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組別:英文組

類別:論文類

The New Architectural Concept:

The Green Buildings


Abstract

When it comes to the term “Green Buildings,” we may just define it as a special
kind of building without knowing the details and background behind it. Actually,
Green Buildings consist of many different kinds of material and equipment. Their
appearances also differ from other normal buildings. Therefore, we felt like learning
more about the concept and practice of Green Buildings in our lives. We chose a local
high school to carry out the survey, and we went to a university with Green Buildings
on campus to search for related information. We found that there are nine indexes to
check whether a building is a Green Building or not. They are “green index,” “daily
energy-saving index,” “water resources index,” “biodiversity index,” “carbon dioxide
reduction index,” “waste reduction index,” “base water index,” “sewage and trash
improvement index,” and “interior index.” Then, we selected the most important
indexes to explore, including “green index,” “daily energy-saving index,” and “water
resources index.” Moreover, we found that there are several kinds of material
adopted to build Green Buildings. We will introduce what the Green Buildings are,
too. Via this study, we hope to let other people understand what Green Buildings are,
and why the government spares no effort to advocate using Green Buildings
nowadays. With the concept of Green Buildings successfully promoted and accepted,
our environment would hopefully get even better.

Keywords: Green Buildings, Green index, Daily energy-saving index, Water


resources index, Green Building material

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Table of Contents
Abstract......................................................................................................................... i
Table of Contents......................................................................................................... ii
I. Introduction ..............................................................................................................1
1.1. Motivation of the study.....................................................................................1
1.2. Background of the study ..................................................................................1
1.3. Purpose of the study..........................................................................................1
1.4 Research questions.............................................................................................1
II. Methods....................................................................................................................2
III.Discussion................................................................................................................2
3. 1. Nine defining indexes of Green Buildings....................................................3
3. 2. The top three significant indexes of Green Buildings.................................4
3. 3. Green Building material................................................................................5
3. 4. Other green environmental protection products.........................................8
3. 5. An example of a Green Building in a high school in Taiwan…................10
IV. Conclusion.............................................................................................................12
V. References...............................................................................................................13

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I. Introduction

1.1 Motivation of the study

Nowadays, human beings pay great attention to environmental protection,


thus develop a new trend — the Green Buildings. It’s not about the color green, but
has something to do with a new architectural concept. A new educational building has
just been built in a local high school. Its construction is based on the concept of Green
Buildings. Therefore, we started to have an interest in it, intending to understand the
concept of Green Buildings and their actual application in the campus. And we also
like to know the reason why Green Buildings can help people to save the earth.

1.2 Background of the study

Sustainable building is an important architectural concept in the 21st century. The


key emphasis on the design of the building lies in recycled material, energy-saving,
and nature conservation. It is not only beneficial to human health but also protective
for the earth, fulfilling the responsibility of sustainable development. This trend
emerged in Europe, and then spread to Japan and America. Thanks to the lead of
certain advanced countries, it has become the mainstream of the architecture in the
21st century. As for Taiwan, the Green Buildings Movement is innovated and
promoted by the government administrative system. National Council for Sustainable
Development of Executive Yuan was established in 1996. It lists Green Buildings into
their top priorities of urban sustainable development policies.

1.3 Purpose of the study

Have you ever seen or heard of Green Buildings? Green Buildings aim to improve
the environment, but few people really understand them. In order to obtain clear
explanation for these questions, we intend to learn thoroughly about Green Buildings.
We would also like to know why Green Buildings become so famous. For those
reasons, we conduct this study to search for the answers.

1.4 Research questions

We conducted this research in order to figure out the following questions.


1. What kinds of eco-friendly design in architectures make them Green Buildings?

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2. What kind of material is regarded as the Green Buildings material?
3. What influence do Green Buildings have on the environment?

II. Methods
Since we aim to know why Green Buildings can improve the environment and
what influence they have on the environment, we set out to study what the Green
Buildings are by surfing the Internet, by seeking related articles and books in the
library, and by searching for further information in a local university. We then
analyzed the information, and had numerous discussions. Finally, we reached the
conclusions. Our flow chart is listed below.

