
the institution of the Écurie were, acording to James Anthony:

- saqueboutes et joueurs d’instruments (the “instrumentists” were probably wind players, oboes
and cornetts)

- fiffres et tabourins

- trompettes

During Louis XIV there were five administrative units in the Écurie:

- the Trompettes (12 players),

- the Violons, Hautbois, Saqueboutes et Cornets (12 players, consisting mainly from double-
reed instruments, also reffered as Douze Grands Hautbois)

- the Hautbois et Musettes de Poitou (6 players)

- the Fifres et Tambours (8 players)

- the Cromornes et Trompettes Marines (6 players).

The dates are taken from État des officiers de la Maison du Roi from 1689 (Anthony, p. 23).

Certain fact is that from mid-seventeen to the late XVIIIth century there were 35 positions for
woodwind players in the Écurie.

Otherwise there is enough documentation regarding the number of the players (and very often
their names) emploied in the Écurie, it cannot be precisely determined what instruments the
musicians actually played. The reasons for this confusion are the fact that the players used to
be able to perform on many instruments, and the titles were very often fictive. Also, the use of
the charges (title or position in the ensemble) inheritated within the family or bought for an
amount of money increases this confusion. Specially after Louis XIV’s death, the titles were
not always related to the function. For example, in 1733 Antoine Forqueray (gamba player)
takes the place of Jean Louis de Bury as a „singer” in the Chamber, and Bury (harpsichordist)
takes Forqueray’s place as „flutist” (Haynes 2001, p. 51).

Among this ensembles described below, the one who is more related to our subject and we
will reffer again further is the Violons, Hautbois, Saqueboutes et Cornets or Douze Grands
Hautbois. It is very probably that in Louis XIV’s time it was a double-reed ensemble, as a
documents from 1727 stated (Haynes 2001, p. 52) and as we can imagine from the Tableau of
Nicolas Henri Tardieu ilustrating the Louis XV’s coronation. The music for this oboe bands

was scored for 4-part ensembles, and apparentely the division of the parts included six treble
oboes and two each of the other three parts (haut-contre, taille, basses). (Haynes 2001, p. 61)

I.3. Musique de la Chapelle Royale (Music of the Royal Chapel)

Since 1515 when François I begins his reign until Louis XIV the Royal Chapel seems to not
suffer major changes. The main responsabilities of the ensemble were to accompany the
religious events.

Around 1645 the Chapel included „two sous-maîtres, six boy sopranos, a first cornettist,
anouther cornettist, two falsettist, eight basses, eight tenors, eight hautes-contres, eight
chaplains, four chapel clerks and two grammar instructors for the children” (Anthony p. 24).

The responsabilities for the music were carried by the sous-maître, who also could be the
Compositeur de la Chapelle, and by Maître de la Chapelle.

Instrumentalists (symphonists or concertants) were part of the Chapel in late 1660’s

(Anthony, p. 25). In 1687 the King organized a competition in order to employ four organists
for the Chapel.

II. Le ballet de cour during Louis XIV

II.1. Jean Baptiste Lully

Louis XIV, Le Roi Soleil, distinguished himself as a proeminent figure in the arising of the
culture and arts during XVIIth century. Coronated in 1643, at the age of 12, Louis XIV could
take the power of the reign only in 1661. After the dead of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, Louis
decided to declare himself his own prime-minister. He appointed Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the
former manager of Mazarin’s affairs, as Minister of Finances. Beside his economical reforms,
Colbert takes the responsibility of establishing five more Academies for arts and sciences.
Beside Académie Française (created by Cardinal Richelieu in 1635) and Académie Royale de
Peinture et de Sculpture (1648), Colbert etablished Académie Royale de Danse (1661),
Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (1663), Académie des Sciences (1666), Académie
d’Opéra (1669) and Académie Royale d’Architecture (1671).

In this enviroment of cultural arising the young italian Giovanni Battista Lulli found a good
place to highlight his talents. He stands out at Louis XIV’s court as a good dancer, violin
player and composer. He embraces the French culture as Jean Baptise Lully (his
naturatization will take place only in 1661, after Mazarin’s death), and he build a carreer as a
very influential French court composer.

Ballet de cour was an important genre at the French court. The 13-years-old King, Louis XIV,
makes his debut as a dancer in 1651 in Ballet de Cassandre. We cannot say if Lully was able
or not to see King’s first performance, since in the same year he just entered in the service at
the court. Certain is that only two years later, in 1653, due to his remarcable performance in
Ballet royale de la nuit, Lully was appointed by Louis XIV as compositeur de la musique

Shortly after this, Jean Baptiste Lully became also the leader of the Petits Violons. He made
the debut of this ensemble under his leading in 1656 with the masquerade La galanterie du
temps, the first work for which he wrote all the music himself. He gained the hight King’s
appreciation as a good composer of the ballets, opera and comédies-ballets, a genre invented
in collaboration with Molière. Due to this special state that he had at the Royal Court, Lully
might had the possibility to use all the available court musicians. That the ensembles used for
this performances were impressive in size, we mainly can find out from Jean Loret, a French
writer and poet. He witnessed many of Louis XIV court events that he describes in form of
letters, published between 1650 – 1655 as La Muse historique.

