Você está na página 1de 303

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

POR EXPRESSO DESEJO DOS EDITORES, ESTA OBRA É NUMERADA E RUBRICADA PELO AUTOR

M. RODRIGUES Lapa

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA
PORTUGUESA
11.a EDIÇÃO

REVISTA PELO AUTOR


Composição e impressão COIMBRA EDITORA, LDA

1984
.
1.
O VOCABULÁRIO PORTUU!"

1. Palavras reas e !s"r#$e!"%s &ra$a"'as. ( C%!s)ere$%s es"e *e+#e!% "re'% l"er-r%


)e Tr!)a)e C%el%, e$ Os Meus Amores:

A esse "e$*%,
'%$e3ava !% '/# al"%a%e )e
)e 'ar$!ar(se lava)%,
leve.4a es"rela()0alva e!e'era *%r $, e % %r2%!"e

Se %5servar$%s % *a*el +#e as )ere!"es *alavras )ese$*e!a$ !% )s'#rs%, l%&%


ver'a$%s +#e #$as s6% $as $*%r"a!"es )% +#e as %#"ras. S6% as *r!'*as *%r"a)%ras
)a )ea %# )% se!"$e!"%, "ra)#2e$ a real)a)e '%$ $as vve2a, )es*er"a$ e!$
$a&e!s $as %r"es. Clar% +#e ss% )e*e!)er- #$ *%#'% )% %5serva)%r7 $as +#al+#er )e
!8s, *%r )ere!"e +#e se9a, ver- !a+#ele *er:%)% l"er-r% as se&#!"es *alavras %#
e;*ress<es *r!'*as, +#e v6% a&%ra $*ressas a "-l'%=

A esse tempo, !% céu alto e laa!o, a estrela"!#ala $e%ecera *%r $, e % &or'(o%te
'%$e3ava )e carm'%ar"se a% )e leve.
Se +#s/sse$%s levar $as l%!&e a e;*l%ra36%, ver'-va$%s +#e e!"re es"es "er$%s
*r!'*as se *%)era a2er

a!)a #$a re)#36%, %$"!)% %s $e!%s $*%r"a!"es e )e;a!)% 'ar a*e!as a+#eles e$ +#e
re'a *le!a$e!"e % se!")% )% "re'%=

)éu... estrela... $e%ecera... *or'(o%te...

carm'%ar"se.

C%$ #$ *%#'% )e 5%a(v%!"a)e, '%!se&#$%s a!)a a*ree!)er % s&!'a)% )a rase,


re)#2)a a&%ra > s#a e;*ress6% $as s$*les.
Ve9a$%s as ases )essa %*era36% s$*l'a)%ra. Pr$era$e!"e )es*%9-$%s % "re'% )e
ar"&%s, *re*%s3<es, '%!9#$3<es, ver5% a#;lar +comeaa-, l%'#3<es a)ver5as, e;'e*"%
#$a +A esse tempo-, +#e !%s *are'e# )e al&#$ val%r e;*ressv% e l8&'%. P%r $, +#ere!)%
levar a sele'36% a% $a%r a*#r%, s8 )e;-$%s 'ar s#5s"a!"v%s e ver5%s.

?#e se )eve '%!'l#r )e "#)% s"%@ ?#e as *alavras se e!'%!"ra$ s#5%r)!a)as a #$a
es'ala )e val%res e;*ressv%s. ?#e - *alavras reas, #$)a$e!"as, +#e leva$ e$ s "%)a a
res*%!sa5l)a)e )% se!")% )a rase, e +#e - !s"r#$e!"%s &ra$a"'as, e!'arre&a)%s )e
es"a5ele'er a l&a36% e!"re as )eas. As *alavras reas "a$5/$ 'a$a)as leemas-
s6% % s#5s"a!"v%, % a)9e'"v%, % ver5% e, *%r ve2es, % a)v/r5%, % !#$eral e % *r%!%$e,
'%!%r$e % *a*el +#e )ese$*e!a$ !% )s'#rs%. Os !s"r#$e!"%s &ra$a"'as "a$5/$
'a$a)%s mor$emas- s6% '%!s""#:)%s *%r "%)%s %s %#"r%s ele$e!"%s )e rela36% e *re's6%=
ar"&%s, *re*%s3<es, '%!9#$3<es e, *%r ve2es, a)v/r5%s, !#$eras e *r%!%$es. '%$
a5s%l#"% r&%r, *%)er(se(a )2er, '%$% v$%s, +#e le;e$as s6% a*e!as %s s#5s"a!"v%s
e %s ver5%s= % s#5s"a!"v% )es&!a!)% % a&e!"e )a a'36%, % ver5% e;*r$!)% a *r8*ra
a'36%. '%$ ee"%, a l&a36% )% a&e!"e '%$ % a'"% real2a)% %# a real2ar '%!s""# a %r$a
$as s$*les, $as *r$"va )% *e!sa$e!"%. E;e$*l%= Re' or!e%a, Deus pum'r/, e"'.
Na v)a *r-"'a, es"a )vs6% e$ le;e$as e $%re$as "e$ v-ras a*l'a3<es. O 'ar-'"er
ver"&!%s% )a !%ssa

'vl2a36% $*<e(!%s a e'%!%$a )as *alavras *ara se !6% *er)er "e$*%... e )!er%. Na
v)a )%s !e&8'%s - *%r ve2es !e'ess)a)e )e a2er '%!)e!sa3<es e!/r&'as, l$"a!)% as
*alavras a% $-;$%, se$ +#e5ra )e 'lare2a )% *e!sa$e!"%. O %$e$ )e a'36%, % *%l:"'%,
% 'ee 'vl %# $l"ar !6% arre)%!)a$ a rase *ara )ar %r)e!s. As *alavras reas "$ !eles
#$ 'ar-'"er !'sv%, +#ase )s*e!sa$ %s !s"r#$e!"%s &ra$a"'as. U$ )a, % es'r"%r
*%r"#&#s D. ra!'s'% Ma!#el )e Mel%, a!"&% s%l)a)%, es'reve# a #$ 9%ve$ *are!"e,
+#e *ar"a *ara a &#erra. O se# es"l% a)+#r# e!"6% % la'%!s$%, a '%!'s6% )s'*l!a)a
)#$a %r)e$ $l"ar=

I)e '%$ N%ss% Se!%r. Le$5ra(v%s se$*re )ele e )e +#e$ s%s. ala ver)a)e.
Per&#$"a *%#'%. J%&a $e!%s. Se&# %s 5%!s7 %5e)e'e a%s $a%res. N6% v%s es+#e3as )e
$$. E se)e e$5%ra Pl:!% J!%r7 +#e, se "#)% s"% 2er)es, a!)a seres $as. De#s v%s
leve, )ee!)a e "ra&a. T%rre, s-5a)%.4

F- *%r/$ !a v)a s%'al #$a esera )e a'"v)a)e, e$ +#e a )es"r!3a e!"re le;e$as e
$%re$as a)+#re *ar"'#lar $*%r"!'a= reer$%(!%s > "/'!'a )% "ele&ra$a. O "ele&ra$a
"er- )e e!'errar % $a%r la'%!s$% ( as *alavras '#s"a$ )!er%H ( )e!"r% )a $a%r %r3a
e;*ressva = a2 *%s av#l"ar a *alavra real > '#s"a )% !s"r#$e!"% &ra$a"'al. U$ e;e$*l%
"ra)% )e A Ilustre )asa !e Ram'res, )e E3a )e ?#er%2=

0)aptulos roma%ce rece2'!os. Le'tura $e'ta am'3os. E%tus'asmo 5er!a!e'ra o2ra"pr'ma


A2rao6

Es"e "ele&ra$a '%!"/$ "#)% +#a!"% / #$)a$e!"al, e s8 "e$ s#5s"a!"v%s, #$ a)9e'"v%


+er!a!e'ra- e )#as %r$as ver5as '%$ #$36% )e a)9e'"v%s +rece2'!os, $e'ta-. Se %
+#s/sse$%s s%5re'arre&ar '%$ !s"r#$e!"%s &ra$a"'as, "er:a$%s=

Re'e5 %s 'a*:"#l%s )% "e# r%$a!'e. e2(se #$a le"#ra a%s !%ss%s a$&%s. % e!%r$e %
e!"#sas$%, e "%)%s % 'lass'ara$ )e ver)a)era %5ra(*r$a. E!v%("e #$ &ra!)e a5ra3%4.

'ara "alve2 $as '%$*le"%, *%rve!"#ra $as ele&a!"e7 $as !a)a a)a!"ava a% se!")%
#$)a$e!"al,
se % $a!)asse es%5
% a#"%r
%r$a)es"e )ese!v%lv$e!"%
a5reva)a, *a&ara"ele&r-'a.
ver)a)era$e!"e +#ase % "r*l% )a "a;a +#e *a&ara,

Se!)% % P%r"#&#s, *%r !a"#re2a, )es'%$e))% e$ *alavras, '%$% "%)%s %s *%v%s )% s#l, a
Dre'36% )%s C%rre%s, !% se# !"eresse, *s #$ "rav6% a% '%rrl% )e rases +#e e!'a$
%s s$*les 'ar"<es )e vs"a, *re'e"#a!)% #$ $-;$% )e '!'% *alavras $%re$as e
le;e$as *ara essas 8r$#las )e '%r"esa, '%$% se9a$ a&ra)e'$e!"%s e el'"a3<es. N6%
- )v)a +#e a %r)e$ e$5ara3%# $#"a &e!"e7 $as "eve *el% $e!%s a va!"a&e$ )e 'a$ar
a a"e!36% *ara % val%r )as *alavras. A&%ra, +#a!)% +#ser$%s res*%!)er a #$ 'ar"6% )e
5%as(es"as, "ere$%s )e !%s '!&r a #$a rase )es"as, e$ +#e - a*e!as #$ $%re$a=

ULANO...

retr'2u', a3ra!ec'!o, os am/e's cumpr'me%tos.


Is"% !6% +#er )2er, ev)e!"e$e!"e, +#e *re'%!2e$%s % es"l% "ele&r-'% *ara as re)a'3<es
)%s !%ss%s le"%res. De $%)% !e!#$7 $as a2(les se!"r a $*%r"!'a )%s v%'-5#l%s e
a)ver"e(%s )e #$ *er&%= a $#l"*l'a36% !"l )as *alavras +#e !a)a a'res'e!"a$ a%
se!")%. N% 5%$ es"l% !6% se )2 !e$ )e $as !e$ )e $e!%s7 )2(se % +#e / *re's%,
!a $e))a e;a'"a )% +#e se *e!sa e se!"e, '%$ v&%r e '%$ 'lare2a. E, *e'ar *%r *e'ar,
a!"es *e'ar *%r s%5re)a)e )% +#e *%r !"l s%5re'ar&a )e *alavras.

#. A $a%&asia 'as pa(a)ras. ( As *alavras reas )s"!&#e$(se, '%$% v$%s, *ela s#a %r3a
e;*ressva. Des*er"a$ a $a&e$ )as '%sas $as e!er&'a$e!"e7 e essa $a&e$ vva
l#$!a % *e!sa$e!"%, )s*e!sa!)% %#"r%s a'ess8r%s )e +#e se serve a rase l%&'a$e!"e
'%!s""#:)a.

As *alavras s#s'"a$ e$ !8s as $a&e!s )as '%sas a +#e se reere$7 $as '%$% essas
'%sas *%)e$ reves"r v-r%s as*e'"%s, 'a)a #$ )e !8s a*ree!)e !a *alavra % se# as*e'"%
*ess%al, a+#ele +#e *ar"'#lar$e!"e le !"eressa.

P%r e;e$*l%, a *alavra s'%o *%)e ev%'ar )ere!"es $a&e!s, '%!%r$e as *ess%as +#e a
%#vre$= % 'a$*8!% "er- #$a re*rese!"a36% s%!%ra7 %#"r%, % l% )% s!er%, se!"r- !a
*alavra % $%v$e!"% )% *#;ar )a '%r)a e )% v%l"ear )% s!% $a&e$ $%"r27 e!$, %
serraler% "er- a re*rese!"a36% vs#al )% %59e'"%. A es"es "rs "*%s )e $a&e!s, s%!%ra,
$%"r2, vs#al, %#"ras se *%)era$ "alve2 a!)a a'res'e!"ar.

J- se "e$ ar$a)% +#e !#$a s$*les *alavra se *%)e res#$r "%)% % #!vers%. ?#er s"%
)2er +#e #$ v%'-5#l% *%)e s#s'"ar #$a !!)a)e )e $a&e!s e )eas +#e a5ra!9a$

"%)%s %s )%$:!%s )% *e!sa$e!"% e )a v)a. Ve9a$%s, *%r e;e$*l%, a *e+#e!!a *alavra


lar. P%)er- a*rese!"ar(!%s a $a&e$ '%!'re"a )a 'asa, )% se# '%!%r"% %# )es'%!%r"%
$a"eral, %# a!)a a !%36% es*r"#al, se!"$e!"al, )% l#&ar %!)e vve a a$:la. A *r$era
re*rese!"a36% *%)e re*ar"r(se e$ v-ras $a&e!s s#5s)-ras= a '%!s"r#36% )a 'asa, a s#a
s"#a36%, a *asa&e$ e$ re)%r, a l#2 %# s%$5ra )e +#e / 5a!a)a, e"'. A se&#!)a
re*rese!"a36% levar(!%s(- a '%!s)erar= % !%ss% !as'$e!"%, %s ae'"%s %# )esae'"%s )a
!%ssa !!'a, a !%ssa e)#'a36%, a ar$%!a %# )esar$%!a e!"re %s $e$5r%s )a a$:la,
e"'. E es"as re*rese!"a3<es a$lares *%)er6% a!)a s#s'"ar, *%r ass%'a36%, se!"$e!"%s
)e
"$'ar-'"er
era !e$s%'al=
5era,%e"'.
)esa5r&% )as *ess%as +#e vve$ e$ 5arra'as, a $s/ra )%s +#e !6%
1K

É !es"e se!")% +#e se )2 +#e !#$a *alavra se *%)e$ '%!"er "%)%s %s e!8$e!%s )a v)a. O se#
*%)er ev%'a)%r !6% '%!e'e l$"es.

Ve$%s *%s +#e, e$ v%l"a )e 'a)a *alavra %#, *ara $el%r )2er, )e 'er"as *alavras, se es"a5ele'e
#$a a"$%sera a!"as%sa e se!"$e!"al +#e '%!s""# % se# val%r e;*ressv%. F-, ev)e!"e$e!"e,
*alavras $as ev%'a)%ras )% +#e %#"ras. O 5%$ es'r"%r sa5er- a*r%ve"-(las, *ara s#s'"ar $as
vvas e vara)as $a&e!s. Mas #$a '%sa / !e'ess-ra a +#e$ )ese9a '%!e'er a #$)% a s#a l:!&#a
e #"l2-(la *ara !s ar":s"'%s= *e!sar e se!"r as *alavras '%$% se elas %sse$ e"as )e !%v%, e
ev%'ar % %59e'"% a +#e se reere$ '%$ a $a%r res'#ra e vva')a)e *%ss:vel.

Va$%s )ar % res#l"a)% )e #$a s/re )e e;*er!'as e"as *%r %#"r%s e e"as *%r !8s e$ *ess%as )a
!%ssa a$:la. Mas #$a ve2 se !ss"e !% 'ar-'"er *#ra$e!"e *ess%al )e "as *r%vas. O res#l"a)%
*%)er- varar '%!%r$e as *ess%as. Des&!a$%s *%r A, B, C, D %s !)v:)#%s +#e se s#5$e"era$ >s
e;*er!'as. A% %#vr as *alavras +#e se se&#e$, *r%)#2ra$(se !esses !)v:)#%s as se&#!"es
$a&e!s, s$*les %# '%$*le;as. A *r$era / a $a&e$ $as %r"e, es*%!"!ea.

a- Cave=

A= $a&e$ vs#al #$a 'ave &ra!)e )e $e"al a$arel%. B= 4 a#)"va % r#:)% )% a5rr )a *%r"a. C =
4 vs#al v s%5re"#)% a *ar"e s#*er%r, re)%!)a. D= 4 4  $a&e$, "-'"l se!"e a 'ave !%s )e)%s.

2- C#va=

A= $a&e$ vs#al *%era es'#ra leva!"a)a  $a&e$ %la'"va 'er% )a "erra.

B= $a&e$ "/r$'a arre*% )e r%.

C= 4 vs#al '%r)as )e -&#a  $a&e$ a#)"va r#:)% a5aa)% )e '#va !% '6%.

D= % $es$% '%$*le;% )e $a&e!s +#e e$ C.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

11

c- Av6%=

A= $a&e$ vs#al v #$ av6% !% écra% )#$ '!e$a.

B= 44 v #$ sel% )e '%rre% a/re%= / #$ la"els"a.

C= 44  $a&e$ a#)"va r#:)% )% $%"%r.

!- G-s=

A= $a&e$ vs#al v #$ #$% a'!2e!"a)%.

B= 44 e $%"r2 5%$5ar)ea$e!"%, &e!"e a '%rrer ((


$a&e$ %la'"va 'er% a &-s. C = $a&e$ a#)"va es'a*ar r#)%s% )% &-s. D= 4 vs#al 'a$a
a2#la)a  $a&e$ %la'"va 'er% )% &-s.

e- Vel#)%=

A= $a&e$ vs#al '%r *re"a.

B= 66 4 4  $a&e$ "-'"l se!"e(% !as *%!"as

)%s )e)%s. C= $a&e$ vs#al '%r *re"a  $a&e$ "-'"l se!"e(% !as $6%s.

$- Ser*e!"e=

A= $a&e$ vs#al v s8 a 'a5e3a e l:!&#a, '%$ $alas re)%!)as

)e '%res v-ras, s%5re"#)% a$arel% e ver)e.

B= $a&e$ vs#al '%r*% !"er%  $a&e$ $%"r2 % ras"e9ar. C= 4 $%"r2 e a#)"va $%v$e!"% e
r#:)%  $a&e$ vs#al.

3- L$6%=

A= $a&e$ vs#al %r$a e '%r a$arela.


B= 4 &#s"a"va se!"e % &%s"% -')% )% l$6%  $a&e$ vs#al

v a -rv%re '%$ % r#"%. C= $a&e$ vs#al  $a&e$ &#s"a"va  $a&e$ "-'"l.

Es'%le$%s )e *reer!'a s#5s"a!"v%s, '%$% )es*er"a)%res )a a!"asa *%r al#)re$ '%$ $as
vve2a a% %59e'"%7 $as / 5%$ )e ver +#e %s ver5%s *%r e;. 2ater, a2r'r, p'car,e"'. e a)9e'"v%s *%r
e;. /spero, !oce, $'%o, e"'.,
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

*el% se# 'ar-'"er $as %# $e!%s '%!'re"%, "a$5/$ *%)e$ s#&err $a&e!s.

. A *ara a!"asa. ( Se %5servar$%s % res#l"a)% )as e;*er!'as a'$a e;*%s"%, ve$%s +#e
*re)%$!a$ lar&a$e!"e as $a&e!s vs#as, '%$% / *r8*r% )e %59e'"%s $a"eras7 e +#e
es"as, '%$% / !a"#ral e$ '%sas "a!&:ves, a!)a$ !6% rar% l&a)as a $a&e!s "-'"es. Ve$%s
a!)a $as= a $a&e$ al#)e &eral$e!"e a% %59e'"%, re*rese!"a(% )re'"a$e!"e, e$ #$ %#
%#"r% )%s se#s as*e'"%s. F- *%r/$ e;'e*3<es, e essas %ere'e$ &ra!)e !"eresse. P%r ve2es,
a a!"asa "ra!s'e!)e *ara al/$ )% %59e'"% e )- re*rese!"a3<es +#e *%#'a %# !e!#$a
rela36% "$ 9- '%$ ele. V$%s a'$a #$ '#r%s% e;e$*l% )es"e e!8$e!%, a +#e se 'a$a
para$a%tas'a: a% %#vr a *alavra a'7o, a B re*rese!"%#(se(Ie #$ sel% )e '%rre% a/re%7 a%
%#vr c*ae, !6% v# l%&% % %59e'"%, $a&!%# %#vr a5rr #$a *%r"a.

Mas al&#$s 'as%s )e *araa!"asa= E, +#a!)% %#ve a #la!% *r%err a *alavra ma7 v a
$a'era '%$ %las, se$ $a36s7 e$ e%to v "erra7 e$ s'%o v % a)r% )#$a 'a*ela7 e$
se!a, v % 5'% e %s e$ 5a5a. , +#a!)% %#ve % v%'-5#l% e%to, "e$ l%&% a $a&e$ %ra
)e #$ 5ar'%, %ra )e #$ $%!%. G, > *alavra ms'ca, "e$ a $a&e$ )e #$ 5ale7 e$ le'te,
v a "9ela )% le"e7 e$ po%te, %#ve #$ '%$5%% a"ravessa!)% a *%!"e7 > *alavra ma7, v
#$ lvr% )e ar"$/"'a, %!)e ava al&#$s *e+#e!%s *r%5le$as s%5re $a36s.
Re*are(se !es"a *ar"'#lar)a)e= #$as ve2es v(se a -rv%re e$ ve2 )% r#"%, a "erra e$ ve2
)% ve!"% +#e a a&"a, a 'a#sa 5'%()a(se)a e$ ve2 )% ee"%, % '%!"!e!"e "&ela e$ ve2
)% '%!"e)% le"e. É a e;*l'a36% )#$ e!8$e!% +#e "e$ a*l'a36% l"er-ra e / '%!e')%
*el% !%$e )e l'%3ua3em $'3ura!a.

As *alavras a5s"ra'"as, '%$% / !a"#ral, !6% s#&ere$ "a!"as re*rese!"a3<es. T%)ava, a s#a
%r$a s%!%ra, 9#$"a a%
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1*

se# se!")%, &era *%r ve2es #$a $a&e$ )e '%r. Para Ra$al% Or"&6%, sau!a!e era #$a
*alavra a2#l, ra%cor #$a *alavra ver$ela. É a+#l% a +#e se 'a$a a#)36% '%l%r)a= a
'%rres*%!)!'a $a&!a)a e!"re % s%$ e a '%r. A es"as '%rres*%!)!'as, a es"as !"er
*e!e"ra3<es )%s v-r%s se!")%s, +#e ass#$e$ as*e'"%s e;"ra%r)!ara$e!"e !"eressa!"es,
)-(se % !%$e &eral e 'e!":'% )e s'%estes'as. Dese$*e!a$ *a*el $*%r"a!"e !a l"era"#ra
e s6% '%!e')as )es)e % s/'#l% ;v$, *el% $e!%s. % l!"% El:s% +#e$, !esse "e$*%,
'a$%# a a"e!36% *ara a '%r )%s v%'-5#l%s. U$ )a, #$ se!%r $*er"!e!"e, )a)% > r%!a,
e!'%!"r%# !#$a %)e )% *%e"a #$a )essas s!es"esas e )sse(le, '%$ #$ rs!%=

( P%s a ale&ra / l%#ra@ T6% alva e l%#ra '%$% a $%r"e / *-l)a.

A% +#e % es'r"%r re"%r+## $e)a"a$e!"e=


( V. E;.a / +#e $e *are'e l%#ra !% 'as%...

Para se e!"e!)er % "r%'a)l%, / !e'ess-r% )2er +#e loura "!a, !a /*%'a, % se!")% )e
*arv%4, *aler$a4.

Clar% +#e !e$ "%)%s *r%)#2r6% '%$ &#al res'#ra e *res"e2a as $a&e!s +#e a!)a$
l&a)as >s *alavras. ?#a!)% %s a!%s a#$e!"a$ e a !"el&!'a se )ese!v%lve, as $a&e!s
)as '%sas v6%
)'l$e!"e e!ra+#e'e!)%,
)es*er"a$ "%$a$(se
9- a a!"asa. *%ral"#ra,
Nessa ass$*ara
)2eravvar
)es5%"a)as.
% *%)erAs
)a *alavras
$a&!a36%, %
%$e$ "e$ a!)a % re'#rs% )a %5ra )e ar"e, '#9% se&re)% '%!ss"e !a s-5a es'%la )%s
$e%s )e e;*ress6%, '%$ +#e se 'a$a$ !%va$e!"e > l#2 essas $a&e!s $e% a*a&a)as.

. Valer Lar5a#) e % v%'a5#l-r% *%r"#&#s. ( O !%"-vel es'r"%r ra!'s Valer Lar5a#),


es*:r"% '%s$%*%l"a, $e"e#(se a a*re!)er *%r"#&#s, )a *r$era ve2 +#e es"eve e!"re !8s.
E!'e#(se )e s$*a"a *ela !%ssa "erra, *ela )%3#ra )a !%ssa &e!"e, e +#s a*re!)er a l:!&#a
*ara $el%r
1+

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

s#r*ree!)er a !%ssa al$a. A*re!)e#(a, '%$% ele )2a, '%$ % es%r3% a*a;%!a)% '%$ +#e
se %5"/$ % a$%r )#$a $#ler. E '%!"%#(!%s, )e $%)% e!'a!"a)%r, a s#a e;*er!'a )%
v%'a5#l-r% *%r"#&#s. É se$ )v)a !"eressa!"e %5servar as rea'3<es )#$ es"ra!&er%
s#*er%r$e!"e '#l"%, '%$% Lar5a#), *era!"e as *alavras $as '%rre!"es )a !%ssa l:!&#a.
Va$%s )ar % res#l"a)% )as s#as $*ress<es, *#5l'a)as !% D'ert'me%to $'lol3'co.
O es'r"%r ra!'s, !% *r$er% '%!"a'"% '%$ a l:!&#a es'r"a e ala)a, se!"# l%&% a )%3#ra
e a &ra3a )e 'er"%s v%'-5#l%s=

1. S8. A *alavra e;*r$e, !a s#a '%!'s6% )eses*era)a, % e;"re$% )a s%l)6% e )%


a5a!)%!%. ?#a!)% se le a'res'e!"a % )$!#"v% "('%*o, Lar5a#) !%"a +#e % s#;% !6% /
a*e!as l8&'%, e;*r$e a!)a a)$ravel$e!"e a a""#)e )% es*:r"% )%5ra)% s%5re s *r8*r%,
!a s%l)6%.

. RAPARIGA. O es'r"%r '%$*ara % v%'-5#l% *%r"#&#s a%s '%rres*%!)e!"es es*a!8s e


"ala!%= rapa(a, muc*ac*a, ra3a((a "%)%s s#&ere$ % r#:)% ale&re )e es"#)a!"as, sa!)% )a
es'%la, !a r#a, >s &ar&ala)as= $as rapar'3a a2 $as r#:)% +#e +#al+#er )essas *alavras.

N% *%r"#&#s )% Brasl, 9- )es)e % s/'#l% ;v!, a% +#e *are'e, % v%'-5#l% % "%$a!)%
'%l%ra36% *e9%ra"va. F%#ve '%!"#)% ress"!'a l"er-ra a essa )e"#r*a36%. N#$ r%$a!'e
)e Al#:2% A2eve)%, O )ort'o, a!)a / #sa)% !% *#r% se!")% *%r"#&#s. E$ L$a
Barre"% +)lara !os A%;os, l.a e)., *-&. 1Q )-(se % $es$%. Ér'% Ver:ss$%,
re*rese!"a!)% a l"$a )eesa )a %r$%sa *alavra, e$ '%!s%!!'a 'er"a$e!"e '%$ se#
alar re&%!al, e$*re&a(a !% 5%$ se!")% +Ol*a' os lr'os !o campo, 1.a e).= Ca$%# a
se're"-ra, #$a rapar'3a $a&ra, )e ar 'a!sa)%4, *-&. 1.

. GAROTA. Ta$5/$ / 5%!"a a *alavra e *r8*ra *ara as ra*ar&as )% *%v% )#$a


&ra!)e ')a)e. D2 Lar5a#)
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1

'%$ &ra3a +#e, se 'asasse '%$ #$a *%r"#&#esa, le 'a$ara 3arota, !#$ $*#ls% )e "er!a
a$lar)a)e, )e a$%r%sa al"a )e res*e"%.

. RAINFA. A *alavra "e$ !a s#a %r$a s%!%ra e &r-'a % +#er +#e se9a )e e;8"'%= "ra2
!% ves")% #$ *er#$e )a sa.

<. MENINA. O "er$% / e!'a!"a)%r, '%$ #$ ar a!"&%, a)al&a)%. J- #$ %#"r% es"ra!&er%,


% ale$6% L!, +#e vs"%# P%r"#&al !%s !s )% s/'#l% ;v$, )2a +#e a e;*ress6% m'%*a
me%'%a era a $as )%'e +#e se e!'%!"rava e$ +#al+#er l:!&#a.

. BONECA. O es'r"%r )e#(se a% '#)a)% )e ev%'ar %s "er$%s +#e s&!'a$ 2o%eca e$


%#"ras l:!&#as e#r%*eas e e!'%!"r%# $as 5ele2a= e$ *r$er% l#&ar !% v%'-5#l% "ala!%
2/m2ola, l%&% a se&#r !as *alavras *%r"#&#esa e es*a!%la( 2o%eca e mumeca, +#e
'%$*e"a$ e$ %r$%s#ra e;*ressva.

. MEDONFO. A *alavra $*ress%!%# vva$e!"e Lar5a#). F- +#al+#er '%sa )e


re*#&!a!"e, !a$e e %rr%r%s% !es"a *alavra, +#e !%s '%$#!'a % se# es"re$e'$e!"%, a
s#a !-#sea.

. BEIRA(MAR.
'%!e'$e!"%= Para
vas"a, % es'r"%r
s%!%ra, ra!'s
&ra!)%sa, era #$a )as *alavras $as *%/"'as )% se#
%'e!'a.

Q. SAUDADE. Lar5a#) )e!e a $*ress6% +#e le )- a a$%s:ss$a *alavra= #$ '/#


!#5la)% e!"re )s"a!"es 2%!as l#$!%sas.
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

O#"ras *alavras +#e % $*ress%!ara$ a&ra)avel$e!"e= %amorar, %amoro !oe%te, !oe%a


oo, !or, cor, caral*o, oral*o, coto'a, 'me%so, !ea3ar, ;a%ota, $'car, poupar, me'3o,
2r'%co, 2r'%ca!e'ra,

T%)%s a+#eles +#e a*re!)e$ #$a l:!&#a !%va re'e5e$ $*ress<es )es"a !a"#re2a= %
se!")% '%!e')% %# e!"revs"% )a *alavra '%!s*ra '%$ a $a&e$ s%!%ra e )-(!%s #$a
es*/'e )e l#s6%. Os es'r"%res +#e l)a$ $#"% '%$ %s v%'-5#l%s es"6% *ar"'#lar$e!"e
s#9e"%s a es"as l#s<es. T$ a "e!)!'a *ara '%!s)erare$ a *alavra e$ s *r8*ra, 5ela
*%r s $es$a, l5er"a )as *rs<es )a rase, +#e le ;a$ #$ se!")% e le )$!#e$ %
*%)er )e a!"asa. Os +#e se )e)'a$ > ar"e )e es'rever "ra2e$ !a $e$8ra #$ ar$a2/$ )e
"er$%s e;*ressv%s. Para esses a *alavra e;s"e e$ es"a)% *#r%, 'ea )e ress%!!'as e
$s"/r%s. E / se$*re "l, '%$% )sse$%s, *e!sar e se!"r )e !%v% as *alavras,
s%la)a$e!"e, !a '#r%sa '%!"e$*la36% )as $a&e!s +#e )es*er"a$.

. A *alavra(rase. ( P%r/$, l%&% a se&#r, )ever- a2er(se, '%$% '%rre'"v%, %


e;er':'% '%!"r-r%. Ver)a)era$e!"e, % v%'-5#l% s%la)% !6% e;s"e se!6% *ara %s ar"s"as.
A *alavra e;s"e '%$% *ar"e )e #$ "%)%, !'%r*%ra)a !% '%!"e;"%, e a: a)+#re % se#
s&!'a)% es*e'al. E!"re&#e a s *r8*ra, 9- % v$%s, ass#$e %s $as )vers%s as*e'"%s,
'arre&a(se )e "%!s vara)%s, se&#$)% % !)v:)#% +#e a %#ve %# *r%ere. A*rs%!a)a !a
es'r"a, l$"a)a e es'lare')a *el%s %#"r%s ele$e!"%s )% )s'#rs%, a *alavra re'e5e )e 'a)a
ve2 e $%$e!"a!ea$e!"e a s#a ver)a)era s&!'a36%. U$ e;e$*l%= ?#a!)% )2e$%s %#
%#v$%s= =ue RAPARIGAH ( % v%'-5#l% !al, *%r ass$ )2er s%la)%, )es*er"a vva$e!"e
a $a&!a36%, '%$% se % *r%!#!'-sse$%s %# %#v:sse$%s s%2!%. P%r ss% ve$%s !esse
"er$% as $as vara)as re*rese!"a3<es = *%)e$%s '%!s)erar as +#al)a)es $%ras )a $%3a,
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

a s#a %!es")a)e, a s#a '%ra&e$, e"'., %# as +#al)a)es :s'as, a %r$%s#ra, a &ra3a )%


a!)ar, e"'.
Ta$5/$ !es"a rase= A RAPARIGA >ue ?s tra2al*a %a $/2r'ca

% v%'-5#l% !%s *are'e $as )es5%"a)% )e '%l%r)%,

$e!%s 'a*a2 )e )ar $a&e!s, $as 'er"a$e!"e $as *re's% !% se# s&!'a)%, )ev)% a%s
ele$e!"%s e$ +#e es"- !ser)%.

. A s&!'a36% )as *alavras. ( C%!s)ere$%s es"a *alavra '%rre!"e ( ca2ea. O *r$er%


se!")% +#e a'%)e, es"a!)% a *alavra s%la)a, / % se# se!")% $as &eral, a s#a s&!'a36%
:s'a e *r$"va= a ca2ea é a *ar"e s#*er%r )% '%r*% #$a!%. U$ l!&#s"a !6% )e;ar-
)e re&s"ar '%$ sa"sa36% % a'"%= - 'er"a l8&'a e$ +#e % se!")% a'"#al )% v%'-5#l% !6%
)vr9a )% +#e "!a - $as )e $l a!%s. Mas, se a *alavra $a!"/$ #$ s&!'a)% *re's%,
+#e le )- % $as re+#e!"e e$*re&%, a)+#r# "a$5/$, '%$ % #s%, #$a s/re )e se!")%s
s#5s)-r%s, +#e )ere$ $as %# $e!%s )% se!")% e"$%l8&'%= et'molo3'a é % es"#)% )a
%r&e$ )as *alavras, a ;a36% )a %r$a e )% se!")% *r$"v%s. Ve9a$%s essas )versas
s&!'a3<es, re&s"a!)% a*e!as as +#e s6% $as #s#as=

1. A ca2ea é a *ar"e s#*er%r )% '%r*%.

. T%)a a &e!"e % l%#va= / #$a &ra!)e ca2ea.


. Sa5a )e ca2ea "%)%s %s vers%s )% *%e$a. Ele v!a > ca2ea )e "%)%s %s '%!'%rre!"es.
Essa vla / a ca2ea )a '%$ar'a.

@. Pa&ara$ )e2 "%s"<es *%r ca2ea.

. er#(se !a ca2ea )% )e)%.

. O ca2ea )a '%!s*ra36% % a*rs%!a)%.

Q. Iss% !6% "e$ */s !e$ ca2ea.

1K. De#(le a&%ra !a ca2ea a2er vers%s.


11. Ca)a ca2ea, 'a)a se!"e!3a.

1. E!"6%, *er)e# *%r '%$*le"% a ca2ea.


 ( Es"l:s"'a

.

.
.
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

Se +#s/sse$%s aver&#ar % s&!'a)% )a *alavra !%s v-r%s '%!"e;"%s e$ +#e es"- $e")a,
"er:a$%s es"e res#l"a)%=

1.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.
Q.
1K.
11.
1.

Se!")% *r!'*al= parte super'or !o corpo.

tale%to, '%tel'3?%c'a.

WWWWW !e memr'a, !e cor.

B $re%te, %a parte super'or.


cap'tal.

'%!'!uo, pessoa.

etrem'!a!e, po%ta.

c*e$e, pessoa pr'%c'pal.

se%t'!o claro.

capr'c*o, $a%tas'a.
*omem, perso%al'!a!e.

ra(7o, sere%'!a!e.

C%$% se %r&!ara$ as v-ras s&!'a3<es )a *alavra @ Par"#(se )% se!")% %r&!al e v#(


se !a ca2ea a *ar"e s#*er%r, a e;"re$)a)e, % *%!"% *r!'*al )#$ '%r*%7 %# e!"6%
e!'ar%#(se % a'"% *el% se# la)% !"ele'"#al e v#(se !a 'a5e3a a se)e )% *e!sa$e!"% e )a
$a&!a36%. Da+# se %r&!%# "%)a essa ve&e"a36% )e s&!'a3<es )versas, a +#e se )- %
!%$e )e pol'ssem'a, e +#e / es"#)a)a !#$a )s'*l!a l%l8&'a 'a$a)a SemC%t'ca.

C%$% ve$%s, e a+# $el%r )% +#e e$ %#"r% la)%, a *alavra s8 a)+#r# % se# ver)a)er%
se!")% +#a!)% e!&as"a)a !a rase. S8 - ver)a)era$e!"e !% )s'#rs% a palara"$rase. P%r
ss% %s 5%!s )'%!-r%s "ra2e$ %s v-r%s $a"2es )e s&!'a36% )%s v%'-5#l%s !ser)%s
!% se# )ev)% '%!"e;"%, s"% /, "$ #$ e;e$*l% *ara 'a)a vare)a)e se$!"'a. Se$ ss%,
!6% *res"ar6% 5%!s serv3%s. E$ $#"%s )%s !%ss%s )'%!-r%s !6% a*are'er- % +#a)r% +#e
)a$%s a'$a, a *r%*8s"% )e ca2ea. E al&#$s !e$ se+#er "ra2e$ a l%'#36%, "6% '%rre!"e,
per!er a ca2ea, *%r ser '%!s)era)a, al-s se$ ra26%, #$ &al's$%.
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1Q

E$ '%!'l#s6%= *%)ere$%s ar$ar +#e - "a!"as *alavras +#a!"as as s&!'a3<es. E$


&ra$-"'a, 'a$a$(se *om%'mas as *alavras +#e "$ %r$a &#al, $as se )s"a!'a$ *el%
se!")%. E;e$*l%= pe%a "e$ *el% $e!%s, +#a"r% s&!'a)%s=

a- A pe%a a)$r-vel )a+#ele es'r"%r7 2- O *-ssar% )e;%# 'ar #$a pe%a c- % '%!)e!a)%
a pe%a $a%r7 !- É pe%a +#e !6% v-sH

O se!")% )vers% / )a)%, 9- *ela !a"#ral ev%l#36% )as *alavras, 9- *%r+#e !%s )%s
*r$er%s 'as%s % v%'-5#l% "e$ #$a %r&e$ )% la"$ p'%%a- e !%s )%s l"$%s "e$ %#"ra
)% la"$ poe%a-. E$ ca2ea "%)%s %s e;e$*l%s "$ a $es$a %r&e$7 $as % res#l"a)% ve$
a ser % $es$%= a+#eles )%2e 'as%s '"a)%s s6% ")%s *%r +#e$ ala %# es'reve '%$%
*alavras )e se!")% )ere!"e.

. O !s"!"% e"$%l8&'%. ( A e;*l%ra36% )% se!")% %r&!-r% )as *alavras a2 *ar"e, '%$%
)sse$%s, )#$a )s'*l!a 'a$a)a et'molo3'a. Essa %*era36% / )e !)s'#":vel
$*%r"!'a *ara a '!'a )a l!&#a&e$ e a"/ *ara a s"8ra )as 'vl2a3<es, *%r+#e >
%r&e$ )as *alavras *%)e$ *re!)er(se a'"%s s"8r'%s e s%'as )e &ra!)e !"eresse. Mas
#$a '%sa / '!'a, %#"ra '%sa es"l%. ?#a!)% es'reve$%s %# ala$%s, *%#'% %# !a)a !%s
$*%r"a % se!")% *assa)% )%s v%'-5#l%s, a s#a s"8ra7 s8 a*ree!)e$%s )a *alavra a+#l%
+#e / a'"#al. E )e$as, esse se!")% e"$%l8&'%, se %sse a*r%ve"a)%, la!3ara #$a
e;"ra%r)!-ra '%!#s6% s%5re %s e!8$e!%s )a l!&#a&e$.

Al&#$s e;e$*l%s v6% el#')ar % le"%r. S#*%!a$%s +#e al&#/$, '%!e'e)%r )% &re&%,
es'reva= O *%v% "ala!% / #$ *%v% *'pcr'ta.' ?#era ele )2er '%$ a s#a, #$)a)% !a
e"$%l%&a   a'"%r, +#e %s "ala!%s s6% !a"#ral$e!"e a'"%res, &%s"a$ )a e;536%
es*e'"a'#lar. C%$% *%r/$ a *alavra "e$ %9e #$ se!")% $#"% )ere!"e, % $al(a)a)%
ele!s"a arrs'ava(se a !6% ser '%$*ree!))% e a '%sa a!)a
#-

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

*%r
a #$l *a:s
a seres"ra!&er%.
!'%$%)a)% *elas a#"%r)a)es '%!s#lares %# )*l%$-"'as "ala!as, *%r %e!sas

O#"r% e;e$*l%= ?#a!)% a*el)a$%s al&#/$ )e marec*al, l&a$%s > *alavra #$a al":ss$a
s&!'a36% %!%r:'a= % *%!"% $as al"% )a erar+#a $l"ar. O e"$%l%&s"a, e!r%!a)%
e$ se#s es"#)%s, v as '%sas )e %#"r% $%)%= se$ *er)er )e vs"a % s&!'a)% a'"#al, s%5e
> %r&e$ e %5serva '%$ #$ s%rrs% +#e a *alavra, e$ se#s '%$e3%s, +#era a*e!as )2er
s"%, 5e$ $%)es"% *%r 'er"%= e!'arre&a)% )a 'avalar3aH

!al$e!"e, '%!s)ere$%s a *alavra co'ta!o, "6% *%r"#&#esa, "6% re*rese!"a"va )% !%ss%


5ra!)% $%)% )e ser. ?#a!)% a *r%er$%s, al#)$%s a al&#/$ +#e / *%5re, %# !el2, a
+#e$ a v)a !6% '%rre 5e$. P%s a *alavra, !a s#a %r&e$, !% "e$*% )%s "r%va)%res,
a*l'ava(se es*e'al$e!"e a% !a$%ra)% +#e '#r"a )%res *%r s#a )a$a. V6% l- *e!sar %9e

l-H +#a!)% se avs"a #$ $e!)&% a!)ra9%s%, a +#e$ se )2, )a!)% es$%la= )o'ta!o, "%$e
!ss%,

Ve$%s *%s +#e as *alavras "$ #$ '#r%s% r%$a!'e s"8r'%. É !s"r#"v% '%!e'(l%,
se$ )v)a7 $as !#$'a )eve$%s es+#e'er a %5r&a36% e$ +#e es"a$%s )e e$*re&ar a
*alavra !% se# se!")% a'"#al. O $%"v% *%r +#e %s l8l%&%s, %s &ra$-"'%s, %s %$e!s
$#"% er#)"%s es'reve$ $al / &eral$e!"e es"e= !6% "$ *rese!"e e res'% % se!"$e!"% )a
l:!&#a )e %9e. As *alavras ev%'a$(les re*rese!"a3<es *assa)as, '%!%r$es > s#a
e"$%l%&a. De $%)% +#e, +#a!)% es'reve$, / #$ *asse% '%!s"a!"e *el%s )%$:!%s )a
a!"&#)a)e. A s#a $a!era )e es'rever "ra2 *%r ss% $es$% #$ 'er% a 5a%. É #$ es"l%
*re"e!s%s% e avele!"a)%, $#"% e$ v%&a !as a'a)e$as.

C%!"#)%, *ara #$a '%sa / "l % '%!e'$e!"% )a e"$%l%&a e )a s"8ra )as *alavras=
*ara a le"#ra )e
'm2ec'l'!a!e !"el&e!"e )%s a#"%res
s#a !a"#re2a a!"&%s. ?#a!)%
!6% )es'%!ava, *%r+#er. L#:s )es#as
'%!e'a S%#sa es'reve=
%r3as4 Da +#e
( !%"a$%s
'm2ec'l'!a!e es"- al !%

se!")% e"$%l8&'%, la"!%= ra+#e2a4. Sera err8!e% a"r5#r > e;*ress6% % s&!'a)%
a'"#al= *arv%:'e4. ?#a!)% #$ %#"r% &ra!)e 'l-ss'%, D. ra!'s'% Ma!#el )e Mel%,
es'reve a res*e"% )as s#as )artas $am'l'ares: *%r "%)as '!"la % +#e;#$e, a*esar )a
mo!ést'a, +#e *r%'#ra e$5ara3-(l% e )es$e!"(l%4 ( "ere$%s )e a"r5#r a mo!ést'a %
s&!'a)% a!"&% )e $e))a4, "e$*era!3a !% s%r$e!"%4, res&!a36%4.

Os 5%!s )'%!-r%s )evera$ "ra2er "%)as es"as s&!'a3<es, $as *%r ve2es ala$. E as
e)3<es )%s Cl-ss'%s )evera$ ser '#)a)%sa$e!"e a!%"a)as e a*%!"ar es"as vara3<es
se$!"'as. Se ass$ %sse, % le"%r *%)era ee'"va$e!"e '%$*ree!)er %s !%ss%s a#"%res
a!"&%s, a*re'-(l%s e a*r%ve"-(l%s !% +#e "$ )e a*r%ve"-vel, se$ *er&% )e ass$lar #$
es"l% +#e 9- !6% / )e !%ss%s )as.
.

O VOCABULÁRIO PORTUU!"

N% 'a*:"#l% a!"er%r v$%s '%$% #$a *alavra $#)a )e s&!'a36%, '%!%r$e %s )ere!"es
'%!"e;"%s e$ +#e
v-ras *alavras a!)a
*ara a&r#*a)a.'%!%r$e
se e;*r$r Va$%s ver
%s a&%ra '%$% #$as*e'"%s.
se#s vara)%s '%!'e"%, #$a )ea, a)$"e

1. Pl#ral)a)e )%s $e%s )e e;*ress6%. (Per&#!"e$%s, *%r e;e$*l%, a #$ a$&% % +#e


s&!'a a *alavra '%tel'3e%te. L%&% !%s res*%!)er-, se$ es"ar, *r%'#ra!)% e;*l'ar %
"er$% *%r %#"r%s v%'-5#l%s %# l%'#3<es )e se!")% se$ela!"e = Y(Y É % $es$% +#e
esportes, */2'l, e%te%!e!or !as co'sas, >ue as compree%!e 2em, >ue l*es pe%etra o se%t'!o,
>ue tem ol*o, e"'. Clar% +#e 'a)a #$a )es"as e;*ress<es "e$ % se# val%r, $as "%)as se
a&r#*a$ !% es*:r"% e$ v%l"a )a )ea &eral, +#e as '%$*ree!)e a "%)as= '%tel'3?%c'a.

P%r"a!"%, +#e$ es'reve e +#e$ ala "e$ > s#a )s*%s36%, *ara "ra)#2r e;a'"a$e!"e %
*e!sa$e!"%, s/res )e *alavras, l&a)as *%r #$ se!")% '%$#$, +#e a'%)e$ a% es*:r"%,
*ara as !e'ess)a)es )e e;*ress6%. ?#a!)% se ev%'a #$a )elas, s#'e)e &eral$e!"e '%$%
+#a!)% se '%le$
e!"re s *%r 'ere9as=
#$a !%36% v$ as
'%$#$, %#"ras
)-(se a"r-s.)eA s'%%'mos.
% !%$e es"as *alavras %# $%)%s )e )2er, l&a)%s

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 

Es"a$%s ve!)% a e;"ra%r)!-ra $*%r"!'a )% se# es"#)% e )a s#a *r-"'a *ara a "/'!'a )a
re)a'36%. '%$ ee"%, a ar"e )e es'rever re*%#sa esse!'al$e!"e !a es'%la )% "er$% 9#s"%
*ara a e;*ress6% )as !%ssas )eas e )%s !%ss%s se!"$e!"%s. P%r %#"ras *alavras= s8
es'revere$%s 5e$, +#a!)%, !a s/re s!%!:$'a, es'%ler$%s a *alavra %# % &r#*% )e
*alavras +#e $el%r se a9#s"a$ >+#l% +#e +#ere$%s e;*r$r. É !essa es'%la +#e res)e,
e$ &ra!)e *ar"e, % se&re)% )% es"l%.

. F- %# !6% s!8!$%s @ ( Se e!"e!)er$%s *%r s!8!$%s as *alavras +#e "$ se!")%


se$ela!"e, *are')%, / ev)e!"e +#e e;s"e$ s!8!$%s. A&%ra, se '%!s)erar$%s, '%$%
a2a s#*%r a &ra$-"'a a%t'3a,, +#e s!8!$%s s6% as *alavras +#e "$ % $es$% se!")%,
e$ 5reve !%s '%!ve!'ere$%s )e +#e ss% / $*%ss:vel. P%)e$ #$a $es$a )ea, #$
$es$% a'"%, #$ $es$% %59e'"% "er !%$es )ere!"es7 esses !%$es !6% s6%, !6% *%)e$ ser
e;a'"a$e!"e e+#vale!"es, '%$% !6% s6% !e$ *%)e$ ser e+#vale!"es as %las )a $es$a
-rv%re. P%)er(se(- %59e'"ar '%$ s"%= - !%$es )e *la!"as, #"e!s:l%s, *r%)#"%s v-r%s, +#e
a)+#re$ )ere!"e !%$e!'la"#ra, '%!%r$e as "erras )% Pa:s. P%r e;e$*l%, *ara )es&!ar
as a3ul*as )% *!er% e$ P%r"#&al= caruma, sar%a, 2ra%(a, 2'cos, p'cos, e"'. É 'er"%7 $as
*%r ss% $es$% +#e se re*ar"e$ *%r "erras )ere!"es, 'a)a s:"% %# re&6% a)%*"a #$ s8
v%'-5#l% e$ *re9#:2% )%s %#"r%s, &eral$e!"e )es'%!e')%s.

A $es$a '%sa )es&!a(se &eral$e!"e *%r #$a s8 *alavra, e$ 'er"a re&6% e e$ 'er"% $e%.
P%)e, a% *r!':*%, )ar(se % 'as% )e )#as %# $as *alavras )es&!are$ % $es$% %59e'"%. E
#$ $%$e!"% #&a27 l%&% % es*:r"% rea&e *ara )es"r#r % *er&%s% e+#l:5r%, !"r%)#2!)%
'a$5a!"es )e se!")%, *r%$%ve!)% a )vers'a36%.

As %r$as )ver&e!"es. (A es"e res*e"%, / %$"% el#')a"v% % "ra"a$e!"% )a)% *ela l:!&#a
>s %r$as 'a$a)as


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

)ver&e!"es. Ca$a$(se $ormas !'er3e%tes as *alavras %r#!)as )e #$ $es$% "er$%


la"$, -ra5e, &re&%, e"'., +#e se )ere!3ara$ )e*%s, *%r $%"v% )a ev%l#36% %!/"'a.
Es"6% !es"e 'as%, e!"re %#"ras= ae'a ( ae%a are'a ( are%a 2ola ( 2ula ca!e'ra ( c/te!ra
cal!o ( c/l'!o c*e'o"ple%o c*or7o ( $lor7o catar ( captar crosta ( crusta !el3a!o

( !el'ca!o e%sosso ( '%sulso '%te'ro ( %te3ro la3oa

( lacuma me'3o ( m/3'co ra7o ( ra(7o solte'ro " sol't/r'o tra'7o ( tra!'7o, e"'.

A)$"!)% +#e es"as *alavras "vesse$ s)% al&#$ "e$*% s!8!$as ( !6% % sera$, *%r+#e
#$a re!ava !%s $e%s '#l"%s, %#"ra !%s $e%s *%*#lares ( l%&% se )ere!3ara$ )e )versa
$a!era, '%$% se es"- ve!)%. E$ al&#$s 'as%s, % "er$% l"er-r% a)%*"%# #$ se!")%
es*e'al2a)%, e;.= are%a, c/te!ra, crusta, %te3ro. N%#"r%s 'as%s % % "er$% *%*#lar +#e se
)esv%# )% se!")% %r&!-r%, e;.= 2ola, c*or7o, catar, me'3o, ra7o, solte'ro.

Pel% +#e )2 res*e"% > !"e!s)a)e )as )ere!3as e!"re %s )%s se!")%s, %5serva$%s +#e a
)ver&!'a va )% $:!$% a% $-;$%. E$ c*e'o"ple%o, a )ere!3a / !s&!'a!"e,
*%)e!)% a"/ )2er(se +#e as )#as *alavras a'#sa$ % $es$% se!")%. S$*les$e!"e, #$a /
#sa)a !a l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e +c*e'o-, %#"ra !a l!&#a&e$ l"er-ra ( e !6% se$*re +ple%o-.
Es"a l"$a "e$ #$ ar als%, *re"e!s%s%, +#e, *%r ss% $es$%, / )% a&ra)% )%s
*r!'*a!"es. E!$, s6% "er$%s #sa)%s e$ 'r'#$s"!'as )ere!"es e 5as"a esse a'"%
*ara %s "%$ar )es&#as.