Discuss the theme Choose the topic

Go to a local
university to search
Literature review
for the information

Analyze the information

Discuss the results with teammates

Make a conclusion

III. Discussion

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During the survey, we noted that there are nine indexes of defining Green
Buildings.

3.1 Nine defining indexes of Green Buildings

3.1.1 Green index: It includes ecology-greening, wall-greening, wall-greening


watering, artificial structure greening technique, water-draining greening
technique and windproof greening technique.

3.1.2 Daily energy-saving index: It includes building constructions with


energy-effeciency, proper rate of window-opening, a sun shading board,
glass openings, heat insulation, air density, building structure, material,
roof structure and a curtain of wall.

3.1.3 Water resources index: It includes the machine of water saving, the plan of
water use, rainwater reuse and primary water source.

3.1.4 Biodiversity index: It includes the community green-net system,


earth-saving system, ecology lakes, ecology waters, ecology side slope,
ecology palisade design and porous environment.

3.1.5 Carbon dioxide reduction index: It includes simple construction modeling,


indoor decoration, reasonable structure system, reduced weight of structure
and the usage of the wood material.

3.1.6 Waste reduction index: It includes good use of the reused building material,
soil balance, dry partitions, bathrooms and the reduction of air pollution.

3.1.7 Base water index: It includes permeable floor, scene-staying permeable


lakes, permeable-staying lot, permeable well, permeable cube and artificial
structure staying.

3.1.8 Sewage and trash improvement index: It includes rainwater and sewage
diversion, improvement on waste collection field, wetlands, wastewater
treatment and kitchen waste compost.

3.1.9 Interior index: It includes indoor pollution control, indoor air purification
equipment, green paint and Green Building material.

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3.2 The top three significant indexes of Green Buildings

Among the nine indexes mentioned above, three of them are most frequently
discussed and accessed.

3.2.1 Green index

The term “Greening” refers to gardening. The purpose of “Greening” is to


improve the phenomenon of cement-filling, and change it into an environment which
relaxes people. “Greening” could be conducted at the roof, on the streets, on the
slopes or on the ground. The benefits of “Greening” include: improving the
appearance of the city, offering a space of resting, reducing the urban heat island
effect, improving the quality of air, blocking some graceless scenery as well as messy
or destroyed environment, reducing noises, reducing the influence of dazzling
sunshine, resisting desertification and reducing the death rate between poverty gaps.

3.2.2 Daily energy-saving index

Daily energy-saving index is accessed mainly by air conditioner and lighting


power consumption. At the same time, it is defined as a combined power consumption
of air conditioner system and lighting system. Air conditioning and lighting electricity
occupy a large part of daily energy consumption. Thus, the most effective way to cut
through the issue of energy efficiency in a building is from the perspectives of air
conditioning and lighting.
Daily energy-saving index focuses on the design of energy-saving device for the
maximum consumption of air-conditioning and lighting electricity. In addition, the
emphasis of evaluation is placed on three dimensions: the building shell, the air
conditioning efficiency, and the lighting efficiency. The emphasis on design of air
conditioner is placed on that the architectural space should be compartmented by its
using time. An appropriate conditioner system should be made according to the
predicted value of actual heat load. A highly efficient heat source machine should be
adopted. Meanwhile, the emphasis on lighting energy-saving includes: using bright
design at indoor walls and ceilings, using high efficiency lights, using natural lighting
design, and using automatic daylight-saving lighting control systems.