Regarding the structure, the typical components of ballet de cour were récits (to be
understood as “that which is sung by only one voice”, usually placed at the beginning of each
section of the ballet, as a commentary of the action), vers (the rymed verses of the libretto),
entrées (group of dances unified by subject) and a concluding grand ballet (Grove, §Ballet de

II.2 Les Ballets and assessments about instrumentation

French XVIIth century scores barely provide guidance on the instrumentation used in the
performances. It cannot be said if the instrumentation was something established by the
composer during the rehearsals, or it may be a subject of change during reharsals or from one
performance to another. The French baroque music approach of the instrumentation is more
an issue of colour than a standardized receipe. The french concept en symphonie, as described
by Diderot in his Encyclopédie, illustrates this point of view: this is „all instrumental music,
whether it be compositions destined only for instruments, like sonatas and concertos, or
whether it be works where instruments are found mixed with voices, as in operas” (Anthony,
p. 362). A large number of works are entitled symphonies: Livre de symphonies contenant six
suittes en trio by Louis Antoine Dornel, Sonades et suites de simphonies en trio, but François
Couperin, Concert de symphonies by Michel Corrette. If this works were intended to be
performed either by one instrument per part, either by doubling the parts with different type of
instruments (violin with oboe or flute) – this cannot be known for sure. There are sometimes
few indications regarding the way of performance in the forward of the publication (Couperin,
Concerts Royaux) or inside the piece (Dornel, Livre de symphonies, there are hautbois
indicated in some ritornelli – we could assume that tutti were performed with the parts

Mersenne provides some interesting informations regarding some (not so well known
nowdays) instrumental ensembles in use in France at about 1636: “six lutes, or as many as
one wishes”, “concert of Viols”, “concert of Violins similar to the 24 of the King”. (Anthony,
p. 346). The fact is that there were exactly six theorba players listed in the livret for Ballet de
la Galanterie du Temps performance (1656), among other musicians, as flutists and

In the case of Lully’s ballets it is impossible to know exactly what instrumentations was used.
There could be found sometimes informations about the numbers of musicians involved in the
performances, their names and roughly the instruments they probably played. This is still
ambigous, because very often the musicians were able to play at a good level more than one

Only in late of his ballets, as Le Triomphe d’Amour (1681) and Le Temple de la Paix (1685)
there are some clear indications regarding the instrumentation. This informations could be use
as a refference point for further assumptions regarding his earlier works.

Most of his scores are in the 5-part writing which was specific for 5-part string ensembles as
Vingt-quatre or Petits Violons. This kind of scoring, broadly associated nowdays with Lully
style, was in use at French court at since Ballet de la Rein was performed. It is Lully’s merit
to introduce this 5-part ensemble in the lyric theatre. Some dances or ritornelli are scored in
four- of three-parts. The orchestral ensemble (grand choeur) was placed in the front of the
stage, and the top part could be doubled by flutes and oboes in the top part and bassoons in
the bass part. The continuo group (petit choeur) – which accompagned the récits - was formed
by lutes, theorbas, bass viols and harpsichords. Some fine details about this group one can
found in Le Bourgeois gentilhomme¸ act II, 1st scene. In the dialogue between the Music
Master and Monsieur Jourdain, regarding some private concerts he should organize at his
place, the first one recommends “’a bass viol, a theorbo and a hapsichord for the basse-
continue, with 2 violins to play the ritournelles”. (Anthony, p. 348).

If the récits were accompanied by the continuo group, for the ritournelles, regarded more
likely chamber music, and for the big movement of the ballet the scoring is difficult to be

As Jean Loret states, in Ballet de la Galanterie du Temps (1656)¸ commissioned by Cardinal

Mazarin, were included italian arias and dances and it was performed by "a symphony of
more than 25 instruments". This description fits with that of Les Petits Violons, ensemble who
had his debut in this performance. But, according to Loret, Ballet de l'Amour Malade (1657)
was performed by "more than 60 instruments with the rare and beautiful voices of three men
and three women”. Loret’s testimony about Balet d’Alcidiane (1658) says that was performed
by “more than 80 instruments including 36 violins, flutes, viols, harpsichords, guitars, lutes
and theorbos” (Anthony, p. 55).