A"rav/s )e vara!"es !"er$e)-ras, as %r$as )ver&e!"es al'a!3ara$ % $-;$% )e )esv%


se$!"'% s"% /, )e se!")% e$ tra'7o " tra!'7o. É +#ase !'r:vel +#e #$a $es$a
*alavra *#)esse "er &era)% a'e*3<es "6% )versas7 $as % 'as% )e#(se, '%$% va$%s ver.
ra!'7o % #$ vel% "er$% )e 'ar-'"er 9#r:)'%, '#9% s&!'a)% era= e!"re&a,
"ra!s$ss6% )e +#al+#er '%sa a %#"re$.4 Na *assa&e$ )% la"$ *ara % *%r"#&#s, %
v%'-5#l% *er)e# a+#ele ! e!"re

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

v%&as e '%$e3%# )e s&!'ar %#"ra '%sa= a e!"re&a, a "ra!s$ss6% )#$ se&re)% :!"$%,
$l"ar, *%l:"'%, %# )#$a %r"ale2a, vla, e"'.4. V(se *%s '%$% )a s$*les )ea
#$)a$e!"al )e e!"re&a4, "ra!s$ss6%4, se e!&e!)r%# % s&!'a)% $%ral )e "ra36%4,
!)el)a)e4, )esleal)a)e4. ra'7o *%)era )e!r(se '%$% e!"re&a )esleal4.

ra!'7o "a$5/$ se&## % se# r#$%, "a$5/$ "%$%# #$ se!")% $%ral. Pass%# a s&!'ar
a "ra!s$ss6% )e a'"%s s"8r'%s, ss"e$as, le!)as, e"'., )e )a)e e$ )a)e, se$ *r%va
a#"!"'a %# es'r"a, *r%v!)% )a "ra!s$ss6% %ral %# )e -5"%s !ve"era)%s4. C%*a$%s a
)e!36% )a)a *%r C!))% )e &#ere)% !% Fe>ue%o D'c'o%/r'o !a L%3ua Fortu3uesa.
C%$% ve$%s, e !6% %5s"a!"e #$a '%$*l'a)a ev%l#36% se$!"'a, l- es"- 5e$ vs:vel a!)a
a )ea %r&!-ra )e "ra!s$ss6%4.
E$ '%!'l#s6%= *%)ere$%s %r$#lar es"a re&ra, )e a'%r)% '%$ %s $as re'e!"es
!ves"&a)%res )a l!&#a&e$ e )% es"l%= D%s e!8$e!%s )e e;*ress6% !#$'a s6%
e;a'"a$e!"e &#as4. O le"%r es"- ve!)% as '%!se+#!'as )es"e *r!':*%. N6% se *%)e r
a% )'%!-r% es'%ler $as %# $e!%s > "%a %s s&!'a)%s, '%$% a2e$ &eral$e!"e %s
*r!'*a!"es. O a'"% )- %r&e$ a ver)a)er%s '%!"ra(se!s%s. Ca)a *alavra, e$ )a)%
$%$e!"%, / *%r"a)%ra )e #$ se!")%, +#e a)+#re es*e'al relev% !% '%!"e;"%. N6% *%)e
*%s 5aralar(se
ar$a2/!s '%$ as
)e *alavras %#"ras.
+#e s6% %sA)'%!-r%s,
ar"e )% es"l%%s'%!ss"e e$ es'%ler,
"er$%s 9#s"%s, +#e 6%!esses
)e )ar&ra!)es
%r$a e '%r
a%s !%ss%s *e!sa$e!"%s.

*. Como %asem os si%/%imos. 0  2om )e ver +#e

!e$ "%)%s %s '%!'e"%s se *res"a$ )e &#al $%)% > *r%)#36% )e s!8!$%s. De #$ $%)%
&eral, as *alavras '%!'re"as *res"a$(se $e!%s >s vara3<es s!%!:$'as. Se *r%'#rar$%s !%
)'%!-r% %s e+#vale!"es )e t'%te'ro, /3ua, c*ae, calas, porta, vere$%s +#e es"es "er$%s
!6% "$ *r%*ra$e!"e s!8!$%s. Os )'%!ars"as '%!"e!"a$(se '%$ a s#a )e!36%
#3

M. RODRIUE"4LAPA

*%r $e% )e *er:rases e a'res'e!"a$ al&#$as l%'#3<es e$ +#e a *alavra "e$ 'a5$e!"%, '%$ #$
se!")% $as %# $e!%s )ere!"e. P%r e;e$*l%, *ara t'%te'ro, % Fe>ue%o D'c'o%/r'o a*rese!"a
a*e!as s"%= Pe+#e!% vas% *ara '%!"er "!"a )e es'rever. U"e!s:l% )e es'r"8r% '%$ #$ %# $as
vas%s *ara "!"a )e es'rever.4 Real$e!"e % v%'-5#l% !6% se *res"a a $as7 )e!"'a(se *%r s
*r8*r%,
"!"a. '%!e'e(se *ela *r8*ra re*rese!"a36% +#e s#&ere, se$*re a $es$a= #$ re'*e!"e *ara

O#"ras *alavras -, '%!'re"as e$5%ra, +#e $*l'a$ vara)as %r$as, +#e v6% )% "er$% "/'!'%,
'e!":'%, a"/ >s e;*ress<es $as 5a;as )a &:ra *%*#lar= ap?%!'ce %asal
( %ar'( ( pe%ca ( ve!"as7 ( a2!me% ( e%tre ( 2arr'3a "pa%a, e"'. Ve$%s *%s +#e - !%3<es *%5res
e !%3<es r'as, !a l!&#a&e$7 #$as '%!"e!"a$(se '%$ #$a s8 *alavra, %#"ras, s#&er!)% !%vas
re*rese!"a3<es e$ "%$% )% %59e'"% %# )a )ea *r$"va, &era$ #$a a$:la !#$er%sa )e
s!8!$%s.

C%$*ree!)e(se +#e #$ )%s *r!'*as &era)%res )e s!8!$%s se9a a vare)a)e )% e$*re&% )a


$es$a '%sa, se&#!)% %s )ere!"es $e%s s%'as. Para *r%va )ss%, )-(se &eral$e!"e es"e e;e$*l%=
% )!er% re'e5)% e$ "r%'a )a *res"a36% )e serv3%s "e$ vara):ss$as )es&!a3<es, '%!%r$e a
es'ala s%'al )a *ess%a +#e % re'e5e= *o%or/r'os, or!e%a!o, me%sal'!a!e, sol!o, pré, sal/r'o, $ér'a,
e"'. Sera e;"re$a$e!"e re*ar-vel e !'%rre'"% )2er(se=
1. O $a9%r re'e5e# % pré.

. O sal/r'o )% $!s"r% / &ra!)e.

É +#e as *alavras ev%'a$ %s $e%s s%'as e$ +#e s6% &eral$e!"e e$*re&a)as, e !6% se *%)e
'%!#!)r % se# #s%, se$ !%s e;*%r$%s a &raves $al(e!"e!))%s. O "er$% pré le$5ra l%&% %
a$5e!"e $l"ar )%s s%l)a)%s e sar&e!"%s, sal/r'o s#&ere #$a 'lasse es*e'al= a )%s *e+#e!%s
serv3as.
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

#7

Is"% /, as *alavras e %s s!8!$%s, s6% #$ es*el% )a s%'e)a)e= "a$5/$ se )v)e$ e$ 'lasses. N%


'a$*% )2(se= comer uma t'3ela !e CALDO 7 !a ')a)e= comer um prato !e SOPA. Ve$. a )ar !a
$es$a7 $as % cal!o s#&ere % 'a$*8!%, a sopa / *r8*ra )% %$e$ )a ')a)e.

+. O e8$emismo. ( Es"e $es$% se!"$e!"% )as '%!ve!!'as s%'as leva(!%s $#"as ve2es a
a"e!#ar a )#re2a e a ra!+#e2a )e 'er"as e;*ress<es, +#e ev%'a$ $a&e!s &r%sseras %#
)esa&ra)-ves. Cer"%s "er$%s +#e e;*r$e$ a $%r"e, % #r"%, a e$5ra&#e2, a )%"a, a $e!"ra,
e"'., re+#ere$ eu$em'smos, s"% /, $e%s e;*ressv%s +#e a)%3a$ a 5r#"al)a)e %# a !'%!ve!!'a
s%'al )esses "er$%s. Para % %$e$, !a)a $as "err:vel )% +#e a $%r"e. P%s 5e$, !a v)a s%'al, %
v%'-5#l% +#e )e!e a )ea *#ra ( morrer, / s#av2a)% *el%s se&#!"es e#e$s$%s= $alecer, ep'rar,
!ec'!'r, aca2ar, perecer, 'r para o céu, $'%ar"se, $ec*ar os ol*os, e%tre3ar a alma a Deus, passar"se,
e"'. T#)% e;*ress<es +#e *r%'#ra$ a"e!#ar a eal)a)e )% %rr:vel "ra!se. E +#a!)% se a!#!'a !%
9%r!al a $%r"e )e al&#/$, *ess%a 'a"8l'a e )e 5%$("%$, a s#a a$:la !6% es'reve, se'a e
"rval$e!"e, morreu, $as s$ #$ l%!&% 'r'#!l8+#% e#e$:s"'%= o' Deus ser'!o c*amar B sua
!''%a prese%a ula%o !e tal.

O e$*re&% )% e#e$s$% "a$5/$ 'ara'"er2a 'er"as 'a$a)as s%'as. A #$ %$e$ )a *le5e +#e
'%$e"e #$ # "%, as &a2e"as !6% es"a$ e$ e;*r%5rar a% la!r7o, a% 3atumo, % rou2o +#e *ra"'%#7
$as se #$ %$e$ )a al"a s%'e)a)e '%$e"e# % $es$% 'r$e, e!"6% %s re)a'"%res a)%3a$
servl$e!"e a rase e es'reve$= !es'o !e $um!os, $rau!e, alca%ce, e"'. O *%v% %5serv%#
*ere"a$e!"e es"a !9#s"3a e e2 s%5re ela #$ *r%v/r5% a)$r-vel= ?#e$ r%#5a #$ *6%, /
la!r7o +#e$ r%#5a #$ $l6%, / 2ar7o6.

U$ %$e$ )% *%v% !6% se em2r'a3a ss% / *r8*r% )a &e!"e !a7 % *le5e# em2e2e!a"se, e,
e$*re&a!)% "er$%s )e &:ra *%*#lar, toma a carraspa%a, o p'$7o, o p'le>ue, $'ca


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

3rosso, col*e a trompa &:ra &ale&a, e"'. Se !#$ sal6% ars"%'r-"'% se %#vsse$ es"es
!%$es, as se!%ras '%rara$ )e !)&!a36%7 se !#$a vela )e Ala$a, e$ Ls5%a, al&#/$
*r%!#!'asse % v%'-5#l% em2r'a3ar, era a*#*a)% e es'ar!e')%( 'as% ver)a)era$e!"e %
e!"e!)esse$.

O '%!seler% A'-'%, a a$%sa 'ar'a"#ra )e E3a )e ?#er%2, '%!e'a 5e$ % val%r )%


e#e$s$% e e$*re&ava(% '%!s"a!"e$e!"e. D2 )ele % es'r"%r= N#$'a #sava *alavras
"rvas7 !6% )2a om'tar, a2a #$ &es"% !)'a"v% e e$*re&ava rest'tu'r6. A"/ %s la)r<es
e!"re s #sa$ % e#e$s$%, '%$% a+#ele ra"%!er% )#$a !%vela )e Cas"ela%, +#e s#av2%#
% "er$% rou2ar e$ apa%*ar: Cer"a !%"e )e 'a$!% *r%*#;% Barr%"e +#e %sse! apa%*ar
#as &al!as4.
( Os !ous !e sempre, l.a e)., *-&. K.

P%)e *%r"a!"% )2er(se +#e - !a l!&#a&e$ #$a )ss$#la36%, #$a es*/'e )e *%'rsa (
% rele;% )e "%)as as a"e!#a3<es, "ra!s&!'as e )es&#al)a)es +#e a v)a s%'al, '%$% es"-
'%!s""#:)a, !%s $*<e.

. As s/res s!%!:$'as. ( Ve9a$%s a&%ra *ra"'a$e!"e % *r%5le$a )a s&!'a36% )%s


s!8!$%s, %s se#s $a"2es )ere!'as. Para es"#)ar %s s!8!$%s "e$%s %s )'%!-r%s
v#l&ares, +#e "ra2e$, a*8s a )e!36%, %s v%'-5#l%s %# e;*ress<es e+#vale!"es7 $as '%$%
as *alavras a)+#re$ !% '%!"e;"% as s&!'a3<es $as )versas, se&#e(se +#e a '%!s#l"a
)%s )'%!-r%s '%rre!"es !6% serve *ara % es"#)% )%s s!8!$%s. O a'"% )e esses
)'%!-r%s !6% "ra2ere$ % v%'-5#l% !ser)% !a rase a!)a a&rava a +#es"6%, "%$a!)% a
'%!s#l"a *er&%sa *ara % *r!'*a!"e.

U$ e;e$*l%= Pr%'#re$%s !% Fe>ue%o D'c'o%/r'o, )e C!))% )e &#ere)%, a r#5r'a


!e'ar. Ve$%s +#e a *alavra "e$ as se&#!"es s&!'a3<es= separar"se !e la%ar !e s'
lar3ar, pHr !e la!o a2a%!o%ar perm't'r cessar res'st'r a!'ar ce!er om't'r. N%"e(se, )e
*assa&e$, +#e res'st'r é err% "*%&r-'%, e$ ve2 )e !es'st'r. Ass$ ve$ !a l.a e)(

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

Q

'6% )% oo D'c'o%/r'o )% $es$% a#"%r. Os $%)er!%s revs%res )%s )%s )'%!-r%s !6%
)era$ *el% err%, +#e ass$ se % ra)'a!)% e *assa!)% a %#"r%s, es"a!)% '%!"#)% 9-
'%rr&)% !a 1K.a e)36%.

Re*ara!)% *ara % se!")% )a+#eles )ere!"es "er$%s, ver'a(se +#e e;s"e$ v-ras s/res
)e s&!'a3<es, )&a$%s, v-ras s/res s!%!:$'as, s"% /, &r#*%s )e *alavras
s#5%r)!a)as a #$ se!")% '%$#$=

1. De;ar, se*arar(se )e, lar&ar7 . De;ar, a)ar7


. De;ar, *er$"r7 . De;ar, 'e)er7

. De;ar, 'essar, )ess"r7 . De;ar, %$"r.

Is"% /, ver)a)era$e!"e a *alavra !e'ar, "al '%$% a e!'%!"ra$%s !%s *e+#e!%s )'%!-r%s,
a)$"e e$ s ses s/res s!%!:$'as *el% $e!%s. Se *r%'#rar$%s !#$ )'%!-r% &ra!)e,
a)$"r- $#"as $as. N%"e(se +#e se - s/res !")a$e!"e )ere!'a)as '%$% a l.a e a .a,
a*%)e
.a eaver
a .a,#$a
a .arela36%
e a .a,)e9-s&!'a)%,
!6% s#'e)e e% e!"re
$es$% '%$ a.a,
!es'st'r l.a e a!'ar .a ece!er
a .a E!"re e lar3ar
lar3ar l.a
"a$5/$ !6% ser- $#"% ):'l a'ar #$a )ea '%$#$, se !%s a*l'ar$%s a ss%.

P%r '%!se+#!'a, %s )'%!-r%s '%rre!"es !6% s6% #$ !s"r#$e!"% '8$%)% *ara a *es+#sa
)%s s!8!$%s, *%r+#e 5arala$ as s/res e !6% e!+#a)ra$ % "er$% !% se# '%!"e;"%, %!)e
al'a!3a a ver)a)era s&!'a36%. Para re$e)ar esse $al 2era$(se %s )'%!-r%s )e
s!8!$%s. A: a*are'e ee'"va$e!"e a s/re, e )e!"r% )a s/re % s!%!$s"a
e!&e!a(se e$ )es'%5rr as )ere!3as )e se!")%.

O )'%!-r% )e s!8!$%s $as 'ele5r2a)% +#e "e$%s / % vel% D'c'o%/r'o !os s'%%'mos,
poét'co e !e eptetos !a l%3ua portu3uesa )e R%+#e"e e %!se'a. Te$ ")% $#"as e)3<es
e$ P%r"#&al e Brasl. É #$ !s"r#$e!"% a!"+#a)%, !'%$*le"%, +#e *a)e'e )%s )ee"%s )e
"%)a essa
*-

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

es*/'e )e "ra"a)%s= a *re%'#*a36% )a e"$%l%&a e )% #s% 'l-ss'% )a l:!&#a, se$ "er e$


'%!"a % se# #s% '%rre!"e, *%*#lar. É #$a '%!s"r#36% ar"'al, )e re)#2)% val%r, e +#e !6%
/ "l $e"er !as $6%s )e *r!'*a!"es. Mal *%r $al, a!"es %s )'%!-r%s '%$#$s. M#"%
$el%r )% +#e ele "e$%s a&%ra % D'c'o%/r'o !e S'%%'mos )e A!"e!%r Nas'e!"es, +#e *%)e
*res"ar 5%!s serv3%s a% es"#)%s%, +#a!)% $a!#sea)% '%$ )s'er!$e!"% e se$ es*:r"% )e
r&%r ss"e$-"'%.

3. Va(or se%&ime%&a( e i%&e(e&8a( 'as pa(a)ras. 0 Em

*rese!3a )as '%sas, % !%ss% es*:r"% rea&e )a se&#!"e $a!era= %# as perce2e %# as se%te.
?#ase se$*re es"as )#as %*era3<es, a *er'e*36% e % se!"$e!"% a!)a$ l&a)as, $as, *%r
va )e re&ra, e$ *r%*%r3<es )ere!"es. Pra"'a$e!"e - %59e'"%s +#e )es*er"a$ $as a
!%ssa !"el&!'a, %#"r%s +#e '%'a$ $as a !%ssa se!s5l)a)e. Ass$ "a$5/$ as
*alavras= #$as "$ #$a )%$!a!"e ae'"va, %#"ras #$a )%$!a!"e !"ele'"#al. Ve9a$%s
#$ e;e$*l%=

1. O lavra)%r !e'ou a 'asa e e!'a$!%#(se *ara % "ra5al%.

. Os l%s, 'e%s )e %$e, a2a%!o%aram a 'asa *a"er!a.

L&a)%s *%r #$ '%!'e"% '%$#$, a se*ara36%4, a+#eles )%s ver5%s !e'ar e a2a%!o%ar
!6% "$ % $es$% val%r. N% *r$er% 'as%, a se*ara36% e2(se !%r$al$e!"e, se$
s%5ressal"% ae'"v%7 "area )e "%)%s %s )as, e"a a r%, $al ra a% lavra)%r se, )e 'a)a ve2
+#e )e;ava a 'asa, se *#sesse a '%rar )e sa#)a)e %# )e $-&%a. N% se&#$)% 'as%, % ver5%
a2a%!o%ar es"- 9- *e!e"ra)% )e se!"$e!"%, "e$ #$a s%5re'ar&a ae'"va +#e !6% "!a %
%#"r%= %s l%s )e;ara$ a 'asa *a"er!a com !esespero, com !or e ra'a. F-
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

*1

*ess%as ( %s *#rs"as )a l:!&#a ( +#e se er&#e$ a!)a %9e '%!"ra % e$*re&% )% ver5%
a2a%!o%ar, *%r ser #$ &al's$%. É 'er"% +#e % v%'-5#l% !%s ve% )% ra!'s, $as -
s/'#l%s +#e / #sa)% !a l:!&#a, e '%rres*%!)e, '%$% a'a5-$%s )e ver, a #$a !e'ess)a)e )e
e;*ress6%. De'ar !6% s&!'a % $es$% +#e a2a%!o%ar. É s"% +#e %s *#rs"as !6% ve$.
L%&%, !#$a s/re )e s!8!$%s - *alavras +#e e;*r$e$ s%5re"#)% #$a )ea, %#"ras +#e
e;*r$e$ s%5re"#)% #$ se!"$e!"%. É "area )el'a)a, *%r ve2es, a )s'r$!a36% )es"es
)%s ele$e!"%s7 !6% rar%, / a"/ $*%ss:vel a2er essa )s"!36%7 $as esse es%r3% /
!)s*e!s-vel a +#e$ +#era es'rever 5e$. Va$%s )ar !%r$as e e;e$*l%s, +#e a#;lar6% %
!"eressa)% !esse "ra5al%.

7. O &ermo i'e%&i$ia'or. ( Ve9a$%s es"as rases=

a- O l#"a)%r er&#e#(se, 2elo '%$% #$a es"-"#a.


2- Era$ )#as ra*ar&as, +#al )elas a $as $ormosa.

c- S$*les e l'%!a, a !%va sa:a )a &re9a.

a La#ra "ra2a #$ 2o%'to ves")% )e se)a a2#l.

Te$%s
$ormosa,a+# #$a2o%'to
l'%!a, s/re s!%!:$'a,
s6% *alavras+#e *%)er:a$%s
real$e!"e a#$e!"ar
#$)as *%r #$'%!s)eravel$e!"e. Jelo, +#e
)!"'% se!")%. A+#ela
re#$r % '%!'e"% '%$#$ a "%)as as %#"ras, +#e *#)er s#5s""#r(se a "%)as elas se$ &ra!)e
*re9#:2% )e s&!'a36%, / 'a$a)a e$ Es"l:s"'a % termo '!e%t'$'ca!or. A esse "er$%
#$)a$e!"al, +#e "ra)#2 a )ea *#ra, '%!)e!sa)a, se reere$ "%)%s %s %#"r%s. É *%s )a
$a%r '%!ve!!'a sa5er ;ar se$*re !#$a s/re % "er$% )e!"'a)%r, "ra5al% al-s !6%
$#"% ):'l, *%r+#e % "er$% )e!"'a)%r /, *%r va )e re&ra, % "er$% &eral, % $as
a5s"ra'"%.


M. RODRIUE" LAPA

N6% /, ee'"va$e!"e, $#"% '#s"%s% )e"er$!ar !es"a s/re #$a !%36% #$)a$e!"al= ( %
'%!'e"% )e 2ele(a, +#e a5ra!&e "%)%s %s %#"r%s= $ormosura, l'%!e(a e 2o%'te(a. Se
+#s/sse$%s, *%)er:a$%s s#5s""#r %s a)9e'"v%s )as al:!eas 2-, c-, !- *el% "er$%
)e!"'a)%r= % se!")% !6% s%ra *re9#:2% )e $a%r, e$5%ra 'asse $as )es5%"a)%, $e!%s
e;*ressv%=
2- Era$ )#as ra*ar&as, +#al )elas a $as 2ela.

c- S$*les e 2ela, a !%va sa:a )a &re9a.

!- Tra2a #$ 2elo ves")% )e se)a a2#l.

Se +#ser$%s a2er % $es$% '%$ %s %#"r%s e;e$*l%s, ve$%s +#e % se!")% 9- !6% 'a "6%
5e$7 e "er:a$%s a"/ #$ ee"% '8$'%, se )ss/sse$%s= O l#"a)%r er&#e#(se, 2o%'to '%$%
#$a es"-"#a4. P%r '%!se+#!'a, / )ee"% e$*re&ar #$%r$e$e!"e, e$ "%)%s %s 'as%s, %
"er$% $as &eral7 e $a%r )ee"% / a!)a 5aralar % e$*re&% )as *alavras )e!"r% )a s/re
s!%!:$'a. Os *r!'*a!"es s6% !a"#ral$e!"e !'l!a)%s a ss%.

Pr%'#re$%s a&%ra )e!r % )ere!"e s&!'a)% )%s ele$e!"%s )a s/re. Ne$ *re'sa$%s
)e re'%rrer a%s )'%!-r%s *ara !6% la!3ar$%s '%!#s6% !% !%ss% es*:r"%. N% *r$er%
e;e$*l%, 2elo s#&ere(!%s a )ea )e *ere36% e )e ar$%!a )e %r$as, e "a$5/$ #$a
'er"a '%!a!3a sere!a !a *r8*ra %r3a. N% se&#!)% e;e$*l%, $ormosa ev%'a a*e!as a
*ere36% )a %r$a :s'a. N% "er'er% e;e$*l%, l'%!a 9- se 'arre&a )#$ %r"e $a"2
se!"$e!"al7 !6% / s8 5ele2a :s'a, / "a$5/$ $$%, "er!#ra, )el'a)e2a )a al$a. E!$,
2o%'to re*rese!"a a )ea )e 5ele2a, )$!#:)a, )es')a a% *la!% )as '%sas a$lares. É
"a$5/$ #$ "er$% ae'"v%, $as $as )e a!)ar(*%r('asa. ?#a!"% a% #s% )%s v%'-5#l%s,
!%"a$%s +#e 2elo é va&a$e!"e l"er-r%, e$5%ra re*rese!"e
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

**

a )ea &eral7 $ormosa é v%'-5#l% +#e s8 se e$*re&a e$ l"era"#ra7 l'%!o *er"e!'e > l:!&#a
'%rre!"e, e 2o%'to *r%*ra$e!"e > l!&#a&e$ a$lar, %!)e a)+#re, a *ar )a )ea )e
5ele2a, #$ 'er"% $a"2 )e 5%!)a)e. E;e$*l%= Os $e!!%s 2o%'tos !6% a2e$ '%sas
)essas4.

. Dere!3as +#a!""a"vas e +#al"a"vas. ( C%!s)ere$%s es"a rase= O '%$*a!er%


"%$%#(se e%$a!o%*o, a2orrec'!o, o!'oso6. A+#ela s/re )e a)9e'"v%s es"- '%l%'a)a
se&#!)% #$a %r)e$ l8&'a, a *r8*ra l8&'a )%s se!"$e!"%s= a avers6% %(se
)ese!v%lve!)% !#$a %r)e$ 'res'e!"e= *r$er%, #$a va&a a!"*a"a, )e*%s, #$
*r%!#$'a)% )esae'"%, *%r $ #$ 8)% )e'lara)%. Clar% +#e !6% *%)er:a$%s !ver"er a
%r)e$ )%s a)9e'"v%s, +#e "$ val%res +#a!""a"v%s )ere!"es.
Ve9a$%s a&%ra es"a )e r. L#:s )e S%#sa=

N6% ava e$ "%)% a+#ele &ra!)e *%v% se!6% me!o, !esor!em, terror e co%$us7o6.

F- !ela )#as s/res s!%!:$'as, ar"s"'a$e!"e e!"rela3a)as= a- me!o ( terror 2- !esor!em


"co%$us7o. Se %5servar$%s % ee"% *r%)#2)% *el%s "er$%s )e #$a e )%#"ra, !%"are$%s +#e
a $*ress6% va 'res'e!)% )e !"e!s)a)e. Na ver)a)e, terror / #$ v%'-5#l% $as !"e!sv%
+#e me!o, )o%$us7o
ar5"rara$e!"e $as !"e!sv%
%s s!8!$%s. +#e !esor!em.
S#*%!a$%s L%&%, +#e$!a+#ela
+#e !ver"er:a$%s sa5e es'rever !6% $s"#ra
rase a %r)e$ )%s
"er$%s s!%!:$'%s=

N6% ava e$ "%)% a+#ele &ra!)e *%v% se!6% terror, co%$us7o, me!o e !esor!em6.
I!'%rrer:a$%s !a 'e!s#ra )e !6% sa5er es'rever, *%!)% % "er$% !"e!sv% a!"es )% %#"r%. O
ee"% es"l:s"'% *er)er(se(a "%"al$e!"e.

F- 'as%s a!)a $as '%$*l'a)%s, e$ +#e a )s*%s36% )as *alavras %5e)e'e a 'er"as
e;&!'as e;*ressvas )% )s'#rs%
*+

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

se&#!"e. Ve9a(se es"e *ass% )e D. ra!'s'% Ma!#el )e Mel%=

Es"ar #$ ')a)6% e$ s#a 'asa )%r$!)%, re3ala!o, se3uro e >u'eto, e$ !%"e "e$*es"#%sa
)e )e2e$5r%, e, a "r%'% )e #$a *e+#e!a $&ala )e *ra"a e %#r%, es"ar % $ser-vel
*es'a)%r l#"a!)% '%$ a $%r"e )#as $ar/s !"eras, *ara le "ra2er )e $a)r#&a)a % &#l%s%
5es#&% %# % *!"a)% sal$%!e"eH4

A %r)e$ )e'res'e!"e )%s a)9e'"v%s 9#s"'a(se a+# *ela a!":"ese +#e se se&#e= l.a ( !%"e
"e$*es"#%sa, $s/ra, )es'%!%r"%7 .a ( l#"a '%!"ra a $%r"e7 .a(a a2-a$a, a 'a!sera )e
*es'ar )#as $ar/s !"eras e )e le "ra2er % *e;e a 'asa. Ve$%s *%s +#e a %r)e$ )%s
v%'-5#l%s % )e"er$!a)a a*r%*ra)a$e!"e *ela %r)e$ )%s ele$e!"%s se&#!"es +#e le
s6% %*%s"%s.

E!$, re*are(se !es"a rase )e errera )e Cas"r%= A v)a s8 e;s"a a"rav/s )% se#
)eses*er%, )% sl!'% e )%s re$%rs%s7 )%s re$%rs%s, )% sl!'% e )% )eses*er%4. A
re*e"36% )%s $es$%s ele$e!"%s !a %r)e$ !versa *r%'#ra )ar, e )- real$e!"e, #$ ee"%
e;*ressv%7 #$ ':r'#l% v'%s%, #$a re*e"36% '%!s"a!"e )e '%sas, e$ +#e a al$a se se!"a
a5aar. A l!&#a&e$ *%*#lar '%!e'e % *r%'ess%, '%$% se v )a+#ele )"% 's"%s%= a%
al$%3% $e )6% *ras, a% 9a!"ar *ras $e )6%, > $ere!)a *6% '%$ *ras, > 'ea *ras '%$
*6%4. O es'r"%r !6% e2 $as )% +#e "ra!s*%r *ara "er$%s )e ar"e #$ $%)% e;*ressv%
e$*re&a)% *el% *%v%.

Ne$ se$*re, '%!"#)%, !#$a s/re )e *alavras )e &#al 'a"e&%ra, se "ra"a )e #$a %r)e$
as'e!)e!"e %# )es'e!)e!"e. E;e$*l% )ss%, % se&#!"e vers% )as )artas )*'le%as ;, ,
a a$%sa s-"ra l#s%(5raslera )% s/'#l% ;v$, )a a#"%ra )e T%$-s A!"8!% G%!2a&a=

Res'stem, 3r'tam, $erem, matam, pre%!em.

Al#)e(se a s%l)a)%s +#e !6% %5e)e'a$ >s %r)e!s )%s 9#2es, )esres*e"a!)% e a&re)!)% %s
%'as )e 9#s"3a +#e
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

*9

os a$ *re!)er. O *r$er% e)"%r, L#:s ra!'s'% )a Ve&a, e!"e!)e# al"erar ass$ a %r)e$
)%s "er$%s= ress"e$, &r"a$, ere$, *re!)e$, $a"a$4. Es"ara ass$ re&#lar2a)a,
ee'"va$e!"e, a %r)e$ as'e!)e!"e )a s/re7 $as % a#"%r % +#e +#s )2er % s"%, $a"a$
%# *re!)e$4, !6% se "ra"a!)% *%s, e$ "%)a a e;"e!s6%, )e #$a %r)e$ as'e!)e!"e.

É )e !%"ar +#e as )ere!3as +#a!""a"vas *%)e$ "er #$ 'ar-'"er $era$e!"e !"ele'"#al,


'%$% uso ( a2uso, mar

( ocea%o, r'2e'ro ( r'o. N6% !"erv/$ !es"as s/res % se!"$e!"%. Mas 9- e$ surpree%!'!o (
espa%ta!o, !c'l"*um'l!e, pe%sar ( c'smar, e"'., a'l$e!"e ve$%s +#e % se&#$)% v%'-5#l%,
% "er$% !"e!sv%, "e$ #$a )%se $a%r )e se!"$e!"%. N% &eral, % +#e *re)%$!a !as s/res
/ a !"e!s)a)e ae'"va7 e / ss% +#e ver)a)era$e!"e $*%r"a *ara a Es"l:s"'a.

Is"%, *el% +#e )2 res*e"% a%s 'ara'"eres +#a!""a"v%s )a e;*ress6%. F- *%r/$ #$a !%36%
+#al"a"va +#e !6% "e$ $e!%r $*%r"!'a. É sa5)% +#e, +#a!)% !%s reer$%s >s '%sas,
a'"%s, )eas, les )a$%s #$ val%r +#e eles e$ s *%)e$ !6% "er, $as +#e reer$%s +#ase
se$*re a !8s *r8*r%s. P%r e;e$*l%, v6% "rs a$&%s a% "ea"r% ver #$a
( K escapatr'a. A'%)e % "er'er%= ( Ac*o uma co'sa '%sp'!a. *e3a. A% sar, e;'la$a um:"
K a!m'r/el D2 % %#"r%= O *r$er% reer#(se > *e3a )e #$ $%)% $el%ra"v%4, %
"er'er% )e #$ $%)% *e9%ra"v%4. O se&#$)% '%l%'%#(se e$ #$ $e%("er$%,
s%rvel$e!"e !e#"ral.

É ass$ % !%ss% *%)er )e a*re'a36%= "e!)e$%s *ara a'ar 5%as %# $-s as '%sas, se&#$)%
!%s 'a#sa$ *ra2er %# )es&%s"%. E es"e a'"% !e'essara$e!"e se -()e rele'"r !a
l!&#a&e$. S#*%!a$%s +#e #la!% v % se# &a)al !$&%, ves")% a *r$%r e $%!"a)%
!#$ s%5er5% 'aval%. D2 l%&% e$ "%$ )e $%a *ara % v2!%= ( Al va a+#ele pe!a%te,
escarra%c*a!o !a s#a p'leca De# #$ se!")% *e9%ra"v% >s s#as re*rese!"a3<es +pe!a%te
e$ ve2 !e 2em est'!o, escarra%c*a!o *%r mo%ta!o, p'leca e$ l#&ar )e caalo-, leva)%
*el% se# se!"$e!"% *ess%al.


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

A l:!&#a es"- 'ea )es"as e;*ress<es, +#e e!'erra$ !#$a s/re s!%!:$'a val%res
$el%ra"v%s %# *e9%ra"v%s= le'to ( catre l/2'o ( 2e'o rel'3'oso ( 2eato $'%o ( ma%*oso
eco%m'co ( aare%to, e"'. É 'lar% +#e as s/res *%)e$ '%!"er $as *alavras, e v-ras )elas
*%)e$ "er #$ se!")% $as %# $e!%s *e9%ra"v%. E;e$*l%= pal/c'o ( solar Y(vve!)a'asa
"par!'e'ro ( case2re"c*oupa%a"tu3r'o"2arraca.
A *r%*8s"% 9#s"a$e!"e )e casa es'reve# E3a #$a *-&!a 'ea )e &ra3a, *%r %'as6% )a
vs"a +#e % I$*era)%r )% Brasl e2 a Fer'#la!% e$ 1. Os 9%r!as !%"'ara$ % 'as% e,
*ara a'e!"#are$ a %!ra *res"a)a *el% s%5era!% a% a#s"er% s"%ra)%r, )$!#:ra$ a
a5"a36% )es"e a *r%*%r3<es :!$as, e$*re&a!)% *e9%ra"v%s l"er-r%s, +#e "$ a+# #$
ee"% )es!a"#ra e '8$'%=
S#a Ma9es"a)e I$*eral vs"%# % Sr. Ale;a!)re Fer'#la!%. O a'"% e$ s / !"era$e!"e !'%!"es"-vel. T%)%s
s%5re ele es"6% a'%r)es, e a Fs"8ra "ra!+#la. N% +#e *%r/$ as %*!<es ra)'al$e!"e )ver&e$ / a'er'a )%
l#&ar e$ +#e se real2%# a vs"a )% I$*era)%r 5rasler% a% s"%ra)%r *%r"#&#s.

O D'/r'o !e otc'as )2 +#e % I$*era)%r % > ma%s7o )% Sr. Fer'#la!%. O D'/r'o Fopular, a% '%!"r-r%,
ar$a +#e % I$*era)%r % a% ret'ro )% %$e$ e$!e!"e +#e... O Sr. Slva Tl%, *%r/$, )e'lara +#e %
I$*era)%r % a% tu3r'o )e Fer'#la!% a!)a +#e l!as )e*%s se '%!"ra)2, '%!essa!)% +#e % I$*era)%r
es"eve real$e!"e !a e2a'!a )% l#s"re s"%ra)%r +#e.... U$a '%rres*%!)!'a *ara #$ 9%r!al )% P%r"%
aa!3a +#e % I$*era)%r % a% apr'sco )% &ra!)e, e"'. O#"ra ve$ "%)ava +#e s#s"e!"a +#e % I$*era)%r % a%
a2r'3o )esse +#e... Al&#$s 9%r!as )e Ls5%a, *%r se# "#r!%, e!s!a$ +#e S#a Ma9es"a)e % a% al2er3ue
)a+#ele +#e... O#"r%s '%!"#)% s#s"e!"a$ +#e S#a Ma9es"a)e % > sol'!7o )% e$!e!"e v#l"% +#e... E #$
l"$% $a!"/$ +#e % $*era!"e % a% el'o )% ve!era!)% ')a)6% +#e...

Ora, !% $e% )s"%, #$a '%#sa "err:vel se !%s a&#ra= / +#e S#a Ma9es"a)e se es+#e'e# )e r s$*les$e!"e >
casa )% Sr. Fer'#la!%H4(+Uma campa%*a ale3re, !, (.

Q. Os ee"%s ev%'a"v%s. ( Pel%s e;e$*l%s a*rese!"a)%s a"/ a+#, 9- "e$%s vs"% +#e as
*alavras s!8!$as *%)e$
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

*7

ev%'ar 'er"as %r$as )e v)a e a'"v)a)e, 'er"%s $e%s s%'as.

P%r e;e$*l%, al&#/$ )2 *ara #$ )%e!"e= ( E!"6%, va $el%r )%s se#s ac*a>ues A+#ela
*alavra !6% / a #s#al, e$ 'as%s se$ela!"es. C%s"#$a$%s )2er pa!ec'me%tos, !oe%as,
so$r'me%tos. A e;*ress6%, )es#sa)a, *r%)#2 e$ !8s 'er"% ee"%. Le$5ra$%(!%s )e +#e
%#v$%s % "er$% a *ess%as velas, +#e 9- % e!'%!"r-$%s e$ lvr%s a!"&%s. Tra"a(se *%s )e
#$ v%'-5#l% a!"+#a)%, #sa)% !a l"era"#ra. O se# e$*re&% '%'a(!%s, ev%'a!)% l%&% e$
!8s #$ a$5e!"e '%!serva)%r e 'er"a ae'"a36% l"er-ra. É a s"% +#e se 'a$a % ee"% *%r
ev%'a36%4 )as *alavras.

Esse ee"% *%)e ser )e !a"#re2a vara)a, '%$% / )e 'al'#lar. Ve9a$%s es"as +#a"r% rases=
a- O *%5re %$e$ morreu 'e% )e s%r$e!"%.

2- Zs )e2 %ras, % $ar%la est'caa o per%'l.

c- O es"a)s"a ep'rou '%$ % *e!sa$e!"% !% se# *a:s.

!- aleceu %!"e$ % Sr. J%s/ )%s Sa!"%s A5re#.


N% *r$er% e;e$*l%, morreu / % "er$% #s#al e "a$5/$ % "er$% )e!"'a)%r, a+#ele +#e
"ra)#2 a )ea &eral, $e!%s e;*ressva, *%r ass$ )2er. N% se&#!)% e;e$*l%, *as$a$%s )%
a"rev$e!"% )a e;*ress6%7 se!"$%s $e)a"a$e!"e +#e est'car o per%'l é #$ "er$% )e &:ra
*%*#lar, +#e ev%'a eseras !er%res )a *%*#la36%. N% "er'er% e;e$*l%, ep'rar a*are'e(
!%s '%$% #$ v%'-5#l% l"er-r%, s8 #sa)% !%s lvr%s. E!$, !% l"$% e;e$*l%, $aleceu
)-(!%s a $*ress6% )e #$ $e% 5#r%'r-"'%, 9%r!al:s"'%. A *alavra, +#e "e$ 'ar-'"er
e#e$:s"'%, / e$*re&a)a e$ es"l% '%rre'"%, 'er$%!%s% e leve$e!"e ae'"a)%.

U$a )as '%sas +#e $el%r )e!#$'a$ % a*re!)2 )e es"l% / % )es'%!e'$e!"% )es"a le
$*%r"a!"e, +#e '%!ss"e e$ e$*re&ar as *alavras +#e '%!)&a$ '%$ % a$5e!"e
*

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUAPORTUUE"A

*:

*s'%l8&'%
$#ler %# s%'al.
)e +#e$ 3ostaraS#*%!a$%s es"a rase=
#$ )a4. A+#ele E#r'%,
3ostar !as!%s%l)<es
!"r%)#2 )s'#rs%)%#$a
Cal*e,
!%"a!6% es+#e'a
+#ase a
'8$'a,
*%r+#e, se!)% #$ "er$% a$lar, )e a!)ar(*%r('asa, !6% se *%)e a*l'ar > *a;6% )ev%ra)%ra )#$
r%$!"'% "al '%$% E#r'%.

Se as *alavras ev%'a$ % $e% s%'al, 'lar% es"- +#e !6% *%)ere$%s *r !a 5%'a )#$ 'a$*8!% +#e
'%!"a #$ a')e!"e, #$a e;*ress6% '%$% es"a= ?#a!)% % *e)re&#l% 'a#, +#e #$ $%$e!"%
pertur2a!o"6. O +#e ele 'er"a$e!"e )ra era a(o'%a!o, aparal*a!o, e"'., *alavras +#e
'%rres*%!)e$ a%s se#s -5"%s l!&#:s"'%s.

N%"e(se a!)a +#e - "a$5/$ "e!)!'a )e +#e$ ala *ara se a*r%;$ar )% e!"e!)$e!"% )a+#ele
+#e %#ve. U$ 'ava)%r % a&ra)e'er a #$ )%#"%r #$ a'"% )e &e!er%s)a)e. O )%#"%r !6% le )2, se
s%#5er alar= ( Fe%*orou"me a s#a ama2'l'!a!e re*"%, porém, !a)a "e$ +#e $e a&ra)e'er. Iss%
)ra a #$ se# &#al, e$ es"l% e*s"%lar, l"er-r%. A% *%5re %$e$, *ara +#e ele '%$*ree!)esse
5e$, )ra $as
a&ra)e'er, %# De#sH
vala(% $e!%s s"%= ( [ %$e$, $#"% %5r&a)% *ela s#a a"e!36%, $as !a)a "e$ +#e $e

1K. Os )'%!-r%s a!al8&'%s. ( A'a5-$%s )e ver *alavras +#e a*rese!"a$ v-r%s as*e'"%s )#$a
$es$a !%36%7 $as / !a"#ral +#e 'a)a #$ )%s ele$e!"%s )#$a s/re s!%!:$'a s#&ra *%r se# "#r!%
%#"ras *alavras, '%$ +#e "e$ %# *%)e "er 'er"as a!)a)es. E!"ra e$ 9%&% a 'a$a)a ass%'a36% )e
)eas, +#e )ese$*e!a #$ *a*el $*%r"a!"e !% $e'a!s$% )% !%ss% es*:r"% e *%r"a!"% !a "/'!'a
)a e;*ress6%.

Os v%'-5#l%s 2elo, amor, $r'o, morrer, s6% '%!'e"%s a5s"ra'"%s, +#e se )e!"'a$ e es'lare'e$ !%
!%ss% es*:r"% *%r $e% )a !%36% '%!"r-ra :$e'o, !'o, calor, 'er.Es"as *alavras, +#e )es&!a$ %
'%!"r-r% %# a a'e %*%s"a )as '%sas %# )eas, 'a$a$(se a%t%'mas. Es"6% $*l:'"as !%s

"er$%s a5s"ra'"%s, '%$% +#e a2e$ *ar"e )a s#a )e!36%. O *%v% )2 '%$ &ra3a e '%$ #$a 'er"a
ver)a)e= ( ?#e ve$
se$*re )el'a)as, )e!e 2o%'to
a ser #$ "er$%( É a+#l%
*el% +#e !6% / e%.
se# '%!"r-r%. #&!)%
E *r%'e)e '%$)a'er"a
'%$*l'a36% )as )e!3<es,
ra26%= a $a!era $as
*r-"'a )e )e!r$%s % 5el% e % e% / *(l%s a *ar #$ )% %#"r%.

De $%)% +#e % *r!':*% )a a!al%&a leva a '%!s)erar !#$a *alavra e$ *r$er% l#&ar % se#
'%!"r-r%7 )e*%s, "%)%s %s "er$%s +#e se le l&a$ *%r ass%'a36% )e )eas. Para !6% sar$%s )a
!%36% )e 2elo, ;e$%s )es)e 9- % a!"8!$% $e'o e ve9a$%s %s v%'-5#l%s e l%'#3<es $as '%rre!"es
+#e se l&a$ a%s )%s "er$%s=

BELO

Epresses su2sta%t'as: 5ele2a, %r$%s#ra, &ra3a, e!'a!"%, a"ra'"v%, l!)e2a, 5%!"e2a, a$a5l)a)e,
ele&!'a, 5%a a*ar!'a, 5%a *are'e!3a, *ere36%, $a9es"a)e, A)8!s, Nar's%, !ar'ss$%, V/!#s, Fele!a,
&arr)'e, l%#3a!a, +#er#5$, &e!"le2a, )%!are, e"'.
Epresses er2a's: ser 5el%, 5rlar, l#2r, res*la!)e'er, a%r$%sear, l%res'er, e$5ele2ar, al!)ar, e!e"ar,
a)%r!ar, %r!ar, *are'er 5e$, "ra!s%r$ar se )e ea la&ar"a e$ l!)a 5%r5%le"a, es"ar +#e !e$ #$ *al$"%, es"ar
$es$% #$ a$%r, ( #$ *r$%r e"'W

Epresses a!;ect'as: 5el% l!)%, 5%!"%, &e!"l, &arr)%, esPe'%s%, l%#36%, vs"%s%, 5e$ *r%(

EIO

Epresses
$- 'a"a)#ra,su2sta%t'as: eal)a)e, $%!s"r#%s)a)e,
s#9 )a)e, $#$):'e, e!%r$)a)e,
P%le$%, V#l'a!%, )e%r$)a)e,
Sle!%, ?#as:$%)%, )es*r%*%r36%,
)a5%, $- a*ar!'a,
5r#;a '$*a!2/, 5%)e,
sa*%, %s&a, $%s"re!&%, 5'%, #rs%, $a'a'%, es"aer$%, ale96%, e"'.

Epresses et2a's: ser e%, "er $- a*ar!'a,($- 'a"a)#ra, a2er 'are"as, "er a *ele e!&ela)a, ser #$ ale96%,
ser es"r%*a)%7 )e%r$ar, ale9ar, es"r%*ar, s#9ar, la$5#2ar, 5%rrar, 5es#$"ar, )e"#r*ar, sara*!"ar, e!arr#s'ar,
ser e% '%$% #$ 5%)e,('%$% % )a5%, e"'.

Epresses a!;ect'as: e%, se$ 5ele2a, )ese!&ra3a)%, e)%!)%, e% )e $e"er $e)%, 'ar'a"#ral,
+-

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

a$%res, e"'.

ra)%, e"'.

Se 2er$%s
)eas s"% *ara "%)as%#"ras
e *%r '%!se+#!'a as re*rese!"a3<es #$)a$e!"as
%r$as )e e;*ress6%, +#ee"%
"ere$%s *%ssa$ arras"ar %#"ras
#$ )'%!-r%
a!al8&'%4, %# )e%l8&'%4. S6% )e &ra!)e 5e!e:'% *ara % es'r"%r, +#e *%r ve2es *r%'#ra
a e;*ress6% $as a)e+#a)a. T(la(- > s#a )s*%s36% !esses re*er"8r%s, +#a!)% 5e$

ela5%ra)%s.

S8 e$ 1Q, a*are'e# #$ )'%!-r% )esses *ara a !%ssa

l:!&#a, '%$ 'er"% )ese!v%lv$e!"%. É % D'c'o%/r'o a%al3'co A7 l%3ua portu3uesa, )%


P.e Carl%s S*:"2er P%r"% Ale&re, Lvrara )% Gl%5%. A)%*"a #$a ss"e$a"2a36% $#"%
)s'#":vel e e$5ara3%sa *ara % es"#)%s% e !'l#, se$ )s'r$!a36%, %s )%"s$%s
*%r"#&#eses e 5rasler%s, % +#e *%)e levar a al&#$as '%!#s<es. Mas 'lar%, e$5%ra
$e!%s '%$*le"%,
5rasler% % 5oca2ul/r'o
r$!%/C%s"a, % +#al )-a%al3'co
*%r ve2essa:)% #$ *%#'%
a a5%!a36% a!"es,)as
l"er-ra )ae;*ress<es.
a#"%ra )% le;'8l%&%
Ul"$a$e!"e, e$ 1QK, % *#5l'a)% "a$5/$ !% Brasl, % D'c'o%/r'o a%al3'co, )e
ra!'s'% errera )%s Sa!"%s A2eve)%. Pa)e'e )%s $es$%s )ee"%s, $as / "alve2 $as
*r#)e!"e e 'r"er%s% !a es'%la )e "er$%s )e )!"'% s&!'a)%.

As )#as '%l#!as s%5re 2elo e $e'o %ra$ e$ &ra!)e *ar"e a*r%ve"a)as )e S*"2er7 $as !6%
!'l#:$%s al&#$s "er$%s !ele '%!")%s, *%r a5#sare$ #$ *%#'% )% '%!'e"% )a a!al%&a=
careca, calo, 2e'3oso, ermel*ao, ca2elo !e $o3o, !esa're, e"'. É ev)e!"e +#e, a
*r%*8s"% )e $e'o, se *%)e$
ESTILÍSTICA DA UMGUA PORTUGUESA

+1

$e!%s !a"#ras,

:%$a !%s 5%!s )-r%s a!a"%(

&'%s.
.

O VOCABULÁRIO PORTUU!"

i%

1. ;is&/ria e $isio%omia 'o )oa28(<rio por&8=8>s. 0

A &ra!)e $a%ra, *%)ere$%s )2er a +#ase "%"al)a)e )as *alavras #s#as *%r"#&#esas, *r%v/$ )%
la"$7 !6% )a+#ele la"$ *%l)%, e$*re&a)% *el%s es'r"%res )a R%$a $*eral, $as )a l:!&#a
*le5ea )as "a5er!as e al#r9as, ala)a *%r s%l)a)%s, *%r '%l%!%s e *e+#e!%s $er'a)%res. %ra$
es"es ele$e!"%s )a *%*#la36% r%$a!a +#e !"r%)#2ra$ a s#a l:!&#a !a Pe!:!s#la Fs*!'a, !%s
$%$e!"%s )a !vas6% e )a '%!+#s"a. Era a l:!&#a )%s ve!'e)%res= '%# se!)% *%#'% a *%#'% a
l:!&#a )%s ve!')%s, *%r+#e "ra2a '%!s&% % *res":&% )#$a &ra!)e 'vl2a36%. A l:!&#a
*%r"#&#esa, '%$% a!al as %#"ras l:!&#as a*are!"a)as, "e$ *%r"a!"%, '%$% se v, #$a %r&e$ 5e$
#$l)e, 'ara'"ers"'a$e!"e *%*#lar. N6% !as'e# e$ 5er3% )%ra)%.

Esse la"$ *%*#lar, +#e, $as "ar)e, *%r "ra!s%r$a3<es )e v-ra %r)e$, )e# % *%r"#&#s, era, '%$%
"%)a a l!&#a&e$ *le5ea, #$ !s"r#$e!"% )e '%$#!'a36% s%'al, "%s'%, a5reva)% e s%5re"#)%
'%!'re"%. Usava #$ v%'a5#l-r% e$ $#"%s *%!"%s )s"!"% )% la"$ l"er-r%. P%r e;e$*l%, *ara
)es&!ar 5%'a4, )2a 2ucca e !6% ore *ara 'aval%4 )2a c/2/llu e !6% é>uu *ara 'asa4 )2a
casa e !6% !mu *ara &ra!)e4 )2a 3ra%!e e !6% m/3%u.
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

+*

Es"a$%s ve!)% a $*%r"!'a )es"e a'"%= a es'%la e"a *el% la"$ v#l&ar a!)a %9e vale *ara a
l:!&#a '%$#$. Ee'"va$e!"e, e$ l!&#a&e$ )es*re"e!s%sa )2e$%s 2oca, caalo, casa, 3ra%!e
$as *ara %s se#s )erva)%s 9- #sa$%s %# *%)e$%s #sar %s "er$%s l"er-r%s= oral, e>uestre,
!omést'co, ma3%'tu!e.

D#ra!"e al&#$ "e$*% % essa l:!&#a a #s#al !a Pe!:!s#la7 $as % '%!+#s"a)%r, *%r $e% )e es'%las,
% )erra$a!)% l%&% !a "erra '%!+#s"a)a % '%!e'$e!"% )a '#l"#ra la"!a, )%s se#s &ra!)es
es'r"%res= )e $%)% +#e, e$ 5reve, se )e# #$ a'"% '%rre!"e e$ "%)%s %s )%$as= % l#s"a!%
'%$e3%# a e$*re&ar )#as l:!&#as(#$a, +#a!)% alava, %#"ra, +#a!)% es'reva. Se$*re +#e #$
*%v% se a)a!"a !a '#l"#ra, essa )s"!36% / !ev"-vel.
Ve% )e*%s a &ra!)e arre$e")a )%s 5-r5ar%s &er$!'%s. A Pe!:!s#la / %#"ra ve2 !va))a e
ass%la)a. Mas %s &er$a!%s *%ss#:a$ #$a 'vl2a36% !er%r7 )%$!a!)% *elas ar$as, )e;ara$
!"a'"a a vela '#l"#ra, $*r$!)%(le leves $%)'a3<es, s%5re"#)% !% 'a$*% )% )re"%. A l:!&#a
'%!"!#a a $es$a7 *%r/$ % v%'a5#l-r% % a'res')% )e #$ 'er"% !$er% )e *alavras, +#e
)e!#$'ava$ as *re%'#*a3<es &#erreras )%s '%!+#s"a)%res. Ter$%s )e &#erra, s%5re"#)%, %#
'%sas a*are!"a)as '%$ a &#erra, % +#a!"% a l:!&#a a)+#r# '%$ a !vas6% )%s &er$a!%s=
a3asal*ar, al2er3ar, arre'o, 2aluarte, 2a%'r, 2arr'3a, 2ra!ar, 2ra%!'r, !ar!o, elmo, escaramua,
es3r'm'r, $ra%co, 3alope, 3ar2o, 3astar, 3uerra, 3r'%al!a, lua, marc*ar, or3ul*o, raa, rou2ar,
sala, t'rar, trepar, e"'.