3.2.3 Water resources index

Water resources index is the actual water consumption of a building and the

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general average water consumption rate. Assessment of water consumption includes
water-using rates in kitchens, bathrooms, and faucets. In the past, the design of
water-use in architectures was improper, plus people had poor water-using habits,
both of which led to the over-consumption of water resources. Water resources index
is meant to make use of rain water actively and look for the methods of reusing
domestic water. In addition, it aims to actively apply to building designs in order to
conserve water resources.
In Green Building design, the use of water-saving applications includes:
water-saving faucets, two-stage toilets, water-saving shower devices, and automatic
flushing systems. There are quite a few water-saving tips that are worth noticing, such
as storing water in a container to wash dishes, installing water in the bucket, washing
the car with rags, doing laundry with water-saving machines, taking showers instead
of baths, using water-saving faucets and using water-saving toilets.
In addition, rain water storage system is the way to use a simple purification
process and to recycle water for domestic water. As for rainwater, there are some
useful devices. For example, rainwater collectors make use of the holes on the roof
and the floor to collect rainwater. Rainwater can be used for toilet flush, irrigation,
pasturage, plants watering and for the water of landscape pond. Last but not least, the
water left after baths can be reused to flush the toilets, water flowers and trees, serve
as the water for the fire engines, and as the water of landscape pond.

3.3 Green Building material

Aside from the defining indexes, we also learn about the significance of Green
Building material during the survey.

3.3.1 The definition of Green Building material

Green Building material is a kind of building material which would not cause
damage to human body. In other words, Green Building material is low-pollution,
low-stench building material. The poison in the building material would spread
through interior decoration and attach to the indoor environment. To those who stay
indoors for a long time, due to long exposure to this kind of toxic environment, there
is an extremely negative impact on human body. To identify the beneficial building
material that protects people from poison and danger, assessment of building material
is mostly based on indoor construction material and decoration material. Those
building material which is qualified for the evaluating standard would be given the
marker called “Green Building Material.”

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In sum, Green Building material improves the wholesome of living environment
and the quality of indoor environment, and has multi-function value.

3.3.2 The features of Green Building material

The internationally recognized features of Green Building material can be


summarized as reuse, reduction, and low-emission.

3.3.3 The advantages of Green Building material

There are three major advantages of Green Building material. First, it reduces
the ecological load and energy consumption of the chemical synthesis material.
Second, it reduces the production of energy and resource consumption by recycling.
Third, using natural material and low volatile organic building material may reduce
the danger of synthesis material.

3.3.4 The necessity of Green Building material

The interior decoration material and floor surface material should be Green
Building material. According to Wikipedia, we know the rule that the percentage of
Green Building material should take up at least 30 percent of the total interior
decoration material plus floor surface material. Therefore, the use of Green Building
material is by all means necessary to Green Buildings.

3.3.5 The four categories of Green Building material

Green Building material is divided into four types: the ecological building
material, the healthy building material, the high-performance building material, and
the recycling building material.

3.3.5.1 The ecological Green Building material

In comparison with other building material, the Green Building material is the
least processed, thus the most natural, ecological material; it consumes the least
energy and resource (fig1).

3.3.5.2. The healthy building material

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Healthy building material is of low pollution, low order, and low physiological
hazard. It aims mainly at low volatile organic compounds, such as water
environmental friendly paint, water-wood paint, and epoxy resin paint. (fig2)

3.3.5.3 The high-performance building material

High performance building material can conquer the deficiency of traditional


building material, improving quality performance. High performance soundproof
Green Building material can effectively prevent noise impacts on the quality of life
(fig 3).

3.3.5.4 The recycling building material

Recycling building material is low processed, low energy consuming, low carbon
dioxide discharge, low pollution discharge, naturally decomposed, and reusable.
Mixed material recycling building material refers to wood or stone building material
mixed with waste plastics, glass, etc., which produces new building material such as
imitation wood and water permeable bricks (fig 4).

(fig 1.The logo of the ecological building material )

(fig 2. The logo of the healthy building material )

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(fig 3. The logo of the high-performance building material)

(fig 4. The logo of the recycling building material)

3.4 Other green environmental protection products

3.4.1 Charcoals

Charcoals include activated carbons, Binchou-Tan and bamboo charcoals. They


not only can be used as fuel, but also can be used to purify the air and vapor in the air,
and adjust the moisture (fig5.6.7).