This large groups of instrumentists was probably formed mainly by strings and continuo
players, but it should consist also from a certain number of wind players.

If we are quite well informed about the number of the strings per part, or at least the balance
between the strings (if we assume that Mersenne description from 1636 was still in use in
Lully’s time), there is a great lack of information regarding the use of the plucked string
instruments and the wind players. We stated before that the winds were used to double the
discant part; but their number is difficult to say and this could influence dramatically the
entire balance of the orchestra.

II.3. The use of the wind players in ballets

As Bruce Haynes observes, „since the word 'hautbois' is used in French for both the shawm
and oboe, the terminology provides no clue as to what instrument (or instruments) Lully
actually knew and used” (Haynes 1988, p. 326). Analyzing the tehnical posibilities of a proto-
morphic oboe, as far as one can observe from period iconography depicting the reed
instruments in use in Lully’s time, Bruce Haynes concludes that „the differences between the
swam and the oboe in Lully’s time are not clearly definable”. It is impossible to aproximate if
they were likly the instruments discribed by Mersenne in 1636 as having „the strongest and
most violent tone of all instruments with the expection of the trumpet” (Anthony, p. 127) or
were more close to the description made by Michel de Pure in 1668: „Les hautbois ont un
chant élevé et de la manière dont on en joue maintenant chez le roi et à Paris, il y aurait peu
de choses à en désirer. Ils font des cadences aussi justes, des tremblements aussi doux, des
diminutions aussi régulières que les voix les plus instruites et les instruments les plus parfaits”
(quoted by Haynes 1988, p. 324).

The issue of the use of the winds in ballets should be considered in two ways. First, the use of
flutes (recorders), transverse flutes (flûtes d’Allemagne) and oboes (accepting the
ambigousity of the technical development aforementioned) in the tutti parts, as doubling the
violins. Second, the use of this instruments in soli parts, ritournelles and trios.

In nowdays performances, it is generally accepted that all the winds doubled the dessus part.
This could arise questions regarding the balance between strings and wind group. The double
reed ensemble available in Grand Écurie, the Violons, Hautbois, Saqueboutes et Cornets (Les
Douze Grands Hautbois) included, as we already mentioned, ten oboe players and two
bassons (divided in four sections). If all the oboes would double the treble line, at an average

number of thirteen violins playing the upper part, Haynes appreciates that „the ballance
between winds and strings could be very much in favour of the winds” (Haynes 2001, p. 61).
That is a reason for Haynes to suggests that it is very likely that the oboes could double also
the middle parts (haut-contre and taille).

I think this assumption may be reinforced by a very insteresting instrumentation specified in

Le Triomphe d’Amour (1681). „Prélude pour l’Amour” from this ballet is a 4-parts score with
the following indication: transverse flute (flûtes d’Allemagne), tenor recorders (quinte de
flûtes), bass recorders (petite basse de flûtes) and great bass recorders (grande basse de flûte)
(Anthony, p. 126).

Regarding the use of the flutes and oboes in the ritournelles and trios, so as so-called solli
instruments, there are some hints we can follow.

Going back to earlier works, it is recorded that Jean I Hotteterre (the father of the famous
branch of family of flute manufactures and players) had played in Lully’s L’Amour malade
(1657) and Alcidiane (1658), as well as in Les Nopces de Village (1663) toghether with two of
his sons. (Marx, p. 12). Since the Hotteterre’s made also bagpipes, recorders and oboes (and
he was also able to perform on it) it cannot be said what instrument he played in this ballets.
Two of his sons (maybe the same ones) were employed later by Grande Écurie¸ so it might be
assumed that they were also good performers on the oboe.

The last part of L’Amour malade is called Un Concert champestres de L’espoux, which in
this context means a wind band (Harris-Warrick 1990, p. 356). It is in fact a suite of dances in
5 parts setting, with ritornelli in 4 parts setting. It is clear that the 5 part writing fits to the 5
part strings ensemble (with the top voice doubled or not by winds). The 4 part writing could
be typical for the Grand Hautbois, which was divided in dessus de hautbois, haute-contre de
hautbois, taille de hautbois and basse de hautbois. This correspond to the string parts (except
the quinte de violon, for which is not correspondance in the oboe band) (Harris-Warrick 1990,

One can find the same kind of writing in Les Nopces de Village. The rustic plot and the
abundance of trios and 4 parts entrées make this ballet suitable for the use of the oboes. The
documents point out eight wind performers in this ballet, and five of eight were members of
Hautbois et musettes de Poitou.

The first „official” mention of the oboes in a Lully score is in the ballet Les Plaisirs de L’îsle
Enchantée (1664), which contains a Marche de Hautbois pour le Dieu Pan et sa Suite written

in 5 parts. Otherwise it is not different in terms of key, rythms or register from the next
Rondeau pour les Violons et flutes.