C%$% ve$%s, a $a%ra )es"es v%'-5#l%s "e$ #$a s%!%$a a'e!"#a)a$e!"e $l"ar. A
a'#$#la36% )%s rr *are'e )ar(les a s%!%r)a)e )#$ "!r )e ar$as7 a !a"#re2a v%le!"a e selv-"'a
)%s &er$a!%s es*el%#(se !as *re)le'3<es )% se# v%'a5#l-r%.

Trs s/'#l%s )e*%s, a Pe!:!s#la s%re !%va !vas6%= a )%s -ra5es. A 'vl2a36% )%s -ra5es era
"alve2 s#*er%r >
++

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

'rs"67 !6% *#)era$ *%r/$ '%!+#s"ar "%)a a I5/ra. A% !%r"e, !% Ca!"-5r'%, '%# #$ re)#"%
'rs"6%, )e %!)e *ar"#, '%$ $*la'-vel "e!a')a)e, a &#erra )a re'%!+#s"a. Te$(se %9e '%$%
'er"% +#e a $a%ra )%s -ra5es s%re# l%&% )e !:'% e 'a)a ve2 $as a !l#!'a )a '#l"#ra e a"/ )a
l:!&#a r%$!'a7 $as !6% / $e!%s ver)a)er% +#e al&#$a '%sa )eva 'ar )a l%!&a )%$!a36%
sl$'a. O v%'a5#l-r%
!8s a !l#!'a *%r"#&#s
)%s sarra'e!%s, +#e)e!"r%)#2ra$
%r&e$ -ra5e!a)e!#$'a
Pe!:!s#la5e$ e$ +#ereere!"es
!%v)a)es $e))a se>e;er'e# e!"re
a&r'#l"#ra,
!)s"ra, '!'as e ar"es, 9%&%s, '%$/r'%, a)$!s"ra36%, e"'.

Es al&#$s )%s v%'-5#l%s $as #s#as )e %r&e$ -ra5e= aor!a, alam2'>ue, /lcool, alecr'm,
al$a'ate, al3ar'smo, al>ue're, arma(ém, arro2a, arro2e, a(ul, $at'a, 3arra$a, mes>u'%*o, oal/,
a!re(, arope, e"'. Pel% se!")% )es"as *alavras ver'a$%s +#e % )%$:!% )a 'vl2a36% -ra5e %
&ra!)e, *el% +#e res*e"a a%s as*e'"%s $a"eras )a v)a7 $as )'l$e!"e se e!'%!"rar- !a ls"a #$a
*alavra a5s"ra'"a, e;'e*"#a!)% a !"er9e36% oal/, +#e e;*r$a )eas %# se!"$e!"%s )a al$a. A"/
$es$% a+#ele mes>u'%*o *are'e "er s)% a% *r!':*% #$a *alavra '%!'re"a e s&!'ar $e!)&%4,
*e)!"e4. L%&%, a re+#!"a)a '#l"#ra -ra5e !6% "%'%# !a es"r#"#ra )a l:!&#a7 l$"%#(se a
e!r+#e'er % v%'a5#l-r% )e *alavras +#e "ra)#2e$ &eral$e!"e as a+#s3<es )a "/'!'a e %s &%2%s
"erres"res )a v)a.

O#"ras !l#!'as
l:!&#a ra!'esa, vera$
+#e, )e*%s
*%r ser e!r+#e'er
a e;*ress6% % !%ss%
)#$a v%'a5#l-r%.
a*#ra)a A'$a
'#l"#ra, l%&% )e "%)as
)e !:'%, !%s'%l%'a(se
*r$er%sa )a
"e$*%s )a #$)a36% )e P%r"#&al, se e2 se!"r e!"re !8s. N#$'a )eve$%s es+#e'er +#e % *r$er%
'ee )e P%r"#&al % #$ !%5re ra!'s, % '%!)e D. Fe!r+#e )e B%r&%!a, e +#e ra!'eses %# &e!"e
ara!'esa)a '%$5a"era$ *%r P%r"#&al l%&% !%s *r$er%s "e$*%s )a !%ssa e;s"!'a )e !a36% lvre.
Esses s%l)a)%s ra!'eses,

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



)e*%s )a &#erra, es"a5ele'a$(se !% re!% e !ele '%!s""#:a$ a$:la. M#"as )as *%v%a3<es )a
Es"re$a)#ra e R5a"e9% %ra$ '%l%!2a)as *%r eles, e!"6% )es&!a)%s s%5 % !%$e &eral )e ra!'%s.

.
se O es"ra!&ers$%7
'a$a$ %s "er$%s%s%#&al's$%s. ( ?#a!)% +#ser$%s
l%'#3<es ara!'esa)as es"#)ar!a%!%ssa
+#e a5#$)a$ *r%5le$a 3al'c'smos,
)%s)eve$%s
l:!&#a, ass$
"er se$*re
*rese!"e % +#e a'a5a$%s )e )2er= a ver)a)e / +#e a !%ssa *r8*ra l5er)a)e "e$ #$a ra2 ra!'esa.
N6% / *%s )e es"ra!ar +#e, a'%$*a!a!)% !8s a"rav/s )%s s/'#l%s, '%$ $a%r %# $e!%r
!"e!s)a)e, % *res":&% )a '#l"#ra ra!'esa, "e!a$%s re'e5)% !a !%ssa a $ar'a )a s#a l:!&#a.

O *r%5le$a / s%5re"#)% #$ *r%5le$a )e %r)e$ $%ral, +#e )eve ser *%s"% )es"a $a!era= a
!l#!'a )#$a '#l"#ra '%$% a ra!'esa, %!)e *re)%$!a$ a ra26% e a 'lar)a)e, s8 *%)e ser
5e!/'a *ara !8s, '%$ #$a '%!)36%= +#e, e$ ve2 )e !%s es'rav2ar a% es"l% ra!'s, es"$#le e
'lar+#e as e!er&as )% !%ss% *%r"#&#ess$%.

E, !a ver)a)e, / ass$ +#e ela "e$ %*era)% e!"re !8s. D%s e;e$*l%s= !% s/'#l% ;# "ve$%s #$a
es'%la $a&!:'a )e *%esa l:r'a. % a ra!3a +#e le )e# % $*#ls% !'al7 a l:!&#a )%s !%ss%s
"r%va)%res a'#sa !a"#ral$e!"e #$ %# %#"r% &al's$%7 $as essa !l#!'a es"ra!&era e2 re5e!"ar
as %!"es )% !%ss% lrs$% !a'%!al, +#e se )ese!"ra!%# e$ %5ras a)$r-ves. O#"r% e;e$*l%= !%
*r$er% +#ar"el )% s/'#l% ;; )-(se e!"re !8s % $%v$e!"% l"er-r% )% R%$a!"s$%, s%5 % $*#ls%
)e )eas +#e vera$ )e ra!3a, )a I!&la"erra e )a Ale$a!a. P%s esse e$*#rr6% es"ra!&er% !a)a
$as e2 )% +#e )ar > !%ssa l"era"#ra #$a %re!"a36% *r%#$)a$e!"e !a'%!als"a e #$a!a. S6%
)ss% *r%va as &ra!)es &#ras l"er-ras )e Garre"" e Fer'#la!%.

C%!"#)%, a !%ssa a'l)a)e )e $"a36% e a'e"a36% )e


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

$%)as es"ra!&eras *%)e '%!)#2r(!%s a e;'ess%s. E, )e a'"%, se$*re +#e s#r&e #$a va&a
)e ra!'es:s$%, - #$ *er:%)% )e $"a36% )es%r)e!a)a, eerves'e!"e. L%&% )e*%s se
es"a5ele'e % e+#l:5r%, e !a l:!&#a s8 'a$, *%r va )e re&ra, %s v%'-5#l%s +#e %ere'e$
+#al+#er !%v)a)e. É !"l e a"/ &r%"es'% 5errar '%!"ra ss%. A a)%*36% )%s es"ra!&ers$%s
/ #$a le #$a!a e *ar"'#lar$e!"e *%r"#&#esa= '%!s""# '%$% +#e #$a a"al)a)e, )ev)a
a%s !"er'$5%s )as 'vl2a3<es. A l:!&#a, es*e'al$e!"e % v%'a5#l-r%, s8 "e$ a l#'rar
'%$ ss%. O *%!"% es"- e$ +#e essa $"a36% !6% e;'e)a %s l$"es )% ra2%-vel e !6% ae'"e
a *r8*ra ess!'a )% )%$a !a'%!al.

J- a"r-s, !% 'a*:"#l% , !%s reer$%s a% &al's$% a2a%!o%ar, +#e %9e es"- !"e&ra)%
)e!"va$e!"e !a l:!&#a e !6% / *%s"va$e!"e !ela #$ ver5%()e(e!'er4, '%$%
)e$%!s"r-$%s7 '%rres*%!)e a #$a !e'ess)a)e )e e;*ress6% se!"$e!"al, +#e !e!#$ )%s
s!8!$%s *ree!'e "6% 5e$. Bas"ava ss% *ara 9#s"'ar % se# e$*re&%. É essa, '%$ ee"%,
a &ra!)e le +#e re&e %# )eve re&er a a)%*36% )e es"ra!&ers$%s= )ever6% "er a'%l$e!"%,
+#a!)% '%rres*%!)a$ ee'"va$e!"e a !e'ess)a)es )e e;*ress6%.

Ve9a$%s al&#$s e;e$*l%s. A *alavra 2'2elo lea(se 2'2elH- )es&!a a+#eles %59e'"%2!%s
)e ar"e, 9arras, es"a"#e"as, &#ras, 'a;as, e"'., '%$ +#e e$5ele2a$%s %s a*%se!"%s )a !%ssa
'asa. O "er$% s#&ere "rs )eas #$)a$e!"as= % *e+#e!!%, % &ra'%s%, % ar":s"'%. A $%)a
)%s 55els ve%(!%s )e ra!3a, e / #$ *r%)#"% '%$ +#e a ar"e ra!'esa a)%r!ava %s sal<es
"es e )el'a)%s )% s/'#l% ;v$. I!"r%)#2)a a $%)a e *%r"a!"% % %59e'"% e$ P%r"#&al,
ve% '%$ ele % !%$e, *%s era '%sa )es'%!e')a e!"re !8s. Ass$ se %r&!a$ %s
es"ra!&ers$%s.

Pre"e!)e$ %s *#rs"as, &e!"e !% &eral *%#'% '%$*ree!sva e vra)a se$*re *ara % *assa)%,
s#5s""#r es"a *alavra *%r %#"ras, '%$ se!")% $as %# $e!%s se$ela!"e. N%
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

+7

#$)%, / a vela e err8!ea '%!'e*36% )% s!8!$%. J- v$%s +#e !6% - !e$ *%)e aver
*alavras '%$ val%r a5s%l#"a$e!"e &#al. Pr%'#ra$ *%s esses le&sla)%res )a re*5l'a
l!&#:s"'a s#5s""#r '%$ va!"a&e$ % ra!'ess$% *%r *alavras '%$%= 3ala%tar'as,
2u3'3a%3as, 2r'%cos, 2r'%>ue!os, o2;ectos, arte$actos, Nut'l'!a!es. U$ a"/, % *r%ess%r
5rasler% Carl%s G%s, !% se# D'c'o%/r'o !e 3al'c'smos, *re"e!)e# s#5s""#:(l% *el% "er$%
teté'a, +#e e$ l#s%(5rasler% s&!'a m'mo, 2r'%>ue!o.

U$ *%#'% )e !"el&!'a e )e 5%$ se!s% $%s"ra(!%s l%&% % r):'#l% e $al#$)a)% )e "as


s#5s""#3<es. Ne!#$a )a+#elas *alavras / 'a*a2 )e e;*r$r % '%!9#$"% )e s#&es"<es
'%!")% !% v%'-5#l% 2'2elH. O "er$% 2u3'3a%3a / "alve2 % +#e $as se a*r%;$a7 $as
'%!"/$ #$a )ea #$ *%#'% *e9%ra"va )e '%sa !s&!'a!"e e !6% ar":s"'a4, +#e %
)s"a!'a !!"a$e!"e )e 2'2elH. A. )ere!3a e!"re %s )%s "er$%s res#l"a 'lara$e!"e )e
#$ "re'% )e er!a!)% Na$%ra, +#e !%s re*rese!"a % es'#l"%r Vas'% R%'a, es*era!)% s#a
a$a!"e Ja'!"a !#$ +#ar"% $%5la)%, 'e))% a es"a *%r s#a a$&a B-r5ara.

E!+#a!"% a&#ar)ava a a$a!"e, es"ava ele reve!)% e ;a!)% as *ar"'#lar)a)es )e 'a)a


2'2elH, '%$% se es"vesse a )esaar e a e;er'"ar a $e$8ra, *r%*%!)%(se re'%!s""#r )e
%l%s e'a)%s %s *%r$e!%res $as :!$%s #$ )%s 2'2elHs, % 'a$*!%, *ar"ra(se *ela
a;a ver$ela +#e le '!&a a '!"#ra, !#$ )a+#eles &es"%s )esas"ra)%s )e Ja'!"a, e %ra
'%la)% '%$ a *er:'a )e #$ als-r% ( v se ela !6% )- *%r ss%, se!6% "e$ *ara a: #$a

es"ra&%4. (, *ara +#e B-r5ara, '%sa )a s#a era )e 2u3'3a%3as, !6% re*arasse !%
s%l*a!"a4
( Os cla%!est'%os, .a e)., *-&. 1.

O se!")% *e9%ra"v% )e 2u3'3a%3as / a!)a re%r3a)% *%r a+#ele !%$e, $e'ra, +#e %
a!"e'e)e= era #$ %59e'"% )e +#!+#lara, se$ val%r.

U$a %#"ra *alavra, +#e a $%)a ra!'esa $*s a% !%ss% v%'a5#l-r%= co>uete, *ara
)es&!ar a $#ler +#e
+

M RODRIGUES LAPA

ves"e 5e$ e &%s"a )e a&ra)ar. T!a a l:!&#a, !% se# vel% #$)%, #$a 5%!"a *alavra +#e
)es&!ava +#ase a $es$a '%sa= 3arr'!a +3arr'!'ce-. Esse v%'-5#l% % 'a!)% e$ )es#s% e
*ass%# #$'a$e!"e a e$*re&ar(se '%$% +#al'a"v% )e '%r. E;e$*l%= #$ ves")% )e
'%res 3arr'!as6, s"% /, 5erra!"es, vs"%sas. J- % &ra!)e es'r"%r *%r"#&#s Al$e)a Garre"",
+#e era #$ 9a!%"a, )2a a res*e"% )es"e "er$%= A *alavra co>uete !6% / *%r"#&#esa7 $as
!6% - re$/)% se!6% a'e"-(la e )ar(le 'ar"a )e !a"#ral2a36%, )es)e +#e a '%#sa se a%r%#
"a!"% e!"re !8s.4 P%)e *%r"a!"% +#e$ +#ser e$*re&ar a *alavra 3arr'!a *ara +#al'ar a
$#ler 9a!%"a e &ala!"e. S$*les$e!"e, % v%'-5#l% *r%)#2 e$ !8s 'er"% ee"% ev%'a"v%=
'%!)#2(!%s a #$ $#$)% a!"&%, )e +#e es"a$%s 9- )esa5"#a)%s. S%a '%$% #$ ar'a:s$%, e
*er)e !ss% *ar"e )a s#a %r3a e;*ressva. É *e!a, "alve27 $as / ass$.

U$ "er'er% 'as%, % a!&l's$% la%c*e. Se )ss/sse$%s !a ')a)e mere%!a e$ ve2 )e


la%c*e, '%$% *re"e!)e$ %s *#rs"as, '%$e"er:a$%s #$a al"a )e &%s"%, +#e !%s "%$ara
r):'#l%s. É +#e mere%!a ev%'a #$ a$5e!"e r#ral, / +#ase #$a e;*ress6% "/'!'a )as
a!as )% 'a$*%. N6% serve *%r"a!"% *ara a &e!"e )a ')a)e.

F- *%r/$ 'as%s e$ +#e % es"ra!&ers$% re*rese!"a #$a !%va36% es'a!)al%sa e


!)ese9-vel, *%r a5s%l#"a$e!"e )es!e'ess-ra. Es"-, *%r e;e$*l%, $#"% e$ v%&a a %r$a
es"ra!&era e$!!a mass'a, )% ra!'s mass'e: O *ar")% s%'als"a "e$ #$a
re*rese!"a36% mass'a !% Parla$e!"%4. É #$ )e'al+#e )s*ara"a)%, *%r )es'%!e'er a
%r$a '%rre'"a *%r"#&#esa, mac'a, %# "alve2 $el%r, !a a!"&a %r"%&raa, mass'a, *%r se
reerr a massa  $#l")6%.

N%"e(se +#e %s !%ss%s $a%res es"ls"as, +#e se !#"re$ *r!'*al$e!"e )e l"era"#ra e )eas
ra!'esas, es"6% 'e%s )e *e'a)%s '%!"ra % *#rs$% )% v%'a5#l-r%. O *r8*r% Ca$l%
Cas"el% Bra!'%, +#e / #$ %r$)-vel ver!a'#ls"a,
ESTILÍSTICA DA L:NGUA PORTUGUESA

Q

e +#e "a!"% 5ra$ava '%!"ra % e$*re&% )%s es"ra!&ers$%s, a5#$)a !eles. D%s e;e$*l%s
a*e!as=

1. O )es"r% 9ar)!er% "ra *r%)&%sas l%res, re)%5ra!)% e ra9a!)% as */"alas, +#e


a5r%lava$, a!%s a!"es, s!&elas, 5e$ +#e %r$%sas, !a $es$a t'3e6 +D'spersos, $, .

. O +#e !% a!% *assa)% '%rra )es*er'e5)% es'#"%#(se a&%ra ate%t'ame%te +D'spersos,


$, .

A *alavra t'3e / #$ )es*r%*%s"a)% &al's$%, *%r as"e4, 'a#le4, */47 e ate%t'ame%te


es"- *%r a"e!"a$e!"e4. Se$ )v)a, *ara Ca$l%, !#$ $%$e!"% )a)%, t'3e !6% e;*r$a a
$es$a '%sa +#e as"e4, 'a#le4.
N% Brasl, Ma'a)% )e Asss "a$5/$ !6% ev"%# %s &al's$%s reproc*ar e reproc*e:
A$5%s "!a$ +#e reproc*ar   'e!s#rar #$ a% %#"r%. O 'asa$e!"% a5s%lva(%s4 +la'a
Garc'a, *-&. 1. E "eve a"/ a '%ra&e$ )e 9#s"'-(l%s e$ !%"a )% se# lvr% Fapé's
Aulsos, *-&. . A5%!a!)%(se '%$ M%ras e Slva, !6% %s '%!s)erava &al's$%s, e )e#(
!%s as ra2<es *ess%as )% se# e$*re&%= Res"a a +#es"6% )e e#%!a. Reproc*e !6% *are'e
$al s%a!"e. Te$ '%!"ra s % )es#s%. E$ "%)% % 'as%, % v%'-5#l% +#e le es"- $as *r8;$%
!% se!")%, epro2ra7o, a'% +#e / !s#*%r"-vel. Da: a $!a !ss"!'a e$ *reerr %
%#"r%, )eve!)%(se
$as +#a!)% a )ea!%"ar
% "ra2+#e !6% % %# 5#s'ar *ara )ar a% es"l% #$ ver!2 )e es"ra!e2a,
'%!s&%4.

E$ E3a )e ?#er%2 e al% )e Al$e)a, %s *e'a)%s )e ra!'esa s6% re+#e!":ss$%s e *%r


ve2es a"/ 'e!s#r-vesVe9a$(se es"es )%s e;e$*l%s e$ E3a=

1. Sa:ra$ e!$ )% %"el a $a(er esse passe'o a S"as4 +Os Ma'as, , Q.

. Es"e!)e# a $6%7 $as % *r$er% a*er"% % 3Hc*e e $%le4 +Os M a'as, , .
 ( Es"l:s"'a
9-

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

N%
E3a*r$er%, $a(er
)e ?#er%2 um $as
se!"a passe'o s#5s""#
%r3a )esva!"a9%sa$e!"e
e;*ressva )ar
!% ver5% a2er4 #$ *asse%4,
e a)%*"%# *%r"#&#s
% $%)el% )e le.
ra!'s. N%
se&#!)%, )e# a% "er$% ra!'s 3ac*e %r$a *%r"#&#esa7 !6% se le$5r%# )e #$ a)9e'"v% *%r"#&#s
+#e "ra)#2sse a )ea. Os *#rs"as )6%, '%$% s!8!$% )e 3ac*e: ca%*estro, !esa;e'ta!o,
aca%*a!o, a(am2ra!o, es>uer!o, (am2ro, lorpa, 2'so%*o,e"'. Sera )e $a# &%s"% e r):'#l%
s#5s""#r 3oc*e *%r 'a!es"r%4, %r$a 9- )es#sa)a7 *re'sa$e!"e %s re*er"8r%s )e &al's$%s
!ss"e$ !esse vel% "er$%7 $as *%)er(se(a ev"ar % ra!'ess$%, #sa!)% *alavras 5e$
*%r"#&#esas, '%$%= atrapal*a!o, !esa;e'ta!o, !esastra!o, %# % ara!'esa)%, $as 9- #!a!$e$e!"e
a)$")%, em2araa!o.

E$ al% )e Al$e)a=

1. leva!)% e$ *8s )e s % %lar $et'c*'(a!o' +O Fas

!as Uas, 1.


. as $6%s ( #$a $aravla )e !#ra e es>u's't'ce6

+O Fas !as Uas, 1K.

N% *r$er% e;e$*l% )-(se % 'as% e!&ra3a)% )e se $"ar a %r$a ra!'esa, +#a!)% % ra!'s 9-
"!a $"a)% a %r$a *%r"#&#esa. Ee'"va$e!"e, %s ra!'eses "%$ara$ % v%'-5#l% $et'c*e )%
*%r"#&#s $e't'o e / !a ver)a)e es"ra!% +#e se a)%*"e esse &al's$%, "e!)% !a !%ssa l:!&#a a 5ela
*alavra e%$e't'a!o. N% se&#!)% e;e$*l%, a+#ele es>u's't'ce es"- *%r e%ca%to, !el'ca!e(a, e, !essa
a'e*36%, / "a$5/$ #$ &al's$%. A *alavra e;s"# e e;s"e e$ *%r"#&#s '%r! % se!")% )e '%sa
!v#l&ar, es"ra!a4.

F- *%r"a!"% !% es"ra!&ers$%, e $#"% *ar"'#lar$e!"e !% &al's$%, )%s 'as%s a '%!s)erar= a


a)%*36% )e v%'-5#l%s, e % e$*re&% )e '%!s"r#3<es %# )e &r#*%s rase%l8&'%s +#e '%!"rara$ a
!a"#re2a )a l:!&#a. Os *r$er%s s6% &eral$e!"e $e!%s &raves= *%r+#e, %# 'a$ !% )%$a, *%r
re*rese!"are$ #$a !e'ess)a)e, e *assa$, !esse 'as%, a ves"r a

r"#&#esa= a$-m+lo%ar at'tu!e, so$/, 2o%é, !esporto, t%el, tur'smo, em2araar, e"'., %# s6%
re*#)a)%s *ela l:!&#a, '%r!% '%sa +#e !6% serve e s8 "eve $%)a *assa&era !% alar '%rre!"e %# !%
lvr% )e #$ %# %#"r% es'r"%r e;. 3oc*e,

Os se&#!)%s, +#e '%!s""#e$ *r%*ra$e!"e #$ )e'al+#e )a '%!s"r#36% es"ra!&era, s6% $as


*er&%s%s, *%r+#e *%)e$ e!v%lver #$a )es!a"#ra36% $as &rave )a %r$a )e *e!sar
*%r"#&#s$e!"e. Per"e!'e$ a es"e &r#*% 'er"as l%'#3<es como: $a(er a *o%ra, $a(er o co%*ec'me%to
com al3uém, $a(er um passe'o, ter lu3ar *%r ee'"#ar(se, real2ar(se4, !e ma%e'ra a, e%>ua%to
>ue, % e$*re&% a5#sv% )a *re*%s36% em ves")% em se!a-, % #s% rre&#lar )% &er!)%, e"'. A se#
"e$*% "ra"are$%s al&#!s )es"es 'as%s, !%s se#s )ev)%s l#&ares.
N6% v- % le"%r '%!'l#r )e "#)% s"% +#e !e$ Ca$l%, !e$ Ma'a)%, !e$ E3a, !e$ al%
'%!e'a$ 5e$ % *%r"#&#s, *%s +#e % )eseava$ '%$ $-'#las )e es"ra!&ers$%s. O e$*re&% )%
es"ra!&ers$% l$"a(se, *%r va )e re&ra, !esses es'r"%res, a 'as%s )e v%'a5#l-r%, % +#al eles
*r%'#ra$ '%l%rr '%$ a#;:l% )% "er$% es"ra!&era)%. A e;*ress6% *%r"#&#esa "!a *ara eles, !%
$%$e!"% )a '%$*%s36%, +#al+#er '%sa )e )es5%"a)% e '%rr+#er%, +#e !6% '%rres*%!)a 9- >s
!e'ess)a)es )% es"l%. O# 5e$ %# $al, / % *r8*r% se!"$e!"% )a ar"e e a '#r%sa *r%'#ra )% "er$%
e;a'"% +#e %s leva a e$*re&ar %s es"ra!&ers$%s. N% $as, a s#a l:!&#a / *%r"#&#es:ss$a )e le7 e
as s#as a#)-'as e;*ressvas, se "vera$ !'%!ve!e!"es, "a$5/$ "vera$ as s#as va!"a&e!s. E$
es"l%, '%$% !% 9%&%, / *re's% arrs'ar al&#$a '%sa *ara se &a!ar.

C%!'l#a$%s *%s. O es"ra!&ers$% / #$ e!8$e!% !a"#ral, +#e revela a e;s"!'a )e #$a 'er"a
$e!"al)a)e '%$#$. Os *%v%s +#e )e*e!)e$ e'%!8$'a e !"ele'"#al$e!"e )e %#"r%s !6% *%)e$
)e;ar )e a)%*"ar, '%$ %s *r%)#"%s e )eas v!)as )e %ra, 'er"as %r$as )e l!&#a&e$
9#

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

+#e les !6% s6% *r8*ras. O *%!"% es"- e$ !6% *er$"r a5#s%s e l$"ar essa $*%r"a36% l!&#:s"'a
a% ra2%-vel e !e'ess-r%. C%!")% !es"es l$"es, % es"ra!&ers$% "e$ va!"a&e!s= a#$e!"a % *%)er
e;*ressv% )as l:!&#as, es5a"e a )ere!3a )%s )%$as, "%$a!)%(%s $as '%$*ree!sv%s, e a'l"a,
*%r ss% $es$%, a '%$#$'a36% )as )eas &eras.

U$a '%sa / !e'ess-ra, +#a!)% % es"ra!&ers$% asse!"%# 9- ra:2es !a l:!&#a !a'%!al= ves"(l% >
*%r"#&#esa. Os es"ra!&ers$%s $as e$ v%&a +2lusa, c*alé, '%teresse, clu2e, t%el, co>uete,
a2a%!o%o, la%c*e, e"'. es"6% 9- !'%r*%ra)%s !% )%$a, av)%s e se!")%s '%$% *%r"#&#eses.
A+#elas *alavras s6% e$*re&a)as *%r !8s '%$% se %sse$ !%ssas. J- %#"ras, '%$% a3om  a37o,
$ur3om, e"'., !6% es"6% a!)a 5e$ !a'%!al2a)as. L- 'e&are$%s. N%"e(se +#e - #$ &ra!)e
es'r"%r *%r"#&#s, Te;era(G%$es, e$ '#9as %5ras se !a'%!al2a$ )el5era)a$e!"e %s
es"ra!&ers$%s= 2ulear, 2'2elH, so$/, pompa!ur, a2a;ur,e"'.

O es"#)%s% "er- "alve2 e$*e!% e$ '%!s#l"ar al&#$ re*er"8r% )e es"ra!&ers$%s. Te$%(l%s,


!#$er%s%s, e!"re !8s. A+# le )a$%s a ls"a )%s *r!'*as= C!))% )e &#ere)%,
Estra%3e'r'smos Carl%s G%s. D'c'o%/r'o !e 3al'c'smos Slva Bas"%s, Estra%3e'r'smos Vas'%
B%"el% )e A$aral, D'c'o%/r'o !e !'$'cul!a!es !a l%3ua portu3uesa % $as re'e!"e e '%$*le"%. A
'%!s#l"a )e "as lvr%s *%)e "er se#s *er&%s *ara % *r!'*a!"e. e"%s '%$ a *re%'#*a36%
e;a&era)a )% *#rs$%
)6%, *ara "ra)#2r )eas'l-ss'%, '%$"er$%s
$%)er!as, )#v)%s% )s'er!$e!"%
a!"+#a)%s, e, *%r ve2es,
a*r%;$a3<es a'e!"#a)%
e *er:rases, $a#se&%s"%,
'%$% a
*re%'#*a36% )e +#e$ )ese9a es'rever 5e$ !6% %sse a 5#s'a )% "er$% 9#s"%, la*)ar, 5reve. Para %
a*re!)2 )e re)a'36% % $el%r a!)a / a *r-"'a )e es'rever '%$ l5er)a)e e %s '%!sel%s e
'%rre'3<es )#$ $es"re e;*er$e!"a)%.

*. O %eo(o=ismo. (( A*esar )a a5!!)!'a )% v%'a5#l-r%, a l:!&#a !e'ess"a '%!s"a!"e$e!"e )a


'ra36% )e !%vas
E"TIL5"TICA DA L?6UA PORTUUE"A

9*

%r$as e;*ressvas. Esses !%v%s $e%s )e e;*ress6%, !ve!"a)%s *%r +#e$ ala e es'reve #$
)%$a, s6% 'a$a)%s %eolo3'smos. O es"ra!&ers$%, 9- % v$%s, *r%v/$ )es"e )ese9%,
a5s%l#"a$e!"e le&:"$% e al"a$e!"e e'#$)%, )e !%vas 'ra3<es. P%r !e'ess)a)e, *re&#3a,
'%$%))a)e %# &%s"% ar":s"'%, % es'r"%r, !6% "e!)% e$ 'asa e;*ress6% )8!ea, va 5#s'-(la >s
l:!&#as es"ra!&eras. L%&%, %s es"ra!&ers$%s !6% s6% $as )% +#e #$a )as %r$as )% !e%l%&s$%.

T%)ava, % "er$% #sa(se $as *ara )es&!ar as *alavras !%va$e!"e 'ra)as !a l:!&#a= sera $el%r
)2er$%s ae3%a)as4, *%r+#e a 'ra36% a5s%l#"a, "%"al, / rar:ss$a. J- % va$%s ver )a se&#!"e
ls"a, +#e '%$*ree!)e al&#$s )%s !e%l%&s$%s $as e$ v%&a a'"#al$e!"e= acl'mar, acl'matar,
actua7o, a!e%tro !e, amarar + *%#sar !a -&#a, aperce2er"se !e +" !%"ar, a >ua%!o !e + *%r
%'as6% )e, asce%so, aterra3em, a'7o, c*e$'a, c*e$'ar, eclo!'r, e%$re%tar, etrem'sta, $ocal'(ar
#$a
+#es"6%, #$ *%!"% l"er-r%, *ome%a3ea!o, '!eol3'co, 'm'scu'r"se, metra3em, se%$'l'smo,
soluc'o%ar, '%car, ('3ue"(a3uear, e%s'mesmar"se, s'le%c'ar, me%tal'(ar, co%tactar, 'mpacto,
co%sc'e%t'(ar, !es$asame%to,e"'.

Ver'a$%s +#e % !e%l%&s$% '%$*ree!)e *alavras !%vas, $as %r$a)as )e!"r% )%s *r%'ess%s
#s#as !a l:!&#a, e;.= amarar, e%$re%tar, metra3em,e"'., %# *alavras 9- e;s"e!"es, $as >s +#as se )-
!%v% se!")%= aperce2er"se !e, $ocal'(ar, '%car,e"'. Ne!#$a )elas, *%r/$, / *alavra !% v!a e$
%la7 *r%va )e +#e a l:!&#a !6% 'ra, $as *r%*ra$e!"e "ra!s%r$a, '%$ $a"eral )e +#e 9- )s*<e.

N6% )s'#"$%s a&%ra se "%)%s es"es !e%l%&s$%s "$ )re"% a !'%r*%rar(se !% )%$a. A s"8ra
)as *alavras / $#"% 'a*r'%sa, "a$5/$ es"- s#9e"a a $%)as *assa&eras7 $as +#ase se *%)e
&ara!"r +#e a $a%ra )elas s#5ss"r-. F-, / 'lar%, al/$ )es"es !e%l%&s$%s )e #s% &eral, as
'ra3<es !)v)#as )e 'a)a es'r"%r. al% )e Al$e)a, s%5re"#)%, % #$ &ra!)e re5#s'a)%r )e
!e%l%&s$%s, +#e


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

*%r ve2es "rava )% #$)% *r%v!'al e )a l!&#a&e$ "/'!'a= %ue('%*a!o, %erost'(ar,


c*a$ra"%a$ra, tra%s$a(er"se, '%!epe%!e%'(ar, or''l*es, emot'al, e"'.7 $as )es"es,
*%#+#:ss$%s 'ara$.

N%"e(se +#e a l!&#a&e$ 'e!":'a e as !e'ess)a)es )a *r%*a&a!)a '%$er'al s6% %9e %s $a%res
*r%*#ls%res )a 'ra36% )e !e%l%&s$%s. Bas"a ler #$ *r%s*e'"% ar$a'#"'% *ara se ver a e!%r$e
ve&e"a36% )e "er$%s 'e!":'%s $%)er!%s= ce$alBl3'a, ot'te, *'!roterap'a, !ermatose, e!ema, e"'.
N% $#$)% '%$er'al, a $*%r"!'a )% !e%l%&s$% / a!)a $a%r, *%r+#e )% !%$e )% *r%)#"%
)e*e!)e e$ *ar"e % ;"% )a s#a ve!)a. %r9a(se *%s #$ !%$e vs"%s% e s%!%r%. D2a % &ra!)e
l!&#s"a Br#$%", '%$ &ra3a= A $el%r $a!era )e '%$*ree!)er % +#e / a 'ra36% ver5al / re*arar
!#$ $#r% '%5er"% )e a!!'%s %# !a l"$a *-&!a )#$ 9%r!al )e !%r$a3<es4.

Os l"era"%s "$ a!)a #$ l"$% re'#rs% *ara %r9ar !e%l%&s$%s= re'%rre$ a% la"$ e a"/ $es$% a%
&re&%. D6% ass$ !%5re2a a 'er"as e;*ress<es $as &as"as e "rvas. Al&#$s e;e$*l%s=

1. E$ "%)a essa ma3%a s/re )e "ra5al%s )%$!a a '%$*%s36%4 Te;era(G%$es.

. Os &e$)%s )% l% era$ $as )%le!"es e cre2ros6 Tr!)a)e C%el%.

. I!"er$!-ves teor'as )e $#leres &e!"s4 Ve!'esla# )e M%ras.

. ?#a!)% a *r%'ss6% ace!eu > 'a*ela, a*ar"ara$(se %s a!9!%s4 A+#l!% R5er%.

Nes"as +#a"r% rases, ma3%a es"- *%r &ra!)e4, cre2ros *%r re+#e!"es4, teor'as *%r las4,
s/res4, ace!eu *%r 'e&%#4. Nes"es 'as%s, % e$*re&% )a *alavra !%5re '%!ere 'er"a $a9es"a)e >
rase7 $as % se# *%)er e;*ressv% )$(

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

!# *ara % le"%r $/)%, *%#'% a$lar2a)% '%$ % "er$% 'l-ss'%, la"!%.

C#r%s% / % e$*re&% )a *alavra $u3ace !es"e *ass% )e L$a Barre"%=


Se!"%#(se e +#s '%$e3ar #$a $%)!a s%5re a &l8ra, essa '%sa $u3ace, +#e se "e$ e se *e!sa
+#e !6% se "e$4 +Fol'carpo =uaresma,1.

A %r$a $u3ace, *%r $u3a(, !6% se )eve a*e!as a #$ *r%*8s"% )e la"!2a36% )% v%'-5#l%7 /
"a$5/$ ev)e!"e !ela #$a !"e!36% r:"$'a, #$ arre)%!)a$e!"% 8!'% $as a9e"a)% > *r%$$'a
5raslera.

+. O ara?smo. ( C%$% "e$%s vs"%, a 'ra36% l!&#:s"'a '%!ss"e *r!'*al$e!"e e$ #"l2ar *ara
!%v%s !s % $a"eral e;s"e!"e. E '%$% esse $a"eral a!)a ar+#va)% !%s )'%!-r%s, +#e$ es'reve
"e$ > s#a )s*%s36% #$a +#a!")a)e &ra!)e )e v%'-5#l%s '%$ )!"'% s&!'a)%. M#"%s )esses
v%'-5#l%s 9- $%rrera$. T$ *%r/$ a%s %l%s )e $#"as *ess%as 'er"% e!'a!"%, % s#ave ar%$a )as
'%sas velas. Ev%'a$ #$ $#$)% )s"a!"e, e a $a&!a36% a$a *%r ve2es re#&ar(se !essa
a"$%sera )% *assa)%. Para % es'r"%r +#e *r%'#ra a2er ress#r&r a v)a )e a!"&%s "e$*%s, essas
ress#rre3<es )% v%'a5#l-r% s6% !e'ess-ras, *%r+#e, *el% se# *%)er %r"e$e!"e ev%'a"v%, a9#)a$
a )ar a 'a$a)a '%r l%'al4.

Es"as res"a#ra3<es, %5r&a)as %# v%l#$"-ras, *%#'% $*%r"a, )a l!&#a&e$ a!"&a, s6% 'a$a)as
arcasmos. O se# es"#)% e a s#a s"8ra s6% !a ver)a)e $#"% !"eressa!"es e al"a$e!"e el#')a"v%s
*ara % a*re!)2 )e re)a'36%, a% +#al $*%r"a )s"!&#r, !a l!&#a&e$, e!"re % +#e / vv% e % +#e
es"- $%r"%.

F- !a s"8ra )e "%)as as l:!&#as #$ *er:%)%, !a"#ral$e!"e '#r"%, e$ +#e, a *ar )% v%'-5#l% #s#al,
a!)a se
93

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

!6% *er)e# "%"al$e!"e a '%!s'!'a )% "er$% vel%, +#e va )esa*are'e!)%. Ee'"va$e!"e, as
*alavras !6% $%rre$ )e #$ &%l*e. V6% se!)% *%#'% a *%#'% a5a!)%!a)as, e$ 5e!e:'% )e "er$%s
!%v%s, a"/ +#e *ere'e$ e 'a$ se*#l"a)as !% se# 'e$"/r% *r8*r%, +#e s6% %s )'%!-r%s.

Mas s#'e)e "a$5/$ +#e % ar'a:s$% *%)e l#)r % se# )es"!% e *er$a!e'er !a l:!&#a '%$ #$
se!")% es*e'al. Trs e;e$*l%s )es"a es*e'al2a36% )e se!")% s6% %s "er$%s %o;o, 2r'tar,
escu!e'ro. o;o s&!'ava !a l!&#a&e$ a!"&a *esar47 2r'tar )es&!ava *ar"r4, +#e5rar47
escu!e'ro era % *a9e$ +#e levava % es'#)% )% )al&%. As "rs *alavras s#5ss"e$ a!)a %9e !a
l:!&#a, !as se&#!"es l%'#3<es= a!)ar )e %o;o6, s"% /, )e l#"%47 02r'tar *e)ra47 e!$, escu!e'ro
é %# % % 'ra)% )e $esa )e 'er"as 'asas )al&as )a *r%v:!'a7 s#5s""## % es'#)% *ela 5a!)e9a e
"ravessas, '%$ +#e serva *a''a$e!"e %s se#s *a"r<es.

P%)e )2er(se +#e %o;o e escu!e'ro es"6% a )esa*are'er, se / +#e 9- !6% )esa*are'era$,
)e!"va$e!"e )% #s% vv% )a l:!&#a7 a *r$era 9- 'e)e# )e - $#"% % l#&ar a% s!8!$% luto, (
"!a a )esva!"a&e$ )e *%)er es"a5ele'er '%!#s6% '%$ %o;o  re*#&!!'a47 a se&#$)a, #sa)a
*%r E3a )e ?#er%2 !% se# r%$a!'e A )'!a!e e as Serras 1.a e)., *-&s. , , , , l$"a)a a
'er"as 'asas !%5res *r%v!'a!as, !6% ress"r- $#"% "e$*% > %!)a )e $%)er!s$%, +#e "#)%
avassala, a"/ $es$% %s '%s"#$es )a ars"%'ra'a7 2r'tar, a "er'era, '%!"!#ar- *%ssvel$e!"e a
)2er(se,
&eral )%se!+#a!"% %#ver
$a+#!s$%s 5r"a)%res )ea $6%
a s#5s""#:re$ *e)ra)%( %%$e$.
+#e !6%S6%
ser-*%s
*%r"rs
$#"% "e$*%,'%!)e!a)as,
*alavras )a)% % e$*re&%
$as %#
$e!%s $%r5#$)as.

A*esar )s"%, %s es'r"%res "$ ar"e )e as a2er ress#r&r !%s lvr%s, '%$% )sse$%s. Se al&#/$
*r%!#$'asse, a% */ )e !8s= O $e# l-*s r:%(se($e47 %#= S!"% $#"% %o;o *el% $al +#e le
s#'e)e#4, *%ssvel$e!"e rr:a$%s >s &ar&ala)as '%$ a $*er"!!'a )% ar'a:s$%. J- !6% r$%s,

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

97

*%r/$, se a'ar$%s %s "er$%s es'r"%s, e$ l#&ar *r8*r%, *ara )are$ a a"$%sera )% "e$*% a!"&%=

O !%5re escu!e'ro, 'e% )e sa%*a e %o;o, 2r'tou as *%r"as )% pao )% r'co"*omem6.


Nes"a '#r"a rase "e$%s !a)a $e!%s )e ses ar'a:s$%s, +#e a l"era"#ra al5er&a a!)a, $as +#e a
l:!&#a '%rre!"e re*#)%# 9- +#ase *%r '%$*le"%.

N% "#r5l6% le;'al +#e / a l:!&#a )e A+#l!% R5er%, %r9a)a )e "%)%s %s ele$e!"%s *%ss:ves e
"ra)a $#"as ve2es )% vel% #$)% *%*#lar, l- a*are'e % ar'a:s$% 2r'tar:

U$a $ar"ela)a $*r#)e!"e '%r"%# a '%r)a, e "rs %$e!s vera$ 2r'tar"se !%s a5s$%s r%'%s%s
)a "%rre!"e4 +5ol$rCm'o, 1.

J- % *r$er% &ra$-"'% )a l:!&#a *%r"#&#esa, er!6% )e Olvera, %5servava, e$ 1, +#e %


ar'a:s$% )ava v%!"a)e )e rr. P%r ss%, %s a#"%res % e$*re&a$ !6% rar% '%$ !s va&a %#
)e'lara)a$e!"e 9%'%s%s. É, +#a!)% 5e$ #"l2a)%, #$ ele$e!"% )e #$%rs$%. Ve9a(se es"a rase )e
al% )e Al$e)a=

U$, )0%lares $%r"3%s, '#9% &as"r-l&:'% aspe'to )2a #$ *%e"a )ese$*re&a)%4.

A+#ele aspe'to, *%r as*e'"%4, )-(!%s #$a $*ress6% )e '8$'%, a'e!"#a % '%!"ras"e e!"re a
l"era"#ra e a v)a, % s%!% e a real)a)e.

Ta$5/$ Te;era(G%$es *re"e!)e % $es$% ee"%, a% e$*re&ar % ar'a:s$% terr'2'l !a se&#!"e


rase= 0err'2'l %, e *er&%s:ss$a, a l#"a e$ +#e se e!v%lvera$ a+#eles "rs a!$as4. É *%ss:vel
a!)a +#e, !a $e!"e )% es'r"%r, % a)9e'"v% terr'2'l e+#valesse a #$ s#*erla"v%, a!)a!)%


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

*%r ss% !ele ala)as as !%3<es )e !"e!s)a)e e )e #$%rs$%. É s"% $es$% +#e se ver'a !es"es
vers%s )e Carl%s Dr#$$%!) )e A!)ra)e, % &ra!)e *%e"a 5rasler%= Se!%rH Se!%rH \ +#e$ v%s
salvar- \ )e v%ssa *r8*ra, )e v%ssa terrl2'l #$ es"re$e!)%!a \ !%$#$ass6% @4 +Impure(as !o
2ra%co, .4 e)., *-&. .

Ér'% Ver:ss$%, !% se# r%$a!'eMs'ca ao lo%3e .a e)., *-&.  re*rese!"a(!%s Le%'-)%, #$
vel% $s"er%s% e r):'#l%, )2e!)% s"%= ( As $e!!as a!)a$ l%#'as *%r $$7 e# / +#e !6% les
)%# $'(a. ( Clarssa arre&al%# %s %l%s. '(a Mas #$a *alavra $s"er%sa. Se# Le%'-)% / #$a
)el:'aH4 A+#ele $'(a  '%!a!3a / #$a vela *alavra )% *%r"#&#s $e)eval, a!)a #sa)a e$
al&#$s alares )% R% Gra!)e )% S#l e )e M!as Geras. O es'r"%r &a'% s%#5e "rar )ela, *el%
'%!"ras"e )as &era3<es, #$ 5el% ee"% )e $s"/r% e )e #$%rs$%. ?#e % v%'-5#l% "a$5/$ se #sa
!% alar 'a*ra )e S6% Pa#l% *are'e *r%var(se *%r es"e *ass% )% r%$a!'e Jr'3uela, )% es'r"%r
Dav) A!"#$es7 $as a+# / #sa)% se$ $a"2 r8!'%= *e&%# a $e;er '%$ as )eas, !a $'(a )e +#e
#$a )elas servsse )e 'a!)er% *ara a s#a )v)a4 *-&s. , 1. J- +#e ala$%s )e ar'a:s$%s
*a#ls"a!%s, '%!v/$ aver5ar a %r$a 'mos, e$ l#&ar )e amos, !% r%$a!'e re&%!als"a )e J%6% )e
S%#sa erra2, A3uapés $lutuam %a r'2e'ra, .a e)., 1Q, *-&. 1.

E, !al$e!"e, Carl%s Dr#$$%!) )e A!)ra)e, a% "ra"ar a &#ra )e D. ?#;%"e, #sa !"e!'%!al e


#$%rs"'a$e!"e %#"r%
&#ra, +#e *re"e!)a ar'a:s$%,
ress#s'"ar %s3'ol*os
)eas )a 'avalara
9%el%s, )e!!)% )es"e3'ol*os
a!)a!"e= De $%)% %e 'avaler% )a "rs"e \ $e
%l%s vs%!-r%s
sa&r% 'avaler% a!)a!"e4 +Impure(as !o 2ra%co, .a e)., *-&. .

O e$*re&% )% ar'a:s$% *ass%# )%s 5%!s a#"%res *ara %s *l#$"v%s )e 5a;a 'a"e&%ra. C%$% s'
 '%s"#$a )2er % v#l&%4 / a!)a %9e #$ 'l'/ ar'a2a!"e, +#e se v !6% rar% !a *e!a )e
9%r!als"as *r%v!'a!%s %# a*re!)2es

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

Q

)e re)a'36%. A!re!e, >u'/ '%$ % se!")% res*e'"va$e!"e )e *r%*%s"a)a$e!"e4 e "alve24,


"a$5/$ s6% #sa)%s e$ es"l% *re"e!s%s%. ?#a!)% !6% e$*re&a)%s '%$ se!")% #$%r:s"'%,
revela$ &eral$e!"e !'#l"#ra e $a# &%s"% *%r *ar"e )e +#e$ %s es'reve.
U$ 'as% '#r%s%, !6% *r%*ra$e!"e )e !'#l"#ra $as )e $#"% $a# &%s"%, % % +#e se *ass%# '%$
)%s es'r"%res *%l:"'%s )% L5erals$% *%r"#&#s, Ma!#el )a Slva Pass%s e J%6% Ber!ar)% )a
R%'a. O *r$er% es'reva % ar'a:s$% p?ra e$ ve2 )e para, % se&#$)% #sava a %r$a po?r, a!)a
$as ar'a'a, e$ l#&ar )e pHr. P%r ss%, %ra$ *%s"%s a r):'#l% *el%s se#s a)vers-r%s $&#els"as,
+#e les 'a$ava$ res*e'"va$e!"e 0F?ra )e &!%r!'a *res#$3%sa4 e J%6% P%r4. ( A*#)
Olvera Mar"!s, Fortu3al )o%temporC%eo, .4 e)., , .

É *%r"a!"% '%!ve!e!"e "er es*e'al '#)a)% '%$ % e$*re&% )%s ar'a:s$%s. Ev%'a!)% #$ $#$)%
a!"&%, "e!)e$ a "%$ar r):'#l% % +#e se es'reve e a *ess%a +#e %s #"l2a. E ss% / )e al&#$ $%)%
9#s"%, *%r+#e e$ es"l%, '%$% e$ "#)%, s%$%s %5r&a)%s a ser %$e!s )% !%ss% "e$*%. A *r-"'a e %
5%$ &%s"% ev"ar6% esses )es*r%*8s"%s.
.

O VOCABULÁRIO PORTUU!"

IV

1. O @o=o 'as pa(a)ras. ( O %$e$ '%$ "#)% 5r!'a, !as s#as %ras )e )ese!a)%7 a"/ '%$ as
*alavras, +#e )6% %r$a a% se# *e!sa$e!"%. C%!"a(se #$a a!e)%"a '#r%sa, +#e va *r % le"%r e$
re!"e )e #$ e+#:v%'% !v%l#$"-r% )e e;*ress<es=
Vera *ara a al)ea #$ $/)'%, 9- )%s%. O se# *r$er% )%e!"e % #$ lavra)%r +#e se +#e;ava )e
%r":ss$as )%res !as '%s"as. O )%#"%r re'e"%#(le #$a *%$a)a, *ara r''%!ar as 'a)eras '%$
%r3a, > !%"e e )e $a!6. Passa)%s %"% )as, e!'%!"ra!)% % )%e!"e, )2(le % $/)'%=

( E!"6%, '%$% "e$ *assa)% @ J- !6% "e$ )%res @

( A, Sr. )%#"%r, as 'a)eras es"6% $#"% l#s"r%sas, $as e# es"%# !a $es$aH

( Ora essaH C%$% a*l'%# v%' % re$/)% +#e le re'e"e @

( Ole, Sr. )%#"%r, ( res*%!)e# % lavra)%r ( "%)as as !%"es e "%)as as $a!6s esre&% '%$ +#a!"a
%r3a "e!% as 'a)eras )a $!a sala. Es"6% l!)as, es"6%= $as as )%res a!)a $e !6% *assara$.

O $/)'% s%l"%# #$a &ar&ala)a e )sse(le=

( OH %$e$, !6% s6% as 'a)eras )a s#a sala, $as as


ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1

'a)eras )% se# '%r*%, os +#a)rs, +#e v%' )eve $a!)ar esre&arH

O al)e6% '%$*ree!)e#, ass$ e2 e )a: a *%#'% es"ava '#ra)%4.

É *%r essas e *%r %#"ras +#e !% *%r"#&#s *%*#lar )% Brasl 9- se #sa, !es"e 'as% !6% ca!e'ras $as
escu!e'ras + +#a)rs, *ara ev"ar '%!#s<es.

Ve$%s *%r a+# e$ +#e '%!ss"e % 9%&% )e *alavras, "a$5/$ 'a$a)% troca!'l*o: )e#(se #$
e+#:v%'% e!"re %s )%s se!")%s )ere!"es )% $es$% v%'-5#l%, )e +#e a res#l"a!)% $al *ara %
*%5re lavra)%r, se$ '#l*a )e !!&#/$. É % "*% $as re+#e!"e (Y % "r%'a)l% e!"re %$8!$%s.
A+# *%r/$, % 9%&% )e *alavras % !'%!s'e!"e. O 'a$*8!% &!%rava +#e 'a)eras4 *#)esse$ "er
a+#ela s&!'a36% +#e les a"r5#:a % $/)'%.

P%)e '%!"#)% 9%&ar(se '%$ as *alavras )e $%)% *r%*%s"a)% e até *ara !s $al/v%l%s. N% "e$*%
)as &#erras l5eras, *%r %'as6% )% 'er'% )% P%r"%, %s *re&a)%res $&#els"as )2a$ a% *%v%
&!%ra!"e )as al)eas +#e % l5eral D. Pe)r% '%$a 'ra!3as assa)as. E *ara *r%va )esse 'r$e
a5%$!-vel la$ )% al% )% *l*"% #$ !$er% )a )r%'ca )o%st'tuc'o%al, %!)e se reera +#e S#a
Ma&es"a)e '%$a a 'a)a 9a!"ar um pe>ue%o assa!o. a2a$ *%r s#a '%!"a e '%$ !s )e
*r%*a&a!)a *%l:"'a % "r%'a)l%, al"era!)% a !a"#re2a &ra$a"'al e % se!")% )%s )%s ele$e!"%s=
pe>ue%o, )e a)9e'"v% *assava a s#5s"a!"v% '%$ s&!'a36% )e 'ra!3a47 assa!o, )e s#5s"a!"v%
*assava a a)9e'"v%(*ar"':*%.
É 'lar% +#e % $%)% )e )2er, a e!"%a36%, )ese$*e!ava$ *a*el *re*%!)era!"e !a %r$a36% )%
e+#:v%'%. S8 % 9e"% es*e'al )e *r%!#$'ar, 'arre&a!)% !% "er$% pe>ue%o, *%)a l#)r %s %#v!"es.