(fig5. Carbons) (fig6. Binchou-Tan) (fig7. Bamboo charcoals)

3.4.2 Silicon

When there is ample air in the pores of the silicon, it keeps warmth and prevents
heat. When it is full of moisture, it adjusts the humidity, absorbs odors and purifies the
air.

3.4.3 Yu-Wen stone tile

Yu-Wen stone tile is the ultra alkaline stone. Because it has porous properties, it
can purify the air and activate cells.

3.4.4 Latex paint

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Latex paint is proof against mold, stain, and water. It also has the Green Building
material marker (fig8).

(fig8. Latex paint)

3.4.5 EPnS aqueous wood’s coating

EPnS aqueous wood’s coating is highly durable, safe and environmental friendly
(fig9).

(fig9. EPnS aqueous wood’s coating)

3.4.6 Flexible brick of pedestrian trail

Flexible brick of pedestrian trail is of compressive strength and tensile strength.


It has high permeability and is safe to use (fig10).

(fig10. Flexible brick of pedestrian trail)

3.4.7 Wooden building material

Wooden building material is effectively antibacterial, mold-preventive, warm in


the winter and cool in the summer. Only biological resources like wood can produce

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the carbohydrate that is needed for growth, through photosynthesis by absorbing
carbon dioxide and water in the atmosphere. The wooden material is reproducible
through the reasonable regeneration process. Meanwhile, it can reduce the
concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by absorbing carbon dioxide. Thus,
wooden material meets the green index standard of Green Buildings (fig11).

(fig11. Wooden building material)

3.5 An example of a Green Building in a high school in Taiwan

We take a local high school as a modeling example for the application of Green
Buildings on campus. We did a detailed research on the new building and found the
following facts.

3.5.1 Classroom: The natural day-lighting is ample. Whole-wall windows are


adopted so that all classrooms are full of sunshine (Daily energy-saving index) (fig1).

3.5.2 Corridor: The corridors are ventilated and bright with daylight (Daily
energy-saving index) (fig2).

(fig1. Classroom ) (fig2. Corridor )

3.5.3 Toilet: Two-stage flush toilets are adopted (Water resources index) (fig3).

3.5.4 Staircase: The staircase is always bright at day time; there is no need to turn
on the lights (Daily energy-saving index) (fig4).

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(fig3. Toilet) (fig4. Staircase )

3.5.5 Chain of water-permeable bricks: Water-permeable bricks conserve water


effectively (Base water index) (fig5).

3.5.6 Pond: The central pond of the school provides steam in the air
(Biodiversity index) (fig6).

(fig5. Chain of water-permeable bricks) (fig6. Pond)

3.5.7 Outdoor: The campus is green with grass (Green index) (fig7).

3.5.8 The water-saving machines: They collect the rainwater and reuse the
rainwater efficiently (Water resources index) (fig8).

(fig7. Outdoor ) (fig8. The machine of water saving)

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IV. Conclusion
According to the result of our study, we understood what Green Buildings are
and we reached some important findings as follows.
1. By applying the nine assessment indexes of Green Buildings, we can improve
the appearance and quality of urban environment while increasing sense of comfort
for people who stay indoors.
2. Green Buildings are not just about architectural design. The Green Building
material plays an important role in the Green Buildings. Architectural design plus the
architectural material based on the concept of Green Buildings are capable of better
saving the earth. This trend is a great benefit to our environment, and this situation is
what we love to see.
3. Nowadays, the buildings on campus are gradually turned into the state of
Green Buildings. Instead of simply planting green plants and applying simple
water-saving equipment, people add more equipment that can effectively reduce the
negative impact on the environment. Hence, the concept not only saves the earth but
also gives students more healthful environment to learn. As a whole, from the
information mentioned above, we’ve learned that green buildings have many benefits
for our environment. Not only can they save energy, but also they reduce the damage
to the environment.
After doing the research, we know that Green Buildings are beneficial to the
environment as well as human beings. We believe that, with the continuing
development of Green Buildings, people may have a greater chance to live in a
natural and healthful environment in the near future.

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