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J14PPE-E1

The University of Nottingham


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

A LEVEL 4 MODULE, AUTUMN SEMESTER 2013-2014

PETROLEUM PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

Time allowed TWO Hours

Candidates may complete the front cover of their answer book and sign their desk card but
must NOT write anything else until the start of the examination period is announced

Answer the question in Section A and both questions in Section B

Only silent, self contained calculators with a Single-Line Display or Dual-Line Display
are permitted in the examination.

Dictionaries are not allowed with one exception. Those whose first language is not English
may use a standard translation dictionary to translate between that language and English
provided that neither language is the subject of this examination. Subject specific translation
dictionaries are not permitted.

No electronic devices capable of storing and retrieving text, including electronic dictionaries,
may be used.

DO NOT turn examination paper over until instructed to do so

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: Graph paper – 2mm

INFORMATION FOR INVIGILATORS:

Question papers should be collected in at the end of the exam – do not allow candidates to
take copies from the exam room.

Turn over

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SECTION A

1. Discuss in detail the technical, environmental and economic issues that arise in
conjunction with shale gas production. Your discussion should include a critical
evaluation of the available sources of information.

[34 marks]

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SECTION B

2. (a) Explain the basic physical principles underlying magnetic resonance imaging
and computerized x-ray tomography.

[20 marks]

(b) Explain the potential applications of these techniques to reservoir rock core
characterisation in terms of the types of information that might be obtained
and how it would be useful.
[13 marks]

3. Table Q3 shows the estimated formation and fracture pressures at various depths for a
formation in which a well is to be drilled. In addition, Table Q3 also shows the
appropriate swab, surge and circulation allowances to be made. Determine the mud
weights (lb/gallon) necessary for this well.

[33 marks]

Table Q3
Depth/ft Formation Fracture Swab Surge Circulation
Pressure pressure /(psi) /(psi) /(psi)
/(psi) /(psi)
0 0 500 0 0 0
1000 850 1100 0 0 25
2000 1525 1925 0 0 50
3000 2250 3200 0 0 75
4000 2925 3700 100 100 100
5000 3050 4750 100 100 125
6000 3600 5175 100 100 150
7000 4700 5600 220 220 175
8000 4800 6175 220 220 200
9000 4875 6475 220 220 225

Relevant equations

modified fracture pressure = fracture pressure -( circulation pressure + surge pressure)

modified formation pressure = formation pressure + swab pressure

To convert from psi/ft to lb/gallon divide by 0.052

End
J14PPE-E1