A se$ela!3a $%r%l8&'a )%s %$8&ra%s "a$5/$ serve !a"#ral$e!"e *ara % a5r'% )%s
"r%'a)l%s. F- !% a'"% $ )% re' Lus !e Sousa )e Garre"" #$ 5el% e;e$*l% )esse 9%&%
3#

ver5al. O r%$er% *resse!"e +#e % se# vel% a% 9- !6% / K $es$% *ara ele= '%$% +#e le *esa )a
s#a v)a, #$ "r%*e3% !a el')a)e )a+#ela 'asa. E *<e(se a 9%&ar a$ar&a$e!"e '%$ as )#as %r$as
)e pesa e pesa, %9e #$))as !#$a s8, $as )ere!'a)as a!)a !% "e$*% )e Garre"". O#3a$%(l%s=

TELMO ( F- )e $e *esar )a v%ssa v)a@ +A parte- Me# De#s, *are'e($e +#e $e!"...
ROMEIRO ( E *%r +#e !6%, se 9- $e pesa a $:$ )ela, se "a!"% $e pesa ela a $$@

U$%r$2ar, '%$% se "e$ e"%, a &raa )a *alavra / )es"r#r a r%!a *#$&e!"e )esse "r%'a)l%,
"6% )e *r%*8s"% $a&!a)% *%r Garre"".

Al/$ )es"es, %s es'r"%res #sa$ a!)a %#"r%s *r%'ess%s *ara a2ere$ % 9%&% ver5al. U$ )eles / a
#"l2a36% )% ar'a:s$% *ara ee"%s )e "r%'a)l%. O se!")% ar'a'% )e #$a *alavra, *%r ser '%sa
vela e *%#'% #sa)a, "e$ 'er"a &ra3a '8$'a. P%r ss% %s es'r"%res % e$*re&a$. U$ e;e$*l%=
N6% s%# )e *are'er +#e V. M. )e;e a&%ra % se# '%!ve!"% *ara r >s Cal)as, +#e, a!)a +#e a9a
ac*a>ue +#e % *e3a, !6% / esse % ac*a>ue e$ +#e e# a'%!selara a 9%r!a)a4.

Nes"a rase, % se# a#"%r, r. A!"8!% )as Ca&as, 9%&a '%$ %s )%s se!")%s )% v%'-5#l%= %
s&!'a)% '%rre!"e )e )%e!3a, $%l/s"a4 e % se!")% a!"+#a)% )e *re"e;"%, %'as6%4. O $es$%
e2 % ve!er-vel r. L#:s )e S%#sa, se$ !s #$%r:s"'%s, $as *ara s$*les 5rl% )a rase= ?#s %
Se!%r $%s"rar +#a!"% se pa3a )e #$a )e"er$!a)a e ver)a)era '%!vers6%, e +#6% 5e$ a pa3a'-.
A+# 9%&%# '%$ % se!")% #s#al re'%$*e!sar, re"r5#r4 e '%$ a s&!'a36% a!"+#a)a )% ver5%
rele;% pa3ar"se !e  a&ra)ar(se )e. N%s )'%!-r%s *%*#lares '%rre!"es !6% ve$ es"a l"$a,
a'e*36% )% v%'-5#l%, *%r ser 9- !"era$e!"e )es#sa)a 7] $as s8 '%$*ree!)er- % "r%'a)l% +#e$
"ver *rese!"e % s&!'a)% )% ar'a:s$%.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

U$a %#"ra %!"e )e "r%'a)l%s / a e;*l%ra36% )% s&!'a)% e"$%l8&'% )a *alavra. P%r e;e$*l%,
% v%'-5#l% Mela%col'a, )e %r&e$ &re&a, s&!'a *r%*ra$e!"e 5:ls ara4 Ta!"% 5as"%# *ara
+#e D. ra!'s'% Ma!#el )e ^le% % &ra!)e es'r"%r 9- !%ss% '%!e')%, $a&!asse es"e
0%e%0ver5al= A $ela!'%la, a!)a +#e !e&ra, !6% )- 5%a "!"a a% +#e se es'reve4. E % P. A!"8!%
Vera, #$ $es"re e$ "r%'a)l%s, es"%#"r%, !% +#al se 9%&a '%$ % se!")% e"$%l8&'% )a *alavra
!outo: ?#e$ !6% / !c'l !6% *%)e ser !outo, a!"es a $es$a )%'l)a)e / #$ s!8!$% )e
'!'a4.

A!)a serve *ara a5r'ar "r%'a)l%s a )ere!3a )e se!")% +#e e;s"e e!"re a *alavra s$*les e a
*alavra '%$*%s"a. S%5re %s )%s "er$%s se%t'r e co%se%t'r e!&e!%# r. A!"8!% )as Ca&as #$
'#r%s% 9%&% v%'a5#lar= A!$e(se e ) $#"as &ra3as a De#s *%r se%t'r as s#as "e!"a3<es7 *%r+#e %
se%t'"las é 5%$, ' s8 % co%se%t'"las é $a#4. E !a l"$a &#erra 'vl )e Es*a!a, % es'r"%r
U$a$#$%, reer!)%(se a #$ )%s *ar")%s e$ l#"a, )2a, 9%&a!)% '%$ as *alavras= 05e%cere's, $as
!6% co%e%cere's6.

P%r ve2es "ra"a(se )e #$a alsa '%$*%s36%, '%$% !es"e e;e$*l% )#$ es'r"%r &%!&8r'%= N6%
+#era es"ar se$*re '%$% $e!!a !% le'te )%s es*r"#as !ele'tes6. De a'"%, % "er$% !ele'te !6% /
#$ '%$*%s"% )e le'te, '%$% *are'e > *r$era vs"a.
Se "al s#'e)e '%$ %s '%$*%s"%s, / !a"#ral +#e % $es$%

se ) '%$ %s )erva)%s %# als%s )erva)%s, '%$% se v

!es"e "re'% )#$a 'ar"a )e La"!% C%el% a #$ se# a$&%=

J- a)v!as +#e #$)e #$a rappa !a R#a )%s P%as )e

Y Be!"%, %!)e, se !6% - trapos, - *el% $e!%s trape'ras, e

!es"a ')a)e %!)e !6% - trapos rel&%sas $as - trapal*es e

rape'ros *%l:"'%s e trapal*a!as )e "al %r)e$, '%$% "# as

)eves $a&!ar4.

s .Jl!al$e!"e, '%$% % v%'-5#l% *er)e >s ve2es a s#a _ 'a36% Pr8Pra !ser)% !a rase, /
)e es*erar +#e s#r9a
3+

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

% "r%'a)l%, *el% '%!r%!"% )%s )%s se!")%s. P%r e;e$*l%= N6% se me !/ 9- +#e $e !6% !?em
5%$ *a&% )% +#e a3%4.

O &r#*% rase%l8&'% !ar"se !e, e+#vale!"e a 'mportar"se com, é a*r%;$a)% )% ver5% !ar !% se#
s&!'a)% *#r%7 )a: res#l"a #$ e!&ra3a)% e+#:v%'%. Des"e "e%r / % "r%'a)l% )e A+#l!% R5er%=
C%!ve!'er % mestre"!e"o2ras é, )e a'"%, #$ 2'co"7e"o2ra6.

Is"%, *el% +#e res*e"a *r%*ra$e!"e a% se!")%, > s&!'a36% !"er%r )% v%'-5#l%7 $as %
"r%'a)l% *%)e !as'er )e #$ s$*les e+#:v%'% )e *r%!!'a, "er 'ar-'"er, *%r ass$ )2er, e;"er%r,
$era$e!"e %!/"'%. U$ e;e$*l%, !es"e )-l%&%=

(( M!a se!%ra, e# +#era a $ala  a$-(la.

( ?#e )2 @H ( e;'la$a a se!%ra, 'ea )e !)&!a36%. O se!%r / $#"% a"rev)%H

( N6% se *%r+#= )ese9% a $ala, )e +#e $e a es+#e'e!)%.

(( AH a $ala... Es"- 5e$= "e$(!a al a% 'a!"%. Leve(a4.

Es"es "r%'a)l%s #$)a)%s e$ e+#val!'as %!/"'as "$ 'ar-'"er $as &r%sser%, $as ar"'al.
O#v$%(l%s ( *%s s6% e"%s s%5re"#)% *ara % %#v)% ( !as re*rese!"a3<es *%*#lares )e '%$/)a e
revs"a, '%$ se!")% *%r ve2es 5e$ *'a!"e.

D%s e;e$*l%s a*rese!"a)%s ve$%s +#e % "r%'a)l% '%!s""# #$ 9%&% ver5al, +#e *%)e, e$ 'er"as
'r'#$s"!'as, )ar vv% real'e a% *e!sa$e!"%. Os $a%res es'r"%res e$*re&a$(!%, e %#ve /*%'as
e$ +#e ele % *ar"'#lar$e!"e es"$a)%. Ca$<es, % $a%r )e "%)%s, '#l"v%#(% e$ "%)as as s#as
$%)al)a)es. Mas !6% se se&#e )a+# +#e a'%!sele$%s % "r%'a)l% *ara e!e"ar a re)a'36% )%s
!%ss%s le"%res. E$ 5%$ es"l% )ever- *ar"r(se )% *e!sa$e!"% *ara as *alavras e !6% )as *alavras
*ara % *e!sa$e!"%. Se le )e$%s 'a5$e!"%, / *%r+#e % '%!s)era$%s #$ )%s e!8$e!%s $as
'#r%s%s )a l:!&#a es'r"a, #$ %r"e es*er"a)%r )% se!"$e!"%

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 

ver5al, +#e a"!&e *%r ve2es !as $6%s )% es'r"%r #$a &ra3a )a58l'a, '%$% se *%)e ver !es"e
*ass% )e Ca$l%= Vera )e Cas"r% 'r%# !$&%s7 $as % 9%ve$ es'r"%r v%e9a "6% al"% +#e !6%
*%)e *%r %ra e!;er&-(l%s '- e$ 5a;%. N%"e$ +#e e%er3/"los !6% )erva )e e%er3a, !e$ se+#er /
s!8!$% )e al2ar!/"los6.

#. A (?%=8a $a(a'a e a (?%=8a esri&a. ( De +#a!"% "e$%s )"% s%5re as *alavras, '%$ 'er"e2a '%#
es"a $*%r"a!"e !%36%= +#e % %$e$ e$*re&a %# *%)e e$*re&ar )ere!"es v%'a5#l-r%s, se&#$)%
a s"#a36% e$ +#e se e!'%!"ra. O %*er-r% !6% ala '%$% % !"ele'"#al, !e$ es"e '%$% % 'a$*8!%,
e$5%ra "%)%s se e!"e!)a$, *%r+#e ass$ "e$ )e ser, *ara 5e$ )a v)a e$ '%$#$.

Mas a"/ $es$% % %$e$ '#l"% "e$ > s#a )s*%s36% l:!&#as )ere!"es, '%!%r$e a )vers)a)e )as
s"#a3<es e$ +#e se v e$*e!a)%. Se e!'%!"ra #$ a$&% :!"$%, #$ 'a$ara)a )e es'%la, e$*re&a
#$a l!&#a&e$ lvre, sal*'a)a a+# e al )e "er$%s *%*#lares )e %r"e e;*ressv)a)e. Se l)a '%$
*ess%as )e 'er$8!a, e$*re&a #$ v%'a5#l-r% e #$a '%!s"r#36% )e rases 9- $as '#)a)%s. E!$,
se / es'r"%r e se se se!"a > $esa )e "ra5al%, 9- a rase e as *alavras s6% $as re5#s'a)as, $e!%s
'%rre!"es, $e!%s !a"#ras.

Ve9a$%s #$ e;e$*l% )es"as "rs s"#a3<es !#$ $es$% !)v:)#%=

1. Me# r'%, !6% %sses "r%#;aH M#"as ve2es "e )sse +#e "vesses '#)a)% '%$ a+#ele "*%. N6%
2es"e 'as%, e a&%ra err%#("e % '6%. T%)a a &e!"e )2a +#e ele era #$ 'al%"er% )e $ar'aH4.

. Me# 'ar% se!%r, % )e$asa)% '%!a)%. Avse(% $#"as ve2es )e +#e )evera )es'%!ar
)esse %$e$. N6% $e +#s 'rer e a&%ra v % se# )!er% *er))%. Era v%2 '%rre!"e +#e ele !#$'a
*a&ava as s#as ):v)as4.
33

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

. #la!% e;*r%5r%# a% a$&% a s#a $*er)%-vel '%!a!3a. Dssera(le $#"as ve2es +#e se
arre'easse )a+#ele !)v:)#%. Mas % a$&% !6% le )era %#v)%s e a&%ra s%ra %s res#l"a)%s )a s#a
$*r#)!'a. Na ver)a)e, "%)a a &e!"e *r%'la$ava a !s%lv!'a )a+#ele %$e$4.

N% *r$er%
"er$%s e;e$*l%,
)e &:ra *%*#lar,a l%'#3<es
l!&#a&e$)a/l!&#a&e$
vva, "re*)a!"e, ae'"va
'%rre!"e= '%$%troua,
meu r'co, a '%!versa36%. E$*re&a$(se
t'po, $errar o c7o,
calote'ro !e marca.N% se&#$)% e;e$*l%, esses v%'-5#l%s )esa*are'e$ *%r '%$*le"%, *%r+#e a
a"$%sera a&%ra / %#"ra. A l!&#a&e$ "%$a(se ra e '%rre'"a '%$% a '%!versa36% e!"re *ess%as )e
'er$8!a, +#e ev"a$ !a"#ral$e!"e %s "er$%s '%!s)era)%s 5a;%s e %s s%5ressal"%s )% se!"$e!"%.
E!$, !% "er'er% e;e$*l% es"a$%s 9- e$ %#"r% 'l$a. P<e(se e$ l!&#a&e$ l"er-ra % 'as%, e %
v%'a5#l-r% resse!"e(se )ss%. A*are'e$ a&%ra "er$%s e l%'#3<es +#e !6% s6% )e #s% '%rre!"e, %#
s6% $e!%s #s#as= epro2rar, arrecear"se, !ar ou'!os, %a er!a!e, proclamar, '%sol?%c'a.

P%r '%!se&#!"e, a l:!&#a '#l"a /, *%r !a"#re2a, )s"!"a )a l:!&#a ala)a. O es'r"%r e$*e!a(se a
"ra)#2r *ara $as 5el%4 *el% $e!%s ass$ % 9#l&a as e;*ress<es v#l&ares e #$ *%#'% &as"as, )e
"a!"% #s%, )a l!&#a&e$ )e "%)%s %s )as. Esse "ra5al% )e "ra!s*%s36% / $#"% )el'a)% e !ele
res)e a $ar'a )% ver)a)er% es'r"%r. C%$% +#er +#e se9a, a $ss6% )a l:!&#a l"er-ra / )e*#rar,
e!r+#e'er '%$ a e;*er!'a !)v)#al, e )s'*l!ar a l:!&#a )% *%v%7 e, a% $es$% "e$*%, a)a*"-(
la >s $l"*las !e'ess)a)es )% %$e$ 'vl2a)%. Se$ ss%, !6% *%)e aver '#l"#ra e $#"% $e!%s
l"era"#ra.

C%$*ree!)e(se 5e$ +#e, +#a!"% $as '#l"% se /, $as a l:!&#a es'r"a "e!)e a )ere!3ar(se )a
l:!&#a ala)a. O %$e$ )% *%v%, +#e $al sa5e es'rever, +#ase re)&e '%$% ala. Es a+#, *ara
a$%s"ra, #$ 'er"'a)% )e *%5re2a
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

37

*assa)% *%r #$ re&e)%r $!%"% e$ av%r )e M+#el:!a R%sa. Ve$ !%s Seres !a Fro%c'a)e
Jl% D!s e *er"e!'e > !%vela O espl'o !o se%*or )'pr'a%o:

E# Be!"%
s%l"era, )e $ara )% *%r"al,
es"a C)a)e, !6%re&)%r )e es"a
"e$, a5eres re&#esa
*ara a2er asa"es"% $ '%$%,
)es*esas $a+#l!a,
)% :!"er% r%sa, $ar"!s,
)% se# r$%$ 'e*rea!%
'#9% '%!s"a "er )!er%. Mas % +# 'er"% / +#e *%r $%r"e se !6% !'%!"r%#  se / 5er)a)er% % )"%
)% 5#l&% % )e5e "er, !al&#$ s'%!)r9%, +#e a!)a se !6% !'er&%#. E *%r ser 5er)a)e % +#e
A3#*ra, a"es"a e $% )ser%$ *ess%as )&a!as *ara $$ )e "%)% % 're"%, *a'e es"a +#e 9#r%.

Da)a e$ es"a C)a)e a 1 )e Ja!er% )e...

Je%to mar'a !o portal.6

O re&e)%r, "a5er!er% )e *r%ss6%, e2 '%$% s%#5e, '%"a)%. O )%'#$e!"% a'#sa %


%r$#l-r% a5"#al )as 'er")<es a)$!s"ra"vas= atesto em como, e por ser er!a!e o >ue supra
atesto, e"'. A *%!"#a36% / !'rvel$e!"e )es%r)e!a)a7 a ala )% M!% )s"!&#e(se !% $%)% )e
*r%err as )es!!'as "ao, "am: 'rmo%, !'serom, e a!)a !a al"era36% )%  e$ 2: a2eres,
2er!a!e'ro, 2ul3o, !e2e, 2er!a!e. E!$, a '%!s"r#36% )a rase revela, *ela s#a rre&#lar)a)e, a
!'#l"#ra )% a#"%r. ?#a!"% a% v%'a5#l-r%, !%"e(se % "er$% a)$!s"ra"v% e l"er-r% ul3o,
+#e % "a5er!er% es'reve# *ara '%!err $*%r"!'a a% )%'#$e!"%. N6% era *alavra )% se# #s%7
v%'-5#l% '%rre!"e e re&%!al era e%er3ar, a +#e % re&e)%r )e# #$a &raa 5-r5ara.

E$ s#$a= a 'er")6% "ra)#2 a )es%r)e$ )a l!&#a&e$

ala)a, $as revela % es%r3% )% %$e$ )% *%v% *ara )ar

'er"% l#s"re a% es"l%. É % +#e a2 a5"#al$e!"e +#e$


es'reve. ?#e$ es"- )a!"e )#$a %la )e *a*el se!"e se$"e

U$a )'#l)a)e, #$a res*%!sa5l)a)e. A '%!s'!'a


3

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

)2(!%s +#e se !6% )eve es'rever !"era$e!"e '%$% se ala7 $as "a$5/$ !%s *rev!e )%s *er&%s
+#e - e$ !%s aas"ar$%s )e$asa)% )essa l!&#a&e$ !a"#ral, +#e "ra2 e$ s "%)as as e!er&as )a
al$a.

*. A =?ria. ('%rre!"e
l!&#a&e$ Ca$a(se 3r'a, '%$% v$%s,
e )es*re"e!s%sa, a% '%!9#$"%
e s%5re"#)% )e e;*ress<es
re+#e!"es )e$e!%s
!as eseras "*% *%*#lar, #s#as
'#l"as )a !a
*%*#la36%.
É re*ar-vel, !as *ess%as )e 5%$("%$, e$*re&are$ "er$%s )e &:ra7 $as, '%$% - )ere!"es &ra#s
)e &:ra, a)$"e(se &eral$e!"e % #s% )a $as !%'e!"e !% "ra"% +#%")a!% e a$lar. É, '%$% se v
)% *r$er% e;e$*l% +#e a*rese!"a$%s !% 'a*:"#l% a!"er%r, #$ $e% e;*ressv%, 'e% )e
vva')a)e, 5e$ a)e+#a)% > l!&#a&e$ ala)a, sal""a!"e e )!$'a.

A &:ra *%)e %ere'er '%!"#)% %#"ras $%)al)a)es e a5ra!&er a l!&#a&e$ )e 'er"%s $e%s es*e'as=
'%l/&%s, *rs<es, %'!as, 'aser!as, a$5e!"es a)s"as, e"'. ?#a!)% ass$ /, 'a$a(se
*r%*ra$e!"e cal7o. O 'al6% / *%s, )e 'er"% $%)%, a &:ra '%$ 'ar-'"er $as reserva)%, $as
se're"%7 a% *ass% +#e a &:ra *r%*ra$e!"e )"a !6% *assa )e #$a %r$a e;a&era)a )a l!&#a&e$
a$lar.

Ne$ se$*re / -'l )s"!&#r a &:ra )% 'al6%. Ve9a(se % "re'% se&#!"e "ra)% )e A Ro%!a !a o'te
)% es'r"%r B%#r5%! e Me!eses, e$ +#e a5#$)a$ essas )#as %r$as )e l!&#a&e$=
J%s/ ra!'s'% *s !a %rela a *%!"a )% l"$% 2re;e'ro, !'l!%# *ara a !#'a % 'a*/# 9- se$ %r$a, e,
"%$a!)% #$ )%s '%*%s, e$ re!"e )% Pl-')%, +#e e$*#$ava % %#"r%, e2 % 5r!)e sa'ra$e!"al =

( L- va > s#a, sor Pl-')%H

O Pl-')% *are'a %#"r%= a"/ 9- "!a as $6%s !as, +#e !e$ #$ )al&%. De ve2 e$ +#a!)% a*are'a al *el%
'arv%er%, +#e, *el%s $%)%s, "a$5/$ era !a cor!a, e, '%$% ele, "!a $#"a a'e"a36% !%s )e$%'r-"'%s. Mas
!a Braslera4 / +#e era v(l%, a )s'#"r

ESTILÍSTICA DA L:NGUA PORTUGUESA

3:

*%l:"'a. E "!a $*%r"!'aH E!"6% !6% % toscara l-, #$a ve2, '%$ #$ $l"ar3ra!o, )esses +#e "ra2e$
*eles !% 'asa5e+#e, &al<es lar&%s !a $a!&a, '%r%!el %# $a9%r, '%$ "%)a a 'er"e2a @ P%s e!"6%H Le$5ra!)%(
se )s"%, 5a;%# #$ *%#'% a v%2, por mor )e )%s t'pos +#e es"ava$ 9%&a!)% % l+#es, e !"err%&%#=

( [ sor Pl-')%, / ver)a)e +#e arre5e!"a %9e #$a $'ta E!"6%, % Pl-')%, )e*%s )e !)'ar '%$ #$ "re9e"% %s
9%&a)%res

( ra*a2es $'es, '- )%s !%ss%s4H ( e;*l'%#, $#"% #a!%= Os alassas "!a$ "#)% *re*ara)% *ara sa'r. Mas a
ra*a2a)a )%s &r#*%s sa5a "#)%. Era e$ 'asa )#$a '%!)essa +#e re#$a % '%$"/4 )%s $%!-r+#'%s. U$
'a5% )a $ar!a, % Da!el ( ss% / +#e era #$ cara !'re'ta "$'(era"se '0%s "ra)%res, a"/ *#sera 5e!"!%s !%
*es'%3% e ca%tara "#)% > ra*a2a)a )%s &r#*%s. Eles "!a$ a '%sa 5e$ *re*ara)a, ss% "!a$H N% +#ar"el
)% 1 a"/ 9- es"ava #$a 5a!)era a2#l e 5ra!'a, "%)a )e se)a, *ara ser alv%ra)a4 l%&% +#e a $'ta
arre5e!"asse... AH $as %s &r#*%s !6% es"ava$ a )%r$rH Eles a"/ sa5a$ +#e$ / +#e "!a 5%r)a)% a
5a!)eraH U$a t'pa, "%)a 5ea"%!a, a$&a )#$ papa"*st'as )a S/...
De "r-s )% 5al'6%, % C%!s"a!"!%, '%a!)% % 5&%)e e % ra!'%r, %5serv%#=

( Se$*re +#er% ver se )es"a ve2 se $a( a l'mpe(a P%!a$(se '%$ *ala"v%s...

O Pl-')% *r%"es"%# '%$ vee$!'a. N6%, )es"a ve2, aca2aa"se"I*e com a raa ?#e$ 'esse com /3uas
mor%as, "r#'aH arreaa"se"l*e l%&%H T#)% +#a!"% %sse 9es#:"a ava )e ser corr'!o )%s e$*re&%s. E es"a era
#$a &ra!)e $e))a, *%r+#e ava *ara a: $#"% re*#5l'a!% > 2roc*a. E '"ava= Ola % V'e!"e $ar'e!er%,
#$ sa'ra'a)%4H O Cle$e!"e, ( '%"a)%H ( +#e lev%# #$ "r% e$ M%!sa!"% e a%!a pra' aos paus... E

%#"r%s4.
O "re'% es"- "%)% sal*'a)% )e &:ra e 'al6% ls5%e"a, +#e s6% &eral$e!"e as *alavras e l%'#3<es
$*ressas e$ "-l'%. E!"re as*as '%l%'-$%s % &al's$% '%$"/4 e %s "er$%s alv%ra)a4 e
sa'ra'a)%4, +#e s6% *r%*ra$e!"e a)#l"era3<es %!/"'as, e$ #s% !a l!&#a&e$ *%*#lar. Os
res"a!"es 'as%s *er"e!'e$ > &:ra7 e / !)s*e!s-vel '%!e'(la, se +#ser$%s *e!e"rar % s&!'a)%
*ere"% )% "re'%. Para #s% )%s !%ss%s le"%res +#e a5"a$ e$ l#&ares %!)e !6% 'e&%# %
'%!e'$e!"% )a &:ra ls5%e"a, +#e va
7-

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

alas"ra!)% *%r "%)% % Pa:s, a+# )a$%s #$ *e+#e!% v%'a5#l-r% reere!"e a% "re'%=

1. 2re;e'ro: '&arr% %r"e. O#"r%s "er$%s s!8!$%s )e &:ra= pa'a%te, pa%!'l*a.

. sor: se!%r. É '%!"ra'36% *%*#lar )e se!%r4.


. ser !a cor!a: *er"e!'er a% $es$% &r#*%, '%$*ar"lar )as $es$as )eas.

. toscar: ver, avs"ar.

. 3ra!o: )e al"a *%s36%.

. por mor !e: *%r 'a#sa )e.

. t'po: !)v:)#%, s#9e"%.

. $'ta: *er"#r5a36% )a %r)e$, $%"$, rev%l#36%.

Q. $'e: se&#r%, )e '%!a!3a.

1K. talassa: %$e$ )e '%!v'3<es $%!-r+#'as.

11. sa'r: r%$*er as %s"l)a)es, sar *ara a rev%l#36%.

1. cara !'re'ta: ra*a2 5%$, r$e. S!8!$% )e &:ra= cara"um*aca.

1. $a(er"se com: $e"er(se '%$, !s!#ar(se '%$% a&e!"e *r%v%'a)%r. E$ &:ra a!)a "e$ %#"r%
s&!'a)%
( a2er a '%r"e, "er rela3<es a$%r%sas= O $a&ala a%!aa $e'to '%$ a s%*era4.

ca%tar: '%!"ar, )e!#$'ar.

papa"*st'as: 5ea"%, $#"% re+#e!"a)%r )a &re9a.

$a(er a l'mpe(a: *r !% s6%, a2er a )e*#ra36%.

aca2ar"se"l*e com a raa: )es"r#r, a!+#lar *ara

se$*re.

'r com /3uas mor%as: a'%!selar a 'le$!'a, a

5ra!)#ra.

arrear: )ar *a!'a)a.


corr'!o: e;*#ls%.

> 2roc*a: e$ )'#l)a)es. S!8!$% )e &:ra=

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

1Q.
K.
1.

B rasca.

. a%!ar aos paus: a!)ar )ese$*re&a)%, e$ $ser-vel s"#a36%.

ESTILÍSTICA DA L:NGUA PORTUGUESA

71

Se '%!s)erar$%s '%$ a"e!36% es"e v%'a5#l-r%, l%&% ve$%s +#e !6% - r%!"eras *ere"a$e!"e
)e!)as e!"re a l:!&#a '%rre!"e, a &:ra e % 'al6%. T%)as elas se '%$*e!e"ra$, $as %# $e!%s.
C%$% "er$%s '%rre!"es *%)er:a$%s se*arar= 3ra!o, t'po, sa'r, cara !'re'ta, $a(er a l'mpe(a,
aca2ar"se com a raa, 'r com /3uas mor%as. As e;*ress<es sor e por mor !e s6% *r%*ra$e!"e
res#l"a!"es )#$a '%!"ra'36% %!/"'a= se!%r  sor *%r a$%r )e  por mor !e. A se&#$)a,
*el% $e!%s, )eve ser %r&!-ra )a *r%v:!'a. C%$% &:ra *%)er:a$%s "alve2 se*arar= 2re;e'ro,
toscar, $'ta, $'e, talassa, $a(er"se com, papa"*st'as, arrear, corr'!o, B 2roc*a.N% 'al6%
*r%*ra$e!"e )"%, '%$% l!&#a&e$ $as es*e'al2a)a, *%)er:a$%s !'l#r= ser !a cor!a, ca%tar,
a%!ar aos paus, +#e *are'e *er"e!'ere$ > l:!&#a )%s va)%s, a)s"as e la)r<es. Mas, '%$%
)sse$%s, !6% se *%)e$ "ra3ar l$"es a5s%l#"a$e!"e se&#r%s.

A l:!&#a &r-"'a es"- a!)a *%r re'%ler e es"#)ar '%$ *r%#$))a)e. Al5er"% Bessa *#5l'%# e$
1QK1 #$ v%'a5#l-r%, a +#e )e# % ":"#l% )e A 3r'a portu3uesa. Pres"a serv3%s, e$5%ra es"e9a
es&%"a)%7 $as / '#r%s% ver % +#a!"% a &:ra "e$ vara)% )e e!"6% *ara '-. e!8$e!% )e
l!&#a&e$, e )e l!&#a&e$ vv:ss$a, es"- e$ "ra!s%r$a36% '%!s"a!"e. U$ e;e$*l%= % "er$%
troua / #sa)% e$ &:ra a'"#al '%$ % s&!'a)% )e *arv%, s$*l8r%4. Es"- $#"% es*ala)% *%r
"%)% % P%r"#&al= %s s%l)a)%s +#e es"6% #$s $eses !a 'a*"al se e!'arre&a$ )e levar essa l!&#a&e$
*ara as s#as re$%"as al)eas. P%s Al5er"% Bessa re&s"a a *alavra '%$% 'al6% )e &a"#$%, '%$ %
s&!'a)% e;'l#sv% )e 'a5e3a4. De e!"6% *ara '- % v%'-5#l% a)+#r# val%r )ere!"e, '%$%
se es"- ve!)%. % *%ssvel$e!"e a $a&e$ )% *%5re *r%v!'a!%, +#e 'e&a a Ls5%a )e "r%#;a >s
'%s"as e '%$ ar a*arvala)%, +#e 'r%# a !%va s&!'a36% )a *alavra. Ela 9- es"-
)ev)a$e!"e ar+#va)a, '%$ % se# se!")% a'"#al, !% $as '%$*le"% re*%s"8r% )e &:ra *%r"#&#esa
$%)er!a, +#e / % D'c'o%/r'o !e cal7o 1QQ, )a a#"%ra )e Al5!% La*a.
7#

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

P%r '%!se&#!"e, % '%!e'$e!"% )a &:ra / !)s*e!s-vel *ara +#e$ es'reve e *ara +#e$ l. ?#e$
es'reve !6% *%)e re*rese!"ar #$ 'arr%'er% %# #$ s$*les %$e$ )% *%v% ala!)% '%$% #$
$ar+#s. Os %$e!s "$ a l!&#a&e$ )% se# $e%, )a s#a *r%ss6%. D2e($e '%$% alas, )r("e(e
% l#&ar +#e %'#*as !a s%'e)a)e. P%r %#"r% la)%, % le"%r +#e )es'%!e3a % v%'a5#l-r% &r-"'%
*%)e
+#e see!'%!"rar
ala essa s/ras )'#l)a)es
l!&#a&e$. !a !"er*re"a36%
O r%$a!'e )e lvr%s
$%)er!% reals"a +#e '%!)#2a$
*r%'#ra 9#s"a$e!"ea%s
)ar$e%s
a% vv%s%'as
% alare$
)as
s#as *ers%!a&e!s, re%r3a!)% '%$ ss% a ev%'a36% )% a$5e!"e.

+. O pro)i%ia%ismo. ( ?#a!)% ala$%s e$ *%v%4, !6% *%)e$%s ra2%avel$e!"e


'r'#!s'rever es"e "er$% > *%*#la36% +#e a5"a !as ')a)es, %!)e se )ese!v%lve$, *%r va )e
re&ra, a &:ra e % 'al6%. O *%v% )as al)eas "a$5/$ ala a s#a l:!&#a, +#e, !a es'%la )%
v%'a5#l-r%, !a al"era36% %!/"'a )a *alavra e !a '%!s"r#36% )a rase, se aas"a !6% *%#'% )%
)%$a )a ')a)e. Os )'%!-r%s '%rre!"es !6% "ra2e$ "%)%s esses "er$%s e l%'#3<es7 $as %s
es'r"%res $as $*re&!a)%s )e v)a re&%!al '%le$ >s $6%s('eas !essa a5#!)a!"e e *"%res'a
seara )e $%)s$%s *r%v!'a!%s. N% v%'a5#l-r% )e Ca$l% !%"a(se a !l#!'a )% alar
$!%"%, % )e al% es"- 'e% )e ale!"e` a!s$%s, e !% )e A+#l!% R5er% "ra!s*are'e % alar )a
Bera. Ve9a$%s #$ *e+#e!% "re'% )es"e l"$% es'r"%r, "ra)% )a !%vela O 2urro !o se%*or seu
!o%o:

O#3a, se!%r 9#2, e# v!a )% Cas"el% '%$... %s *%"es )% le"e va2%s, +#a!)% arr'2a )a C%r#9era, a%
a"ravessar a s%$5ra )%s s%#"%s, % sa$a!o !o corpo $e *e)# ses"a. Ca:a #$a caloraa, +#e % '6% )e"ava
l#$e. E a', "re % a*arel% a% a!$al, +#e *are'a "6% a3raa!o '%$% e# e ass$ espo%tar'a $as a se# &%s"%
ervas e es"evas, +#e *ara al 'res'e$ > !esme!'!a. Es"e!)($e a% '%$*r)%
( % 5#rr% era #$ 5%rre&%, a ma%s'!7o em pessoa, "a!"% $as +#e

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



le ava$ '%r"a)% %s c'os )e !%v!% ( e *#s($e a %lar *ara % #$)% )% 'a*/#, +#e era )e *ala e ava
pra%ta!o )e'$a )a 'ara, por 'a )as $%s'as. Ora, $al '%$e'e a !ar oltas aos %e3al*os, em me%os !e
aemar'a )%r$a '%$% #$ sa!"%. A'%r)e '%$ % s%l a +#e$ar($e a "es"a +#e !e$ 5rasa vva. La!3% %l%s
e$ re)%r, 2urro >ue é !ele Ira *ara a l%9a o alma !e Jar(a2um6

C%$% se v, %s "er$%s re&%!as )6% '%l%r)% es*e'al > ala )% %$e!2!%. Os v%'-5#l%s e
l%'#3<es e$ "-l'% ev%'a$ 'er"% $e% *%*#lar e *r%v!'a!%. U$ %$e$ )a ')a)e !6% alara
ass$. L%&%, +#e$ es'reve / leva)% !a"#ral$e!"e a *r !a 5%'a )as *ers%!a&e!s a l:!&#a +#e les /
*r8*ra. E $#"as ve2es a"/ %s es'r"%res !6% se )es*re2a$ )e e$*re&ar !% se# es"l% *ess%al $#"%s
)esses $%)%s )e )2er *r%v!'a!%s, "6% 'e%s )e %r3a e;*ressva. A l!&#a&e$ *%*#lar, +#er
'"a)!a, +#er re&%!al, / se$*re #$a *re'%sa $!a *ara +#e$ s%#5er 'avar !ela '%$ a'er"%. Essa
es'%la )ever- ser e"a se$*re '%$ 5%$ se!s% e 5%$ &%s"%, )e $%)% +#e %s *r%v!'a!s$%s !6%
se9a$ "a!"%s !e$ "6% 'erra)%s )e se!")% +#e *%ssa$ )'#l"ar &rave$e!"e a '%$*ree!s6% )% "e;"%.

9. O )oa28(<rio 8s8a(. ( Va$%s a2er #$ e;er':'% +#e $%s"rar- a% le"%r a e;"e!s6% )%


v%'a5#l-r% '%rre!"e, $a%r %# $e!%r se&#$)% as *ess%as, $as $#"% re)#2)%, se % '%$*arar$%s
> "%"al)a)e )as *alavras *%r"#&#esas re&s"a)as !%s )'%!-r%s $as '%$*le"%s. Es'%le$%s a
Gra%!e E%c'clopé!'a Fortu3uesa e Jras'le'ra e l$"a$%(!%s a%s v%'-5#l%s +#e v6% )e ate%to a
aterra!o. S6% a% "%)% K !%$es '%$#$s. Dessas *alavras s8 #$a $ea )2a, %# *%#'% $as,
*er"e!'e$ > l!&#a&e$ )e "%)%s %s )as. S6% elas= ate%to, ate%ua!o, ate%ua%te, ate%uar,
aterra!ame%te, aterra!o. E, se a!)a '%!s)erar$%s +#e ate%ua!o, ate%ua%te e aterra!a me%te s6%
*r%*ra$e!"e )erva3<es )e ate%uar e aterra!o, ver'a$%s '%$ s#r*resa +#e a $ea )2a se
re)#2 a "rs= ate%to, ate%uar, aterra!o.Trs *alavras )e #s% '%$#$,


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

!6% - )v)a, $as '%$ val%r )es&#al= se!"$%s *ere"a$e!"e +#e ate%uar é *alavra $as
l"er-ra +#e as %#"ras )#as.

Os res"a!"es v%'-5#l%s *%)e$ )v)r(se !%s se&#!"es &r#*%s=

1. Palavras '%!e')as, $as )e e$*re&% $e!%s re+#e!"e= ate%ua7o, ate%ua!ame%te,


ate%ua!or, ate%uar"se, ate%ua$'o, ate%u/el, a'e>u' a"/ a+#, ( e;*ress6% a*e!as %ral7
. Palavras *%#'% '%!e')as %# a!"+#a)as= ater'c'a!o, ater'c'ar, ater'c'ar"se, aterma!o, atermar,
atermar"se

. Palavras )es'%!e')as '%$ 'ar-'"er re&%!al= ate>u'p?ra, aterlo%!rar

. Palavras "/'!'as, &eral$e!"e )es'%!e')as= atera%!ra, atera%tera, aterceros, atere2a, ater'%a,


ater'%!eos, atér', atermal, aterma%c'a, aterma%e'!a!e, atérma%o, atérm'co, ateroléps's,
ateroma, ateromas'a, ateromatoso, aeropo37o, aterosperma, aterospérmeas.

e"% es"e e;a$e


v%'a5#l-r%7 $as )ee$'%!s'!'a le;'al, re'%!e'e$%s
5reve !%s '%!s%la$%s, a !%ssa
se re*arar$%s &!%r!'a
!s"%= %s "er$%se$ $a"/ra
'#9% )e !%s
se!")%
es'a*a s6% %s +#e "$ 'ar-'"er "/'!'% $#"% es*e'al "er$!%l%&a )a 5%"!'a, )a
2%%l%&a e )a $e)'!a, %s )e !a"#re2a re&%!al, e e!$ %s v%'-5#l%s a!"+#a)%s, )e
'r'#la36% res"r"a.

A% le"%r s#'e)er- % $es$% +#e s#'e)e# a !8s. N6% se )eses*ere '%$ a s#a &!%r!'a )as
*alavras ):'es4. P%r va )e re&ra, s6% a5s%l#"a$e!"e !"es *ara % es"l%, +#e )eve
ev"ar se$*re % *alavr6% "/'!'%, arrevesa)% e !e;*ressv%. O $a!e9% a'er"a)% )%
v%'a5#l-r% #s#al / +#e ver)a)era$e!"e $*%r"a. A esse, s$, )ever- )e)'ar a $as
es'r#*#l%sa a"e!36%.
9.

RA"EOLOIA. O CLIC;

1. Os =r8pos $raseo(/=ios. ( N% 'a*:"#l% , a *r%*8s"% )% s&!'a)% )as *alavras,


v$%s %s v-r%s se!")%s e$ +#e se e$*re&a % "er$% ca2ea. C%!"#)%, e$ 'er"%s 'as%s,
!%"a(se 'lara$e!"e +#e esse v%'-5#l% s8 a)+#re % se# ver)a)er% s&!'a)% +#a!)% e$
l&a36% '%$ %#"r%s ele$e!"%s )% '%!"e;"%. P%r e;e$*l%, !es"a rase ( O %$e$ per!eu *%r
'%$*le"% a ca2ea ( / $*%ss:vel se*arar % ele$e!"% ca2ea )% ar"&% e )% ver5%= per!er a
ca2ea %r$a #$ "%)%, #$a es"r#"#ra, +#e !6% se *%)e )e'%$*%r !as s#as *ar"es. Se !%s
)/sse$%s a esse "ra5al% )e a!-lse $!#'%sa, 'e&ar:a$%s a #$ a5s#r)%= '%$ ee"%, !8s
*%)e$%s *er)er #$ le!3%, #$ )%'#$e!"%, $as !6% *%)e$%s *er)er, '%$ v)a, a 'a5e3a, a
*ar"e s#*er%r )% '%r*%. S8 e$ se!")% &#ra)% % *%)ere$%s a)$"r.

N% %#"r% e;e$*l%, reer)% !% $es$% 'a*:"#l%, "e$%s= 0Deu"l*e a&%ra %a ca2ea a2er
vers%s4. O se!")% !6% es"- s8 '%!'e!"ra)% e$ ca2ea. O v%'-5#l%, *%r s s8, *%#'% %#
!a)a re*rese!"a. O +#e vale ver)a)era$e!"e / % '%!9#$"%, a l%'#36% !ar %a ca2ea a
al3uém, *ara )es&!ar #$ 'a*r'% s5"%, $%$e!"!e%.

Se$ sar$%s )es"a *alavra, ve9a$%s a!)a %#"r% e;e$*l%= % ra!'s'% / #$ ca2ea %o
ar6.

O es*:r"% a*ree!)e
*e!sa$e!"%, e+#vale!"e &r#*% ca2ea "%!"%4,
l%&% a% es"%#va)%4, %o ar '%$% %r$a!)%
leva!%4. #$a #$)a)e
?#a!)% )e
*r%!#$'a$%s %#
%#v$%s essa l%'#36%, !6% "%$a$%s > le"ra esse $%)% )e )2er, ve!)% #$a 'a5e3a a!)a!)%
*el%s ares. T%)%s %s ele$e!"%s )% &r#*%
73 M. RODRIUE" LAPA

'%!'%rre$ *ara !%s )are$ #$a )ea !'a7 as *ar"es '%$*%!e!"es sa'r'a$ % se# s&!'a)%
!)v)#al e$ 5e!e:'% )% '%!9#$"%. Ta!"% ass$ /, +#e a *r8*ra l%'#36% / '%!s)era)a #$ !%$e
$as'#l!%= a *alavra ca2ea a"/ *er)e, %# *%)e *er)er, a av%r )% &r#*%, % se# &/!er% e$!!%.

Te$%s *%s, !%s e;e$*l%s reer)%s, a '%!r$a36% )#$ a'"% 9- v-ras ve2es a*%!"a)%= as *alavras
!6% leva$ v)a s%la)a, )e*e!)e$ $as %# $e!%s #$as )as %#"ras. E ass$ '%$% !as !a3<es %s
!)v:)#%s *er)e$ a#$
v%'-5#l%s *er)e$ s#a"a!"% )a s#a *ers%!al)a)e
s%!%$a, e$ *r%l
+#a!)% a*are'e$ )% 5e$!#$a
!"e&ra)%s '%$#$, "a$5/$O!a
l%'#36%. l!&#a&e$ %s
!%ss%
*e!sa$e!"% !6% se a2 "a!"% *%r *alavras '%$% *%r rases7 e '%$% % %$e$ "e!)e a e'%!%$2ar %
se# es%r3%, a'a va!"a&e$ e$ +#e as *alavras le %'%rra$ *%r &r#*%s, *ara as s#as !e'ess)a)es
)e e;*ress6%. E $as va!"a&e$ a!)a, +#a!)% esses &r#*%s 9- v$ %r$a)%s )es)e % *assa)% )a
l:!&#a, em. $rases $e'tas. Ca$a$%s *%r"a!"% 3rupos $raseol3'cos, '!'ot'smos, $rases $e'tas %#
locues estereot'pa!as a esses '%!9#$"%s )e *alavras, e$ +#e %s ele$e!"%s a!)a$ $as %#
$e!%s !"$a$e!"e l&a)%s, *ara e;*r$re$ )e"er$!a)a )ea. A )es&!a36% )e 3rupo
$raseol3'co é $as &eral, a +#e $el%r '%!v/$7 as )#as l"$as 9- *res#$e$ 'er"% &ra# )e
'rs"al2a36%, +#e !e$ "%)%s %s &r#*%s *%ss#e$, '%$% vere$%s.

#. "ries e 8mi'a'es $raseo(/=ias. ( A l&a36% e!"re %s ele$e!"%s )% &r#*% *%)e ser $as %#
$e!%s :!"$a. F- &r#*%s +#e se %r$a$ )e $%$e!"%, e l%&% a*8s !6% )e;a$ ves":&%s7 %#"r%s
+#e ress"e$ #$ *%#'% $as7 %#"r%s, e!$, +#e %r$a$ #$ "%)% '%$*a'"%, !al"er-vel. Va$%s
ver e;e$*l%s +#e )e$%!s"ra$ %s v-r%s &ra#s )e '%es6% e!"re as *ar"es )% &r#*%=
1. O J%s/ "e$ #$ 'aval%.

. O J%6% "e$ a#"%$8vel.


E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A 77

. Esse %$e$ tem $ortu%a.

. em cu'!a!o, !6% v-s l-H

. N!&#/$ tem %a!a com 'sso.

. o' ter com ele > es"a.


N% *r$er% e;e$*l%, % ver5% ter, '%$ % se!")% !%r$al )e *%ss#r4, '%!serva !)e*e!)!'a e$
rela36% a caalo.

N% se&#$)% e;e$*l%, essa a#"%!%$a 9- % ae'"a)a #$ *%#'%. A al"a )e ar"&% '%!"r5# se$
)v)a *ara l&ar $as % ver5% a% s#5s"a!"v%7 ter automel "e!)e e$ !%ss% es*:r"% *ara %r$ar
'er"a #$)a)e )e *e!sa$e!"%, *%r+#e a% a'"% s$*les )a *%sse a!)a l&a)a #$a )ea a'ess8ra )e
s#'!'a, )e a5as"a!3a.

N% "er'er% e;e$*l%, % ver5% ter $ortu%a 9- !6% !%s 'a#sa e$5ara3%= / ev)e!"e$e!"e #$a l%'#36%
rase%l8&'a, $*%s"a *el% #s% vv% )a l:!&#a, +#e '%rres*%!)e !% !%ss% es*:r"% a ser r'%4.
C%!"#)%, re*ara!)% 5e$, a!)a %s )%s ele$e!"%s, ter e $ortu%a, !6% *er)era$ *%r '%$*le"% a s#a
!)e*e!)!'a. er a!)a '%!serva % s&!'a)% *r8*r% )e *%ss#r4.
N% +#ar"% e;e$*l% 9- se !6% )- % $es$%= %s )%s v%'-5#l%s es"6% $as es"re"a$e!"e s%l)a)%s7 e se
cu'!a!o &#ar)a a!)a #$ *%#'% )a s#a s&!'a36%, % ver5% ter 9- var%# )e se!")%. Ta!"% ass$,
+#e *%r ve2es se s#5s""# *%r "%$ar4= toma cu'!a!o.

N% +#!"% e;e$*l%, a l%'#36% ( %7o tem %a!a com 'sso ( / e;"re$a$e!"e '%!#sa, se !%s )er$%s >
*a'%rra )e a!alsar #$ *%r #$ %s se#s ele$e!"%s. Pare'e al"ar al +#al+#er '%sa. Ee'"va$e!"e,
% &r#*% )ever- ser #$a '%!)e!sa36% )#$ %#"r% $as e;*l:'"%= %7o tem %a!a >ue er com 'sso.
A&%ra es"- $as 'lar%7 $as, a!)a ass$, % )%"s$% s8 a"!&e a *ere"a s&!'a36%, '%!s)era)%
!% se# '%!9#!"%7 %s ele$e!"%s )e +#e se '%$*<e *%r s s8 *%#'% !%s )2e$.

E!$, !% se;"% e;e$*l% al'a!3a(se % '$#l% )a e;"rava&!'a


7

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

e )% a5s#r)%= 'r ter com s&!'a )r&r(se a #$ l#&ar, '%$ "e!36% )e se re#$r a %#"ra *ess%a4. O
$la&re )a l:!&#a '%!se&#e e;*r$r s!"e"'a$e!"e, *%r "rs *alavr!as, es"a )ea '%$*l'a)a. E %
$as e;"ra%r)!-r% / +#e % real2a *ere"a$e!"e, a"rav/s )e #$a l&a36% +#ase !a're)"-vel, '%$%
é a )a+#eles "rs v%'-5#l%s.

Os &r#*%s e$ +#e a '%es6% )%s "er$%s / a*e!as rela"va 'a$a$(se, e$ Es"l:s"'a, sér'es
$raseol3'cas. Es"6% !es"e 'as% %s !.%s  e  )%s e;e$*l%s a'$a reer)%s. A+#eles e$ +#e essa
'%es6% / a5s%l#"a s6% '%!e')%s *%r um'!a!es $raseol3'cas. E!"ra$ !essa 'a"e&%ra %s !.%s ,  e
. C%!v/$ "%)ava %5servar +#e %s l$"es e!"re #$a e %#"ra 'a"e&%ra !e$ se$*re se )e!e$ '%$
*ere"a !")e2.

O e;a$e )as l%'#3<es es"ere%"*a)as '%!)#2(!%s *%r"a!"% a es"a '%!'l#s6%, +#e !6% )e;a )e ser
'#r%sa= !6% - )v)a +#e % %$e$ )2, +#a!)% ala e +#a!)% es'reve, '%sas *ere"a$e!"e
a5s#r)as. O +#e le vale / !6% a"e!)er >s *alavras s%la)as, $as > es"r#"#ra, > l%'#36% rase%l8&'a.
E a s#a )es'#l*a es"- e$ +#e !6% % ele +#e$ !ve!"%# esses $%)%s )e )2er= e!'%!"r%#(%s e"%s,
*ara )es&!ar '%sas 'er"as e '%$#$s, e #"l2a(%s, *%r+#e le *%#*a$ $#"% "ra5al%. A v)a /
ass$ '%!s""#:)a= *ela era!3a *assva e '8$%)a )% *assa)% e *ela 'ra36% a'"va e *%r ve2es
rev%l"a )% *rese!"e. Es"as )#as %r3as *res)e$ a "%)% % "ra5al% )a l!&#a&e$, '%$% "e$%s vs"% e
vere$%s a!)a !es"e 'a*:"#l%.
*. Ves&?=ios araios %os =r8pos $raseo(/=ios. 0 "e as

l%'#3<es es"ere%"*a)as s6% #$a era!3a )% *assa)%, !e'essara$e!"e aver6% )e '%!"er ar'a:s$%s,
+#er )e v%'a5#l-r%, +#er )e '%!s"r#36%. S#*%!a$%s es"e &r#*% (( estar !e 'se'ra ca!a.
Per'e5e$%s $#"% 5e$ % se!")% &eral )a rase= es"ar '%$ ar 'arra!'#)%, 2a!&a)%4. Esse "er$%
"ra!s*%r"a(!%s > I)a)e M/)a, > /*%'a e$ +#e %s 'avaler%s se ves"a$ )e err% e '%5ra$ % r%s"%
'%$ a 'se'ra. ?#a!)%
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A 7:

a 'se'ra es"ava 'a:)a, era s!al )e +#e % &#errer%, !6% )e'er"% s%rr)e!"e, se a*r%!"ava *ara a l#"a.
A+# es"-, e$ $)%s, e;*l'a)% % se!")% )a l%'#36%. Mas +#e$ ala %# es'reve !6% *re'sa )e r
>&r#*%,
s"8ra *ara a*ree!)er(le
a*rese!"a(se a!)a a% %es*:r"%
s&!'a)%.
)e #$ Esse
$%)%s&!'a)%,
5e$ *re's%.ae'"a!)% "%)%s*%r/$
É *%ss:vel %s ele$e!"%s )%
+#e % )%"s$%,
*el% se# 'ar-'"er ar'a'%, !6% )#re $#"% "e$*%. F%9e 9- #$s le *reere$ es"ar )e 'arra!'a4,
es"ar "r%$5#)%4, +#e s6% $as *%*#lares e $e!%s l"er-r%s.