Le Triomphe d’Amour (1681) is one of the most interesting scores regarding the indications
for instruments. Beside the „flute quartet” mentioned above, there are a Ritournelle pour les
hautbois, and an Entrée de Pan, D’Arcas et de Silvains, also for oboes, and again in a rustic /
bucolic context.

Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (1670), comédie-ballet, ends with a ballet de nations in which two
man from Poitou, dressed in traditional costumes, play a menuet pour les hautbois de poitou
(windcap shawm first mentioned by Mersenne in 1635) (Haynes 1988, p. 333). Among the
players ar e mentioned Hotteterre and Philidor, both players of musettes, hautbois de
poitou, and other wind instruments. (Marx, p. 15).

On shortly, in the performance practice, in order to decide the instrumentation for Lully’s
ballets, one have several tools at his dispossal:

- the large variety of instruments available at the French court in XVIIth century;

- the instrument’s caracteristics of construction and use (for pastoral scenes, for outdoor
events, for dances etc.);

- related to the one mentioned above: the character of the music;

- the changes during a short amount of time (few decades) in the construction of the
instruments and their technical capabilities (specially refering to the oboes);

- the name of the players and the ensemble in which there were employed; the
difficulties arise in the fact that most wind players were able to play on almost any
wind instrument;

- the texture (3, 4 or 5 parts texture);

- the general balance within the string body and the winds;

- the exact indication in the score (which may apply for other similar situations).

There is probably no right answer for the questions which may arise during this process. After
all, the final decision can only proof the so much disputated XVIIth century bon goût of the

Synopsis of the elements regarding the instrumentation discussed above
Ballet Year Scoring Informations about Informations about Conclusions
instrumentation performers
Ballet de la 1656 Unknown (lost) - "a symphony of more than 25 In this ballet Lully
Galanterie du Temps instruments" (Loret) and Les Petits Violons
- Flutes, violins make their debut
- 6 theorba players

Ballet de l'Amour 1657 - 5 parts texture - "more than 60 instruments with Jean I Hotteterre and Very probably the 4
Malade - 4 parts texture the rare and beautiful voices of two of his sons parts texture fits with
in some three men and three women”. the distribution of the
ritornelli (Loret) oboe band
- Un Concert champestres de
L’espoux (wind band, maybe oboe Also, could be used
band in 4-parts texture) for the pastoral

Balet d’Alcidiane 1658 - “more than 80 instruments Jean I Hotteterre and The Hotteterre’s
including 36 violins, flutes, viols, two of his sons could play flute, oboe
harpsichords, guitars, lutes and or maybe also musette
theorbos” (Loret)

Les Nopces de Village 1663 - Trios - Eight wind players - Jean I Hotteterre
- 5 parts texture - Very likely oboes in trios and two of his
- 4 parts texture sons
- 5 of 8 wind
performers were
members of
Hautbois et
musettes de

Les Plaisirs de L’îsle 1664 - 5 parts - Probably oboes in Marche de First mention in the
Enchantée scoring Hautbois pour le Dieu Pan et sa score of the term
Suite hautbois

- Rondeau pour les Violons et


Le Triomphe d’Amour 1681 5 parts scoring - transverse flute (flûtes

d’Allemagne), tenor recorders
4 parts-scoring (quinte de flûtes), bass recorders
for „Prélude pour (petite basse de flûtes) and great
l’Amour” bass recorders (grande basse de
flûte) in „Prélude pour l’Amour”
3 parts scoring
- Ritournelle pour les hautbois
- Probably oboes in Entrée de Pan,
D’Arcas et de Silvains
Le Bourgeois 1670 - menuet pour les hautbois de Hotteterre and The menuet was
Gentilhomme poitou Philidor performed on the
(comédie-ballet) stage, by men dressed
in traditional
costumes of Poitou


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Company, 1978;

Haynes, Bruce, 2001, The Eloquent Oboe: a History of the Hautboy 1640 – 1760. Oxford
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Haynes, Bruce, 1988 „Lully and the Rise of the Oboe as seen in Works of Art”, Early Music,
vol. 16, no. 3, aug., pp. 324 – 338;

Spitzer, John and Zaslaw, Neal The Birth of the Orchestra, Oxford University Press 2004;

The Cambridge companion to the Orchestra, ed by Colin Lawson Cambridge University

Press 2003

Duron, Jean, „L’orchestre a cordes francais avant 1715, nouveaux problemes: les quintes de
violon”, in Revue de Musicologie, T. 70, No. 2 (1984), pp. 260-269;

Ecorcheville, J., „Quelques Documents sur la Musique de la Grande Ecurie du Roi”,

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