O#"r% e;e$*l%= $a(er alar!e )e al&#$a '%sa. T%)%s sa5e$%s +#e a rase s&!'a e;5r, %s"e!"ar
'%$ ae'"a36% e va)a)e4. Mas a+#ele v%'-5#l% alar!e /(!%s #$ *%#'% es"ra!%, e$5%ra %
e!'%!"re$%s !% ver5% )erva)% alar!ear. O )'%!-r% )2(!%s +#e alar!o / es"a a %r$a *r$"va
)a *alavra era a revs"a a!#al +#e se a2a >s "r%*as, *ara ver'ar )% se# !$er%, )% es"a)% )%s
%$e!s e )as ar$as +#e "ra2a$. Nessa *ara)a, +#e '%!)#2 "a$5/$ > I)a)e M/)a, % *e6% e %
'avaler% e;5a$ '%$ %r&#l% as s#as ar$as e as s#as *ess%as. Se % le"%r, '#r%s% )e se !s"r#r,
+#ser %r$ar )ea )e #$ alar)% $e)eval, !6% "e$ $as +#e ler a s%5er5a *-&!a l"er-ra, es'r"a
*%r er!6% L%*es s%5re % alar)% )a Valar3a, e$ "e$*% )e D. J%6% I ;. N%s )%s e;e$*l%s, +#e
a*rese!"a$%s, a!)a '%$ 5%a v%!"a)e se *%)era '%!s)erar % v%'-5#l% ar'a'% '%$%
s#s'e*":vel )e se l5er"ar )% '%!"e;"%. Na ver)a)e, % s"%ra)%r %# % r%$a!'s"a s"8r'% *%)e$
*ere"a$e!"e es'rever= O 'avaler%, *%!)% a 'se'ra, *re*arava(se *ara a rere&a4. J- #$
*%#'% $as ):'l ser- al&#/$ es'rever= O e;'essv% alar!e )e $a&!-ras *re!)as )esa&ra)%#
a% *a )% !%v%4. É +#e % v%'-5#l% alar!e, rress"vel$e!"e,

+1- os =ua!ros !a )r%'ca !e D. Po7o I. C%le'36% )e Cl-ss'%s )% Es"#)a!"e4 )e S- )a C%s"a E)"%ra.
-

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

'a$a a s % v% $a(er, '%$ +#e es"- !"$a$e!"e s%l)a)%. D'l$e7 *%)er- a!)ar > s%l"a.

Essa $*%sal)a)e )e l5er"a36% a*are'e, *%r e;e$*l%, !% &r#*% Te%l8&'%, !")a$e!"e ar'a2a!"e,
B 3u'sa !e, 9- !%ss% '%!E')%, %# !a l%'#36% !esta 3u'sa, a!)a #sa)a, *%r e;e!*l%, e$ E#'l)es
)a
)e C#$a.
D. J%6% IA+#,
a!)a"%)%s %s ele$e!"%s
se *%)a s6)e$#"as
es'rever= )e "al %r$a s%l)-r%s,
3u'scQe +#ese!"e!3a4.
)2 es"a !6% *%)e$Gu'sa
se*arar(se. N% "*%
é #$ vel%
s#5s"a!"v% *%r7#s, )e %r&e$ &er$!'a, +#e s&!'ava $a!era, )%4. Se sse$%s a )2er %# a
es'rever %9e +#al+#er 'a '%$% s"% ( N6% &%s"% )as 3u'sas )e #la!%4 ( era a &ar&ala)a &eral, e
% *%5re +#e "al )ssesse %# es'esse arrs'ava(se a ser !"er!a)% !#$a 'asa )e sa)e, $v/$ al-s
rsar +#e a l%'#36% B 3u'sa !e  > $a!eras4, 9- / )e #s% $#"% res"r"%, *#ra$e!"e l"er-r% e
$#"% '%!e'"a)%. P%r ss%, se #sa $#"as ve2es '%$ !s #$%r:s"'%H

E$ %#"r%s %s essa $*%ss5l)a)e )e se*ara36% a!)a / $as ev)e!"%%r+#e a *alavra +#e %r$a %
!'le% )% &r#*% / )e %r&e$'er"a e s&!'a)% %5s'#r%. T%$e$%s *%r e;e$*l% es"a l%36%, a!)a
%9e $#"% *%*#lar= a%!ar %uma $o%a. Te$, '%!se sa5e, a s&!'a36% )e a!)ar !#$a r%)a(vva,
se$ ''a!sar, > l#a(l#a4. ?#e s&!'a a+#ele ele$e!"% $o%a e&#$)% %s )'%!-r%s, $o%a / a
ala +#e se )es*re!)l% l#$e e v%l"a !% ar, 9- a*a&a)a e e$ %r$a )e '!2a.K "er$% *are'e "er
%r&e$ &er$!'a7 "era v!)% )% "'% $o%  l#$e. O 'er"% / +#e, salv% !al&#$ re'a!"% r%v!'a!%,
!!&#/$
'a$%#('e%9e % e$*re&a,
!%v% a !6% ser !ser)%
> v)a, )ese!"erra!)%(% )% r#ele
l/;'%&r#*%
5er6%=rase%l8&'%.
O*"ara*elaA+#l!% R5er% *%r/$
'a3%la, res&#ar)a)a )as
$o%as *el% "es"%4 +5ol$rCmt 1Q.

O#"ras l%'#3<ess s!8!$as )e a%!ar %uma $o%a "a$5/$ '%!serva$ ar'a:s$%s= a%!ar %um 'rote e
a%!ar %um 2a!a%al"
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA=(

5'rote era a *e+#e!a se"a +#e )es*e)a$ %s 5es"er%s !a I)a)e M/)a. Se s#*#s/sse$%s
+#e #$a *ess%a *#)esse a!)ar >s 'aval"as !#$ )esses !s"r#$e!"%s )e a"rar, a'l$e!"e
$a&!a$%s +#e a!)asse 5e$ l&era. Ass$ se e;*l'ar- "alve2 a l%'#36%. O "er$%
2a!a%al, e;s"e!"e !a %#"ra, !6% "e$ s&!'a)% 'lar%7 %9e !!&#/$ % e$*re&a
s%la)a$e!"e. S#*<e(se +#e se9a "er$% e5ra'%, #sa)% !%s Sal$%s 5:5l'%s. C%$% "a$5/$
2a!a%a )es&!a #$a "ra *e!)e!"e )a r%#*a sa'#))a *el% ve!"%, )essa $a&e$ )e '%!#s6%
$%v$e!"a)a *%)era "er res#l"a)% a e;*ress6%. É #$a *8"ese7 a% 'er"% !!&#/$ sa5e
5e$ % +#e se9a.

O $es$% e!8$e!% )e ar'a:s$%, $*e!e"r-vel %# +#ase, se )- '%$ %#"ras l%'#3<es= !e


cor, a to!a a 2r'!a, a troue"moue, %em c*us %em 2us, !e 2om 3ra!o, B toa, !e l?s a l?s, B
pur'!a!e, !ar a(o a, ter o mau sestro !e, ao léu, e"'. N6% '%$*ree!)e$%s % v%'-5#l%
s%la)%, !e$ / *re's%= 5as"a +#e '%$*ree!)a$%s % se!")% &l%5al )a l%'#36%. S8 esse
"e$ $*%r"!'a. A )e$asa)a !ss"!'a e"$%l8&'a, '%$% v$%s, *%)e levar(!%s a
)es*r%*8s"%s. O *assa)% )a l:!&#a s8 "e$ val%r, +#a!)% vv% a!)a e a*l'a)% a%
*rese!"e. Na ver)a)e, )e +#e servra a% a*re!)2 )e re)a'36% vr al&#/$ )2er(le +#e %
v%'-5#l% cor / #$ vel% &al's$% e s&!'a cora7o, co%*ec'me%to, co%sc'?%c'a
P%)era ser *ara ele a"/ #$ $%"v% )e e$5ara3%, *%r+#e a l%'#36% !6% "e$ %9e val%r
se!"$e!"al e reere(se s$*les$e!"e a #$a %*era36% )e $e$8ra. A !6% ser +#e le
a*%!"-sse$%s *ara % ver5% recor!ar, +#e a!)a es"- l&a)%, *ela %r$a e *%r #$ )%s
s&!'a)%s, a esse ar'a:s$% ve!er-vel.

+. "ries )er2ais. ( D%s e;e$*l%s '"a)%s "e$%s vs"% +#e % ver5% )ese$*e!a *a*el
$*%r"a!"e !a %r$a36% )as l%'#3<es. A $a%r *ar"e )as ve2es #$ ver5% s$*les *%)e
s#5s""#r(se *%r #$ &r#*% rase%l8&'%, *%r"a)%r )% $es$% s&!'a)%= )e')r4  tomar
a!ar
!ec's7o !e ve!'er4 ( alca%ar 'tr'a so2re a're)"ar4  !ar cré!'to a '%$5a"er4 

 ( Es"l:s"'a
#

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

com2ate a, e"'. O ver5% !ar *res"a(se s%5re"#)% a ss%, '%$% 9- !%"%# '%$ !#ra Cal)as A#le"e !%
se# D'c'o%/r'o, % $as '%$*le"% *ara % es"#)% rase%l8&'% )a l:!&#a. Nes"as *er:rases a!)a
a*are'e a *alavra )erva)a %# *r$"va, s"% /, a!)a se 9%&a, !% #$)%, '%$ a $es$a a$:la
v%'a5#lar = !ec'!'r ( !ec's7o e%cer ( 'tr'a acre!'tar ( cré!'to com2ater ( com2ate $as %

'%ser7 !ar
ver5% !ar e$*re&a(se
espera%as a!)a '%$ %#"r%s
 *r%$e"er7 !%$es, %r$a!)%
!ar '%!c'os #$aBss/re
revelar7 !ar  '%rrer, !ar
*err-s"'a=
per%as e"'. po%tos 

C%$% ve$%s, es"a '%!s""#36% )e %r$as *err-s"'as "e$ #$ )#*l% val%r= *er$"e varar % es"l%,
ev"a!)% re*e"3<es, e a)%3a a!)a a 'r#e2a )e 'er"%s ver5%s s$*les. A *er:rase vale '%$% #$a
es*/'e )e e#e$s$%= !6% - )v)a )e +#e tomar a resolu7o / $e!%s 5r#s'%, $e!%s v%le!"% )%
+#e resoler !ar cré!'toa"e!#a #$ *%#'% a )ea )e acre!'tar. A *ess%a !a, )e 5%a s%'e)a)e, !6%
)2 '%$ r#)e2a= O se!%r me%te ( $as e$*re&a #$a s/re ver5al e#e$:s"'a= O se!%r $alta B
er!a!e A )el'a)e2a leva $#"%s a )2ere$!e'tar $ora a com'!a, e$ ve2 )% $as ra!'% e 5r#"al
om'tar.

As s/res ver5as s6% a!)a '#r%sas *%r %#"r% as*e'"%= 5as"a #$a l&era al"era36% !a s/re, a
*rese!3a %# a#s!'a )#$a *re*%s36%, )#$ ar"&%, a "r%'a )e #$ )%s ele$e!"%s, *ara % se!")%
$#)ar >s ve2es *%r '%$*le"%. Ve9a$%s es"as s/res= !e'tar B terra e !e'tar por terra, $e")as !#$a
rase=
1. O lavra)%r !e'tou B terra a se$e!"e.

. O l#"a)%r !e'tou por terra % a)vers-r%.

O se!")%, '%$% se v, / "%"al$e!"e )ere!"e, e 5as"%# *ara ss% a s$*les "r%'a )a *re*%s36%.

S#*%!a$%s a&%ra es"as )#as s/res= !ar mot'o e !ar por mot'o. O a'res'e!"a$e!"% )a
*re*%s36% )- > s/re

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 

#$ s&!'a)% 5e$ )vers%, '%$% se v )es"es )%s e;e$*l%s=

1. Iss% !eu mot'o a +#e ele % *#sesse %ra )e 'asa.

. al"%#, !a%!o por mot'o a s#a *%#'a sa)e.

N% *r$er% e;e$*l% - #$a rela36% )e '%!se+#!'a )ar $%"v%4  "er '%$% '%!se+#!'a, !%
se&#$)% #$a rela36% )e 'a#sa )ar $%"v%4  )ar '%$% 'a#sa.

A!)a #$ "er'er% e;e$*l%, +#e $%s"ra '%$% a *rese!3a )% ar"&% )- $e!%s '%es6% > s/re=

1.
.

V se !/s o lu3ar a "e# r$6%.


O 'as% !eu lu3ar a +#e )es'%!asse$ )ele.

N% *r$er% e;e$*l%, a rela36% e!"re %s "rs ele$e!"%s )a s/re / 5as"a!"e r%#;a, +#ase '%!serva$
a s#a !)e*e!)!'a. N% se&#$)%, % )esa*are'$e!"% )% ar"&% "r%#;e '%$% res#l"a)% #$a *ere"a
'%es6% )% &r#*%. É #$a ver)a)era #$)a)e rase%l8&'a.

9. Os 'iio%<rios e a $raseo(o=ia. ( É *re'sa$e!"e !es"e 'a*:"#l% )a rase%l%&a, $#"%


$*%r"a!"e, +#e os )'%!-r%s '%rre!"es )e;a$ $as a )ese9ar. O $as 'ele5ra)% )e e!"re eles e
% $as $%)er!% )%s &ra!)es )'%!-r%s, % )e C!))% )e &#ere)%, / $#"% *%5re e$ &r#*%s
rase%l8&'%s, % +#e '%!s""# &rave )ee"%, *%r+#e / !essas l%'#3<es +#e se $*r$e % 'a$a)%
&/!% )a l:!&#a. C%$% re*%s"8r% )e rase%l%&a, !"er*re"a)a '%$ a'er"% e !"el&!'a, !a)a -
+#e *%ssa s#5s""#r e!"re !8s % D'c'o%/r'o )o%temporC%eo )e Cal)as A#le"e. F- "a$5/$, )%
la)% 5rasler%, % esouro !a $raseolo3'a 2ras'le'ra)e A!"e!%r Nas'e!"es, +#e *%)e *res"ar
serv3%s, e$5%ra !6% se9a '%$*le"%.

C%$*ree!)e(se, a"/ 'er"% *%!"%, a ra26% *%r +#e %s


+

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

):'%!ars"as ev"a$ %s &r#*%s rase%l8&'%s= / )ev)% > e;"re$a )'#l)a)e )a s#a arr#$a36% e
a"/ >s ve2es )a s#a )e"er$!a36%. E$ +#e r#5r'a, *%r e;e$*l%, se )eve $e"er a l%'#36% 'r a tal*o
!e $o'ce E$ "e%ra, *%)er:a$%s *(la e$ +#al+#er )as "rs ( 'r, tal*o, $o'ce, *%s % se!")% *%r
"%)as se es*ala, a"!&!)% a"/ as *e+#e!!as *re*%s3<es. Nas l%'#3<es ar'a2a!"es a
)'#l)a)e
cor a!)a
e, se$ $as / $a%r. Ass$,
e;*l'a3<es, $a!)a verC!))%
!e"cor. )e
Ora,&#ere)%, !% Fe>ue%o
sera "alve2 $as D'c'o%/r'o l%'#36%
r&%r%s% !"er*re"ar re&s"a
!a r#5r'a cor *%r %#"r% la)%, ss% !6% )e;ava )e ser es"ra!%, *%r+#e % "er$% cor - $#"%s
s/'#l%s +#e )esa*are'e# )% #s% )a l:!&#a e s8 se '%!serv%# !a+#ele )%"s$%. É *%r"a!"% !%s
)'%!-r%s a!al8&'%s %!)e %s &r#*%s e!'%!"ra$ $el%r &#ar)a. A: !6% se %la > %r$a, $as s$
a% se!")%. N%s D'%!-r%s a!al8&'%s4 9- '"a)%s *%r !8s - &ra!)e a5#$)!'a )eles7 $as a
$s"#ra !)s'r$!a)a )e )%"s$%s *%r"#&#eses e 5rasler%s *%)e "%$ar ):'l, '%$% 9-
)sse$%s, esse !s"r#$e!"% )e '%!s#l"a.

. S/res #s#as )e !"e!s)a)e. ( F- #$a %#"ra 'a"e&%ra )e &r#*%s  rase%l8&'%s, +#e "e$ $#"a
$*%r"!'a *ara % es"l%= s6% %s &r#*%s #s#as %# s/res #s#as )e !"e!s)a)e. S#*%!a$%s +#e
al&#/$ es"- $#"% )%e!"e. A !%ssa "e!)!'a / *ara )2er$%s !varavel$e!"e= #la!% "e$ #$a
3rae !oe%a6, %# e!"6%= #la!% es"- 3raeme%te !oe%te6. Os )%s ele$e!"%s !oe%a"3rae
$a!"$ a s#a a#"%!%$a, $as, *%r %r3a )% -5"%, a!)a$ a+# l&a)%s, *ara !%s )are$

)e"er$!a)a re*rese!"a36%.
Al&#/$ '%ra )eses*era)a$e!"e, )a!"e )e !8s. ?#ere$%s +#al'ar a !"e!s)a)e )esse '%r%.
Ve$(!%s l%&% > )ea #$ 'asal )e *alavras=c*oro co%uls'o. Esses )%s "er$%s a!)ava$
ass%'a)%s !% !%ss% es*:r"% e a'#)ra$ *r%!"a$e!"e > 'a$a)a. Para % 'as% '%!"r-r%, )-(se %
$es$%= #la!% r'a Bs 3ar3al*a!as"6.A l%'#36% es"- *r%!"!a
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

9

)es)e % "e$*% )%s !%ss%s av8s, / e;*ressva, / '8$%)a, !6% "e$%s $as +#e a*l'-(la.

S#*%!a$%s a&%ra +#e, !#$a r%)a )e "a&arelas, s#r&e !%*!a)a$e!"e #$ a'"% +#e %5r&a a 'alar
"%)a a &e!"e. N6% se %#ve % 2#$5)% )e #$a $%s'a, '%$% / '%s"#$e )2er. Se +#ser$%s +#al'ar
a+#ele sl!'%, e$ l!&#a&e$ %r"e$e!"e l"er-ra, *%)e$%s es'rever s"%= e2(se !a sala
s#5"a$e!"e #$ s'l?%c'o sepulcral6. Ta$5/$ *%)er:a$%s )2ers'l?%c'o pro$u%!o $as a+#ele
sepulcral )- #$a !%"a $as !"e!sva, *%r+#e ev%'a % sl!'% $e)%!% )%s 'e$"/r%s.

O +#e se )- '%$ % s#5s"a!"v% e % a)9e'"v%, )-(se !a"#ral$e!"e '%$ % a)9e'"v%, '%$ % ver5% e %
a)v/r5%. Ve9a$%s, *%r e;e$*l%, es"a s/re #s#al, +#e serve *ara as "rs 'a"e&%ras=

1. Se!"# '%$ a !%":'a #$ a2alo pro$u%!o.

. '%# pro$u%!ame%te a2ala!o '%$ essa !%":'a.

. A "rs"e !%":'aa2alou"o pro$u%!ame%te.

Re*are(se 5e$ a&%ra *ara es"es &r#*%s #s#as= #$s s6% $as !a"#ras )% +#e %#"r%s. ?#e$ "ver #$
*%#'% )e e;*er!'a e )e &%s"%, l%&% )s"!&#r- e!"re es"as )#as l%'#3<es= 3rae !oe%a e s'l?%c'o
sepulcral. A *r$era s/re / '%rre!"e, $*<e(se !varavel$e!"e a% !%ss% #s%7 a se&#$)a "e$
'ar-'"er l"er-r%, 'era a r%$a!"s$% !e5re, / e;a&era)a, *re"e!s%sa. P%)er:a$%s s#5s""#:(la
*%r %#"ras l%'#3<es, $e!%s *%$*%sas e "rvas. P%r e;e$*l%=

a- e2(se !a sala s#5"a$e!"e #$ 3ra%!e sl!'%.

2- 4 4 4 4 4 sl!'% rel'3'oso.

c- 4 4 444 4 co%stra%3'!o.

!- De re*e!"e, "#)% !a sala '%# !% ma's a2soluto sl!'%.




M. RODRIGUES LAPA

A rase / s#s'e*":vel )e $#"as %#"ras vara3<es, se +#ser$%s ev"ar % e$*re&% )essas


s/res, *re"e!s%sa$e!"e l"er-ras, saa)as *el% $#"% #s%, a +#e se )- % !%$e )e cl'c*és,
c*apas, c*aes.

Para #&r *re'sa$e!"e > "rval)a)e )% 'l'/, 9- E3a "!a es'r"%= F%#ve #$ sl!'%
cH%cao, %s"l4 +A )ap'tal, 17 R%)r&#es M&#es )es'%5r# % a)9e'"v% caer%oso
e2(se !a sala #$ sl!'% caer%oso-, A+#l!% R5er% #sa sl!'% )e c*um2o6,
sl!'% atr'!o6, sl!'% a2soluto e '%$esto6 e #$ &ra!)e es'r"%r 5rasler%, Gra'la!%
Ra$%s, '%!se&#e 5el% ee"% '%$ #$ a)9e'"v% 5a!al, 3ra%!e, *%s*%s"% a% s#5s"a!"v%= E
a va&e$ *r%sse&##, $as le!"a, $as arras"a)a, !#$ sl!'% 3ra%!e6 +5'!as secas, .a
e)., *-&. Q. Ta$5/$ #s%#, !% $es$% r%$a!'e, % a)9e'"v% compr'!o, $as '%$ $e!%r
*%)er )e s#&es"6%= N% sl!'% compr'!o s8 se %#va #$ r#$%r )e asas4. J%s/ L!s )%
Re&%, !#$ "re'% )e *asa&e$ !a"al, e;*er$e!"a % a)9e'"v% 2om, *r%)#"% ae'"v% )a
sa#)a)e= As 'a5reras a$arelas, e % 2om sl!'% )a es"ra)a, +#e5ra)% )e +#a!)% e$ ve2
*ela e!;a)a )% *%5re "!!)% e$ al&#$a *e)ra es'%!))a !% r%3a)%4 +Do'!'%*o, .a e).,
*-&. 1. E!$, % es'r"%r &ale&% M/!)e2 err! )es'%5re %s a)9e'"v%s sl'!o e !uro *ara
a +#al'a36% !"e!sva )% s#5s"a!"v%= U$ sl!'% sl'!o e !uro er&#e#(se '%$% #a
$#rala4 +O crepsculo e as $orm'3as, *-&. .
7. O Diio%<rio po&io 'e C%'i'o L8si&a%o. 0 6o

"e$*% )a re!%va36% ar'-)'a, e$ 1, % *#5l'a)a e$ Ls5%a #$a %5ra e$ )%s
v%l#$es, '%$ % se&#!"e ":"#l%= D'c'o%/r'o poét'co para uso !os >ue pr'%c'p'am a
eerc'tar"se %a poes'a portu3uesa. O2ra '3ualme%te t'l ao ora!or pr'%c'p'a%te. Se# a#"%r
era ra!'s'% J%s/ rere, al'#$a)% *%e"'a$e!"e )e C!))% L#s"a!%. % %$e$ )e
s8l)%s '%!e'$e!"%s l!&#:s"'%s, e )e;%#(!%s #$as Re$le"
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

es so2re a l%3ua portu3uesa, +#e a!)a %9e se le$ '%$ al&#$ *r%ve"%.

P%r esse "e$*%, e$ +#e %s *%e"as $e!)&ava$ '%$ s%!e"%s as $&alas +#e 'a:a$ )as
$esas )%s )al&%s e )%s '%!ve!"%s a5as"a)%s, 9#l&ava(se +#e a l:!&#a era #$a '%!s"r#36%
$as %# $e!%s ;a)a *el% 5%$ #s%. Para se es'rever 5e$, !a)a $as era !e'ess-r% +#e
se&#r > rs'a % e;e$*l% )%s a!"&%s, es'%le!)% !% es*8l% )as %r$as er)a)as % +#e
$as '%!vesse a 'a)a #$. L%&%, #$ re*%s"8r% +#e '%le''%!asse esse )2eres 'l-ss'%s
sera 5e$(v!)% e ara, se !6% *%e"as )e &/!%, a% $e!%s es'r"%res '%rre'"%s.

O D'c'o%/r'o )e C!))% L#s"a!% *re"e!)e# al'a!3ar esse $. É #$ v%'a5#l-r% )e


s!8!$%s e )e s/res #s#as. S6% es"as as +#e $as !"eressa$ a% !%ss% 'as%. Ve9a$%s #$
e;e$*l%. S%5 % !%$e s'l?%c'o, % a#"%r )- %s se&#!"es a)9e'"v%s, +#e a!)a$ %# *%)e$
a!)ar l&a)%s a esse s#5s"a!"v% =

Al"%, *r%#$)%, l%!&%, se're"%, el, )%, a$&%, $#)%, "-'"%, "a'"#r!%, !%'"#r!%, s%*%r:er%, *l-')%,
"ra!+#l%, s-5%, 9#)'%s%, 'a#"%, a'a#"ela)%, *r#)e!"e, %!es"%, $%)es"%, revere!"e, res*e"%s%, %*%r"#$%,
)s're"%, &!%ra!"e, &!ar%, es"#l"%, es"8l)%, -"#%, !/s'%, !sa!%, !"e$*es"v%, !)s're"%, %5e)e!"e,
*a'e!"e. W,

V(se l%&% % 'ar-'"er '%!ve!'%!al )a s/re. Tra!"e alto, pro$u%!o, lo%3o, %octur%o,
pl/c'!o e $as #$ %# %#"r%, a+#eles a)9e'"v%s es"6% al #$ *%#'% %r3a)%s. N6%
'%!s""#e$, e$ l&a36% '%$ % s#5s"a!"v%, &r#*%s #s#as *r%*ra$e!"e )"%s. O a#"%r
*r%*#$a(%s, *ara alvar e$ "#)% a "area )% a*re!)2 )as $#sas.

O +#e $as !%s $*ress%!a %9e, a% ler$%s esse D'%!-r%, / a al"era36% +#e se e2, )e
e!"6% *ara '-, !a es'%la )as s/res #s#as. As *alavras "a$5/$ se&#e$ a $%)a e "a$5/$
*assa$ '%$ ela. Na ls"a )e C!))% L#s"a!% !6% ve$ % a)9e'"v% sepulcral. A!)a !6%
es"ava e$ #s%, s8 ve% )e*%s '%$ % R%$a!"s$%, +#e "eve 'er"a !'l!a36%


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

*ara % $a'a5r%. Ta$5/$ a'a$%s )e $e!%s !ela 'er"%s a)9e'"v%s e$*re&a)%s *el%s es'r"%res
$%)er!%s, '%$% au3usto, rel'3'oso, a2soluto, $'%o. E$ '%$*e!sa36%, E3a )e ?#er%2 a*r%ve"%# %
a)9e'"v% alto, re&s"a)% a% '%$e3% )a ls"a, "ra!)% )ele 5el% ee"%, *%r 9- !6% es"ar e$ #s%= A
!%"e a2a #$ sl!'% alto, )#$a $ela!'%la *l-')a4 +O Fr'mo Jasl'o-. E$ 2atal*a !6% ve$
e%car%'a!a,
a)9e'"v%s +#ee$ 2ase !6%
%r$a$ %9eve$ esse%c'al,
a s/re= $u%!ame%tal,
!el'ra%te, e$ e%tus'asmo
'%!escr'tel. !6% se $e!'%!a$
E!$, %s v%'-5#l%s %s %o'te,
!'!a, !or,
o!or, se!e )es'%!e'e$ a!)a %s +#al'a"v%s +#e %9e '%s"#$a$ a'%$*a!-(l%s= cruel
cruc'a%te, pum3e%te luare%ta, e%luara!a cap'toso, '%e2r'a%te '%et'%3uel. É ass$= a l!&#a&e$
es"- se$*re e$ '%!s"a!"e $%v$e!"%, '%$% a *r8*ra v)a.

. Cami(o e as sries 8s8ais. ( Ca$l%, '%$ % se# &ra!)e '%!e'$e!"% )a l:!&#a, !6% *%)a )e;ar
)e ver % +#e % &r#*% #s#al e % 'l'/ "$ )e es"aa)% e "rval. N#$a 'r8!'a )e 1, %5serva %
&ra!)e es'r"%r '%$ $#"a &ra3a % *r%5le$a )as 'a*as '%!sa&ra)as=

O5r&a(se % 'r%!s"a a $a!"er !var-ves %s se&#!"es a)9e'"v%s, +#a!)% vere$ #sa)%s *ara %s
se&#!"es s#5s"a!"v%s =

Frela!o ser- se$*re 'rtuoso ca%tora ser- se$*re m'mosa ;or%al'sta ser- se$*re co%sc'e%c'oso ;oem
escr'tor ser-'%$ame.
ser- se$*re espera%oso
se$*re As $a!eras )epatr'ota
+#e$ )- ser-
#$se$*re em'o
5ale ser6% %e3oc'a%te
se$*re ser-%sse$*re
am/e's *o%ra!o
co%'!a!os sa'r7ocalum'a!or
se$*re
pe%*ora!os. O $ol*et'%'sta ser- se$*re esp'r'tuoso o poeta ser- se$*re '%sp'ra!o. Os 'rm7os terce'ros ser6%
se$*re e%er/e's. Os sc'os )e +#al+#er '%sa $er'a!"l ser6% se$*re acre!'ta!os. Os me%'%os rec?m"
%asc'!os ser6% se$*re ro2ustos. As 'as ser6% se$*re '%co%sol/e's

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

Q

Se % r'a3% )er )%2e v!"/!s a%s !v-l)%s, es"e e"% ser- se$*re #$ ras3o $'la%trp'co, e a %r"#$a )ele ser-
se$*re a2e%oa!a. N6% aver- 5ale +#e !6% se9a a%'ma!o, !e$ 9a!"ar +#e !6% se9a lauto, !e$ ser'o +#e
!6% se9a a2um!a%te, %# pro$uso, *ara varar. Ne!#$ %$e$ r'% "er- am'3os +#e !6% se9a$ %umerosos.
T%)as as $'rmas )a *ra3a '%$er'al ser6% se$*re respe't/e's. O oto )e +#al+#er *arv%!% ser- se$*re
'lustra!o e $as )e*ressa $%rrer- % 'r%!s"a )% +#e )e;ar- )e ser elo>ue%te o !'scurso )e +#al+#er C:'er%
a!%s%.
pa', T%)% % casame%to
2om mar'!o, e "er- "#)%ser- prspero. N!&#/$ *%)er- $%rrer +#e !6% +#e se!)% 2om c'!a!7o, 2om
)e 5%$4.

CAMILO CASTELO BRANCO, D'spersos, $, K(K.

É !a"#ral +#e al"e !a ls"a % a)9e'"v% 'lustre, )a)% +#e % es'r"%r !ela $e!'%!a)% era !%va"%. A
s/re es"- %9e "6% avl"a)a, +#e se !%$ea #$ %$e$ )e le"ras )% !%ss% "e$*%, % +#al, )es&%s"%s%
)% 'l'/, e;&# +#e %s 9%r!as % "ra"asse$ !6% *%r 'lustre, $as *%r em'%e%te %# e3ré3'o escr'tor.

Ta$5/$ )% la)% 5rasler% "e$%s a %5serva36% e;'ele!"e )#$ &ra!)e 'ra)%r )e es"l%, M%!"er%
L%5a"%, reer)a a%s 'av<es )e Ber!ar)% G#$ar6es=

N% C%!'er"% )%s !%ss%s r%$a!'s"as, %!)e Ale!'ar / % *a!% +#er)% )as $%3as e Ma'e)% a se!sa5%ra
rela$58ra )#$ la#"$ *e&as, Ber!ar)% / a sa!%!a. L(l% / r *ara % $a"%, *ara a r%3a Y(Y $as #$a r%3a
a)9e'"va)a *%r $e!!a )e S%!, %!)e %s *ra)%s s6% ame%os, %s ver&/s $lor'!os, %s r%s cau!alosos, as $a"as
'r'!e%tes, %s *:!'ar%s altss'mos, os sa5-s so%orosos, as r%l!as me'3as. Ber!ar)% )es'reve a !a"#re2a
'%$% #$ 'e&% +#e %#vsse '%!"ar e re*r%)#2sse as *asa&e!s '%$ %s +#al'a"v%s s#rra)%s )% $a#
'%!"a)%r. N6% e;s"e !ele % v!'% e!/r&'% )a $*ress6% *ess%al. V!"e ver&/s +#e )es'reva s6% v!"e
*ere"as, !var-ves a$e!)a)es4 +)'!a!es Aortas, .a e)., *-&. 11.
QK

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

ESTILÍSTICA DA L:NGUA PORTUGUESA

E #$ %#"r% es'r"%r 5rasler%, M-r% )e A!)ra)e, v# a!)a $el%r % 'as%=

?#a!)% % r%$a!'s"a
*alavra !oce a )e2e!as re*e"e se$ "e$%rasas*alavras
)e s#5s"a!"v%s, $es$as"e!)e$
*alavras, mar er!e,
a *er)er ca%to
% val%r tr'ste,e a9#$"a
+#al'a"v% a
e *l-s"'%,
%r$a$ le&:"$as e!")a)es s%!%ras e r:"$'as se$ se!")% '%!s'e!"e es*e':'%, )a $es$a %r$a
+#e %s !%$es )e ')a)es e *ess%as4 +Empal*a!or !e passar'%*o, *-&. 1.

:. O (iF. ( O e$*re&% a5#sv% )% 'l'/ 'ara'"er2a +#ase "%)%s %s *r!'*a!"es e$ "ra5al%s )e


es"l%. Essas s/res v%'a5#lares 'ara$(les !% %#v)%, a"rav/s )e $-s le"#ras, )e 'ar-'"er
r%$!"'%, $#"as ve2es. P%r *re&#3a $e!"al e!;er"a$ esses &r#*%s !a re)a'36%, +#e a)+#re #$
9e"% *re"e!s%s% e als%, e )$!#, / 'lar%, )e %r3a e;*ressva. O es"l% / #$a *er$a!e!"e 'ra36%
*ess%al. N6% a'%!sela$%s % es"#)%s% a ev"ar *%r '%$*le"% as s/res #s#as, % +#e sera al-s
):'l7 e "a$5/$ / ver)a)e +#e, e$ 'er"%s '%!"e;"%s, #$ es'r"%r )e $ar'a *%)e )ar(Ies v)a !%va7
$as *reve!$%(l% '%!"ra % e$*re&% ass:)#% )% 'l'/, $#le"a r):'#la )e *re&#3%s%s, )#$a
"rval)a)e !s#*%r"-vel. Ver '%$ %s se#s *r8*r%s %l%s, se!"r '%$ %s se#s *r8*r%s se!")%s
)ever- ser a )vsa )e "%)% % a*re!)2 )e re)a'36%.

S#*%!a$%s +#e esse a*re!)2 +#era es'rever #$a a!"asa -ra5e, )es'rever #$a !%"e !% )eser"%.
O *%5re ra*a2 !#$'a sa# )a s#a *-"ra. A a*a&a)a $a&e$ )% )eser"% ve%(le )e al&#$as le"#ras
)e "er'era %r)e$ e "alve2 )e al&#$a "a )e '!e$a. '%$ es"e $a"eral )e se&#$)a $6%, )es*r%v)%
)e e;*er!'a, se$ !!&#/$ +#e % %re!"e, es'reve "alve2 #$a '%sa *are')a '%$ s"%=

5ra!)a e s#ave )a L#a. As es"relas, '%$% $l<es )e *rla$*%s, es"6% )sse$!a)as *ela +#e"#)e $s"er%sa
)% r$a$e!"%. E !% sl!'% se*#l'ral )% )eser"%, a*e!as '%r"a)% *ela 5rsa r#$%re9a!"e e )%le!"e )%s %-ss,
"#)% *are'e '%!"e$*lar % '/#, $e)"a!)% !% e!&$a )% !!"%. Al&#$as *%#'as -rv%res r%!)%sas er&#e$ as
'%*as al"a!eras, '%$% +#e %ra!)% a De#s *ela s%l)6% a"r%2 +#e as e!v%lve. Na+#ela !%"e al&#/$ les a2
'%$*a!a. É #$a 'arava!a. As "e!)as es*ala$(se *el% %-ss, s%5 a a585a)a )as ra$a&e!s. T#)% *are'e
)%r$r. S%$e!"e a L#a / 'a)a ve2 $as 5rla!"e e $as 5ela, a2e!)% )a area )% )eser"% #$ $a!"% 5ra!'% )e
vr&e$ a *er)er )e vs"a !%s %r2%!"es l%!&:!+#%s4.

T#)% !es"e "re'% s%a a als% ( a als)a)e )as '%sas +#e !6% s6% vs"as !e$ se!")as )re'"a$e!"e
*%r !8s. Os 'l'/s s6% e$ !$er% !!"%, '%$% as areas )a+#ele )eser"% *%s"3%= %o'te
e%ca%ta!ora ( o luar 2a%*a ( ra'os ar3e%t'%os ( areal 'me%so ( clar'!a!e 2ra%!a !a Lua ( s'l?%c'o
sepulcral ( 2r'sa rumore;a%te ( co%templar o céu ( me!'tar %o e%'3ma !o '%$'%'to ( /rores
$ro%!osas a er3uer as copas ( sol'!7o atro( >ue as e%ole ( ma%to 2ra%co !e 'r3em ( *or'(o%tes
lo%3%>uos.

U$a s/re )e l%'#3<es es"aa)as, )e $a&e!s '%rr+#eras, +#e, *%r ss% $es$%, !%s !6% *r%)#2e$
a $e!%r $*ress6% ar":s"'a. A &e!"e s%rr(se )% !e;*ere!"e a#"%r, +#e *r%'#r%# a2er es"l%,
se&#!)% *re'sa$e!"e % 'a$!% '%!"r-r%= !6% !%s *)e )ar %s res#l"a)%s )a s#a *r8*ra
e;*er!'a, *%r !6% "(la, e re*r%)#2# a*e!as % +#e a!)a !a 5%'a %# !%s 5'%s )a *e!a )e "%)a a
&e!"e. O ee"% % )esas"r%s%.

N%"e e!'a!"a)%raH O l#ar 5a!a '%$ %s se#s ra%s ar&e!"!%s % areal )es/r"'% e $e!s%. T#)% 5rla e
re#l&e s%5 a 'lar)a)e
.

A ORMAbcO DAS PALAVRAS

J- v$%s, a *r%*8s"% )% !e%l%&s$%, +#e s8 )'l$e!"e se '%!se&#e 'rar *alavras !%vas. A


'ra36%, !a l:!&#a, se 'ra36% se *%)e 'a$ar, a2(se s%5re"#)% *%r "ra!s%r$a36% )% $a"eral 9-
e;s"e!"e %# s#a #"l2a36% *ara %#"r%s !s e;*ressv%s. É essa "ra!s%r$a36% e %s se#s v-r%s
*r%'ess%s +#e va$%s es"#)ar e$ se&#)a.

1. A '%$*%s36%. ( Re*are(se !es"es "er$%s )e #s% '%$#$= coue"$lor, m7o"c*e'a, er!e"%e3ro,


porta"o(, recém"%asc'7o, alap7o, loua"a"!eus. N6% / ):'l )e %5servar % *r%'ess% )e
'%$*%s36% )es"as *alavras=

E$ coue"$lor, % se&#$)% s#5s"a!"v% )e"er$!a % *r$er%7 / '%$% se )ss/sse$%s= '%#ve '%$


%r$a )e l%r4, '%#ve l%r)a4. Ee'"va$e!"e, !a)a $as *r8*r% )% +#e 'a$ar coue"$lor a esse
le&#$e a*re'a)%. Os %l%s )% *%v% vra$ 5e$= e!"re "%)as as '%#ves )% '%#val s8 a+#ela se
*are'a '%$ #$a l%r. E '%# ass$ )es&!a)a. F- %#"ra, re*%l#)a e %5l%!&a. O *%v% 'a$a(le
*"%res'a$e!"e cora7o"!e"2o'. Ta$5/$ / #$ !%$e '%$*%s"%.

E$ m7o"c*e'a, "e$%s !"$a$e!"e l&a)%s #$ s#5s"a!"v% e #$ a)9e'"v%. Es"a$%s ve!)% a %r&e$


)a '%$*%s36%. A% *r!':*%, )r(se(a= T!a as $6%s 'eas )e l%res4. De*%s, *ela re+#!'a
)% e$*re&% e #$ *%#'% )e $a&!a36%, %s )%s "er$%s 2era$ '%r*% #$ '%$ % %#"r% e '%$e3%# a
)2er(se= A"r%#(le m7os c*e'as )e l%res4. Os )%s !%$es a!)a$ %9e !"era$e!"e s%l)a)%s7 a
"al *%!"% +#e 9- m7o"c*e'a se )2 e es'reve s$*les$e!"e ma%c*e'a.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

Q

1
E$ er!e"%e3ro 9#$"ara$(se )%s a)9e'"v%s *ara +#al'ar #$ )a)% '%l%r)%. As '%res
"$ $a"2es '%$*l'a)%s7 *%r ss% se '%$*ree!)e +#e, *ara a s#a )e"er$!a36%, se a9a )e
e$*re&ar #$a $s"#ra )e a)9e'"v%s. A+#ele er!e"%e3ro, '%$% e;*ress6% )e 'er"a
"%!al)a)e, 9- %9e '%rre s%5 a %r$a )e er!'%e3ro.

O v%'-5#l% porta"o( )-(!%s % e;e$*l% )a '%$5!a36%, re+#e!":ss$a, )% ver5% '%$ %


s#5s"a!"v%. N%"e(se +#e % *r$er% eleme%to"por'a ( !6% / *%r"#&#s. Ve%(!%s )a l:!&#a
ra!'esa e s&!'a tra(, lea. Forta"o(, > le"ra, +#er )2er "ra2 a v%24 e, e$ se&#)a, %
+#e e;*r$e a %*!6%4. E;e$*l%= Esse 9%r!al / % porta"o( )% *ar")% re*#5l'a!%4.

E$ recém"%asc'!o )-(se a l&a36% )#$ a)v/r5% '%$ #$ *ar"':*% *assa)%. Recém"


%asc'!o +#er )2er !as')% re'e!"e$e!"e4. Paa a s#a '%$5!a36% '%$ % *ar"':*%, %
a)v/r5% "eve )e s%rer #$a %r"e re)#36%, '%# $as '#r"%. Es"e *r%'ess% )e '%$*%s36%,
)% a)v/r5% %# *re*%s3<es e;. so2remesa- '%$ %s !%$es, "a$5/$ / $#":ss$%
e$*re&a)% !a !%ssa l:!&#a.

A *alavra alap7o '%$*<e(se, e$5%ra !6% *are3a, )e )%s ele$e!"%s ver5as= ala, )%
ver5% alar, s"% /, leva!"ar4 7 e p7o, %r$a a'"#al2a)a )#$ a!"&% pom, +#e s&!'a
*<e, a5a;a4. A %r$a ar'a'a era *%s ala"pom, +#e se "ra!s%r$%# e$ alap7o, '%$% %s
)e$as !%$es ass$ "er$!a)%s = coraom ( cora7o. De#(se s"%, a*r%;$a)a$e!"e, !%
"e$*% )% re D. D#ar"e )e P%r"#&al.

E!$, % l"$% e;e$*l%, loua"a"!eus, +#e )es&!a, '%$% se sa5e, % !"eressa!"e 5'!%
)%s 'a$*%s +#e *are'e *%s"ar(se e$ %ra36%, '%$ as as"es er&#)as, 9- /, *%r ass$ )2er,
#$ &r#*% rase%l8&'%. Al-s, a ev%l#36% )es"as *alavras '%$*%s"as a2 le$5rar a )as
l%'#3<es rase%l8&'as= as *ar"es )e +#e se '%$*<e$ *er)e$ % se# *r8*r% val%r e$
5e!e:'% )% '%!9#$"%.
:+

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

#. Compos&os per$ei&os e imper$ei&os.0Reparemos a&%ra *ara esses v%'-5#l%s +#e


e!#$er-$%s e '%$e!"-$%s. A '%es6% e!"re %s ele$e!"%s %r$a"v%s vara )e #$s *ara
%#"r%s. E$ coue"$lor, %s )%s "er$%s +#ase '%!serva$ a s#a a#"%!%$a, e$ *r%*%r3<es
&#as, % +#e / !a"#ral, "ra"a!)%(se )e )%s s#5s"a!"v%s. E$ porta"o(, é % l"$%
ele$e!"%, o(, +#e 'a$a $as a a"e!36% e "e$, *%r ass$ )2er, a res*%!sa5l)a)e )a
$a&e$. E$ alap7o %s )%s ele$e!"%s a&l#"!ara$(se )e "al $%)%, +#e a *alavra /
!)vs:vel, s#&ere #$a !'a re*rese!"a36% e se '%$*%r"a *ara "%)%s %s ee"%s, '%$% #$a
*alavra s$*les. A es"a es*/'e )e '%$*%s36% '%s"#$a 'a$ar(se compos'7o per$e'ta, >
%#"ra

'mper$e'ta.

T%)%s %s '%$*%s"%s "e!)e$, $as %# $e!%s, *ara a '%$*%s36% *ere"a, e a l:!&#a


'%s"#$a '%!sa&rar % a'"%, s%l)a!)% %s )%s ele$e!"%s !#$a *alavra s8. É % +#e es"-
s#'e)e!)% %# 9- s#'e)e# comm7o"c*e'ama%c*e'aer!e"%e3ro (( er!'%e3ro /3ua"
ar!e%te ( a3uar!e%te passa"pore ( passaporte, e"'. N%"e(se +#e essa a&l#"!a36% "ra2, *%r
va )e re&ra, !% alar *%r"#&#s, #$a l&era al"era36% !a *r%!!'a )% v%'-5#l%.
Ee'"va$e!"e, % "er$% passaporte !e$ se$*re se *r%!#$'a '%$% passa"porte. O
*r$er% ele$e!"%, $e!%s a#"8!%$%, "e!)e a *er)er a s%!%r)a)e )as s#as v%&as. É a
s%r"e )e "%)as as *alavras *r%'l:"'as= $as #$ sa'r:'% )as *ar"es a av%r )% '%!9#$"%.

C%$*ree!)e(se a&%ra *%r+#e *%)er- aver es"a3<es !a &raa )e al&#$as *alavras


'%$*%s"as, '%$% Ale%te;o, 2e%!'to, 2e%$a(e;o, Je%$'ca, 2e%'%!o, Jo%$'m, e%>ua%to, e"'.
Os re%r$a)%res )a %r"%&raa *%r"#&#esa, e$ 1Q11, *r%!#$'ara$(se )e #$ $%)% &eral
s%5re a !e'ess)a)e )e !6% a2er e;'e*3<es e es'rever ss"e$a"'a$e!"e % a!"es )e
'%!s%a!"e +#e !6% %sse , p %# m. Mas % 'er"% / +#e % 5oca2ul/r'o Orto3r/$'co )e
G%!3alves Va!a, +#e, '%$% se sa5e, % % rela"%r )a C%$ss6% Or"%&r-'a e se# v#l"%
*re*%!)era!"e, re&s"a
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

:9

a $a%r *ar"e )a+#elas *alavras '%$ as se&#!"es &raas= alemte;a%o, 2em!'to, 2em$a(e;o,
2em'%!o, em$'m, em>ua%to. É +#e % 'as% )a v%&al e era )ere!"e, *%r+#e %r$ava, %#
*%)a %r$ar, !% alar ls5%e"a, e$ '%!"a'"% '%$ a '%!s%a!"e !asal, #$ ):"%!&% !asal ?' +
a'-, +#e sera s!ala)% *ela '%!s%a!"e m e$.

?#e s&!'a s"%@ ?#e as real)a)es es"6% a'$a )as "e%ras, e +#e $ea )2a )e s-5%s,
se!"a)%s a #$a $esa, !6% *%)e$ '%!"rarar as %r3as vvas )a l!&#a&e$. Nesse "e$*%,
a+#eles '%$*%s"%s a!)a !6% '%!s""#:a$ #$a s8 #$)a)e )e *e!sa$e!"%. A!)a %9e !6%
es"6% *ere"a$e!"e a&l#"!a)%s, !6% s6% '%$*%s"%s *ere"%s. ?#a!)% se )2 2em'%!o, %
es*:r"% a!)a a*ree!)e !a *alavra )#as )eas 9#s"a*%s"as= a )e 2em  '%!o, a'"% +#e a
*r8*ra *r%!!'a "ra)#2 *el% )"%!&% !asal 27' !% alar ls5%e"a, e se a'e!"#a '%$ %
e$*re&% )% :e!, '%$% s#'e)e !%s 'ar"a2es )e *r%*a&a!)a )e al&#$as r$as '%$er'as
!a es"ra)a )e S6% Pa#l% a% R% )e Ja!er%= Se9a 2em"'%!o

a% R%4.

Ne$ "%)as es"6% *%r/$ !% $es$% 'as%= e$ ale%te;a%o, e%$'m, % *r%'ess% )e a&l#"!a36%
es"- $as a)a!"a)%7 $as 9- e$ %#"r%s "er$%s, '%$% Je%$'ca, 2e%$a(e;o, - a!)a +#e$ %s
es'reva, e '%$
'%$*%s36%, al&#$a
% +#e !6% ra26%, '%$ m.l%!&e,
es"ar- "alve2 S8 +#a!)% se *er)er aes'rever
ser- %5r&a"8r% '%!s'!'a
'%$)a
%. s#a
A"/ l-, !es"e
*er:%)% )e va'la3<es, as )#as %r$as s6% a'e"-ves e '%rres*%!)e$ a 'er"as *reer!'as
%# )s*%s3<es !)v)#as.

É ss% +#e %s &ra$-"'%s !e$ se$*re '%$*ree!)e$, *%r+#e % se# )eal / % es*e'"-'#l% )e
#$a l:!&#a $#"-vel, se$ e;'e*3<es. U$ )eles, C%s"a Le6%, a#"%r )#$ "l Fro%tu/r'o
Orto3r/$'co, )ee!)e as &raas '%$ % e )- *ara Jo%$'m a se&#!"e ra26%= N%s '%$*%s"%s
Jo%$'m e Jo%;ar!'m, a v%&al !asal o%  om )% *r$er% ele$e!"%, 2om, l(se '%$% e$
2o%!a!e, !6% ave!)%, *%r"a!"%, $%"v% *ara se !6% se&#r a re&ra, $#)a!)% % m e$ d4. A
real)a)e l!(
Q

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

&#:s"'a, '%$% se v, !6% % 5e$ !"er*re"a)a, *%r+#e a )#*l')a)e )a &raa *r%v/$ )a
)#*l')a)e se$!"'a, )#$a vs6%4 $as %# $e!%s !:")a )%s ele$e!"%s )a '%$*%s36%. P%r ss%
"alve2 se 9#s"+#e$ a!)a as %r$as Jom$'m e Jom;ar!'m, a *ar )e Jo%$'m e Jo%;ar!'m.

3. Os ompos&os (i&er<rios e ie%&?$ios. ( A%ra es"es '%$*%s"%s %r&!'%s, +#e se %r$a$


*ra"a()a('asa, a l:!&#a *%ss# a!)a $e%s e;"ra%r)!-r%s )e '%$*%s36% )e *alavras, +#e le'%$ a
%r!e'e$ % la"$ e % &re&%. A esses a!"&%s )%$as va 5#s'ar #$ se$(!$er% )e ele$e!"%s, '%$
+#e a5r'a !%vas *alavras, *%r 9#s"a*%s36%. Ve9a$%s al&#$s 'as%s, "ra)%s %# $"a)%s )% la"$=

a3r'!oce, alt'sso%a%te, al'%'te%te, art'ma%*a, aur'$ul3e%te, 2ar2'rru'o, 2o>u'a2erto, ca2's2a'o,


car%oro, cur'l%eo, $lor'lé3'o, $lor'cultura, $ratr'c!'o, 3ra%!lo>uo, *er2oro, la%'$c'o,
%octa3o, petr'$'car, rare$a(er, s'l'cultura, elocpe!e, e%trlo>uo, erm$u3o, e"'.

A $a%r *ar"e )es"es v%'-5#l%s s6% 5e$ '%!e')%s e )e -'l '%$*ree!s6%. O *r%'ess% )e
9#s"a*%s36% / +#ase se$*re % $es$%= %s )%s !%$es s6% l&a)%s #$ a% %#"r% *ela v%&al '.
C%!"#)%, !6% s6% *alavras )a l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e, e;'e*"#a)a #$a %# %#"ra, $as e$ v%&a=
art'ma%*a, ca2's2a'o, car%oro, la%'$c'o. N6% - )v)a, *%r"a!"%, +#e es"es '%$*%s"%s
ala"!a)%s s6% se!")%s *%r !8s '%$% *alavras )e #s% es*e'al e !6% '%rre!"e. Os '%$*%s"%s
%r$a)%s *%r va )% &re&% "$ 'ar-'"er a!)a $as res"r"%, "/'!'% e 'e!":'%, '%$% va$%s ver=
ar'stocrac'a, autmato, 2ra>u'cé$alo, caco$o%'a, cromo3ra$'a, !emocrac'a, este%o3ra$'a, $'loso$'a,
'co%oclasta, me3aloma%'a, %euraste%'a, pa>u'!erme, p'r'lampo, p'rotéc%'co, plutocrac'a,
ta>u'3ra$'a.
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

Q

Tve$%s % '#)a)% )e es'%ler, e!"re "%)%s %s '%$*%s"%s &re&%s, %s $as #s#as. A!)a ass$, /
$a!es"% +#e se "ra"a )e %r$a36% l"er-ra, !6% *%*#lar. Se *alavras '%$% autmato, !emocrac'a,
$'loso$'a, p'r'lampo, 9- s6% )% )%$:!% '%rre!"e, ss% )eve(se a% se# re+#e!"e e$*re&% !a v)a
a'"#al7 $as se$*re es"as *alavras s6% ")as '%$% !6% a$lares.

Dr- % le"%r= ( Mas, e!"6%, / !e'ess-r% sa5er &re&% e la"$ *ara '%!e'er % *%r"#&#s@ N6% /,
el2$e!"e. Os )'%!-r%s #s#as "ra2e$ a e"$%l%&a )as *alavras7 )e $%)% +#e %s '%$*%s"%s
l"er-r%s s6% )v))%s e e;*l'a)%s !%s se#s ele$e!"%s )e %r$a36%. P%r e;e$*l%, e$ !emocrac'a
s6% a!)a *ere"a$e!"e se!s:ves %s )%s "er$%s= !emos, *%v%, e rat'a, *%)er, &%ver!% ( s"% /,
&%ver!% e;er')% *el% *%v%4. O *r$er% ele$e!"% e!"ra e$ %#"ras *alavras )e 'ar-'"er 'e!":'%,
'%$% !emo3ra$'a, !emops'colo3'a % se&#$)% e$ ar'stocrac'a, plutocrac'a.

As 5%as &ra$-"'as )ar6% a% es"#)%s% a s&!'a36% )%s ele$e!"%s %r$a"v%s )as *alavras
'%$*%s"as e )erva)as, )e %r&e$ la"!a e &re&a. O D'c'o%/r'o !e a$'os e !es'%?%c'as )% *r%ess%r
5rasler% Carl%s G%s "ra2 "#)% ss% *%r %r)e$ ala5/"'a7 $as !a)a vale '%$% a *r-"'a e % #s%
'%!s'e!'%s% )% )'%!-r%. A e;*er!'a a5l"ar- a '%$*ree!)er esses ele$e!"%s &re'%(la"!%s,
se$ *re's6% )e sa5er as res*e'"vas l:!&#as.

Al-s, esses "er$%s &re&%s e la"!%s, +#a!)% s6% rar%s e )e e$*re&% es*e'al, "$ *%#'a %#
!e!#$a $*%r"!'a *ara % es"l%. Tra)% )a s#a esera, +#e / &eral$e!"e a er#)36% e a '!'a, %
*alavr6% "/'!'% )'l$e!"e '%!v/$ !#$a *-&!a )e l"era"#ra. É #$a '%!s"r#36% $as %# $e!%s
ar"'al7 !6% )es*er"a !e$ % se!"$e!"% !e$ a a!"asa, +#e s6%, '%$% "e$%s )"%, %s *r!'*as
)%$:!%s )a Es"l:s"'a.

C%!"#)%, #$ es'r"%r )% s/'#l% ;v$, l!"% El:s%, 9#l&%# )ar relev% a% se# es"l%, %r9a!)%
'%$*%s"%s > '#s"a

 ( Es"l:s"'a
Q

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

)% &re&% e )% la"$. C%$% era %$e$ )e $a# &%s"%, sa:ra$(le '%sas arrevesa)as '%$% es"as, +#e
a l:!&#a 9#s"a$e!"e re*#)%#= 0sept"cole R%$a4, 0$lamomo ale!"%4, re&%s $ru3$eros6, 0e2r'"
$esta%te s#$%4, 0al'"po'e%te 's!e4, e"'.

. A '%$*%s36%
ra!'a$e!"e a5s"ra'"a.
*%r ele, ( Os
"$, *%r va'%$*%s"%s '%rre!"es,
)e re&ra, 'ar-'"er %r$a)%s
'%!'re"%. *el% *%v%,
O *%v% %# a)%*"a)%s
!6% sa5e l)ar '%$
a5s"ra'3<es e "e!)e se$*re a )ar %r$a '%!'re"a >s s#as )eas. J- %s l"era"%s "e!)e$ $as *ara %
a5s"ra'"%, *er)e!)% )e vs"a $#"as ve2es as real)a)es '%!'re"as. S%5re % $%)el% *%*#lar )e
coue"$lor $a&!ara$ *%)er 'rar '%$*%s"%s a5s"ra'"%s, '%$% amor"or3ul*o, 2ele(a"%o'!a!e,
2ele(a"espa%to, para!a"or3ul*o, '!a"espr'to, '7a"2ele(a, ele3C%c'a"$'o"!e"prumo, e"'. Es"es
e;e$*l%s s6% "ra)%s )% es'r"%r A!"er% )e &#ere)%, e$ '#9% es"l% se !%"a *ar"'#lar "e!)!'a
*ara % '%$*%s"% a5s"ra'"%.

S%5 % as*e'"% %r$al, a '%$*%s36% !6% leva!"a re*ar%s7 $as / )s'#":vel % ee"% +#e *r%)#2e$
se$ela!"es 'ra3<es7 % +#e )2 5e$ '%$ *alavras '%!'re"as, 9- !6% "e$ a $es$a vr"#)e '%$
*alavras a5s"ra'"as. Ve9a$%s )%s e;e$*l%s=

1. A$a$%s '%$ amor"or3ul*o % +#e / *r%*ra$e!"e !%ss%.

. S%# a)$ra36% a!"e a 2ele(a"espa%to )%s %r$)-ves )esla)er%s.

A $a!era #s#al )e es'rever !6% / es"a. Dr:a$%s !%r$al$e!"e= A$a$%s '%$ or3ul*oso amor...
('% a)$ra)% a!"e a 2ele(a espa%tosa. E !6% / ):'l !%"ar +#e % e$*re&% )% a)9e'"v% )- $as
vve2a e $as '%r > $a&e$. O ar"s"a *re"e!)e# )ar $a%r !"e!s)a)e > e;*ress6%7 $as a
9#s"a*%s36% )%s )%s a5s"ra'"%s !6% % a9#)%#. Essa ala!3a )$!#, a% '%!"r-r%, a %r3a e;*ressva
)% '%$*%s"%. E$

ESTILÍSTICA DA L:NGUA PORTUGUESA

::

coue"$lor %s %l%s )a $a&!a36% *%#sa$ !% %59e'"%, ve$ a '%#ve e a l%r. E$ amor"or3ul*o a


#$6% )%s a5s"ra'"%s,
)%s "er$%s. l%!&e )e a5s"ra'"%s
D%s s#5s"a!"v%s %r"ale'er, s6%
e$*al)e'e a $a&e$,
)'l$e!"e &era!)%
'%!'l-ves= #$a '%!#s6%#$
*re9#)'a$(se e!"re %s
a% %#"r%,
)e;a!)% !er"e a a!"asa.

F- a!)a, e esse re'e!":ss:$%, #$ %#"r% "*% )e '%$*%s36%, 'ra)% *ara e;*l'ar % se!")% )e 'er"%s
"er$%s $as %# $e!%s $s"er%s%s7 )ese!v%lve(se, *%s, !#$a *er:rase $as %# $e!%s l%!&a. Essa
'%$*%s36% es"- re*rese!"a)a !% es'r"%r 5rasler% J%6% G#$ar6es R%sa. Ve9a(se es"e e;e$*l%, e$
+#e a *alavra !est'%o, a!"er%r$e!"e reer)a, / )e*%s )ese!r%la)a !#$a l%!&a e;*l'a36% +#e le
)e"er$!a e;a'"a$e!"e %s '%!"%$%s= E!"6%, % Ma9%r v%l"%# a a*are'er !a vara!)a, se&#r% e
sa"se"%, '%$% +#e$ 'res'e e a'%!"e'e, '%la5%ra!)%, se$ % sa5er, '%$ a )re36%(es'%!))a ( )e(
"%)as(as('%sas(+#e()eve$()e*ressa(a'%!"e'er4. +Sa3ara%a, .a e)., *-&. 1.

N%"e(se +#e - #$a "e!)!'a, 'ra)a *ela "/'!'a e *el% 9%r!als$%, *ara a %r$a36% )e '%$*%s"%s,
e$ +#e #$ )%s ele$e!"%s / $as %# $e!%s a5s"ra'"%= escola"mo!elo, %a'o"c*e$e, cam'o%eta"
$a%tasma, para!a"mo%stro. Esses !%$es, '%!"#)%, 9- "$ #$ *%!"% )e a*%% !a *alavra '%!'re"a=
a!)a ass$, %s )%s l"$%s s6% )e &%s"% )#v)%s% e *are'e$ $as #$a 'ra36% )e $%$e!"%,
arrs'a)a a !6% v!&ar. F- !a l:!&#a, %'#l"a$e!"e, #$ se!"$e!"% )e *r%*%r36% e 5ele2a, !e$
se$*re !al:vel, $as +#e '%!)e!a "%)as as !%va3<es +#e v6% )e e!'%!"r% a% se# &/!%. C#r%s%, a
esse res*e"%, / % 'as% )% '%$*%s"% ( %a'o"m7e *ara )es&!ar % !av% *%r"a)%r )%s $a!"$e!"%s. A
'%$*%s36%, a*are!"e$e!"e a5s#r)a, e;*l'a(se *%r #$a $a&e$, +#e !%s re*rese!"a a $6e a )ar )e
'%$er a%s l%s. É *%r ss% +#e se !6% )2 %a'o"pa'. Es"a 9#s"a*%s36% )% $as'#l!% e e$!!%
ve$ )e l%!&e, *%s 9- !%s *r!':*%s )% s/'#l% ;v se 'a$ava 3ale7o"cap'tC%'a a% !av% *r!'*al
)#$a r%"a.
1KK

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

. Os *re;%s. ( O#"ra $a!era )e %r$ar *alavras= '%l%'a(se(les a!"es 'er"%s $%re$as, a +#e se
)- % !%$e )e pre$'os, )es"!a)%s a $%)'ar $as %# $e!%s a s&!'a36% *r$"va. A!"&a$e!"e,
as *alavras %r$a)as *%r $e% )e *re;%s e!"rava$ !a 'a"e&%ra )e *alavras '%$*%s"as, *%r+#e se
va !essas *ar":'#las, com, co%tra, a%te, e"'., ver)a)er%s v%'-5#l%s, 9#s"a*%s"%s a %#"r%s. L%&%,
compa!ecer, co%tra!'ta,
'%$*%s"%s. C%$% ale%te;a%o,
*%r/$ - a%tepassa!o,
*re;%s '%$ era$
a#"%!%$a )e )s'#":vel
$as )re"% '%!s)era)%s '%$%
( !?s, a's, '%, ré, "er$%s
e"'., 9- %9e
al&#$s &ra$-"'%s '%!s)era$ es"as *alavras, ass$ %r$a)as, '%$% )erva)as *%r *re;a36%. As
%#"ras, %r$a)as '%$ a#;:l% )e s#;%s, *ar":'#las +#e se '%l%'a$ )e*%s, s6% )erva)as *%r
s#;a36%. O 'as% !6% "e$ a $e!%r $*%r"!'a *ara % $ +#e *re"e!)e$%s.

O +#e $*%r"a / ver'ar a al"era36% se$!"'a !"r%)#2)a *el% *re;%, e ver se % v%'-5#l% "e$
#$a %# $as #$)a)es. Ass$, "%$e$%s, *%r e;e$*l%, a *alavra !es3raa. O "er$% '%$*%r"a #$a
#$)a)e )e *e!sa$e!"%, s#&ere #$a !'a $a&e$. O *re;% !?s" *assa )es*er'e5)%, / '%$% se
*er"e!'esse > *r$"va *alavra. U$ er#)"%, / 'lar%, v as '%sas )e %#"r% $%)%= )e'%$*<e a
e;*ress6% !?s  3raa e e;*l'a, s#5!)% >s %r&e!s= / a s"#a36% $ser-vel )e al&#/$ +#e se
e!'%!"ra se$ a &ra3a )e De#s4. V *%s )#as #$)a)es )e *e!sa$e!"% !% v%'-5#l%= a )ea
s#&er)a *%r 3raa se!")% $as %# $e!%s rel&%s% e %#"ra, !e&a"va, s#s'"a)a *el% *re;% !?s.

Es"e !s"!"%
e$ "%)% )e +#e
a+#ele )e'%$*%s36%, %#es"#)%
se e!"re&a a% !s"!"%e %5serva36%
e"$%l8&'%,)as
/ 9-*alavras
!%ss% '%!e')% e e;s"e
O "r%'a)l% e!"re%r3%sa$e!"e
% s$*les e %
'%$*%s"%, )e +#e 9- al-$%s +se%t'r ( co%se%t'r, e%cer ( co%e%cer-, !6% / $as +#e #$ )%s
as*e'"%s )essa $es$a "e!)!'a. A"/ %!)e 'e&a esse !s"!"%, !#$ es'r"%r )e &/!%, *%)er- ver(se
)es"e *e+#e!%

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1-1

"re'% )e Ca$l%, al#sv% a #$s re"ra"%s )e *%#'a !a"#ral)a)e=

Os re"ra"%s, +#e % *%e"a le&e!)-r% )e!%$!%# tra%sumptos, s6% ver)a)era$e!"e sumptos "
"%$a)%s4, tra%s " al/$ )% ver%ss:$l #$a!%. S6% $-s 'aras a+#elasH4 +D'spersos, !, 1.

Ca$l% )e'%$*s a *alavra !%s se#s )%s ele$e!"%s la"!%s, tra%sumptos, e '%$ eles e2 % 9%&% )%
se# es*:r"%.

O#"r% e;e$*l% )es"e $es$% !s"!"% )e )e'%$*%s36% /(!%s )a)% !es"a rase )e Te;era(G%$es=

AH e# compa!eo a )%r )as sereasH...4

O ver5% compa!ecer é rele;%. De $%)% +#e )ever:a$%s )2er= AH e# compa!eo"me )a )%r )as
sereas...4 Mas % es'r"%r se!"# a '%$*%s36% )% ver5%, )es)%5r%#(% e$ )#as #$)a)es se$!"'as
e 'r%# #$ !%v% $%)% )e e;*ress6%, "ra)#2!)% )e %r$a a5reva)a es"a !%36% '%$*l'a)a= e#
pa!eo 9#$"a$e!"e com as sereas a s#a )%r4.

O#"r% e;e$*l% a!)a= errera )e Cas"r% es'reve# $e'tos 'mpares  e;"ra%r)!-r%s. E$ ve2 )%
#s#al 'mpares, es)r;#l%, +#e ev%'a #$a %*era36% ar"$/"'a, #s%# a *alavra '%$% &rave, % +#e )-
real'e a% *re;% !e&a"v% '%" e > *alavra pares. Iss% s8 % *%ss:vel *el% )es)%5ra$e!"% )%s
ele$e!"%s '%!s""#"v%s )a e;*ress6%. O $es$% se )e# '%$ % a)9e'"v% mp'o, +#e $#"%s es'r"%res
*reerra$ ler mp'o. O *r%'ess% le$5ra % )e l!"% El:s%, !% s/'#l% ;v$, % +#al, *ara a'e!"#ar
$as a )ea )e !e&a36%, es'reva= '%"co%sola!o, se*ara!)% *%r :e! % *re;% )a *alavra, a $ )e
le )ar $a%r relev%.

A%s es'r"%res )e "ale!"% %# &/!% s6% *er$")as es"as l5er)a)es )e 'ra36%7 % a*re!)2 )e es"l%
"er- )e se l$"ar a #$ *a*el $as $%)es"% e )ese!v%lver as s#as a*")<es
1K

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

)e!"r% )as real)a)es )% )%$a, se$ al"erar % val%r )as *alavras, '%!sa&ra)% *el% #s%. Mes$%
)e!"r% )es"a esera "er- !$eras *%ss5l)a)es )e real2ar a s#a *ers%!al)a)e, se$ a"rev$e!"%s
e;'essv%s, +#e % *%)era$ *re9#)'ar.

3. Par&i8(ari'a'es $o%&ias 'a pre$iGação. 0 Al&#$as %5serva3<es )e !a"#re2a *r-"'a s%5re


*re;%s=

1. A. E;s"e$ !a l:!&#a al&#$as *alavras '%$e3a)as *%r a, #$a es*/'e )e *re;% a +#e se
'a$a a *r%s"/":'%. A *ar":'#la % *r!'*al$e!"e #sa)a !a l:!&#a a!"&a= ala3oa, arro!o,
al'mpar, arrecear, alea%tar, e"'. De #$ $%)% &eral, a l:!&#a $%)er!a re*#)%#, '%$%
ar'a2a!"e, % a *r%s"/"'%, al-s e$ v%&a !% l!&#a9ar *le5e# )e P%r"#&al, Gal2a e Brasl.
C%!"#)%, es'r"%res a'"#as e$*re&a$(!%, *%r ve2es !#$ "%$ va&a$e!"e #$%r:s"'%, '%$%
!es"e *ass% )e Te;era(G%$es= P#s($e a 'a$!%, e l%&% % es*:r"% se al'mpou )%s re+#e!"a)%s
a2e)#$es4.

. AE, A I. Os )%s *re;%s "$ s&!'a36% )ere!"e e %r&e$ )versa= a%te ve$ )% la"$ e
)es&!a a!"er%r)a)e, *re'e)!'a= a%t' ve$ )% &re&% e e;*r$e !e&a36%, a!"a&%!s$%=
a%temuro, a%tepassa!o a%t'p/t'co, a%t'"reoluc'o%/r'o. ?#e$ !6% "e$ *rese!"e % val%r )es"as
)#as *ar":'#las,
se&#!)% / leva)%
*%r ve2es e$a!"&%=
#$ #s% al&#$s a%t'c'par,
'as%s a '%!#$)(las.
a%t'!atar, Ass$, - +#e$e"'.
a%t'!'lu'a%o, es'reva err%!ea$e!"e,
C%rr9a(se *ara
a%tec'par, a%te!atar, a%te!'lu'a%o.

. com. A!"es )e v%&al e )e \, m, %, e r, *er)e % ele$e!"% !asal $= coeo, cola2orar, com'3o,
co%e7o, correspo%!?%c'a. A!)a %9e - +#e$ !a le"#ra e a"/ !a es'r"a *r%'#re re'%!s""#r a
%r$a a!"&a= com'3o, co%respo%!?%c'a. É % !s"!"% e"$%l8&'% e$ a'36%. Tra5al% !"l=
*er)e#(se

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1K

a a '%!s'!'a )% *re;%, e as *alavras s6% ")as '%$% s$*les, )e #$a s8 #$)a)e.

F%e, a %r$a com s8 se #sa a!"es )e 2 %# p: com2ate%te, compa'7o. F- *ara ss% #$a ra26%
%!/"'a= %s %!e$as 2 e 2 la5as, *r%'#ra$ "er a% */ )e s #$ %!e$a )a $es$a !a"#re2a7 *%r ss%
se '%!serva % m "a$5/$ la5al. J- +#a!)% com "e$ a se&#r %#"r% %!e$a, a)%*"a a %r$a co%:
co%$'a%a co%terrC%eo, co%'?%c'a.

. DTS, DIS. De#(se #$a '%!#s6% e!"re %s )%s *re;%s, '#9a %r&e$ e ev%l#36%, al-s, a!)a !6%
es"6% s#'e!"e$e!"e es'lare')as. N% "e$*% )%s Cl-ss'%s e a!)a !6% - $#"%, es'reva(se
!)ere!"e$e!"e !'selo %# !eselo, !'spe%!er %# !espe%!er, !'sculpar%# !esculpar,
!'ssemel*a%te %# !essemel*a%te, !'spertar %# !espertar, e"',

O )'%!ars"a M%ras '%!)e!ava as &raas !'sparar, !'s$aor, !'selo, !'ssa2or'!o, !'sperta!or,


e"'., +#e )e!#$'ava$, )2a ele, #$a ae'"a36% $#lerl, *%r "e!"ar a$%le'er a *r%!!'a )% es
e$ 's6. F%9e % *re;% a's es"- e$ re'#%, ve!')% *el% se# '%!'%rre!"e. Deve *%r/$ )2er(se +#e
!%s *r$er%s lvr%s )e Olvera Mar"!s se !%"a *re)le'36% a'e!"#a)a *%r ele, '%$% se v *elas
%r$as !esacompa%*a!o, !'se%ol'me%to, e"'. Esse $%re$a, al/$ )% se# s&!'a)% )e
)s*ersar4, se*arar4, / #sa)% '%$ *reer!'a !a l!&#a&e$ "/'!'a, '%$ se!")% *%ra"v%=
!'speps'a  $- )&es"6%, !'sp%e'a  res*ra36% ):'l, e"'. Te$, !es"es 'as%s, %r&e$ &re&a.

. I, E +EM-. Ta$5/$ '%$ es"es )%s *re;%s se )6% 'er"as '%!#s<es7 $as, ev"a)as 9- *ela
es'r"a, ae'"a$ s%5re"#)% a l:!&#a ala)a. O *re;% '%, +#e, *ara ee"%s %!/"'%s, se&#e as !%r$as
)% *re;% com, "!a !% la"$ as s&!'a3<es +#e '%!serva e$ *%r"#&#s ( )ea !e&a"va= '%t'l,
'%$el'(, 'mprpr'o, e"'., e se!")% )e )re'36%, $%v$e!"% *ara )e!"r%= 'rromper, '%3er'r, 'mpla%tar.
1-+

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

'%$ es"e se&#$)% se!")%, a l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e e *%*#lar '%!ver"e# !%r$al$e!"e % '% !% *re;%
e%, em. Ass$= em2arcar, e%coar, e%terrar. De $%)% +#e % *re;% '% é %9e e$*re&a)%
!%r$al$e!"e *ara %r$ar a!"8!$%s e, '%$ a se&#$)a s&!'a36%, *alavras $as %# $e!%s
l"er-ras= '%corporar, 'm2r'car, '%lucro, '%c'%erar, '%3ur3'tar, '%tumescer. N6% / *%s )e es"ra!ar
+#e, a *a )es"es
em2r'car, "er$%s,
e%lucro, es'reva$%s
e%c'%erar, %# *%ssa$%s
e%3or3'tar es'rever as %r$as $e!%s '#l"as= e%corpar ar,
, e%tumescer.

. FRK e FER. F%#ve "a$5/$ '%!#s6% e!"re es"es )%s *re;%s, *%r+#e "a!"% pré '%$% per
*%)a$ "er e$ la"$ s&!'a)% s#*erla"v%. Ass$, %s Cl-ss'%s es'reva$ perte%!er, per c'ar o.
A!)a %9e / re+#e!"e es"a '%!#s6%, '%$% se *%)e ver !as )#as %r$as, per3umtar e pre3umtar,
a$5as "%lera)as !6% - $#"% "e$*% !a %r"%&raa %'al.

. FRK e RE. A!"es )a re%r$a %r"%&r-'a )e 1Q11, es'reva$(se ass$ es"es '%$*%s"%s= prese%t'r,
resaltar, rese%t'r,e"'. C%!"#)%, *r%!#$'ava$(se '%$ ss= / +#e se )e'%$*#$a $e!"al$e!"e %
*re;% e a *alavra s$*les, )e $#"% '%!e')a +#e era. J- e$ pres/3'o, a *r%!!'a %s'la
e!"re ( e ss, *%r+#e, se!)% % ele$e!"% s/3'o &eral$e!"e )es'%!e')%, - "e!)!'a *ara ver !a
*alavra #$a s8 #$)a)e )e *e!sa$e!"%.

N% &eral,'%$
"e!"ara$ % *re;% ré s'ra3<es,
ele !%vas a*are'e e$
$as*alavras )% #$)%
%ra$ $al a!"&%
s#'e))%s= )a l:!&#a.remer3ul*ar,
repe%etrar, Es'r"%res '%$% E3a r
ree%$'ar,
eper correr, e"'., s6% !e%l%&s$%s +#er%2a!%s, %r$a)%s *ara ev"ar a *er:rase )e !%v%4, %#"ra
ve24, $as +#e a l:!&#a a!al ve% a re*#)ar.

. Os s#;%s. ( O es"#)% )%s s#;%s / $as $*%r"a!"e a!)a, e$ Es"l:s"'a, +#e % )%s *re;%s.
Es"es a'res(
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1-9

'e!"a$ +#ase se$*re > *alavra s$*les #$a )ea *#ra$e!"e !"ele'"#al= )e l#&ar +a%tecCmara-, )e
"e$*% +pre's7o-, )e '%$*a!a +co%correr-, )e !e&a36% +!es$e'to, 'mpuro-,)e re*e"36%
+relem2rar-, e"'. P%)e, !#$ %# !%#"r%, aver #$ mat'( l&era$e!"e ae'"v%, *%s +#e %s '%!'e"%s
)e !e&a36%, !"e!s)a)e, e"'., se a'%$*a!a$ !6% rar% )e $%v$e!"%s )a se!s5l)a)e7 $as, *%r
va )e re&ra, s6% !s"r#$e!"%s !"ele'"#as e !6% *r%*ra$e!"e ae'"v%s.

É !%s s#;%s +#e a )es'ar&a )as *a;<es se )- '%$ $a%r e!er&a. Os se!"$e!"%s +#e v#l&ar$e!"e
a&"a$ a !%ssa al$a e +#e se res#$e$, a!al, !% a$%r e !a avers6% +#e $a!es"a$%s )e %r)!-r%
*elas '%sas e *elas *ess%as, rele'"e$(se *ere"a$e!"e e$ al&#$s )%s s#;%s. É a esses +#e
)e)'are$%s $a%r a"e!36%. S#*%!a$%s es"a *alavra

( l'ro. Ve9a$%s '%$% al&#$s s#;%s a *%)e$ $%)'ar se!"$e!"al$e!"e=

1. L es"e l'r'%*o: '%!"/$ *re'%sas l3<es.

. De#(le #$ l'r'to *ara ler !as s#as %ras va&as.


. O *a re*ree!)e# % l% *%r ler a+#ele l'reco.

. Na $esa, es"ava #$ l'rr'o +#e !!&#/$ la.

. Fava *%r "%)a a sala l'ral*a!a se$ $.

. O se# sa5er *ara !a)a serva, era "%)% l'resco.

É '#r%s% +#e, )e "%)%s %s )erva)%s )e l'ro, $e!'%!a)%s *el%s )'%!-r%s #s#as, s8 )%s !6%
"$ s&!'a)% ae'"v%. S6% eles= l'rete  lvr% *e+#e!%, 'a)er!e"a, e l're'ro

" % +#e "ra"a '%$ lvr%s. T%)%s %s %#"r%s "$, $as %# $e!%s, val%r se!"$e!"al. Da+# se v a
&ra!)e $*%r"!'a )%s s#;%s !a !%ssa l:!&#a. %$%s se$*re, e$ "%)%s %s "e$*%s, %$e!s
se!"$e!"as e es'ar!e'e)%res. Os s#;%s re"ra:a$ essa e36% )#*la e '%!"ra)"8ra )% !%ss%
"e$*era$e!"%= )el'a)e2a l:r'a e %5serva36% &al%era e $%"e9a)%ra.

N% *r$er% e;e$*l%, % s#;% "'%*o )e# > *alavra !6% "a!"% #$ s&!'a)% )e *e+#e!e2, '%$%
$as a!)a )e
1K

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

"er!#ra. L'r'%*o *%)e !6% ser #$ lvr% *e+#e!%, *%)e ser #$ lvr% '%$ as )$e!s<es v#l&ares7
$as / 'er"a$e!"e '%sa +#er)a e a*re'a)a. É ver)a)e +#e % s#;% "'%*o serve *ara %r$ar
)$!#"v%s7 $as a !%36% )e *e+#e!e2 a!)a l&a)a &eral$e!"e e$ !%ss% es*:r"% > )e "er!#ra,
s$*a"a, &ra'%s)a)e. É '%$ esse se!")% +#e e$*re&a$%s %r)!ara$e!"e % $%re$a. Fa'('%*o,
m7e('%*a, !6% +#ere$
C%r"es6% 'a*"%# )2er *a
*ere"a$e!"e *e+#e!%4,
es"e $6e *e+#e!a4,
al'a!'e *%/"'% )% s#;%,$as
'%$%*are*rese!"a!"e
e $6e $#"% )as
+#er)%s. Ja$e
$s"er%sas
)el'a)e2as )% !%ss% se!"$e!"%=

L:!&#a l:r'a, ra!'s'a!a, re*assa)a )e "er!#ra e )e *e)a)e, !e!#$a %#"ra / $as r'a )e )$!#"v%s 'ar!%s%s.
D#$a 'ra!3a )2(se +#ase se$*re cr'a%c'%*a )#$a $#ler )%sa, #$a el*'%*a e a%s *%5res )-(se(les l%&% es$%la
'a$a!)%(les po2re('%*os. J- !a Cr8!'a )%s ra)es $e!%res4, )% s/'#l% ;v, se 'a$a ass$ a%s *%5res. L:!&#a
're*#s'#lar, )e '%!)!'a, a*"a e$ s#$% &ra# >s $eas "!"as, 'r%# essa *alavra, 'ea )e ra&l)a)e e $$%, *ara a
$#ler a)%les'e!"e ( me%'%a )% 're*s'#l% $a"!al )r- a ma%*7('%*a e +#a!)% a "ar)e 'a %# a !%"e se e!s%$5ra, a
tar!'%*a %# a %o't'%*a6. +O *uma%'smo um'ersal'sta !os portu3ueses, *-&. .

C%$% s%$%s, *%r/$, &e!"e a*a;%!a)a, e a'l$e!"e va$%s )e #$ e;"re$% a% %#"r%, !6% / )e
s#r*ree!)er +#e % $es$% s#;% ev%+#e e$ !8s se!"$e!"%s )e*re'a"v%s. A *e+#e!e2 :s'a *%)e
"ra)#2r !s#'!'a $%ral. P%r ss% % *%v% )2= F%$e$ *e+#e!!%, %# vela'% %# 5alar!%4.
Ve9a(se a se&#!"e rase= O*ome%('%*o !6% es"- 5%$ )e 'a5e3a4. O s#;% "'%*o a+#ele ( / #$a
es*/'e )e '%!s%a!"e
)e*re'a"va$e!"e )e l&a36%,
> *e+#e!e2 #$ !;%
$%ral. E!$,)-essa
#$*ar":'#la,
"%$ *e9%ra"v% > re*rese!"a36%,
!%s se#s al#)e ae'"v%s,
)ere!"es e$*re&%s
/ #$a )as $as 'ara'"er:s"'as )a l:!&#a *%r"#&#esa e +#e $el%r e;*r$e a s#s'e*"5l)a)e al&%
e$!!a )% !%ss% "e$*era$e!"%.
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1-7

N% se&#$)% e;e$*l%, l'm'to s&!'a lvr% *e+#e!%4, se$ $as '%$*l'a3<es se!"$e!"as, '%$%
pe!r'ta e ;ar!'%('o s&!'a$ *e)ra e 9ar)$ *e+#e!%s4. Mas re*ara$%s 5e$ +#e % s#;% a'#sa
'er"a "e!)!'a *ara !%s !"r%)#2r e$ se!"$e!"%s )e 5ra!)#ra %# )e*re'a36%. E$ "%)% % 'as%,
!6% "e$ % val%r ae'"v% )% se# *ar'er% "'%*o. N%"e(se +#e, *ara #&r a% $a"2 se!"$e!"al )es"e
s#;% +"'%*o-, a'"#al$e!"e #sa$(se %#"r%s *r%'ess%s )e )$!#"va36%, re'%rre!)% a"/ a%
es"ra!&ers$%= m'%'";or%al, m'%'"sa'a, 'tc*e%ete + *e+#e!a '%2!a. Des"e l"$% - #$a
vara!"e $e"a8r'a $#"% &ra'%sa, co('%*a !e 2o%eca, +#e s8 "e$ % !'%!ve!e!"e )a s#a
l%!&#)6%.

O s#;% "eco )% "er'er% e;e$*l% !6% l#)e !!&#/$7 l'reco é #$ $a# lvr%, *el% +#al se !#"re
)es*re2% %# a!"*a"a. O $es$% se!")% *e9%ra"v% e;*er$e!"a$%s e$ ;or%aleco, pa!reco %#
pa!reca-, mala%!reco, re'steca, e"'.

E$ l'rr'o 9- "e$%s #$ se!")% a#$e!"a"v%. C%$% "#)% +#a!"% / &ra!)e "e!)e *ara % )s%r$e,
!6% / )e es"ra!ar +#e a!)e l&a)a a%s s#;%s a#$e!"a"v%s #$a 'er"a re*rese!"a36% )e eal)a)e,
)e &r%"es'%. L'rr'o s&!'ar- #$ lvr% &ra!)e, $as )e *%#'% val%r4. Para e;*r$r a )ea )e
&ra!)e2a *#ra, !6% "e$%s s#;%, !es"e 'as%. N6% *%)e$%s 'rar l'r7o se %r$ar$%s % )erva)%
l'ral*a(, l- $e"e$%s, *%r va )%s $%re$as "al*o e "a(, #$ se!"$e!"% *e9%ra"v%. P%s"va$e!"e,
%s lvr%s &ra!)es !6% !%s $ere'e$ &ra!)e res*e"%7 ee'"va$e!"e, a !%ssa l"era"#ra a5#$)a e$
'ala$a3%s +#e !6% s6% )as s#as '%sas $as !"eressa!"es.
N% +#!"% e;e$*l%, l'ral*a!a s#s'"a e$ !8s #$a )ea '%le'"va, s#&er)a *el% s#;% "a!a, e
%#"ra, )e*re'a"va, re*rese!"a)a *el% $%re$a "al*o. L%&%, e$ *r!':*%, % v%'-5#l% l'ral*a!a
'%!"/$ "rs #$)a)es se$!"'as= '%!'e"% )e lvr% (( )e $a# lvr% (( )e $#"%s lvr%s.
Pra"'a$e!"e s#'e)e +#e % se&#$)% '%!'e"%, !ser)% e!"re %s )%s, es"- $as a*a&a)%. Vale$
s%5re"#)% % *r$er% e % "er'er%.
1-

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

E!$, !% se;"% e l"$% e;e$*l%, !"r%)#2$%s "a$5/$ #$ se!")% )esval%ra"v%, *%r $e% )%
s#;% "esco. Ev)e!"e$e!"e, sa5er l'resco6 é sa5e)%ra )e *%#'% val%r, e;"ra:)a a*e!as )%s lvr%s
e !6% )a e;*er!'a )a v)a. E$ *alavras '%$% 3rotesco, sol!a!esca, $ra!esco, pe!a%tesco, e"'.,
"a$5/$ se s#r*ree!)e % $es$% !"#"% )e*re'a"v%. J- e$ pr'%c'pesco, caal*e'resco, !a%tesco,
e"'., se !6%
%r&e$ )- % $es$%.
!a'%!al= ve%(!%sEs"a rre&#lar)a)e
)% "ala!% a"rav/s)e)%e$*re&%
ra!'s. *r%v/$ "alve2 )e +#e % $%re$a !6% / )e

Is"% / #$a leve a$%s"ra )a e;"ra%r)!-ra r+#e2a )a !%ssa l:!&#a e$ s#;%s e;*ressv%s. F- %#"r%s
+#e )6% > *alavra 'a$5a!"es ae'"v%s= "ac*o, "ao, "a(, "e;o, "el*o, "e%3o, "'o, "oco, "orro, "o'a,
"ote, "uco, "u!o. S6%, *ara a+#eles +#e '%!e'e$ %s re'#rs%s )a l:!&#a, #$ l6% e;*ressv% )e
*r$era %r)e$.

. O )$!#"v% !a l"era"#ra. ( De +#a!"% 'a e;*%s"%, v(se % lar&% *re)%$:!% )% s#;%


)$!#"v% ae'"v% !a !%ssa l:!&#a. Sera !"eressa!"e a'%$*a!ar % e$*re&% )esse $%re$a
e;*ressv% a"rav/s )a l"era"#ra. Da$%s a+# a*e!as al&#$s e;e$*l%s.

N%s !s )% s/'#l% ;v, *r!':*%s )% s/'#l% ;v, 9- Gar'a )e Rese!)e e$*re&ava % s#;% "'%*o e$
"%$ )e $%a, al#)!)% >s es'a!)al%sas !%v)a)es )% se# "e$*% e$ $a"/ra )e ves"#-r%=

A&%ra ve$%s 'a*!as, $#"% '#r"%s *el%"!%s,

*%s +#e "#)% s6% '%#s!as.

N6% / a *e+#e!e2 )$e!s%!al +#e e;*r$e *r%*ra$e!"e % s#;%7 / % )es)/$ )% a#"%r *%r essa
$%)a es"ra!&era)a, "6% '%!"r-ra a%s vel%s '%s"#$es *%r"#&#eses.

N% s/'#l% ;v! % ala)% % 'as% )e 'er"% ra)e +#e


H :

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1KQ

*re&%# *%r )$!#"v%s !#$ $%s"er% )e reras. ?#s ls%!9ear % se!"$e!"% )as )a$as, e !a)a
$as !a"#ral, !a ver)a)e, )% +#e alar(les !#$a l!&#a&e$ ae'"va, lar)ea)a )e )$!#"v%s )e
"er!#ra, *r8*r%s )as $#leres.

N% s/'#l% ;v!, B%'a&e a"a'a #$ *%e"a $e!%r, Bel%%r C#rv% Se$e)%, '%!e')% *%e"'a$e!"e
*%r Bel$r%, #sa!)% > lar&a % )$!#"v% )a 'a'%"a e *e+#e!e2 ar":s"'a=

J#$"% a% Te9%, e!"re %s "e!r%s A$%r!%s, as 5el$:r'as $#sas *e+#e!!as *ara a&ra)ar a es"*)as $e!!as
ava$ a5r'a)% #$s 5%!e+#!%s.

'%$ eles %s "ravess%s ra*a2!%s,

+#e s6% $# %l&a2<es e $# "ra+#!as,


ar$ara$ $l s#5"s al'a!"!as 0 0

e %s la!3ara$ )e*%s !#$s 5s*%"!%s.

Es "-&)e l%#36, )e e5r!e% '%l%,

a +#e$ !6% ve!'er-, *%r $as +#e l#"e,

% !%ss% Bel$r!%, a!6% )e A*%%,

S#r&e )0-&#a e le )2= ( l!%, es'#"e, %le '%$ +#e !%":'a %9e % '%!s%l%= / *%e"a )% re )e Ll*#"eH

Passa!)% *ara % s/'#l% ;;, ve$%s Garre"" )es'rever ass$ as $%3as *re"e!s%sas= F- #$as 'er"as
5%+#!as, &rave2!as e es*r$)!as *ela )%#"%r'e, +#e s6% a $as a5%rre')!a '%sa e a $as
*e+#!a +#e De#s *er$"e a2er >s s#as 'ra"#ras $eas4 +5'a3e%s %a m'%*a terra,e). 1Q, *-&.
. E A!"8!% N%5re '%$*%r % se# '#r%s% s%!e"% )$!#"v%, )r&)% a #$ se# '%!)s':*#l%, *%r
al'#$a % Ms'%=

a2es($e *e!a, a% ver("e. A!)as r%"!%, '%$% +#e e!v%l"% e$ "ra!s*are!"e v/#= *%#'% $e al"a *ara "e ver
!#2!%, *%#'% "e al"a *ara a!)ar a% l/#H
M. RODRIGUES LAPA

Te!s a 5a"!a, *-l)% Ms+#!%, '%r )a es*era!3a... e "e$ a '%r )% 5re#... N% e!"a!"% ass$ % Crs"%, e$
ra*a2!%, e %9e / % )#+#e )e M%r! !% '/#H

P%r ss%, 8 l%r )eal )%s ra*a2"%s,

*a'e!'a2!a, '%se %s arra*"%s

)essa 5a"!a. T%$a a a&#la e as l!as.

Dar("e(a, 'r, $e# l!)% *e+#err#'%, #$a )as *e!as %re!"as ( #$ l#;%H se e# %sse De#s, % *a )as
a!)%r!as.

A+# a "er!a a$2a)e a!)a ass%'a)a a #$ s%rrs% )e )%'e r%!a, +#e %s )$!#"v%s e;*r$e$
a)$ravel$e!"e. É 5e$ #$ *r%)#"% )% "e$*era$e!"% )e A!"8!% N%5re.

E$ E3a )e ?#er%2 "a$5/$ e!'%!"ra$%s % )$!#"v% #"l2a)% e$ v-r%s "%!s )e s&!'a)%. N%


"re'% a se&#r e;*r$e a vela'ara, #$a alsa, #$"#%sa )%3#ra )% !e&%'a!"e +#e +#er $*!&r %
se# *r%)#"%. Tra"a(se )% vel% A5ra6%, 9#)e# '%$ l%9a )e a!"&#)a)es, +#e *re"e!)e ve!)er a
Carl%s )a Maa #$ re"ra"% )e es*a!%la, a +#e ele 'a$%# #$a $aravla2!a4. Carl%s %ere'e#
)e2 "%s"<es. O 9#)e#,

!#$ rs% $#)% +#e le a5ra e!"re a 5ar5a &rsala #$a &ra!)e 5%'a )#$ s8 )e!"e, sa5%re%# $#"% a
'ala3a )%s se#s r'%s se!%res4. De2 "%s"<e2!%sH Se % +#a)r!% "vesse *%r 5a;% % !%$e2!% )e
%r"#$, vala )e2 '%!"!%s )e r/s. Mas !6% "!a esse #%$e2!% 5e$)"%... A!)a ass$ vala )e2
!%"a2!as )e v!"e $l r/s...

( De2 '%r)as *ara "e e!%r'ar, e5re# se$ al$aH ( e;'la$%# Carl%s.

E sa:ra$, )e;a!)% % vel% !"r#96% > *%r"a, '#rva)% e$ )%s, '%$ as $6%s s%5re % '%ra36%, )ese9a!)% $l
el')a)es a%s se#s &e!er%s%s )al&%s...4. ( Os Ma'as, e). )e 1Q, , 1QQ.

O 5ea"% L5a!!%, )% )r'me !o Fa!re Amaro,ala *%r )$!#"v%s, +#e )6% a%s se#s )2eres #$
"%$ )e ee$!a)a

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

*%'rsa= ( A, s%sse&a, le6%2!%H N6% "e *er'as, l!%H

P%r ss% se )2, !#$ r%$a!'e )e Ér'% Ver:ss$%= F- '%s!as, *alavr!as, s%rrs!%s, +#e
ere$, +#e rr"a$, +#e a2e$ $al4. +)lar'ssa, .a e)., *-&. .

N% es"ra!% e 5el% s%!e"% )e Ca$l% Pessa!a, S'%3ra o %a'o, "a$5/$ %s )$!#"v%s %r$a$ a
a"$%sera )a *%esa e le )6% #$ "%$ )e r%!a *r%#$)a e $a'a5ra=

Se;!%s )a $as alva *%r'ela!a, '%!'!as "e!#e$e!"e '%r()e(r%sa, !a ra "ra!s*ar!'a l#$!%sa
re*%#sa$, #$)%s, s%5 a -&#a *la!a.

E a vs"a s%!)a, re'%!s"r#, '%$*ara= "a!"%s !a#r-&%s, *er)3<es, )es"r%3%sH [ l&)a vs6%, l!)a $e!"raH
R8seas '%!'!as +#e a $ar/ *ar"ra... )e!"!%s +#e % vav/$ )ese!&as"ara... '%!'as, *e)r!as,
*e)a'!%s )e %ss%s...

O s%rrs% )%l%r%s% e 'r#el )% *%e"a *era!"e a r#:!a a"al )e +#a!"% / 5el% !% $#$)% "ra)#2(se
$aravl%sa$e!"e !% #s% )a+#eles )$!#"v%s )e "er!#ra )es)e!%sa.

E!$, !% s/'#l% ;;, e!'%!"ra$%s % s#;% arv%ra)% e$ a)9e'"v%, '%$ % s&!'a)% )e


ae'"#%s%4, '%$% se v )es"e *ass% )e Alves Re)%l, !6% se sa5e!)% *r%*ra$e!"e se / 'ra36% s#a,
%# se / "ra!s*la!"e )% alar r5a"e9a!% )% a#"%r= Os "e$*%s, *%r/$, a$ )#r%s. O!)e a!)ava a&%ra
a )%3#ra "ra)'%!al )a !%ssa &e!"e, "6% 5ra!)!a, "6% "'%*a('%*a6 +Jarra%co !e ce3os, .a e).,
*-&. K.

Mas as $a!es"a3<es )e "er!#ra 'ara'"er2a$(se *%r s#a !"e!s)a)e e !a"#ral e;a&er%. Era *%s
!ev"-vel +#e "a$5/$ se a*e&asse a% s#;% #$ ee"% s#*erla"va!"e. Os a)v/r5%s %ra$
lar&a$e!"e ae'"a)%s, !a l!&#a&e$ *%*#lar, *%r "al s#*erla"va36%. Ass$, % *%v% )2= Ela $%ra
per"
11#

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

l'%*o )e $!a 'asa4. C%$% +#e$ )ssesse= $#"% *er"% )e $!a 'asa. E % $es$% *r%'ess% se
es"e!)e# a %#"r%s a)v/r5%s, '%$% a3or'%*a, ;B('%*o, e"'. Os es'r"%res s%#5era$ a*r%ve"ar esses
$%)%s )e )2er, '%$% se v !es"e *ass% )e Ma'a)% )e Asss= U$ )eles, *assa!)% re%te('%*o '%$
% Pes"a!a, '%$e3%# a ass%5ar a $es$a *%l'a4. +5/r'as &'str'as, e). )e 1Q, *-&. Q. E #$
es'r"%r &ale&%,a%Xaver
'%lar % s#;% Al'al-,
&er!)% *ara!#$a 'r8!'a
"ra)#2r )e 9%r!al
a $ar'a +El I!eal
)% "e$*%, +#e Galle3o, \\,
)eslsa s#ave !6% )#v)%#
e !'essa!"e$e!"e=
A vla va $%rre!)%,morre%!'%*o6.

:. A Fis&/ria 'e arri(Fa%or. 0 É !e'ess-r% +#e % es"#)%s% *%ss#a % se!"$e!"% )a l:!&#a e


res*e"e, )e!"r% )%s l$"es )% ra2%-vel, % se# &/!%. Ev"ar- '%$ ss% !')r e$ err%s e e$
)s*ara"es, '%$% a+#ele )e +#e le va$%s )ar '%!"a.

F- a!%s %ra$ res"a#ra)%s %s '/le5res 'arrl<es )e Mara. C%!"ra"ara$ !a B/l&'a #$ ar"s"a,


es*e'als"a e$ 'arrl<es, +#e %s *s a "%'ar 5%a $s'a. Os 9%r!als"as, *era!"e a !%v)a)e )a
'%sa, "vera$ #$ $%$e!"% )e )'#l)a)e. C%$% 'a$ar a% %$e$@ A *alavra s'%e'ro era s$*les
)e $as *ara )es&!ar a+#ela ar"e '%$*l'a)a, +#e e;&a #$ $s'% *r%ss%!al. Os !%ss%s
&a2e"er%s !6% es"'ra$ &ra!)e$e!"e. T!a$ a *alavra ra!'esa carr'llo%%eur. %ra$(se a ela e
%r$ara$ es"a l!)e2a, +#e 'e&%# a "er 'er"a v%&a !%s 9%r!as= carr'l*a%or.

Es"e err% !6% "e$ *er)6%, *%r+#e )e!%"a *re&#3a $e!"al e a $as &r%ssera &!%r!'a )% &/!% )a
l:!&#a. U$ %$e$ )% *%v% !#$'a sera 'a*a2 )e %r$ar se$ela!"e )es'%!'av%. Se le
*er&#$"asse$= ( Ole '-, '%$% se 'a$a % %$e$ +#e "ra"a e "%'a %s 'arrl<es @ ( res*%!)era,
se$ es"ar= ( Ora essa, 'a$a(se % carr'l*oe'ro  Tera $%s"ra)% '%$ ss% '%!e'er $el%r %
*%r"#&#s +#e % *%5re 9%r!als"a ala'!a, &!%ra!"e )% )%$a. Ee'"va$e!"e, se
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

11*

a #$a *la!"a +#e )- e9<es se 'a$a $e';oe'ro, #$ %$e$ +#e )- *re&<es se )2 pre3oe'ro, a+#ele
+#e "ra"a )e 'arrl<es )ever- se$ )v)a !e!#$a 'a$ar(se carr'l*oe'ro. ?#er(se a)al&ar #$
*%#'% $as % "er$% @ Ca$e(se(Ie carr'l*o%e'ro ass$ *%)e ser, *%s +#e a% +#e &%ver!a % le$e
%# % "$6% "a$5/$ se )- % !%$e )e t'mo%e'ro. E!$, "#)%, $e!%s a+#ele $%!s"r%2!% )erva)% >
*ressa )% ra!'s.
 0 Es&i(?s&ia
.

O ARTIO E O" 6OME"

1. Va(or es&i(?s&io 'o ar&i=o.( É % ar"&% #$a *alavra *e+#e!!a, )e a*ar!'a !s&!'a!"e. E$
real)a)e, "e$ &ra!)e val%r e;*ressv%, '%$% vere$%s. A"/ *%)er:a$%s a2er )ele #$ s8 'a*:"#l%,
)a)a a a5#$)!'a )% $a"eral. Preer$%s '%!"#)% 9#$"-(l% a%s !%$es a)9e'"v%s e s#5s"a!"v%s,
)%s +#as / *ra"'a$e!"e !se*ar-vel.

Ve9a$%s es"as )#as   ases=

1. Ca$<es, &ra!)e *%e"a *%r"#&#s, $%rre# *%5re.

. Ca$<es, % &ra!)e *%e"a *%r"#&#s, $%rre# *%5re.

As )#as rases !6% "$ &#al val%. Na se&#$)a, a+#ele ar"&% "eve '%$% ee"% la!3ar s%5re a
re*rese!"a36% $as vs#al)a)e e $as a$lar)a)e. C%$% +#e$ )2= Ca$<es, % &ra!)e *%e"a +#e
!8s "%)%s '%!e'e$%s e es"$a$%s, $%rre# *%5re4. Se re*arar$%s 5e$ !a rase, vere$%s +#e /
essa a s#a s&!'a36%. T#)% ss% se '%!se&## *%r $e% )esse *e+#e!!% $%re$a.

O#"r% 'as% !"eressa!"e, e$5%ra 9- )ere!"e=

1. . e!s!a $%)e!%s *r%'ess%s )e le"#ra.

. . e!s!a %s $%)er!%s *r%'ess%s )e le"#ra.

N% *r$er% e;e$*l%, +#ere$%s s&!'ar +#e . e!s!a al&#$s *r%'ess%s $%)er!%s )e le"#ra. N%
se&#$)%, +#e
ESTILÍSTICA DA L:NGUA PORTUGUESA

11

e!s!a "%)%s esses *r%'ess%s. N% *r$er% 'as%, a a#s!'a )% ar"&% '%!er# > rase #$ se!")%
*ar""v%7 9- !% %#"r%, % e$*re&% )% $%re$a )e# > re*rese!"a36% #$ se!")% "%"al"-r%. Ve$%s,
*%r"a!"%, s8 )es"es e;e$*l%s, +#e % ar"&% "e$ #$ val%r es"l:s"'% +#e !6% / *ara )es*re2ar )e
$%)% !e!#$.
#. 6oção =era( 'o ar&i=o 'e$i%i'o. ( N%s e;e$*l%s '"a)%s, % ar"&% "!a #$a *%s36% es*e'al,
*%s es"ava $e)a"a$e!"e se&#)% )% a)9e'"v% e !6% *r%*ra$e!"e )% s#5s"a!"v%. Al/$ )ss%, !%
*r$er% &r#*% )e rases e!'%!"rava(se e$ a*%s36%, s"% /, )e"er$!a!)% #$ s#5s"a!"v% +poeta-,
+#al'a"v% )e %#"r% +)ames-. Ve9a$%s a&%ra "rs 'as%s #$)a$e!"as e s$*les )% e$*re&% %#
%$ss6% )% ar"&% )e!)% '%$ #$ $es$% s#5s"a!"v%=

1. O %$e$ / a'a!a)%.

. O %$e$ / $%r"al.

. F%$e$ !6% / % $es$% +#e )2er er8 !e$ sa!"%.


N% *r$er% e;e$*l%, reer$%(!%s a )e"er$!a)% !)v:)#%, )e!"r% )#$a 'a"e&%ra s#*er%r +#e /
% &/!er% #$a!%. C%!"#)%, es"a$%s ve!)% esse !)v:)#%, '%!'re"a$e!"e, se$ !%s *re%'#*ar$%s
'%$ % &/!er% a +#e *er"e!'e. É % %$e$ +#e al es"-4, a+#ele %$e$4.

N% se&#$)% e;e$*l%, )-(se % e!8$e!% '%!"r-r%= al#)$%s a% &/!er%, > s%$a )%s !)v:)#%s +#e
'%$*<e$ a #$a!)a)e, se$ ver$%s '%r*%rea$e!"e % !)v:)#%. Te$%s #$a $*ress6% )e
+#a!")a)e, )e '%sa '%le'"va, '%$% se )ss/sse$%s= T%)%s %s %$e!s s6% $%r"as4.

N% "er'er% e;e$*l%, reer$%(!%s a!)a a% &/!er%, > 'lasse7 $as a !%36% +#a!""a"va )% se&#$)%
)- a&%ra l#&ar a #$a !%36% +#al"a"va. Ee'"va$e!"e, al#)$%s $as > +#al)a)e )% +#e a%
*r8*r% ser, '%$% se )ss/sse$%s= As
11

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

ra+#e2as )% %$e$ !e$ se$*re a2e$ )ele #$ er8 %# #$ sa!"%4.

L%&%, *%)e$%s )e #$ $%)% &eral )2er +#e % s#5s"a!"v% *re'e))% )% ar"&% )e!)% se reere >
'%sa, a% %59e'"% e$ s, '%!s)era)% !)v)#al$e!"e %# &e!er'a$e!"e, '%$% '%!'re"% %# '%$%
a5s"ra'"%.
A )ere!3aSe$ ar"&%, al#)e
/ s%5re"#)% 'laraa!"es > )ea
!% 1. e . +#e %r$a$%s
e;e$*l%s. )% %59e'"%,
N% *r$er%, > +#al)a)e
% ar"&% +#e #$
'%!serva le val%r
a"r5#:$%s.
)e
!)'a36%, +#e le ve$ )e "er s)% a!"&a$e!"e *r%!%$e )e$%!s"ra"v% +A>uele *omem é
aca%*a!o-. N% "er'er%, '%$% as +#al)a)es e$ r&%r se !6% a*%!"a$ a )e)%, %$"#(se % ar"&%.

*. A omissão 'o ar&i=o 'e$i%i'o. ( C%$*ree!)e(se +#e es"a a'e!"#a36% )as +#al)a)es )%s %59e'"%s
v- e$ &eral a'%$*a!a)a )e #$ re5a"e )e se!"$e!"%. ?#ase !#$'a *%)e$%s real3ar '%$
sere!)a)e as 5%as %# $-s +#al)a)es )e #$a '%sa7 se$*re le *%$%s #$ *%#'% )% !%ss% ae'"%,
)a !%ssa *a;6%. Ve9a$%s es"e e;e$*l%=

De;ar-s pa' ' m7e ( )2 a rel&6% a% sa'er)%"e4.

P%)er:a$%s )2er )e %#"ras $a!eras= o pa' e a m7e, o teu pa' e a tua m7e, um pa' e uma m7e.
Ne!#$a )elas *%ss# a '%!'s6% e!/r&'a, )ra$-"'a, )a+#ele $%)% )e )2er, +#e a'e!"#a
e;*ressva$e!"e, *ela %$ss6% )% ar"&%, % val%r )a+#l% +#e se )e;a. Se !ver"er$%s a %r)e$ )%s
ele$e!"%s, a $*ress6% ser- a $es$a= ++Fa', m7e, esposa, $'l*os, ( "#)% )e;%# % *%5re e$&ra!"e4.

O val%r se!"$e!"al )a %$ss6% )% ar"&% era re'%!e')% 9- )%s a!"&%s es'r"%res. Es '%$% J%6%
)e Barr%s se reere > $%r"e )% r$6% )e Vas'% )a Ga$a= A $%r"e )% +#al )e# $#"a )%r a Vas'% )a
Ga$a, *%r+#e, al/$ )e *er)er r$6%, "!a Pa#l% )a Ga$a 'al)a)es *ra se!"r s#a $%r"e +#e$
)ele "vesse '%!e'$e!"%4. É !%"-vel

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

117

a+# % 'ar-'"er !"e!sv%, ae'"#%s%, )% !%$e 'rm7o )es*r%v)% )e ar"&%.

C%$% %s !%$es
s#5s"a!"v%s se$sear"&%
reere$ s%5re"#)%
*r%)#2 e$ !8s>'er"%
ess!'a, > +#al)a)e
'%+#e ae'"v%. )%s seres
É *%s !%$ea)%s,
!a"#ral a s/re
+#e !es"as )e a
s/res
*r8*ra *%!"#a36% a'%$*a!e % 'ar-'"er se!"$e!"al )% )s'#rs%. É % +#e se v !es"e *ass% )e E3a
)e ?#er%2=

E se!"a !ele real$e!"e "%)a a al$a )e #$ Ra$res, '%$% eles era$ !% s/'#l% ;!, )e s#5l$e
leal)a)e, $as *res%s > s#a *alavra +#e #$ sa!"% a% se# v%"%, e ale&re$e!"e )es5ara"a!)%, *ara a
$a!"er, 2e%s, co%te%tame%to e '!a 6

Re*are(se !s"%= se % s#5s"a!"v% se$ ar"&% a2 $e!36% $as )a +#al)a)e +#e )% %59e'"%, "e$
)e!"r% )ele #$a #$36% )e a)9e'"v%, *%s +#e '%$*e"e s%5re"#)% a% a)9e'"v% a )e"er$!a36% )%
es"a)% e )a +#al)a)e. É % +#e se )- !es"e 'as%=

Nessa "ar)e % )al&% )a T%rre, ar%s% !% se# a"% !%v% )e $%!"ar, pola'%as !e couro pol'!o, luas
!e camura 2ra%ca, *ar%# a /&#a a% *%r"6% )a e"%sa4.

V(se *ere"a$e!"e % 'ar-'"er a)9e'"val )a+#elas )#as rases !6% *re'e))as )e ar"&%. '%$ elas se
+#al'a a ele&!'a )% 'avaler%. E *re'sa$e!"e a a#s!'a )% $%re$a '%$#$'a > e;*ress6%
'er"% "%$ e!"#s-s"'% e a)$ra"v%, )-(le #$ "$5re leve$e!"e se!"$e!"al. E$ ver)a)e, a+#eles
)%s +#al'a"v%s *are'e$ ser e$*re&a)%s a"/ *el% *r8*r% )al&%, '%!"e!"e )e s *r8*r%,
re$ra!)%(se !% se# )%!are. O *r%'ess%, '%$% se v, e;&e )a *ar"e )% a#"%r 'er"% *%)er )e
s$*a"a, 'er"a 'a*a')a)e *ara e!"rar !a *ele )as *ers%!a&e!s +#e )es'reve. Ee'"va$e!"e, se
11

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

*#s/sse$%s a *re*%s36% a!"es )a rase, 9- se *er)era % ee"%= 0com *%la!as )e '%#r% *%l)% e
l#vas )e 'a$#r3a 5ra!'a4. A rase a)+#ra #$ se!")% $as sere!a$e!"e )es'r"v% e *er"e!'a
a&%ra e;'l#sva$e!"e a% a#"%r.

+. A28sos
l:!&#a, %o empre=o
e !e$ se$*re se'os ar&i=os.
ver'a ( A #"l2a36%
a'er"a)a$e!"e !%s)%$el%res
ar"&% '%!s""#
a#"%res.#$a )as es"e
Ve9a(se )el'a)e2as
*ass% )e)aE3a,
es'r"%r &ra!)e e!"re %s &ra!)es, % $a%r es"ls"a *%r"#&#s, *rese!"e se$*re !% !%ss% "ra5al%=

D2a % )*l%$a"a, !% se# *%r"#&#s l#e!"e, $as o a'e!"% 5-r5ar%4.

O es'r"%r *%r"#&#s % a"r-s )a '%!s"r#36% ra!'esa e a"ra3%%#, )es"a ve2, % &/!% )a l:!&#a. Mas
*%r"#&#s$e!"e, e$*re&ar:a$%s !es"e 'as% a *re*%s36%= 07e a'e!"% 5-r5ar%4, %# 0com % a'e!"%
5-r5ar%4, se!)%, e$ "%)% % 'as%, $el%r a *r$era %r$a +#e a se&#$)a.

Ve9a$%s es"%#"ra rase=

C%!"%#, as l-&r$as !%s %l%s, % se# $e!s% !%r"!%4.

A+# "a$5/$ % e$*re&% )% ar"&% )e!)% *are'e "er 'ar-'"er ara!'esa)%. Mel%r )r:a$%s e$
5%$ *%r"#&#s=
( ++.com l-&r$as !%s %l%s47 "%)ava essa '%!s"r#36%, '%$ val%r )e a)9e'"v% %# )e a)v/r5%, 9-
'r%# ra:2es, a5%!a)a '%$% a!)a *el%s $el%res a#"%res, +#e %ra e$*re&a$ a *re*%s36%, %ra
s$*les$e!"e % ar"&%. É )e A!"8!% Vera % se&#!"e *ass%, +#e le&"$a esse $%)% )e es'rever=
V!a )es'%ra)%, $a'le!"%, as a'es s#$)as, %s %l%s e!'%va)%s, a 'a5e3a )err#5a)a *ara a
"erra4. E 9- a!"es )ele, ra!'s'% )e M%ras, +#e a!)%# *%r ra!3a, es'revera !% se# Falme'r'm !e
I%3laterra: )2e!)% e$ v%2 al"a, o r%s"% ale&re e rs%!%4.
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

11:

É "alve2 $as e;*ressva a!)a a !vers6% )%s ele$e!"%s +#e *<e % a)9e'"v% e$ *r$er% l#&ar,
'%$% !es"e *ass%
)es'%!a!3a *ara)e errera
"%)%s )e Cas"r%= #$ $elr% *re"%, trémula a 'a#)a, %lava '%$
%s la)%s4.

E$ ve2 )% ar"&% )e!)%, #sa(se, $as rara$e!"e, !as )es'r3<es, % ar"&% !)e!)%. É "a$5/$
#$a '%!s"r#36% ara!'esa)a, '%$% se *%)e ver )es"e "re'% )e G#ler$e Ga$a=

E!"r% !a es"ala&e$ )a!)% % 5ra3% > *e+#e!a Na"-la, essa ra*ar&a 5%/$a, *-l)a, )e %leras
*!"a)as a 5s"re, um $%)% 'a!ala !% a!)ar e !% rr, e um &/!% e$ sa5er "rar($e )% 5%ls% "%)% %
)!er% )as $esa)as4.

O es'r"%r 5rasler% J%r&e A$a)% 9#$"a os )%s *r%'ess%s, e *el% se&#!"e "re'% l%&% se v +#e %
ar"&% !)e!)% / #sa)% !a )es'r36% )e '%s"#$es e es"a)%s $%ras=

E +#a!)%, *%r a'as%, #$ !av% lar&ava, a "er'era 'lasse a"es"a)a )e $&ra!"es, eles se
)e5r#3ava$ "%)%s !% 5alas"re, uma !ve9a )%s +#e, $as el2es, 9- *ar"a$ !a+#ele !av%, as $6%s
a'e!a!)% ":$)%s a)e#ses, os %l%s es*'a)%s !a es"era )% va*%r4. +Seara ermel*a, 1.

É 5e$ vs:vel !% es"l% $%)er!%, s%5re"#)% !a )es'r36%, 'er"a re*#&!!'a *elas *re*%s3<es, +#e
$ar'a$ !% &eral rela3<es l8&'as, )e !"el&!'a e !6% )e se!"$e!"%, e!"re as )ere!"es *ar"es )%
)s'#rs%. A *re*%s36%com "e$ es*e'al )#re2a, +#e )esa&ra)a a $#"%s es'r"%res= *%r ss%
*r%'#ra$ aas"-(la. O '%!e'$e!"% 'e!":'% )a l:!&#a, a e;*er!'a e #$ *%#'% )e 5%$ &%s"%
a9#)ar6% % es"#)%s% a es'%ler as $el%res $a!eras )e e;*r$r(se, )e!"r% )as !%r$as e e"% )%
)%$a.
Tresa!)a$ "a$5/$ a ra!'s 'er"%s $%)%s )e es'rever, !%s +#as se *<e ar"&% !as e;'la$a3<es.
E;e$*l%s= 0O 5el%
120

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

es*e'"-'#l%H4 0A )el'%sa "ar)eH4 Ser- "alve2 $el%r %$"r % ar"&%, %# s#5s""#:(l% *%r >ue: ?#e
5el% es*e'"-'#l%H4 ?#e )el'%sa "ar)eH4

J- '%$ as e;*ress<es )e "e$*%, % #s% )% ar"&% se$ *re*%s36% / *ere"a$e!"e le&:"$% e )e 5%a
"ra)36%
%#"#5r%, *%r"#&#esa. Ve9a(se es"e *ass% )e r. L#:s )e S%#sa= Era $a!'e5%7 *ar"a *%r $ )e
o "e$*% )%e!"%4.

E a!)a es"e, )e T%$-s A!"8!% G%!2a&a, % '%!e')% *%e"a )% s/'#l% ;v$=

0As ras "ar)es, re '%!"&% a% *ra)% l%res'e!"e4.

F%9e )r:a$%s )e *reer!'a, !es"es )%s 'as%s= 0com % "e$*% )%e!"%4, %# 0em "e$*% )%e!"%4,
0as ras "ar)es4. Mas a!)a %9e s6% '%rre!"es es"es $%)%s )e )2er e es'rever= Es"eve '- o
Ver6% *assa)%47 )%r$# 5e$a %#"ra !%"e4.

9. O ar&i=o e os %omes pr/prios.

e;e$*l%s=

N%"e$%s es"es )%s

1. Mara !6% se es+#e'e !#$'a )%s se#s )everes.

. A Mara es"#)a a*l'a)a$e!"e as l3<es.

A )ere!3a sal"a a%s %l%s= !% *r$er% 'as%, a *ess%a !%$ea)a, reer)a e$5%ra '%$ a$2a)e,
e!v%lve(se )e 'er"a )s"!36%, "%$a(se $as )s"a!"e7 !% se&#$)% 'as%, a *ess%a, a*%!"a)a
$e!"al$e!"e *el% ar"&%, "%$a(se $as a$lar. De a:, 'er"a a"$%sera ae'"va, +#e 5a!a
s%5re"#)% %s !%$es *r8*r%s *re'e))%s )% ar"&% )e!)%. Os es"ra!&er%s !%"a$ es"a "e!)!'a )%
*%r"#&#s *ara se!s5l2ar %s !%$es )as *ess%as, )a!)%(les #$ ar 'aser%= o Ga$a, o E3a, o
Ca$l%, e"'. E !6% s8 %s es"ra!&er%s, "a$5/$ %s *%r"#&#eses a a'e!"#a$, !a"#ral$e!"e, '%$% se
*r%va )es"es )2eres )e M&#el T%r&a= ?#a!)% se )2 % A#&#s"%4,

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

11

e!v%lve(se l%&% % )%!% )% !%$e !#$ al% )e !"$)a)e, )e es"$a, )e res*e"%4. +Fe!ras
lara!as, l.a e)., QQ.

C%!"#)%, a )e$asa)a a$lar)a)e '%$ #$ %$e$ *%)e "ra2er '%$% res#l"a)% #$ avl"a$e!"%
)as s#as +#al)a)es. P%r ss% se )2 %9e, !6% a*e!as '%$ !"$)a)e, $as '%$ 'er"% se!")%
)s*l'e!"e= % Ca$<es, o B%'a&e, e"'. N% se# '/le5re s%!e"% *%l:"'% a E#r'%, *ers%!a&e$ )%
r%$a!'e )e Fer'#la!%, G#erra J#!+#er% es'reve#= Be9a a Fer$e!&ar)a, a ":$)a )%!2ela4. O
vers% 'ara "alve2 $el%r se$ a+#ele *r$er% ar"&%7 $as % a#"%r +#s )ar > &#ra )a r$6 )e
Pel-&% #$ as*e'"% a$lar e ')a)6%. A+#ele ar"&% )e!)% / *%s !"e!'%!al e a"/ r8!'%.
S#*%!a(se #$ re*8r"er a a2er % rela"% )e #$ 9#l&a$e!"%. Se +#ser ver"er #$ )es*re2%, "a!"as
ve2es !9#s"%, s%5re %s )es&ra3a)%s +#e res*%!)e$ *el%s se#s err%s, )r- ass$=

O l5el% "er$!a )2e!)% +#e o J%s/ er!a!)es e o Ma!#el V'e!"e s6% ver)a)era$e!"e '#l*a)%s
)% #r"% )%s 'ereas, *el% +#e *e)e a '%!)e!a36% )%s r/#s4.

Es"a$%s ve!)% +#al % ee"% )es"e $%)% )e es'rever. Os !%$es se$ ar"&% "era$ #$a )s"!36%,
$*r8*ra )e *%5res r/#s )e )el"% '%$#$. A)%r!a!)%(%s )e ar"&%, % 9%r!als"a 'arre&%#(%s )e
!"e!36% *e9%ra"va, )e# > e;*ress6% #$ '#!% *ess%al, )e $ar'a)a $alev%l!'a.

3. O ar&i=o %as e%8meraçHes. ( Ta$5/$ !as e!#$era3<es % ar"&% )ese$*e!a $*%r"a!"e *a*el
e;*ressv%. O )es'%!e'$e!"% )% se# e$*re&% *%)e $es$% )ar $%"v% a e+#:v%'%s. Ve9a(se es"a
rase=

C%!ere!'ara$ %s 'ees !o e;/r'"% ale$6% e "ala!%4.

Tal $%)% )e )2er, 0o e;/r'"% ale$6% e "ala!%4, *%)era !)'ar #$ s8 e;/r'"%, )e ale$6es e
"ala!%s, re#$)%s s%5 #$a 5a!)era. Para ev"ar e+#:v%'%s, a l:!&#a )s*<e )% a)9e'(
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

"v% '%$*%s"%=
)ev)a % e;/r'"%
)s'r$!a36%, &er$a!%("ala!%4
)re$%s, '%$ % ar"&% !%%#*l#ral=
% e;/r'"% :"al%(ale$6%4.
%s e;/r'"%s ale$6%Se +#ser$%s%#,
e "ala!%4, a2er a
re*e"!)% % ar"&%= % e;/r'"% ale$6% e o "ala!%4. C%$% se v, a re*e"36% )% ar"&% !as
e!#$era3<es a'e!"#a % val%r )e 'a)a ele$e!"% )a s/re, )-(le v)a *r8*ra e )s"!"a7 se "e$%s #$
s8 ar"&% *ara "%)a a e!#$era36%, as )ere!3as )e 'a)a ele$e!"% s6% $e!%s a'#sa)as e s8 vale %
"%)%.

Nes"a rase ( Os $#rr%s, 5%e"a)as e *%!"a*/s '%va$ s%5re % *%5re %$e$4 ( "e$%s #$a
re*rese!"a36% &l%5al, #$ *%#'% '%!#sa, )as 5r#"al)a)es a +#e % s#5$e")% % %$e$. O !%$e,
*re'e))% )% ar"&% +Os $#rr%s, *%s"% > re!"e )a s/re, ass#$e &ra!)e $*%r"!'a, '%$% 'ee )e
la. P%r"a!"%, % v%'-5#l% *%r"a)%r )a )ea #!)a$e!"al &a!ar- e$ ser *%s"% > re!"e )a
e!#$era36%.

Se +#s/sse$%s av#l"ar e;*ressva$e!"e, '%$% +#e *%r %r)e$ 'r%!%l8&'a, sale!"a!)% % se# val%r,
a+#elas )ere!"es
%s $#rr%s, $a!es"a3<es
as 5%e"a)as )e 5r#"al)a)e, )r:a$%s= C%vera$ e!"6% s%5re % *%5re %$e$
e %s *%!"a*/s4.

Es"a re*e"36% e;*ressva )% ar"&% )e!)% serve a!)a *ara as s/res )e a)9e'"v%s, e *r%)#2 5el%
ee"% es"l:s"'%. Ass$ !es"a rase=

O '/# es"ava l:$*)%= !e$ #$a !#ve$ le )es$a!'ava o vas"%, o $a'#la)% a2#l4.

A val%r2a36% )%s a)9e'"v%s, #$ *%r #$, *%r $e% )% ar"&%, "%$a $as l#$!%sas e $as
)e"er$!a)as as )#as re*rese!"a3<es. Tere$%s a *r%va )ss%, se !6% re*e"r$%s % ar"&% e
)sser$%s= % vas"% e $a'#la)% a2#l4. Per)e#(se % ee"%, e as )#as $a&e!s a*a&ara$(se e '%$%
se #!)ra$ !#$ "%)%. Res#l"%# #$a es*/'e )e a)9e'"v% '%$*%s"%, a5s"ra'"%= as$o"'macula!o. J-
v$%s % ra'% val%r e;*ressv% )a '%$*%s36% a5s"ra'"a.

7.
re*rese!"a3<es. Serve *%s 'a*a')a)e
O ar&i=o i%'e$i%i'o.0A *ara "ra)#2res"l:s"'a )% ar"&% e!)e!)%
a !)e"er$!a36% es"-
% $s"/r%, !a $*re's6%
'%$% +#e"re'%
se v *%r es"e )- >s
)e E3a, e$ +#e se )es'reve$ as es"a3<es )#$ arre!)a"-r% )e al)ea=

O J%s/ Cas'% v%l"%# a!)a '%$ a $#ler7 )e*%s, !#$ )%$!&%, '%$ a $#ler e #$ '%$*a)re, ( e
era um '%3ar le!"% )% +#e;% ra*a)%, umas v%l"as )es'%!a)as e$ "%$% )a era e )a %r"a, umas
)e$%ras s#$)as )e!"r% )a "#la, +#e "%$ava$ a+#ela $a!6 )e 9#!% !"%leravel$e!"e l%!&a a%
)al&%4.

Ora a !)e"er$!a36% e % $s"/r% v6% +#ase se$*re a'%$*a!a)%s )e $%v$e!"%s )a


se!s5l)a)e. É *%r ss% +#e % ar"&% !)e!)% "ra)#2 $#"as ve2es %s s%5ressal"%s )a al$a, a
!"e!s)a)e %5s'#ra )%s ae'"%s. É #$ !s"r#$e!"% *re'%s% *ara e;*r$r a '%$*l'a36% )a al$a
$%)er!a, % se# 'ar-'"er $*ress%!-vel. Os Cl-ss'%s e$*re&ava$(!% '%$ *ar'$8!a7 !8s #sa$%s
e a5#sa$%s )ele.
S#*%!a$%s es"a rase= Para a*r%ve"ar a s%l)6% av%r-vel, a*ress%# '%$ um es%r3% a
'%!)!'a +#e % '%$%va4. Se )ss/sse$%s a*e!as '%$ es%r3%4, !6% al'a!3ar:a$%s % $es$%
ee"%. A+#ele ar"&% )ra$a"2a % 'as%, re%r3a!)% a% $es$% "e$*% a !"e!s)a)e )a re*rese!"a36%.
Es *%r+#e esse $%re$a se e$*re&a $#"as ve2es '%$% #$a es*/'e )e s#*erla"v%. E;e$*l%=
% uma ale&ra, +#a!)% v# %s *as4. E!"re % ar"&% e % !%$e s#5e!"e!)e(se +#al+#er '%sa '%$%
&ra!)e4, e!%r$e4. A e!"%a36% '%$ +#e se )2 a rase '%!"r5#, / 'lar%, *ara esse ee"%
s#*erla"v%7 $as / 5e$ vs:vel +#e % $%re$a val%r2a !"e!sa$e!"e % !%$e a +#e se reere.

Es"e e$*re&% vara)% e s#5"l )% ar"&% !)e!)% "e$(se es"e!))% rre&#lar$e!"e a %#"r%s 'as%s,
!6% a#"%r2a)%s
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

*el%s *#rs"as, +#e, se$*re '%$ %s %l%s !%s Cl-ss'%s, )ese9ara$ ver a l:!&#a !% es"a)% e$ +#e a
)e;ara$ #$ A!"8!% Vera %# #$ Ma!#el Ber!ar)es. U$ Cl-ss'% es'revera ass$= Pare'e#($e
a+#l% s!al )e *esar4. N8s !"r%)#2$%s %9e $as e!er&a !a rase, )2e!)%, '%$ % ar"&%=
Pare'e#($e a+#l% um s!al )e *esar4. Mas a!)a - %9e es'r"%res +#e, leva)%s *%r #$
e;a&era)% '%!'e"%
ar"&% !)e!)%. )%)eles
U$ *#rs$%, $a!"$
/ errera )e %Cas"r%,
#s% 'l-ss'%
)% +#al)a-l:!&#a,
rases "%$a)%s )e ver)a)era
'%$% es"as= %5a *el%
O !av% r#$%# )e
F#$a"- *ara a $ar&e$ )re"a, )%5ra!)% po%ta %!)e %#"r%ra e;s"ra "erra l$*a4. J#'- Trs"6%
)r&!)%(se a *omem '#9a e;s"!'a Al5er"% !6% ava !%"a)%, %r)e!%#(le= ( [ Cae"a!%, leve(%s
*ara % 5arra'6% vel%H4

A %$ss6% )% !)e!)% "e$ !es"es 'as%s % 'ar-'"er )e a#"!"'a )%e!3a )% es"l%4, +#e %
a#"%))a'"s$% )% es'r"%r, al-s #$ )%s !%ss%s $as ele&a!"es *r%sa)%res, "alve2 e;*l+#e
s#'e!"e$e!"e. A'%$*a!a$(r% !es"e !9#s"'a)% %rr%r )a *ar":'#la !)e!)a al&#$s )%s
$as re'e!"es es'r"%res, e!"re eles S%er% Perera G%$es, a#"%r )e Este'ros, a +#e$ *er"e!'e es"a
rase= De*%s )e e!&a!are$ as 5%'as '%$ %aco )e *6% $as )#r% )% +#e a "ar$5a, $e"era$(se a%
es"er%4.

J- e$ %#"ras 'r'#$s"!'as, +#a!)% % s#5s"a!"v% es"- *re'e))% )e #$ a)9e'"v%, se *%)e %5servar


a!)a % #s%"rar-
es"#)%s% )%s a!"&%s es'r"%res)a)aEs"l:s"'a4.
&ra!)e *r%ve"% l:!&#a, +#eSer-
&eral$e!"e )s*e!sava$
es"e % $%)% % ar"&%.
'l-ss'% )e E;e$*l%=
es'rever, % $as O
'%rre!"e a!)a %9e. F- *%r/$ +#e$ )&a 0um &ra!)e *r%ve"%4, e es"a '%!s"r#36% *are'e )es"!a)a
a v!&ar, *%r "er "alve2 $as *%)er e;*ressv%.

. O s82s&a%&i)o. ( J- "e$%s vs"% +#e % s#5s"a!"v% *%#'% )ere )% a)9e'"v%7 !% #$)%, s6% )%s
as*e'"%s )#$a $es$a real)a)e l!&#:s"'a. A *r8*ra %r&e$ )% !%$e "e$

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

$as )e a)9e'"v% )% +#e )e s#5s"a!"v%. '%$ ee"%, a% *r!':*%, "%)%s %s seres %ra$ )es&!a)%s
*%r #$a +#al)a)e #$)a$e!"al +#e %s 'ara'"er2ava. Esse *r%'ess%, #sa)% !a %r$a36% )%s
s#5s"a!"v%s,
Para )es&!arv(se a!)a)e%9e
#$ '#rs% -&#a!as*%)e$
al'#$as *ess%as= )#as
'%!s)erar(se % J%s/ Ma!'%,
!%3<es % Ma!#el %Ca!%"%,
#$)a$e!"as= e"'.
*r8*r% )ervar
)a -&#a, e !esse 'as% % %59e'"% 'a$ar(se(- corre%te, torre%te, cac*oe'ra,e"'., %#, vs"% )e $as
l%!&e, % as*e'"% s!#%s% )as $ar&e!s, )as r5as, e !esse 'as% )ar(le(e$%s % !%$e )e r'o, re3ato,
r'2e'ro, e"'. Is"% sera !a %r&e$= %9e, a *alavra r'o s#s'"a !6% a*e!as #$a +#al)a)e, $as a
$a&e$ "%"al )% %59e'"%= % '%rrer )a -&#a e % as*e'"% )as $ar&e!s. Pr$"va$e!"e, al#)!)% a #$a
+#al)a)e )% %59e'"%, era #$a es*/'e )e a)9e'"v%7 *%r $, s#&er!)%(% !"e&ral$e!"e, "%$%#(se
ver)a)era$e!"e s#5s"a!"v%.

F%9e, '%$% +#e v%l"-$%s > *r$"va '%!'e*36%. A l:!&#a a'"#al, )e '#$% $*ress%!s"a, av#l"a a
+#al)a)e a'$a )% %59e'"%, a2 )a +#al)a)e % *r8*r% %59e'"%. É ass$ +#e )2e$%s % r#5r% )as
*a*%las4, % )%"a )% ra*a24, s#5s"a!"va!)% %s a)9e'"v%s. E / a!)a *%r es"a "e!)!'a +#e
)2e$%s #$a 5ele2a )e 'ra!3a4, #$a $aravla )e seara4, *%!)% % s#5s"a!"v% +#al'a!"e >
re!"e )% +#al'a)%. Es #$ "re'% )e al% )e Al$e)a, '%$% a5%!a36% l"er-ra )% *r%'ess%,
al-s $#"% e$ v%&a !a l:!&#a '%rre!"e= Pa3% era vv%, '%$ #$a )essas 'aras *'a!"es )e Sevla,
)e !ar2"% !% ar, "!"a '&a!a, *r%#$)%s %l%s, e um apet'te !e !e%tes, +#e le "%$ava$ % rs%
!#$a s!%!a )e !%"as *er%la)as4.

Clar% +#e %s *%e"as $%)er!s"as !6% a2e$ 'as% )a vela )s"!36% e!"re s#5s"a!"v% e a)9e'"v%.
U$ )%s $a%res, 'er"a$e!"e % $a%r, er!a!)% Pess%a, es'reve#=

E )e $e# &es"% lass% >s al3as m/3oas +#e - *ara al/$ )e ser$%s %#"%!as...
1#3

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

N6% se sa5e a+# +#al % !%$e +#e #$'%!a '%$% a)9e'"v%, e es"a $*re's6% a'res'e!"a % $s"/r%
)a s#&es"6% *%/"'a. J- !%#"r%s vers%s )% $es$% a#"%r se e$*re&a 'lara$e!"e % s#5s"a!"v% e$
l#&ar )% a)9e'"v%= '%$ +#e !sa "6% ra'a \ +#er% a+#ele %#"r%raH4

Q. A5s"ra'"%s elea%tame%to,
*r%*re)a)es= '%!'re"%s. ( S6% a5s"ra'"%s
s'l?%c'o, %s !%$es
rap'!e(, +#e al#)e$
e"'. D2e$(se >s a'3<es,
'%!'re"%s a%s es"a)%s,
a+#eles >s
+#e se reere$ >
s#5s"!'a= papel, pe!ra, mo%ta%*a, e"'. Os *r$er%s es'a*a$ > e;*er!'a )%s !%ss%s se!")%s7
%s se&#$)%s s6% seres $a"eras, s%5re +#e se *%)e$ e;er'er esses $es$%s se!")%s. Is"%, e$
"e%ra7 !a real)a)e as '%sas s6% $as '%$*l'a)as. É +#e 'er"%s '%!'e"%s a5s"ra'"%s *%)e$ "er
#$a a'e '%!'re"a e, a% '%!"r-r%, $#"%s !%$es '%!'re"%s se *%)e$ e$*re&ar e$ se!")%
a5s"ra'"%.

O !%$e 2ele(a é, !6% - )v)a, #$a *alavra a5s"ra'"a7 $as se, a% *r%!#$'-(l% %# a% es'rev(l%,
e# "e!% !%s %l%s a $a&e$ )e #$ re"ra"%, %# )e #$ $-r$%re '%$% % )a V/!#s )e Ml%, %
s#5s"a!"v% a)+#re *ara $$ #$ val%r '%!'re"%. Era al-s % +#e a2a$ %s a!"&%s &re&%s e
r%$a!%s= as )eas a5s"ra'"as, "as '%$% a 2ele(a, % !est'%o, a morte, e"'., era$ *ara eles )e 'er"%
$%)% '%!'re"as, *%r+#e, a% *e!s-(las, "!a$ !%s %l%s as &#ras )a s#a $"%l%&a. Ass$, *ara #$
r%$a!%, a !%36% )e 5ele2a a!)ava l&a)a > vs6% )#$a es"-"#a )e V/!#s, a $%r"e s#&era(le #$
se$(!$er%
e"'. )e $a&e!s '%!'re"as= as Par'as "e'e!)% % % )a v)a, %s re!%s !er!as )e Pl#"6%,

As )eas a5s"ra'"as s6% s#s'e*":ves, al/$ )ss%, )e $a!es"a3<es '%!'re"as. U$ !)v:)#% +#e
"e$ so%o, es'a5e'ea, a2 "re9e"%s, )e"a(se, ress%!a. Ta!"% 5as"a *ara +#e % s#5s"a!"v% !%s a*are3a
$e!%s a5s"ra'"%, *%r+#e le a!)a$ l&a)as es"as $a!es"a3<es '%r*%ras. O "er$% s'l?%c'o, se!)%,
'%$% /, a5s"ra'"%, se ev%'a e$ !8s a !%36% '%!"r-ra )e r#:)%, % s%sse&% )as ra$a&e!s +#e"as, e"'.,
"%$a(se *%r ss% $e!%s

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1#7

a5s"ra'"%. Is"% /, a a5s"ra'36% )%s !%$es / '%sa rela"va, *%r+#e )e*e!)e e$ *ar"e )% *%)er )e

a!"asa )%s !)v:)#%s.


se!")% $a"eral Pel%+#e
e %59e'"v% '%!"r-r%, $#"as ve2es
les / *r8*r%, %s se!")%
$as e$ !%$es '%!'re"%s
es*r"#al,*%)e$ ser "%$a)%s
"%$a!)%(se *%r ss%!6% !%
a5s"ra'"%s. Os s#5s"a!"v%s sol, 2rao, sa%3ue, s6% '%!'re"%s7 $as *%)e$ ser e$*re&a)%s e$
se!")% &#ra)%, e+#vale!)% a )eas a5s"ra'"as. É % +#e se )- !%s se&#!"es e;e$*l%s=

1. A la !'a era *ara ele % sol )a s#a v)a.

. A!"8!% era % 2rao )re"% )% se# *a.

. Se!"a$(se #$)%s *el%s la3%s *%)er%s%s )% sa%3ue.

É 5e$ ev)e!"e a+# a "ra!s%r$a36% )% "er$% '%!'re"% e$ a5s"ra'"%= sol s&!'a *r%*ra$e!"e %
'%!%r"% es*r"#al4, % e!'a!"%47 2rao % a*%%4, % s#s"e!"-'#l%47 sa%3ue % *are!"es'%4, a
es"r*e a$lar4. É #$ *r%'ess% )a l!&#a&e$ &#ra)a, 5e$ '%!e')% )e "%)%s. A es"as
"ra!s*%s3<es )% '%!'re"% *ara % a5s"ra'"% e v'e(versa 'a$a$%s meto%lm'as.
O *r8*r% #s% )% ar"&% *%)e "er $*%r"!'a *ara a )s'r$!a36% e!"re a5s"ra'"% e '%!'re"%=

1. 'l*o /s, *a ser-s...

. Ca$%# % $'l*o e re*ree!)e#(%.

N% *r$er% e;e$*l%, '%$% v$%s 9-, % !%$e se$ ar"&% al#)e $as > +#al)a)e, > ess!'a, )% +#e
a% *r8*r% %59e'"%. L%&%, % s#5s"a!"v% "e$ val%r a5s"ra'"%. N% se&#$)% e;e$*l%, e$ vr"#)e )%
ar"&%, es"a$%s ve!)% '%r*%ral$e!"e a *ess%a7 l%&%, $'l*o é #$ !%$e '%!'re"%.

Os s#5s"a!"v%s '%le'"v%s "a$5/$ *%)e$ "er #$a a'e '%!'re"a, '%$% va$%s ver. S#*%!a$%s,
*%r e;e$*l%, es"e !%$e= p'%*e'ral. O v%'-5#l% s#s'"a e$ !8s )#as re*rese!"a3<es= a )a +#a!")a)e
&l%5al, ( a'e a5s"ra'"a7 e a )%s *!er%s, '%!s)era)%s $e!"al$e!"e #$ *%r #$, ( a'e
1#

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

'%!'re"a. P%r %#"r%s "er$%s= % '%le'"v% *%ss#: )#as #$)a)es se$!"'as, $as %# $e!%s se!s:ves,
'%!%r$e %s !)v:)#%s= a )ea a5s"ra'"a )% "%)% e a vs6% '%!'re"a )as *ar"es.

Os a)9e'"v%s "a$5/$ *%)e$ ser $as %# $e!%s '%!'re"%s %# a5s"ra'"%s. ?#a!)% )2e$%s ( O
"e$*%
( #$aes"-\$'%4
le$5ra!3a"e$%s #$a
$resca6 ( 9-se!sa36% :s'a
% a)9e'"v%, )e res'#ra7
e$*re&a)% e$$as +#a!)%
se!")% )2e$%s
&#ra)%, )e '%!'re"% *ass%# a
a5s"ra'"%. É '%$% se )ss/sse$%s re'e!"e4, )e *%#'% "e$*%4.

A l!&#a&e$ l"er-ra $%)er!a a2 lar&% #s% )% s#5s"a!"v% a5s"ra'"%, e$ se!")% $as %# $e!%s
'%!'re"%. É #$a 'ra36% )e es"l%. Ve9a$%s es"e *er:%)%=

E a*e!as G%!3al% e$*#rr%# "$)a$e!"e a *%r"a +#ase a'#%# !% es*a!"% e $e)% )a+#ela a$l'7o
es"r)e!"e, +#e se arre$essava *ara ele e *ara a s#a m'ser'cr!'a6.

Tra"a(se )e #$a *%5re $#ler +#e % *e)r *el% se# $ar)%, a err%s !a *rs6%. N6% ve$%s %
%59e'"%, a $#ler7 s8 se!"$%s '%!'re"a$e!"e a s#a )%r, +#e *are'e "er 5ra3%s *ara s#*l'ar e *er!as
*ara a!)ar. O "er$% m'ser'cr!'a "a$5/$ es"- "%$a)% e$ se!")% $e!%s a5s"ra'"%7 $as a$l'7o é 9-
+#al+#er '%sa +#e se v, *%r+#e se arre$essa4, e se %#ve, *%r+#e / es"r)e!"e4.

O es"l% $%)er!% "e$ $ar'a)a *re)le'36% *%r es"e *r%'ess%, +#e '%!ss"e e$ *r > re!"e %
a5s"ra'"%, % +#al !)'a se$ )e"er$!ar e av#l"a a +#al)a)e a'$a )% *r8*r% %59e'"%. Ve9a(se es"e
*ass% )e al% )e Al$e)a= relvas *'a)as )a 'ac'!a!e )as '%r%las4. Se es'revsse$%s a% $%)%
'l-ss'% relvas *'a)as )e '%r%las vva2es4, *%)er:a$%s ser $as l8&'%s, $as /ra$%s 'er"a$e!"e
$e!%s e;*ressv%s. O a5s"ra'"%, !% es%r3% *ara se "%$ar '%!'re"%, a)+#re #$a es*/'e )e
*ers%!al)a)e a'"va a vva')a)e )as '%r%las *'a!)% as relvas.
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

1#:

1K. O =%ero e o %mero. ( P%#'% !"eresse "e$ *ara % !%ss% 'as% a )e"er$!a36% )% &/!er% e )%
!$er% )as *alavras. Mas / !e'ess-r% a'e!"#ar, "ra"a!)%(se )% &/!er%, #$a )as 'ara'"er:s"'as )%
*%r"#&#s=
se )v)a$ a+#a!"%
'%!s"a!"e *re%'#*a36%
a% se;%= se;#alle7o
c7o ( ca!ela, +#e( se ver'a
leoa, e"'. A!%*r8*ra
v%'a5#l-r%. É !a"#ral
'%!&#ra36% )% +#e %s a!$as
$a'% e )a
$ea "%$a !e'ess-ra a )s"!36% $%r%l8&'a. Mas % +#e / $as '#r%s% / +#e essa $es$a
"e!)!'a se ver+#e !%s %59e'"%s, !%s seres !se;#a)%s. A *ar )% $as'#l!%, a l:!&#a 'r%# %r$as
e$!!as !#$ se$(!$er% )e s#5s"a!"v%s= saco ( saca, poo ( poa, 2arco ( 2arca, mel7o (
meloa, c*our'o ( c*our'a, 3a%c*o ( 3a%c*a, 2arraco
( 2arraca, cesto " cesta, e"'.

Se e;a$!ar$%s es"as *arelas )e s#5s"a!"v%s, !%"are$%s +#e, )e #$ $%)% &eral, % $as'#l!%


re*rese!"a $a%r &ra!)e2a !% se!")% )% '%$*r$e!"%, % e$!!% $a%r &ra!)e2a !% se!")% )a
lar&#ra. O *%r"#&#s v# !%s %59e'"%s a $a&e$ )% %$e$ e )a $#ler= % %$e$, $as %r"e, $as
al"% e es5el"%7 a $#ler, $as 5a;a, $as lar&a, )e '#rvas $as arre)%!)a)as. A!)a se *%)e ver
!es"a '%$*e"36% )% $a'% e )a $ea, rele'"!)%(se !as *r8*ras '%sas, #$ )%s 'ara'"eres
#$)a$e!"as )a 'vl2a36% *%r"#&#esa, +#e *res#$e se$*re, !as l)es 'aseras e !% "ra5al% )a
"erra, % es%r3% '%!9#&a)% )% %$e$ e )a $#ler.
?#a!"% a% !$er%, '%!v/$ rsar +#e % ar"&% re%r3a a *l#ral)a)e. A al"a )e ar"&% )esva!e'e a
)ere!3a e!"re %s v-r%s ele$e!"%s )% *l#ral e "e!)e *ara re*rese!"ar #$a )ea '%le'"va. Ve9a$(se
es"es )%s e;e$*l%s=

1. As l%res )% 'a$*% 'era$ 5e$.

. l%res )% 'a$*%, +#e 5e$ +#e 'era$H

N% *r$er% 'as%, % %lar es"- a v(las e *%r"a!"% a )e"er$!-(las !a s#a vare)a)e. N% se&#$)%, a
al"a )e ar"&%

: 0 Es&i(?s&ia
1K M. RODRIGUES LAPA

%5l"er%# a vs#al)a)e, e % *l#ral, )esa'%$*a!a)%, *er)e#(se #$ *%#'% !% va&%,


&a!a!)% 'er"% $a"2 se!"$e!"al. É es"a $es$a "e!)!'a ae'"va, a +#al av%re'e %s
9#:2%s a*a;%!a)%s s%5re %s seres, +#e se ver'a !% "%$ )e*re'a"v% '%!er)% $#"as
ve2es a% *l#ral se$ ar"&%. Al&#/$, *ess%a e;*er$e!"a)a !a v)a, asss"e a al&#$s
)es$a!)%s )e &e!"e $%3a. Ve$(le a%s l-5%s #$ s%rrs% $e% r8!'%, $e% !)#l&e!"e, e
)2= ( Rapa(es... A e!"%a36% )ese$*e!a !a r%!a *a*el $*%r"a!"e, $as % *l#ral "e$
!ss% % se# +#!6%. A $es$a leve r%!a "ra!s*are'e !a+#ele '%!e')% vers% )e Ces-r%
Ver)e= Na+#ele *+#e!+#e )e 2ur3uesas6. Mas a )e$%!s"ra36% $as '%!v!'e!"e )%
'as% es"- !a l!):ss$a re)%!)la )e Ca$<es=
N#$a 'asa)a # *r %s %l%s )e s se!%res= '#)e +#e %sse$ amores, 'es 2era$(se amor.

N% #$)%, % +#e % *l#ral se$ ar"&% a+# e;*r$e / a a'e!"#a36% )a +#al)a)e e$ se!")%
*e9%ra"v%.

É a!)a '#r%s% ass!alar % ee"% )% *l#ral e$ al&#$s s#5s"a!"v%s. Ve9a$%s es"a rase=

L- e$ 'asa a a$:la *assava $omes6. , 

O *l#ral )-&eral
$*ress6% a% s#5s"a!"v%
/ )e +#e a )%s val%res
*alavra $ome,e;*ressv%s= #$ )ese!"e!s)a)e,
*l#ral2a!)%(se, "%$%# $as%#"r% )e vare)a)e.
'%!'re"a. É esse, *%rAva )e
re&ra, % res#l"a)% )% *l#ral !%s !%$es a5s"ra'"%s. A l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e '%!e'e % *r%'ess%=
2ele(as, m'u!e(as, $estas, ate%es, e"'., "%$a$(se '%!'re"%s, %# *%#'% $e!%s, *%r+#e #sa)%s !%
*l#ral. O e;e$*l% $as e;*ressv% )es"a '%!'re"2a36% es"- !% v%'-5#l% &ale&% ale3r'as, *ara a
)es&!a36% )as e!"ra!as )% *%r'%.

O &ra$-"'% e )':%!ars"a 5rasler% M%ras e Slva


ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1*1

e!"rev# % e!8$e!%, )a!)%(!%s es"a re&ra !% Ep'tome !e 3ram/t'ca portu3uesa, 'a*. v=
N6% a)$"e$
as car'!a!es +#e*l#ral %s essas
$e e27 !%$es )epac'?%c'as,
"#as +#al)a)es e"'.4.
a5"#as, se!6% #sa)%s
Os es'r"%res *el%s $as
!6% 2era$ a"%s )elas=
+#e
'%*ar % $/"%)% )a l:!&#a ala)a. E;e$*l% = A+#eles arra%;os '%!%r"-ves le$5rara$
)e'er"% a Le%*%l)!a $el'c'!a!es "ra!+#las4. A+# arra%;os al#)e !6% a*e!as a% a'"%, $as
a%s %59e'"%s arr#$a)%s7 $el'c'!a!es )es*er"a(!%s se!sa3<es :s'as e se!"$e!"%s )e
'%!%r"%7 % "er$% a!)a %r"e$e!"e a*e&a)% a%s %59e'"%s +#e '%!s""#e$ % 5e$(es"ar. S6%,
e$ s#$a, !%$es a5s"ra'"%s "%$a)%s e$ se!")% $as %# $e!%s '%!'re"%.

O es'r"%r 'l-ss'% '%!e'a 9- es"e *r%'ess%, '%$% se v )es"es )%s e;e$*l%s )e ra!'s'%
)e M%ras e r. L#:s )e S%#sa= '%$ p'e!a!es )e ve!')% '%$e3%# a *e)r a% ve!'e)%r
+#e % $a"asse4. ( Se De#s !6% a'#)a '%$ s#as m'ser'cr!'as, *are'a $*%ss:vel
valere$(se '%!"ra "a$a!% *%)er4. Os )%s "er$%s !% *l#ral s#&ere$ $a&e!s a#)"vas e
vs#as +#e % s$*les s!&#lar !6% '%$*%r"a, *%r va )e re&ra. L%&%, s6% av)%s '%$%
s#5s"a!"v%s '%!'re"%s. Mas )e$%!s"ra"v% / a!)a es"e *ass% )% P.e A!"8!% Vera=
Per)e(se % Brasl, Se!%r, *%r+#e al&#$s $!s"r%s )e S. Ma9es"a)e !6% v$ '-
5#s'ar % !%ss% 2em, v$ 5#s'ar %s !%ss%s 2e%s6. O es'r"%r 9es#:"a s%#5e 9%&ar '%$ %
)ere!"e se!")% )% s!&#lar e )% *l#ral, '%$ % a5s"ra'"% e '%$ % '%!'re"%, e *r%)#2# #$
"r%'a)l% a)$r-vel, )e %r"e e sa5%r%sa r%!a.
r
.

O ARTIO E O" 6OME"

II

1. O a'@e&i)o e a ara&eriJação. ( O a)9e'"v% "e$ e;"ra%r)!-ra $*%r"!'a !a ar"e )e


es'rever7 s%5re"#)% %9e, +#e - #$a "e!)!'a *ara )ar '%r a "#)%, >s '%sas e a%s *e!sa$e!"%s. O
5%$ es'r"%r revela(se !#$ &ra!)e !$er% )e +#al)a)es7 $as e!"re elas s%5ressa a )e a*l'ar '%$
*re's6% e *"%res'% %s se#s a)9e'"v%s. D2a #$ &ra!)e es'r"%r ra!'s, $es"re !a ar"e )% es"l%,
+#e e$ "#)% +#a!"% se +#era )2er !6% - se!6% #$ s#5s"a!"v% *ara % e;*r$r, #$ ver5% *ara %
a!$ar e #$ a)9e'"v% *ara % +#al'ar. É *%rve!"#ra )e$asa)% ra)'al es"a se!"e!3a7 $as "e$ #$
#$)% )e ver)a)e e )eve es"ar *rese!"e a% es*:r"% )e +#e$ +#era es'rever 5e$.
O a)9e'"v% / *%r"a!"% % ele$e!"% #$)a$e!"al )a 'ara'"er2a36% )%s seres7 $as a Es"l:s"'a "e$
#$a !%36% $#"% $as lar&a )% a)9e'"v% )% +#e a Gra$-"'a= *ara ela "#)% +#a!"% srva *ara
'ara'"er2ar, 9e"% )e e!"%a36%, *alavra %# rase, vale '%$% a)9e'"v%. Ve9a$%s %s 'as%s *r!'*as
)e *alavras %# l%'#3<es +#e *%)e$ ass#$r  #$36% a)9e'"val=

1. Isto é >ue é um RAPAfH

A e!"%a36% a+# / % ele$e!"% 'ara'"er2a)%r. C%!%r$e a $a!era )e e!"%ar, ass$ a rase s&!'a
2om %# mau rapa(. A+#ele ar"&% !)e!)%, *el% se# 'ar-'"er !"e!s'a)%r, a#;la essa #$36%
a)9e'"va!"e.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1

. A  te ma%!o esse LIVRECO.

Na *alavra l'reco - )#as re*rese!"a3<es= a )e s#5s"a!"v% e a )e a)9e'"v%, a )% %59e'"% e a )a


+#al)a)e= lvr% $a#4. P%r"a!"%, 'er"%s s#5s"a!"v%s e;*ressv%s "ra2e$ e$ s % ele$e!"%
'ara'"er2a)%r7 e %s s#;%s, '%$% ve$%s, )ese$*e!a$ !ss% $*%r"a!"e *a*el= r 2'to, ca2eo%a,
casacr'o, e"'.
,

. Ma%uela tra('a um est'!o LILS.

O s#5s"a!"v% l'l/s +#al'a %#"r% s#5s"a!"v% +est'!o-. O 'as% / re+#e!"e '%$ %s !%$es )as
'%res. É #$a '%!s"r#36% ara!'esa)a +#e v!&%# !a !%ssa l:!&#a. O *r8*r% s#5s"a!"v% '%$*%s"%
*%)e servr )e a)9e'"v%, '%$% se v )es"e e;e$*l%= Essa ra*ar&a "e$ a s"8ra $as pla%ta"!e"
estu$a +#e e# '%!e3%4. A+#ele '%$*%s"% s&!'a 'asera4, $%)es"a4.

. A'st/mos ao lo%3e um 2arco Z VELA.

A l%'#36% B ela, %r$a)a )e s#5s"a!"v% *re'e))% )e *re*%s36%, / e+#vale!"e a #$ a)9e'"v%=


5ar'% ele'ro6. Esse +#al'a"v% a"/ se e$*re&a 9- '%$% s#5s"a!"v%, *%s *%)e$%s )2er
s$*les$e!"e #$ ele'ro6. A +#al)a)e )e# !%$e > *r8*ra s#5s"!'a.

C%$% v$%s 9-, !% 'a*:"#l% a!"er%r, % s#5s"a!"v% !6% 'are'e )e *re*%s36% *ara "er a 'a*a')a)e
)e #$ a)9e'"v%. Nes"e "re'%, %s s#5s"a!"v%s e $as %s +#al'a"v%s +#e %s a'%$*a!a$ vale$
*%r a#"!"'%s a)9e'"v%s= S#r&# e!"6% #$ ra*a2 al"%, ca2elo %e3ro, rosto ma3ro e ol*os
amortec'!os, )e!#$'a!)% v)a !)%le!"e4. P%r ve2es, % s#5s"a!"v% e!'%!"ra(se *re'e))% )%
ar"&%, '%$% !es"a rase= Nas -rv%res *%#sava$ l!)as *er!al"as, % 5'% se$(%'#l"% !%
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

'%l%4. T#)% *r%'ess%s )e 'ara'"er2a36% '%$ % e$*re&% )% s#5s"a!"v%.

. Dees ler l'ros ?UE INTERESSEM.

A+#, a %ra36% )e *r%!%$e rela"v% +>ue '%teressem- vale *%r #$ a)9e'"v%= '%teressa%tes. É
*%r ss% +#e e$ &ra$-"'a essas %ra3<es s6% )es&!a)as *el% !%$e )e a)9e'"vas4, e / *%r
ss% $es$% +#e se !6% 9#s"'a % #s% )a v:r&#la.

. Os pe>ue%os, CANTANDO, saam !a escola.

Nes"e e;e$*l%, % &er!)% ca%ta%!o 'ara'"er2a a% $es$% "e$*% % s#9e"% +os pe>ue%os-, e !esse
'as% / #$ a)9e'"v%, e % ver5% sa:a$ ca%ta%!o-, e !esse 'as% e+#vale a #$ a)v/r5%. As )#as
#$3<es '%$*e!e"ra$(se a+# !"$a$e!"e. Mas #$ es'r"%r $%)er!s"a '%$% er!a!)% Pess%a
"e$ ar"es )e a2er )% &er!)% #$ *#r% a)9e'"v%, +#al'a)%r )% s#5s"a!"v%, !#$a rase '%$%
es"a= Pel% &ra!)e '%5er"%r %7o"co2r'%!o"%a!a )as a*ar!'as4.

J- a!"es )ele, % 5rasler% Ra#l P%$*/a "e!"ara % re'#rs% !% se# lvr% O Ate%eu: Be$ *%#'%, #$

res"% )ese"% )e sa#)a)es *ara a+#ela !/r'a !"e!sa, aassala%!o6.


S6% es"as as $a!eras *r!'*as )e +#e a l:!&#a se serve *ara a 'ara'"er2a36%7 *%)ere$%s )2er +#e
a !%36% )e a)9e'"v% re'%5re "%)%s es"es as*e'"%s. Va$%s a&%ra asss"r a esse "ra5al% )e
'ara'"er2a36%, real2a)% *%r #$ &ra!)e es'r"%r. S#*%!a$%s % se&#!"e "re'%=

N#$a sala e!'%!"r-$%s #$a se!%ra7 #$ le!3% 'a:a(le e$ 5%'% s%5re a "es"a7 e !% #$)% )essa
s%$5ra !e&re9ava$ )%s 8'#l%s4.

O *ass% / +#ase "%"al$e!"e )es*r%v)% )e "er$%s 'ara'"er2a)%res, "ra!"e a+#ele 2'oco e s%5re"#)%
a+#ele %e3re;ar, )%!)e ressal"a 9- !")a$e!"e a )ea )e !e&r%4. É ass$
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

+#e E3a )e ?#er%2 '%$*le"a % "re'%, avve!"a!)%(% '%$ a)9e'"v%s %# e+#vale!"es l%'#3<es
'ara'"er2a!"es=

N#$a sala $orra!a !e papel escuro e!'%!"r-$%s #$a se!%ra mu'to alta, mu'to seca, est'!a !e
preto, com um 3r'l*7o !e ouro %o pe'to #$ le!3% roo, amarra!o %o >ue'o, 'a:a(le !#$ 5%'%
l3u2re s%5re a "es"a7 e !% #$)% )essa s%$5ra !e&re9ava$ )%s 8'#l%s !e$uma!os6.

A+# es"- '%$% #$ &ra!)e es'r"%r, *el% s-5% e$*re&% )%s !s"r#$e!"%s )e 'ara'"er2a36%,
)es'reve #$a se!%ra 5ea"a. É )e !%"ar a '%r s%$5ra )a)a *%r esses ele$e!"%s, '%$ +#e se a'e!"#a
a !a"#re2a arrevesa)a )a *ers%!a&e$= escuro, preto, roo, l3u2re, !e$uma!os.

. Ca#"ela '%$ % e$*re&% )% a)9e'"v%H ( T%)a a 'a#"ela / *%#'a !% e$*re&% )% a)9e'"v%. D2a
#$ &ra!)e es'r"%r ra!'s, V%l"are, +#e % s#5s"a!"v% e % a)9e'"v% s6% )%s !$&%s &a)as.
?#era ele s&!'ar +#e !a)a - $as 'e!s#r-vel !% es"l% )% +#e a a'#$#la36% s#*/rl#a )%s
a)9e'"v%s. P%r ss% % 5%$ es'r"%r )eve !ss"r !% e$*re&% )% s#5s"a!"v% e;*ressv%, +#e '%!"/$
9- e$ s #$ ele$e!"% )e 'ara'"er2a36%. Ev"a s%5re"#)% 'arre&ar a rase )e a)9e'"v%s, '%$% +#e$
'arre&a #$ ar)%. % !es"es "er$%s, $as %# $e!%s, +#e Ca$l% Cas"el% Bra!'% l%#v%# #$ es'r"%r
)% se# "e$*%= O *%e"a es$era(se !a es'%la )% s#5s"a!"v%, a)%*"a % +#e le rsa $as
es*%!"a!ea$e!"e a )ea, e )s*e!sa(se )e % arrea"ar e$ 'arava!a )e e*:"e"%s )ss$#la)%s e$
es"/rl *%$*a )e re"8r'a= s%!%r)a)es va2as4.

Para e;e$*l% )% +#e )2 Ca$l%, ve9a(se es"e "re'% )#$a es'r"%ra $%)er!a, %!)e s#*era5#$)a$
%s a)9e'"v%s +#e !a)a %# +#ase !a)a )2e$=

Al#$a)% *ela es"rela r#"la!"e )a 5%!)a)e e;'elsa, % re%r$a)%r )es'e# a%s a!"r%s "e!e5r%s%s e
!e'"%s %!)e a
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

#$a!)a)e se e!'ar'a e$ 'r$e e)%!)%. Desse a$5e!"e $*e)%s% )e $s/ra re*ele!"e


arra!'%# as al$a2!as !%'e!"es )as 'ra!3as *%5res, '%!ver"e!)%(as e$ ele$e!"%s e'#$)%s e
"es > s%'e)a)e4.

Se +#s/sse$%s $%!)ar es"e "re'% )%s a)9e'"v%s +#e % a"rava!'a$, es'rever:a$%s $as
s$*les$e!"e ass$, 5a!)%s %s 'l'/s e al&#$s ele$e!"%s s#*/rl#%s )e 'ara'"er2a36%=

Al#$a)% *%r e;'elsa 5%!)a)e, % re%r$a)%r )es'e# a%s a!"r%s %!)e a #$a!)a)e se e!'ar'a !%
'r$e. Desse a$5e!"e )e $s/ra arra!'%# as *%5res 'ra!3as, '%!ver"e!)%(as e$ ele$e!"%s "es >
s%'e)a)e4.

A+#ela ve&e"a36% )e a)9e'"v%s +#al'a)%res )e a%tros, cr'me, m'sér'a, *are'e(!%s *ere"a$e!"e


)s*e!s-vel, *%r+#e essas *alavras, e$!e!"e$e!"e e;*ressvas, 'ara'"er2a$(se 9- *%r s *r8*ras.
O a)9e'"v% "rval, es*/'e )e 'l'/, !a)a a'res'e!"a a% se!")%. O "re'% sa# s$*l'a)%, se$
*er)er a s&!'a36%. '%$ 'er"e2a, '%# $as 5e$ es'r"%.

O#"ras ve2es s%$%s leva)%s a e$*re&ar % a)9e'"v% *%r #$ !s"!"% ar":s"'%, #$a "e!)!'a *ara %
arre)%!)a$e!"% e *ara a 'alae"a36% )a rase. Pare'e(!%s +#e a% s#5s"a!"v% al"a #$ +#al'a"v%7
e, '%$% a !a"#re2a / *re&#3%sa, e$ ve2 )e es'%ler$%s % 5%$ a)9e'"v%, % !'% +#e a
'r'#$s"!'a re+#er, a)%*"a$%s #$ 'ara'"er2a)%r 5a!al, +#e serve *ara "#)%= l'%!o, a!m'r/el,
so2er2o, e%orme, e"'. S%5re"#)% %s a*re!)2es )e es"l% es"6% s#9e"%s a es"es )esl2es. P%r *re&#3a,
+#e / % *%r !$&% )% es"l%, #sa$ e a5#sa$ )es"as 'alae"a3<es +#e !a)a e;*r$e$.

U$ )%s !%ss%s )s':*#l%s, a% reerr(se a #$ 'a$*a!-r% )e al)ea, es'reve#= N% l'%!o 'a$*a!-r%
%#ve$(se as 5a)ala)as +#e a!#$'a$ a $ssa...4 2e$%s(le '%$*ree!)er +#e a+#ele a)9e'"v%
l'%!o !a)a s&!'ava al, era #$ s$*les ver5%()e(e!'er +#e !6% !%s )ava !e!#$a )as
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1*7

+#al)a)es )% 'a$*a!-r%. '%$ ee"%, #$ 'a$*a!-r% s8 *%r $#"% av%r se *%)e +#al'ar *%r
$e% )% a)9e'"v%
9- )e!a l'%!o. O )%
#$ )%s as*e'"%s al#$% *e!s%# $el%r
'a$*a!-r%. e '%rr&# *ara
O5serv-$%s(le *%r/$etusto.
+#e % A'e"-$%s a e$e!)a,
"er$%, ala"!a)%, !%s +#e
*are'a #$ *%#'% *re"e!s%s%, l"er-r% )e$as. Preerr:a$%s % "er$% '%rre!"e el*o. O59e'"%#(!%s
+#e etusto le *are'a $el%r *ara )es&!ar #$a &re9a, +#e *%)era vr a ser #$ )a $%!#$e!"%
!a'%!al. A'e"-$%s a ra26% '%$% 5%a, *%r se #$)ar !#$a *reer!'a *ess%al, )&!a )e res*e"%.
Mas !6% '-$%s '%!ve!')%, *%r a'ar$%s #$ *%#'% %r3a)a a+#ela "ra!s*%s36% )e el*o *ara %
la"!s$% etusto. I!el2$e!"e a s/re )e s!8!$%s +#e se *%ssa e$*re&ar a+# !6% / &ra!)e, !e$
-'l a es'%la. F- '%!"#)% #$ "er$% +#e *%)era servr e "e$ 5%a ra2 *%*#lar ( el*usco, se !6%
a)$"sse #$a '%l%ra36% $as %# $e!%s *e9%ra"va, '%$% se !%"a !% #s% +#e )ele e2 Ma'a)% )e
Asss *ara 'ara'"er2ar #$a 'asa vela e arr#!a)a= G%s"%# a"/ )e ver a 'asa el*usca, )es5%"a)a,
e$ '%!"ras"e '%$ as 5%r5%le"as "6% vvas )e - *%#'%4 +=u'%cas Jor2a, *-&. 1. M%!"er%
L%5a"%, &ra!)e 'ra)%r ver5al e &ra!)e #$%rs"a, "e$ &%s"% *%r essa %r$a, +#e e$*re&a *el%
$e!%s )#as ve2es er! e3r'%*a. C%!v/$ a)ver"r +#e % !%ss% al#$%, 'a"8l'% *ra"'a!"e, )ese9ava
!a"#ral$e!"e )ar 'er"a )&!)a)e > &re9a )a s#a "erra. De a: "alve2 a *reer!'a *%r etusto.
. S#5s"a!"v% v#l&ar e a)9e'"v% l"er-r%. ( As *alavras vve$ e$ a$:las7 e % +#e se )- !a a$:la
)%s #$a!%s, )-(se "a$5/$ !a a$:la )as *alavras= !e$ se$*re %s '%$*%!e!"es l&a$ 5e$ e!"re
s, *%r+#e - ele$e!"%s +#e s6% %# se 9#l&a$ $as )% +#e %s %#"r%s. A+#ele a)9e'"v% etusto
*er"e!'e > 'a"e&%ra )esses *re"e!s%s%s. Des"%a, e!"re %s '%$*a!er%s ( el*o, '!oso, a%c'7o, e"'. (
*el% se# ar ala"!a)%. Mas se$*re "ere$%s % re'#rs% )e % s#5s""#r, +#ere!)%, *%r %#"r%s $e!%s
*e)a!"es'%s.
1 M. RODRIGUES LAPA

F- 'as%s *%r/$ $as '%$*l'a)%s= $#"%s s#5s"a!"v%s !6% "$ a)9e'"v% +#e les '%rres*%!)a
e;.= c'me%to, pau, Paca, pa%o, e"'., se!)% !8s %5r&a)%s a #$ 'r'#$l8+#% *ara arra!9ar %
+#al'a"v%. O#"r%s v6% 5#s'ar % a)9e'"v% >s l:!&#as '#l"as, '%$% s6% % la"$ e % &re&%. 'a
ass$ e;s"!)% #$ a)9e'"v% l"er-r% *ara #$ s#5s"a!"v% v#l&ar, #$ "er$% es*e'al e #$ *%#'%
arrevesa)% *ara #$ "er$%

)e #s% '%rre!"e.
Ass$, 5r!+#e)%s )e cr'a%a16 'a$ar(se(6%, e$ l!&#a&e$ '#l"a, 5r!+#e)%s puer's %#
'%$a%t's6 #$ re'a)% +#e / )"% *%r 2oca 'a$a(se re'a)% ora* #$a *'a)a +#e 'a#sa !or )2(se
*'a)a !olorosa6 #$ re$/)% '#9%s ee"%s v6% a"/ > ra'( / )"% re$/)% ra!'ca*, > !ave&a36%
+#e se a2 !% r'o 'a$a(se !ave&a36% $lu'al6, e a #$ es'r"%r +#e *r%)#2 $#"as o2ras es'r"%r
operoso6. T%)% % %$e$ '#l"% %# +#e *res#$e )e "al / %5r&a)% a '%!e'er es"as a$:las )e
*alavras, '%$ %s se#s ele$e!"%s !%5res. Para ss%, '%$% 9- )e'lar-$%s, !6% / !e'ess-r% sa5er
la"$ !e$ &re&%. Bas"a *%ss#r #$a l%#v-vel )l&!'a e #$a 'er"a e;*er!'a )%s ra)'as. O
5%$ #s% )% )'%!-r% )ar- a% es"#)%s% es"a '!'a -'l.

A'a, *%r e;e$*l%, a *alavra p'scoso, !% &r#*% a p'scosa Ses'm2ra. L%&% re'%!e'e !a *alavra
#$ ra)'al p'se, +#e s&!'a *e;e4, e se e!'%!"ra e$ %#"r%s v%'-5#l%s= p'scatr'o, p'sc'cultura,
p'sc'$orme, p'sc'%a. A al"a )% se!"$e!"% )a l:!&#a '%!)#2#, a *r%*8s"% )es"a $es$a e;*ress6%,
a #$ err% '#r%s%. U$ e)"%r )e Os Lusa!as, e$ 1, a% e!'%!"rar a+#ele &r#*% !% "e;"% 'a!"%
$, es".  )e# a se&#!"e e;*l'a36%, +#e se "%$%# r)'#la$e!"e '/le5re= 'a$a(se p'scosa,
*%r+#e e$ 'er"% "e$*% se a9#$"a al &ra!)e +#a!")a)e )e p'scos, *ara se *assare$ > r'a4.
Des)e esse $%$e!"% '%# essa e)36% '%!e')a *el% !%$e

)e e)36% )%s *s'%s4.

L%&%, / "l a% a*re!)2 )e es'r"%r % es"#)% )a %r$a36% )as *alavras7 !6% *ara )esl#$5rar %s
%#"r%s '%$ %

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGU$a\

e$*re&% )% "er$% l"er-r% e "/'!'% ( esses v%'-5#l%s s6% *re'sa$e!"e %s $e!%s e;*ressv%s (,
$as *ara e!r+#e'er % se# *e'l% le;'al e )ar vare)a)e a% es"l%.

+. Va(or i%&e(e&8a( e a$e&i)o 'os a'@e&i)os. (Des&!a!)% #$ a"r5#"%, #$a +#al)a)e, / !a"#ral
+#e % a)9e'"v% "e!)a s%5re"#)% *ara a e;*ress6% !"ele'"#al, a5s"ra'"a. ?#a!)% )2e$%s
s"8ra um'ersal6, "e$%s a re*rese!"a36% )e #$a s"8ra +#e a5ra!&e %s s#'ess%s
#$)a$e!"as )e "%)as as !a3<es4. O !%ss% se!"$e!"% !6% !"erv/$ !% 'as%. A re*rese!"a36% /
*#ra$e!"e !"ele'"#al. Mas se )sser$%s= Esse re$/)% "e$ a$a um'ersa*, 9- !"r%)#2$%s !a
)ea $ar'a)a *el% a)9e'"v% #$ *%#'% )e e;al"a36%. A +#e )eve$%s ss%@ A% '%!"e;"%, $as
s%5re"#)% a% s#5s"a!"v% +#e a'%$*a!a % a)9e'"v% e +#e )erra$a s%5re ele #$ *%#'% )a s#a
al$a. As *alavras !6% vve$ s%la)as, "e$%s !8s re*e")%7 a+# $as #$a ve2 se '%$*r%va % a'"%.
N6% - )v)a +#e % s#5s"a!"v% $ama '%$#$'a a% a)9e'"v% um'ersal #$ *%#'% )% se#
alv%r%3% e )% se# e!"#sas$%. As )#as *alavras '%!s*ra$ *ara !%s )are$ #$a se!sa36% )e
!"e!s)a)e, e es"a va se$*re a'%$*a!a)a )e re5a"es )e se!"$e!"%.

O#"r% e;e$*l%= O ra)e %5serv%# se$*re % 9e9#$


rel'3'oso-. A+# % a)9e'"v% "e$ 'ar-'"er *#ra$e!"e !"ele'"#al7 9e9#$ rel'3'oso6 s&!'a a*e!as
% 9e9#$ *re'e"#a)% *ela rel&6%. O +#al'a"v% / )e !a"#re2a "/'!'a. D&a$%s *%r/$= e2(
se !a sala #$ sl!'% rel'3'oso6. A&%ra, % a)9e'"v% *are'e(!%s $*re&!a)% )e se!"$e!"%, e %
"er$% a)+#r# #$ se!")% &#ra)% e s#*erla"v%. C%$% ve$%s, "ra"a(se )e #$a s/re #s#al )e
!"e!s)a)e, '#9a %r$a36% e s&!'a)% 9- %ra$ es"#)a)%s !#$ 'a*:"#l% a!"er%r. P%r va )e
re&ra, +#a!)% % a)9e'"v% ass#$e '%l%ra36% se!"$e!"al, res#l"a )a: #$a s/re #s#al !"e!sva.

O rele;% )% s#5s"a!"v% s%5re % a)9e'"v% !%"a(se a!)a e$ 'er"as l%'#3<es '%rre!"es. ?#a!)%
)2e$%s #$a 'asa
1+-

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

a(ul6, sa5e$%s 5e$ +#e a 'asa !6% / "%)a a2#l, $as a*e!as e;"er%r$e!"e *!"a)a )e a2#l. E$
Ls5%a, - #$ Barr% A(ul6: as 'asas !6% s6% *!"a)as )e a2#l, '%$% *%)era *are'er, $as a*e!as
as *%r"as, ar%s )as 9a!elas e *ersa!as. E!$, #$ l-*s a(ul6 s "e$ )e a2#l a *ar"e '%$ +#e se
es'reve. Pare'e(!%s +#e es"es e;e$*l%s s6% % 5as"a!"e *ara '%!ve!'er % le"%r )a :!"$a
s%l)are)a)e +#e e;s"e e!"re % s#5s"a!"v% e % a)9e'"v% e )a $*%ss5l)a)e )e se*arar$%s es"as
)#as 'a"e&%ras.

9. A posição 'o a'@e&i)o. ( U$ a'"% $*%r"a!"e )e es"l%, s%5re"#)% e$ *%r"#&#s, / a *%s36% )%


a)9e'"v% +#al'a"v%. M#"as l:!&#as, '%$% % !&ls e % ale$6%, "$ #$%r$e$e!"e % a)9e'"v%
a!"es )% s#5s"a!"v%7 %#"ras, '%$% % ra!'s, "$ re&ras $as %# $e!%s ;as *ara a s#a '%l%'a36%.
S8 % *%r"#&#s e % es*a!%l a)$"e$ l5er)a)es +#e )6% a +#e$ ala e es'reve r+#:ss$as
*%ss5l)a)es )e e;*ress6%. Ve9a$(se es"as )#as rases=

1. O ra*a2 po2re !e'ess"a )e a2er e'%!%$as.

. O po2re ra*a2 '%# re*r%va)% !% e;a$e.

N!&#/$, *%r $e!%s e;*ere!"e +#e se9a )a l:!&#a, es"a s%5re % s&!'a)% )a+#ele a)9e'"v%. N%
*r$er% 'as%, % a)9e'"v% po2re es"- e$*re&a)% !% se# ver)a)er% se!")%, )e!e '%$ *re's6% a
+#al)a)e )% rapa(: $%3% se$ re'#rs%s4. N% se&#$)% 'as%, e!"ra$%s 9- e$ %#"ra esera= %
a)9e'"v% es"- e$*re&a)% '%$ s&!'a36% )ere!"e7 !a ver)a)e, a+#ele *%5re ra*a24 *%)e ser
a&%ra #$ ra*a2 $e!sa$e!"e r'%. E % a)9e'"v% e "%)a a rase a*are'e$(!%s $*re&!a)%s )e
se!"$e!"%, )e '%$*a;6%. T#)% s"% se %5"eve '%$ a '%l%'a36% )% a)9e'"v% a!"es )% s#5s"a!"v%.

P%)e$%s *%s )es)e 9- e!#$'ar es"a re&ra )e es"l% *%r"#&#s= +#a!)% % a)9e'"v% es"- l%&% )e*%s
)% s#5s"a!"v%, "e!)e a '%!servar % val%r *r8*r%, %59e'"v%, !"ele'"#al7
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

1+1

+#a!)% es"- a!"es, "e!)e a e$5ra!)e'er(se, a)+#r!)% $a"2a36% ae'"va. Ass$, #$a ra*ar&a
2ela6 *%)e
se&#$)a !6%5ele2a
*ela ser #$a 2ela ra*ar&a4, *%r+#e a *r$era se )s"!&#e *ela 5ele2a :s'a, a
$%ral.

Ma'a)% )e Asss a*r%ve"%# es"a )#*l')a)e )e se!")%, 9%&a!)% !a$e!"e '%$ a *%s36% )%
a)9e'"v%= a *r$era / +#e e# !6% s%# *r%*ra$e!"e #$ autor !e$umto, $as #$ !e$umto autor,
*ara +#e$ a 'a$*a % %#"r% 5er3%4 +Memr'as pstumas !e Jr/s )u2as, e). )e 1Q, *-&. 11. N%
*r$er% e;e$*l%, !e$umto s&!'a ee'"va$e!"e $%r"%47 !% se&#$)%, % a)9e'"v% s&!'ar-
es+#e')%4, )a!)%(se > rase es"e se!")%= $as #$ a#"%r es+#e')% *ara % +#al a 'ele5r)a)e s8
ve% )e*%s )a $%r"e4.

Es"a vara5l)a)e !a '%l%'a36% )% a)9e'"v% / *r8*ra )e *ess%as se!"$e!"as e s%!a)%ras. O


*%e"a, +#e vve $as !a esera )% se!"$e!"%, "e$ "e!)!'a *ara *r % a)9e'"v% a!"es )%
s#5s"a!"v%. É #$ *r%'ess% l:r'%. O *%e"a )r- )e *reer!'a % er!e *ra)%4, *%r+#e al#)e !6% >
ver)#ra e$ s *r8*ra, $as >s e$%3<es, a% *ra2er +#e le s#s'"a a ver)#ra )% *ra)%. Para ele,
er!e é #$ a)9e'"v% $as %# $e!%s a5s"ra'"%. U$ %$e$ )e *r%sa, %5serva)%r e;a'"% e
$*ass:vel, )r- a!"es % *ra)% er!e6, *%r+#e es"a5ele'e #$a rela36% !"ele'"#al, !6%
'%!"a$!a)a )e se!"$e!"%, e!"re % *ra)% e a ver)#ra +#e e$ )a)% $%$e!"% % 'ara'"er2a. Para
ele, er!e / #$ a)9e'"v% $as %# $e!%s '%!'re"%. O *r$er% v s%5re"#)% '%$ %s %l%s )%
'%ra36%
( *%r ss% v $as "#rv%7 % se&#$)% v s%5re"#)% '%$ %s %l%s )a 'a5e3a ( *%r ss% v $as 'lar%.
A vs6% )% *r$er% *%)e )2er(se $as $%ral, a )% se&#$)% $as :s'a e $as *"%res'a. P%r
a+# se v % e;"ra%r)!-r% *ar")% +#e *%)e$%s "rar )a '%l%'a36% )% a)9e'"v% e$ *%r"#&#s.
T%$e$%s a&%ra $as es"as )#as rases=

1. A *-"ra, '%3rata, !6% re'e5e# %s %ss%s )% er8.

. I%3rata *-"ra, !6% *%ss#r-s $e#s %ss%sH


1+#

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

N% *r$er% 'as%, % s#5s"a!"v% +p/tr'a- % 'ara'"er2a)% a r%, '%$ *%#'% %# !e!#$ alv%r%3% )%
se!"$e!"%. É a rase )e #$ s"%ra)%r, +#e !arra $*assvel$e!"e, '%$% / *r8*r% )% se# %:'%,
as !&ra")<es '%$ +#e a *-"ra re'%$*e!sa $#"as ve2es %s serv3%s )%s se#s l%s.
E;*er$e!"e$%s *r % 'as% !a 5%'a )e #$ )esses er8s. É % !%ss% se&#$)% e;e$*l%, +#e
re*r%)#2 % )"% '/le5re
#$a e;'la$a36% )e )%r)e+#eC*6%
le saAr'a!%.
)a al$a.AOrase 9- ve$
a)9e'"v% %"$)a
*ara %)e se!"$e!"%
l#&ar +#e le /e )ev)%
)e a$ar&#ra7
!es"es /
'as%s. A+# "e$%s % $%"v% *%r +#e !as e;'la$a3<es, !as 'rses )a ae'"v)a)e, e$ +#e se e;*r$e
a a)$ra36%, % ;"ase, a $-&%a, e"'., % a)9e'"v% se '%l%'a, *%r va )e re&ra, a!"es )% s#5s"a!"v%.
E;e$*l%s= L'%!a l%rH Jela $#lerH So2er2o es*e'"-'#l%H r'ste v)aH

C%$% ve$%s, % a)9e'"v% a!"e*%s"% a% s#5s"a!"v% %r$a '%$ ele #$a es*/'e )e &r#*%
rase%l8&'%, e$ +#e a$5%s %s ele$e!"%s *er)e$ #$ *%#'% )% se# val%r, e$ *r%ve"% )% '%!9#!"%.
?#a!)% )2e$%s % er!e *ra)%4, % lo'ro "r&%4, e!#!'a$%s #$a !%36% &eral, se$ &ra!)e
*re's6%, *%r+#e !e$ se$*re % *ra)% es"- ver)e e !e$ se$*re % "r&% / l%r%. Es"as *%s3<es
se!"$e!"as !6% s6% av%r-ves &eral$e!"e > !")e2 )as )eas. P%r ss%, % &r#*% )% a)9e'"v% a!"es
)% s#5s"a!"v% "e!)e a '%!s"r#r s/res #s#as )e !"e!s)a)e e 'l'/s. E;e$*l%s= 3rae a')e!"e,
pru!e%te reserva, suae $el%)a, s/2'o *r%ess%r, '%sp'ra!o *%e"a, co%suma!o ar"s"a. D%!)e se
*%)e "rar es"a '%!'l#s6%= % a)9e'"v% a!"e*%s"% serve )e e;*r$r as +#al)a)es *r$"vas %#
&eral$e!"e '%!sa&ra)as.
ser s/2'o, +#e A)$"#(se
% *%e"a )evera #$ )a +#e
ser '%sp'ra!o. % *ra)%
Ol%#(se a%)evera ser er!e,
*er$a!e!"e, +#e % *r%ess%r
a% a5s%l#"% e !6% a% )evera
rela"v%.
E *ara es"a !ve!36% e!&e!%sa )a *re&#3a, )e !a"#re2a *%#'% %5serva)%ra e !'l!a)a *ara %
se!"$e!"al, es'%le#(se #$ 5%$ !s"r#$e!"%= a '%l%'a36% )% a)9e'"v% a!"es )% s#5s"a!"v%.
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

1+*

3. O a'@e&i)o empre=a'o omo s82s&a%&i)o. 0 Ass$ '%$% % s#5s"a!"v% va $#"as ve2es
e$*re&a)% '%$% a)9e'"v%, "a$5/$ es"e serve !6% rar% )e s#5s"a!"v%, "a!"% !a l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e
'%$% !a l"er-ra. É sa5)% +#e $#"%s s#5s"a!"v%s %ra$ a% *r!':*% a)9e'"v%s a corre%te, a
pal*oa, o ou'%te, a $esta, % I%er%o, e"'. e +#e a!)a %9e / v#l&ar )2er$%s= % s/2'o, % ;usto, #$
tm'!o, #$ pre3u'oso, e"'. Es"es a)9e'"v%s s6% '%!)e!sa3<es )e rases '%$% es"a= #$ %$e$ %#
ra*a2 pre3u'oso6. T%$ara$(se, %# *%)e$ "%$ar se !)e*e!)e!"es e s#5s"a!"va)%s, *ela
'a*a')a)e +#e "e$%s e$ '%!'e5er a +#al)a)e *ara al/$ )% *r8*r% %59e'"%. Es"e *r!':*% "e$
'#r%sas a*l'a3<es e$ Es"l:s"'a.

?#a!)% )2e$%s % '%$el'( ra*a24, '%!s)era$%s, !#$a a"$%sera se!"$e!"al, a !el')a)e )%


$%3%. N6% se %#s%# )2er, '%$% l%'#36% e+#vale!"e, a !el')a)e )% ra*a24, $as a)%*"%#(se
#$a '%!s"r#36%, 9- '"a)a *%r !8s, +#e / #$ "er$% $/)% e #$ 5el% a'a)% es"l:s"'%, $#"%
re+#e!"e e$ l!&#a&e$ a$lar= % '%$el'( )% ra*a24. A&%ra, a*are'e % a)9e'"v% s#5s"a!"va)% e
$e!%s )e*e!)e!"e )% s#5s"a!"v%, *%r+#e es"- se*ara)% )ele *ela *re*%s36%. Is"% /, '%!serva a
va!"a&e$ se!"$e!"al )a *%s36%, a!"e*%s"% a% s#5s"a!"v%, e a)+#re $a%r relev% )e s&!'a)%.

A l!&#a&e$ l"er-ra a )%"%# % *r%'ess%, re+#e!"e 9- !%s Cl-ss'%s, '%$% se v )es"a rase )e r.
A!"8!% )as Ca&as = A $es$a *e!a +#e !a re2a !%s es*a!"a, !% ar!e%te )% a$%r &ra!)e ale&ra
!%s )era4. O es'r"%r *%)era "er es'r"% ar!?%c'a $as e!"e!)e#, e $#"% 5e$, +#e % e$*re&% )%
a)9e'"v% s#5s"a!"v% era $as e;*ressv%.
Ve9a$%s a&%ra es"a rase= e2(le se!"r %tortuoso )% se# *r%'e)$e!"%4. P%)er:a$%s es'rever a
"%r"#%s)a)e47 $as % a)9e'"v% *re'e))% )% ar"&% / $as e;*ressv%, )- $a%r real'e > +#al)a)e.
A a'#$#la36% )%s s#;%s !a+#ele s#5s"a!"v% +"oso, "!a!e- )esva!e'e a )ea 'e!"ral, r%#5a
1++

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

e!er&a > $a&e$. Avs% "l *ara a+#eles +#e #sa$ e a5#sa$ )e "er$%s e;"e!s%s e !6% )e 5%a
es'%la= tempestuos'!a!e, e%3e%*os'!a7e, 3ra%!'os'!a!e, sump'uos'!a!e, e"'. E$5%ra es"as
%r$a3<es *%ssa$ e!'%!"rar(se e$ al&#$s 5%!s a#"%res ve9a(se, *%r e;e$*l%, o!'os'!a!e e$ Ra#l
P%$*/a, '%c's''!a!e e$ M-r% )e A!)ra)e, e%3e%*os'!a!e e$ A+#l!% R5er%, % v%'-5#l%
$#"% e;"e!s% / se$*re )e ev"ar e$ 5%$ *%r"#&#s.
C%!"#)%, 'as%s - e$ +#e a s#5s"a!"va36% )% a)9e'"v% !6% *%)e *assar se$ re*ar%, *%r '%!"rarar
%s -5"%s )% )%$a. Ve9a(se es"e *ass% )#$ es'r"%r $%)er!%= E a!"e %s a&ra)e'$e!"%s )%
como'!o *%r a+#ela s%l'"#)e $*revs"a, r$!% e!"r%#4. A '%!)e!sa36% / e;'essva, +#ase
5r#"al. Para #$a 5%a '%$*ree!s6%, "er:a$%s )e )2er )% '%$*a!er%, como'!ot. O#"ra rase )%
$es$% es'r"%r, +#e "e$ *re)le'36% *el% *r%'ess%= N6% '%!"e!"e '%$ % la'%!s$%, % lo>ua(
!ss"#4. O a)9e'"v%, ala"!a)%, 'a#sa(!%s $*ress6% es"ra!a, *re'e))% )% ar"&%. Se )ss/sse$%s
*%*#lar$e!"e % ta3arela6, 9- % "er$% a$lar, '%$ #$36% )e s#5s"a!"v%, '%!v!a *ere"a$e!"e
a% )s'#rs%. A ra26% es"- 5e$ )e ver= lo>ua( é #$ a)9e'"v% )es5%"a)%, )e 'ar-'"er l"er-r%7 e al %
+#e '%!v!a era #$ "er$% *%*#lar, %r"e$e!"e *e9%ra"v%7 l%&%, ta3arela.

. A &ra)a36% )%s !%$es. ( É se$*re *%ss:vel '%!err $a%r %# $e!%r !"e!s)a)e a%s '%!'e"%s
e;*ress%s *ela $a%ra )as *alavras. A l!&#a&e$ "e$ *r%'ess%s *ara "ra)#2r esse e!8$e!%, e %s
es'r"%res,
&eral$e!"e*%r
*%rs#a ve2,
$e% )%"a$5/$ %s*r%'ess%
a)9e'"v% v6% !ve!"a!)%. A &ra)a36%
a!al:"'% )%s )e
%# *%r $e% s#5s"a!"v%s / )e"er$!a)a
s#;%s a#$e!"a"v%s e
)$!#"v%s *r%'ess% s!"/"'%. ?#a!)% )2e$%s 'asa 3ra%!e6, 'asa pe>ue%a6, )e!$%s %
&ra# )e )$e!s6% )% %59e'"%. O $es$% are$%s se, e$ ve2 )% a)9e'"v%, e$*re&ar$%s %s s#;%s=
casar7o, cas'ta. Nes"e l"$% 'as%, '%$% v$%s !% 'a*:"#l% ,
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1+9

a!)a a*e&a)% > *alavra 'er"% val%r se!"$e!"al, $as %# $e!%s vv%, '%!%r$e % s#;% e$*re&a)%.

Ta$5/$ a re*e"36% )% !%$e *r%)#2 #$ ee"% )e !"e!s)a)e, +#e a l!&#a&e$ a$lar '%!e'e
*ere"a$e!"e e a l"era"#ra a*r%ve"a. Ve9a(se es"e *ass%= N% 5arra!'% a$(se a'#$#la!)%
'a;%"es, sa'%s e 2arr's, 2arr's, 2arr's, a 'a'a3a era $%r!a *ara a v)a "rs"e )% ser!&#er%4. A
re*e"36% )% !%$e / #$ *r%'ess% es"l:s"'% +#e serve *ara e;*r$r, '%$ alv%r%3% )% se!"$e!"%, a
+#a!")a)e l$"a)a. O re)%5r% )a *alavra / s!al )e e!er&a *s:+#'a e e!'%!"ra(se s%5re"#)% !as
l:!&#as *r$"vas. Se +#ser$%s re%r3ar a $*ress6% +#e e$ !8s 'a#sa$ #$s %l%s !e&r%s, !6%
"e$%s $as +#e re*e"r % a)9e'"v%= De*%s, "ara$(se e$ $$ #$s %l%s %e3ros, %e3ros6. C%$%
ve$%s, a re*e"36% )% !%$e !6% s8 )- !"e!s)a)e > re*rese!"a36%, $as a!)a a e!v%lve )e 'er"%
$s"/r% e *er"#r5a36% ae'"va.

Ve9a$%s a&%ra %#"r% 'as%. S#*%!a$%s es"e e!#$'a)%= A r%sa / a l%r )as l%res4. ?#ere$%s
)2er +#e a r%sa / a $as 5ela )e "%)as as l%res4. Tve$%s ar"e )e e;*r$r ss% )e %r$a $#"%
'%!)e!sa)a, re*e"!)% % s#5s"a!"v% e *%!)%(le a% $e% #$a *re*%s36%. Es"e *r%'ess% "a$5/$ /
a!"&%. E!'%!"ra(se $#"% !a B:5la7 e '%$% a B:5la / #$a *r%)#36% )% &/!% e5ra'%, !a *ar"e
+#e se 'a$a % Vel% Tes"a$e!"%, '%# a 'a$ar(se a essa '%!s"r#36%, *%/"'a e s$*l'a)%ra,
s#*erla"v% e5ra'%4. P%)e$ "rar(se '#r%s%s ee"%s )e es"l% )esse *r%'ess%, '%$% !es"e *ass%
)e A+#l!% R5er%= A vs"a re*%#sava, 55e)a )e l#2, !a co%$'a%a !as co%$'a%as6.
Ma'a)% )e Asss $%s"rava 9- *re)le'36% *el% s#*erla"v% e5ra'%= *!"%#(le % 'a*/# 5a;%
'%$% a a2om'%a7o !as a2om'%aes6, a *%!"% )e % e$*re&ar a"/ '%$ %s a)v/r5%s= 0umca !os
%umcas *%)er-s sa5er a e!er&a e %5s"!a36% +#e e$*re&#e e$ e'ar %s %l%s... a!a !os %a!as
ve% "er '%$&%.4 +Dom )asmurro, e). )e 1Q, *-&. 1.

1K ( Es"l:s"'a
1+3

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

Passe$%s *r%*ra$e!"e a% a)9e'"v%, +#e a)$"e #$ &ra# '%$*ara"v% e %#"r% s#*erla"v%. N%


e$*re&% )% '%$*ara"v%, sal"a a%s %l%s a )ere!3a es"a5ele')a !% #s% )% '%$*ara"v% )e
s#*er%r)a)e *ara pe>ue%o e$ P%r"#&al e !% Brasl. E$ P%r"#&al )2(se '%rre!"e$e!"e ma's
pe>ue%o. O 5rasler% a)%*"%# a %r$a me%or, *%r+#e %s &ra$-"'%s le !'#"ra$ % *r!':*% )a
l8&'a
ma'or e!%me%or.
)s'#rs%=
A !"r%)#36% ma's pe>ue%o
+#e$ )2 )essa )eva "a$5/$
%r$a l"er-ra +#e ma's
e !'%l%r,)2er e)e a3ra%!e ass$,)e)ever-
*e)a!"s$% es'%la,)2er(se
%
#$a v"8ra la$e!"-vel )a a5s"ra'36% s%5re % *"%res'%. Al-s, % *%v%, e$ P%r"#&al e !% Brasl, va
)2e!)% ma's pe>ue%o e !a Gal2a a"/ se )2 e es'reve ma's 3ra%!e. Ass$, *%r e;e$*l%, e$ R.
O"er% Pe)ra%= Es*a!a :;%se ma's 3ra%!e e  %!)a.4 +Arre!ar !e s', *-&. 1. O &ale&%, *%r/$,
s%#5e 'rar #$a %r$a '%!'e!"ra)a, '%$ +#e ev"%# )e'))a$e!"e as re'la$a3<es )%s &ra$-"'%s=
"ra!s%r$%# ma's 3ra%!e e$ me'ra%!e: D#$ )%s me'ra%!es "%l%s *%)/r%!se a)#v!ar al&#as
'%#sas.4 R, O"er% Pe)ra%, O se%*or'ta !a Re2ora'%a, *-&. 1.

Ve9a$%s a&%ra % val%r es"l:s"'% )% se&#$)% "er$% )a '%$*ara36% +>ue %# !o >ue-. Re*-re(se
!es"a rase )e #$ a#"%r 'l-ss'%= N6% - $a%r &l8ra !a >ue se al'a!3a serv!)% a De#s.4 A
'%!s"r#36% / ele&a!"e e s85ra. A*esar )ss%, a l:!&#a a'"#al "e!)e a s#5s""#:(la *%r es"%#"ra= N6%
- $a%r &l8ra )% +#e a +#e se al'a!3a serv!)% a De#s4. O# a!)a *%r es"a= N6% - $a%r &l8ra
+#e a+#ela +#e se al'a!3a serv!)% a De#s4. A '%!s"r#36% &a!%# e$ 'lare2a, $as *er)e# $#"% e$
ele&!'a
sa'r'%# e)es"a
e#%!a.
ve2 aA+#ela > 'lare2a.)% >ue / e;"re$a$e!"e )#ra e )esa&ra)-vel. A l:!&#a
$s'are*e"36%

A!"es )e !#$eras *are'e $as ele&a!"e % e$*re&% )a *re*%s36%. A +#!"a !6% vale $as !e v!"e
'%!"%s4 /, !a ver)a)e, $as 5e$(s%a!"e +#e A +#!"a !6% vale $as >ue v!"e '%!"%s4. C%!"#)%, a
%#"r%s *are'er- +#e % "er$%
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A 1+7

>ue )- $as e!er&a e 'lare2a > re*rese!"a36%. A s#a *r8*ra as*ere2a / #$ s!al )e v&%r= #$a
+#es"6% )e &%s"% *ess%al.

S%5re % s#*erla"v% '%!v/$ !%"ar % se&#!"e. Os )%s *r%'ess%s $as re+#e!"es *ara e;*r$r a
!"e!s)a)e )%s a"r5#"%s e +#al)a)es '%!ss"e$ e$ a2er *re'e)er % a)9e'"v% )e #$ a)v/r5% )e

a)9e'"v%. +mu'to,
+#a!")a)e etraor!'%ar'ame%te,
Te$%s *%s etremame%te,
)%s "*%s )e s#*erla"v%s= mu'to e"'.
r'co %# a'res'e!"ar De
e r'>uss'mo. % s#;% "ss'mo
#$ $%)% a%
&eral,
"e$(se a $*ress6% )e +#e % e$*re&% )% s#;% $*r$e $a%r %r3a !"e!sva > )ea. Ass$, #$
%$e$ r'>uss'mo6 *are'e(!%s $as %*#le!"% +#e #$ %$e$ mu'to r'co6. Mas, / 'lar%, a
!"e!s)a)e )e*e!)e $as %# $e!%s )% e$*re&% )% a)v/r5%= )2er #$ %$e$
pro!'3'osame%te r'co6 e+#vale $as %# $e!%s a )2er #$ %$e$ r'>uss'mos.

É 5e$ '%!e')a a+#ela '#r%sa *ers%!a&e$ )% r%$a!'e Dom )asmurro, % J%s/ Das, +#e
e$*re&ava % s#*erla"v% a5s%l#"% s$*les a "%r"% e a )re"%, a *%!"%s )e $%rrer '%$ #$ s#*erla"v%
!a 5%'a, l'%!ss'mo, reer)% a% a2#l )% '/#. Se&#$)% % a#"%r, Ma'a)% )e Asss, era #$ $%)% )e
)ar e36% $%!#$e!"al >s )eas7 !6% as ave!)%, serva a *r%l%!&ar as rases4. O 'er"% / +#e es"a
$a!a )a s#*erla"va36% %r&!%# a+#ele *"%res'% !')e!"e !arra)% es*r"#%sa$e!"e *el% a#"%r a
*-&. Q )a e). )e 1Q=

( Ma$6e... @
(Y N6%H !6%H ?#e )ea / essa @ O es"a)% )ela / &rav:ss$%, $as !6% / $al )e $%r"e, e De#s *%)e "#)%.
E!;#&#e %s %l%s, +#e / e% #$ $%'!% )a s#a )a)e a!)ar '%ra!)% !a r#a. N6% -()e ser !a)a, #$a
e5re... As e5res, ass$ '%$% )6% '%$ %r3a ass$ "a$5/$ se v6% e$5%ra... '%$ %s )e)%s, !6%7 %!)e es"- %
le!3%@

E!;#&#e %s %l%s, *%s"% +#e )e "%)as as *alavras )e J%s/ Das, #$a s8 $e 'asse !% '%ra36%= % a+#ele
3rass'mo. V )e*%s +#e ele s8 +#era )2er 3rae, $as % #s% )% s#*erla"v% a2 a 5%'a l%!&a, e, *%r a$%r )%
*er:%)%, J%s/ Das e2 'res'er a $!a "rs"e2a4.
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

A l!&#a&e$ *%*#lar, e$ 5#s'a )e $a%r e;*ressv)a)e, )es'%!e'e!)% %s a)v/r5%s '#l"%s


+co%s'!eraelme%te, pro!'3'osame%te, ecess'ame%te, e"'. e a'a!)% )es5%"a)% e r%;% %
a)v/r5% mu'to, !ve!"%# '#r%s%s *r%'ess%s s#*erla"va!"es, +#e a l"era"#ra $"a '%$ va!"a&e$.
Ass$= #$ %$e$ po!re !e r'co6, #$ %$e$ r'co a aler6, #$ %$e$ r'co até ma's %7o6,
#$ %$e$*ara
)$!#"v% r'coee"%s
B 2ea6,
)e $#ler 3or!a'%$%
!"e!s)a)e, >ue %em6, e"'. !es"e
se $%s"ra U$ )%s $as
*ass% '#r%s%s es"-
)e A+#l!% !% #s%
R5er%= A)%
al'a"a )a "erra, +#e se a!"e$%s"rara er!e"er!'%*a, reves"a(se a "%)% % l%!&% )% vale )e $l "%!s
#r"a('%res.4 +A )asa Gra%!e !e Romar'37es, . Os es'r"%res $:s"'%s "a$5/$ "vera$ )e
!ve!"ar %r$as s#*erla"va!"es, *%r+#e a l:!&#a #s#al era )/5l )e$as *ara e;*r$r %s *ar%;s$%s
)% se# a$%r )e De#s. Ve9a(se es"e "re'% )e #$ )eles= Be!)"a e l%#va)a se9a e"er!a$e!"e
a+#ela $#"% $as +#e al/$ )e !!"a e e!"ra!avel$e!"e a$-vel 5%!)a)e4. A'#$#la!)%
a)v/r5%s e a)9e'"v%s !#$a s#'ess6% +#ase )elra!"e, '%!se&#ra$ % ee"% al$e9a)%. A *ar
)%s s#*erla"v%s e$ "'ss'mo, +#e a l:!&#a "%lera, e$5%ra avessa, e$ *r!':*%, a *alavras
es)r;#las, a*are'e$ "a$5/$ %r$as ala"!a)as e$ "'mo e "érr'mo $acl'mo, *uml'mo,
st'2tl'mo, paupérr'mo, acérr'mo, e"'. Essas s6% *#ra$e!"e l"er-ras e, $es$% )e!"r% )a l"era"#ra,
)e #s% *%#'% re+#e!"e. S6% '%!s"r#3<es $as %# $e!%s ar"'as, se$ &ra!)e #$36% e;*ressva,
e!$, +#ase val%res $%r"%s *ara a ar"e )% es"l%. P%r ss% $es$% !6% / )e es"ra!ar +#e as %r$as
'$ "érr'mo, *el% +#e "$ )e !v#l&ares e $als%a!"es, srva$ *ara !s #$%r:s"'%s. O 5ale
es"eve c*atérr'mo6, )r6% )%s ra*a2es e$ es"l% )e &:ra. M%!"er% L%5a"% #s%# % s#;% e$ 'as%s
'%$% es"es=

a- ves")%s )e sole%ss'mas s%5re'asa'as e '%$ sole%érr'mos "#5%s )e 'a$!/ rel#2e!"es !as


'a5e3as4. +O Fres'!e%te %e3ro,.a e)., 7

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1Q

2- es'%rre&%# e 'a#, *a"e!"ea!)% a%s %l%s arre&ala)%s )a sala a '%$amérr'ma v:s'era )e $-


$%r"e4. +)'!a!es mortas, .a e)., 1K.

M-r% )e A!)ra)e "a$5/$ % e$*re&%# r%!'a$e!"e= "%)% 'e% )e $a!'as e &al%s )#$a
treme%!érr'ma
#$ %#"r% es'r"%rs%va )e *a#4.)e+Macuma'ma,
5rasler% .a e).,
&ra!)es re'#rs%s 1. N6% G#$ar6es
e;*ressv%s, *%)a )e;ar )e le
R%sa= a*r%ve"ar
Mas % 's"e
a&%ra, $a%r
$as real, )re'"% ( !% l#&ar a$*l% e se$ %#"ras %r$as #$ %$e$ s%2!%, 2é2e!érr'mo, Ba)#.4
+Sa3ara%a, .a e)., *-&. . E, e!$, #$ es'r"%r *%r"#&#s Br-s B#r", serv#(se )ele '%$
a5#$)!'a e es*:r"% 9%'%s%= E +#e$ $% %#vera )e )2er a $$, !es"e tr'stérr'mo $ )e v)a,
av )e +#!2e !e"%s4. O !a)e+#a)% )% se# e$*re&%, e$ a)9e'"v%s +#e s8 '%$*%r"a$ % s#;%
"'ss'mo, 9- )2 % 5as"a!"e s%5re % 'ar-'"er #$%r:s"'% )a e;*ress6%.

N%"e(se *%r/$ +#e % *r8*r% s#*erla"v% e$ "'ss'mo $*l'a *%r ve2es #$ se!")% $as %# $e!%s
9%'%s%, '%$% se )e;a ver )es"e &ra'%s% "re'% )e Ca$l%, e$ +#e % &ra!)e es'r"%r r!e"e a r):'#l%
% ee"% *e)a!"es'% )a *alavra '%$*r)a, "6% re*#&!a!"e a% &/!% )a !%ssa l:!&#a=

V. "%$%#(se #$ *%#'% s#s*e"% a% $e# J%s/ Me!)es '%$ % es"l%l'2érr'mo )as s#as 'ar"as
'%co%e%'e%tss'mas. Des'#l*e($e %s s#*erla"v%s. F%9e )-($e *ara a+# a $a!a. T%)as as ve2es +#e a $!a
$a&!a36% se %'#*a )e al&#$a '%#sa &ra!)e, % $e# es"l% / se$*re )e )%2e s:la5as *%r *alavra. Nes"e
$%$e!"%, / a re$!s'!'a 3ra'ss'mame%te *e9a)a )e atrocss'mas le"#ras +#e $e )s*ara es"as &ra!)es
*alavras, +#e s6% % re&% )%s ar"'#ls"as )e #$)%, +#a!)% as )eas escassss'mas !6% le !#"re$ a '%l#$a
e $ea )a *%l:"'a *%r e$*re"a)a4.

+D'spersos, !, 1.

A5%rre'e!)% essa )es!!'a es)r;#la, '%!"r-ra a% &/!% )a l:!&#a, % &ale&% r#ral "eve ar"es
)e a e!'#r"ar,
1K

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

'%!ver"e!)% % "'ss'mo e$ 'smo, '%$% e$ mo't'smo, sa%t'smo,

lo%3u'smo, treme%/'smo, e"'.=

?# e!&a)% % )a+#ela 'a*ela &%re')a !% se% )e s%$5ra )#$ "e;% 3ra%!'smo6 A!;el %le, 
lus !o ca%!'l, .

Nes"as % 'a!)% se %#v#, g l%!;e, #$ 5err% treme%!'s.mo."' E. Bla!'%(A$%r, A esmor3a, 11.

'%0as es*&as *%r r5a )a 'a5e3a \ !% 'arrer% lo%3u'smo )%s a)e#ses4. D:a2 Cas"r%, 'm2as, K.

Al-s, es"a "e!)!'a e+#l5ra)%ra )% &ale&% 9- se *ra"'ava !% ra!'s e *r%ve!3al ar'a'%s, %!)e
essas "er$!a3<es es)r;#las "a$5/$ %ra$ re)#2)as a &raves= 3ra%!'sme, $ort'sme, sa%'sme,
alt'sme.

Q.

O" PRO6OME"

(. O pro%ome pessoa(. ( U$ )%s 'ara'"eres +#e )s"!&#e$ a !%ssa l:!&#a, se a '%$*arar$%s, *%r
e;e$*l%, '%$ % ra!'s, / % *%#'% #s% )% *r%!%$e *ess%al, !as %r$as 'a$a)as )e s#9e"%= eu, tu,
ele, ela, %s, s, eles, elas. É +#e as "er$!a3<es ver5as s6% s#'e!"e$e!"e 'laras *ara
)s*e!sare$ a $e!36% )a *ess%a. Ve9a$%s es"e *e+#e!% "re'%=

N6% '%!e3% *ess%al$e!"e esse !)v:)#% )e +#e$ alas. N6% sa5e$%s +#e$ /, )%!)e ve$. Mas
*%)es es"ar 'er"%s )e +#e ser- re'e5)% '%!)&!a$e!"e= %s 8s*e)es %ra$ se$*re 5e$ a'%l)%s
!es"a 'asa7 se!"a)%s > $esa '%$#$, a2e$ *ar"e )a a$:la4.

Nes"e *er:%)% !6% - #$ !'% *r%!%$e *ess%al, !e$ / *re's%. E;*er$e!"e$%s '%!"#)% *r %s
res*e'"v%s *r%!%$es =

0.Eu !6% '%!e3% *ess%al$e!"e esse !)v:)#% )e +#e$ tu alas. s !6% sa5e$%s +#e$ ele /,
)%!)e ele ve$. Mas s *%)es es"ar 'er"%s )e +#e ele ser- re'e5)% '%!)&!a$e!"e= %s 8s*e)es
%ra$ se$*re 5e$ a'%l)%s !es"a 'asa= se!"a)%s > $esa '%$#$, eles a2e$ *ar"e )a a$:la4.

Se '%$*arar$%s %s )%s "re'%s, l%&% ve$%s +#e % se&#$)% es"- *%r )e$as s%5re'arre&a)% )e
*r%!%$es. E l%&% se!"$%s +#e % e$*re&% )% *r%!%$e 'a$a $as vva$e!"e a a"e!36% *ara a
res*e'"va *ess%a. É #$ *r%'ess% e!-"'%.
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

U$ !)v:)#% $#"% 'e% )e s e$*re&ar- '%$ $as re+#!'a % *r%!%$e eu. Desse a'"% se
)ervara$ a"/ %s "er$%s e3osmo, e3oce%tr'smo, e"'., "%)%s %r$a)%s )% v%'-5#l% la"!% e3o, +#e
+#er )2er $4. A ala )#$ '%!seler% A'-'%, %$e$ +#e a s $es$% '%!'e)a &ra!)e
$*%r"!'a, "e!)e *ara #$ a5#sv% e$*re&% )% eu, '%$% se v )es"es *ass%s, e$ +#e %#"r%s, +#e
!6% ele, %$"ra$ "alve2 % *%!%$e=
V+Eu *e3% a% $e# Save)ra +#e !6% "re )esse a'"% la3<es erra)as. Os $e#s *r!':*%s s6% 5e$
'%!e')%s.4
( 0Eu !6% +#er% e!"rar e$ )s'#ss<es *%l:"'as= s8 serve$ *ara )v)r as a$:las $as #$)as.4 Y(
P%r+#e eu e!"e!) +#e era % $e# )ever )e)'ar #$ "r5#"% > $e$8ra )a !el2 se!%ra.4

O a5#s% )% *r%!%$e *ess%al, eu %# me, es"- e;*l'a)% &ra'%sa$e!"e !es"e "re'% )e M%!"er%
L%5a"%=

( M#"% 5e$, se!%r Ar"%! L%5%H Se$*re '%!"e '%$ a s#a *res"e2a, +#a!)% % se!%r me a!)ava
a */. A&%ra, +#e se )e# a% l#;% )e #$ a#"%$8vel, &as"a($e v!"e e "a!"%s )as !#$a s$*les
'%5ra!3a e a*are'e(de '%$ essa 'ara )e 'a'%rr!% +#e me +#e5r%# a *a!elaH

Me, me, me, me... "#)% *ara a+#ele %$e$ se rela'%!ava e&%s"'a$e!"e > s#a *ess%a...4 +O
Fres'!e%te %e3ro, 1Q.

#. /rm8(as 'e mo's&ia, ma@es&a'e e or&esia. ( C%$% % "ra"a$e!"% )e eu !'#l'a $*%r"!'a


*ess%al, *%r ve2es va)a)e e %r&#l%, a l:!&#a )es'%5r# $e% )e '%!"e!"ar a+#eles +#e )ese9a$
a*a&ar(se !a $%)/s"a e !a #$l)a)e, %r!e'e!)%(les % "ra"a$e!"% )e %s, s"% /, e$*re&a!)% a
l.a *ess%a )% *l#ral e$ ve2 )a l.a )% s!&#lar. A esse res*e"%, / '#r%s% %5servar % +#e se *ass%#
'%$ %s )%'#$e!"%s )a 'a!'elara )%s a!"&%s res *%r"#&#eses.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

?#a!)% %s s%5era!%s "!a$ % 5%$ '%s"#$e )e %#vr %s *%v%s, '%!v%'a!)% '%r"es, es*e'al$e!"e
)#ra!"e
$%)/s"a=% *er:%)% +#e $a(emos
s, el"re', va )e D.sa2er...
J%6% I Aa"/8r$#la
D. A%!s% V, #sava$
+#a)rava !%s )%'#$e!"%s
5e$ '%$ #$ %#
% es*:r"% $as es"l% )e
$e!%s
)e$%'r-"'% )as !s""#3<es $e)evas7 % re era #$a es*/'e )e e$a!a36% )a v%!"a)e &eral, ea,
*%r ass$ )2er, % +#e % *%v% +#era +#e %sse. De a: se '%$*ree!)e a a#s"er)a)e )% "ra"a$e!"%
+#e a s *8*r% se )ava, +#e !6% e;'l#:a al-s #$a 'er"a &ra!)e2a. '%$ D. J%6% ! a*are'e %
a5s%l#"s$% real. O $%!ar'a !6% )- sa"sa36% )%s se#s a'"%s, *%r+#e s#*<e(se e!va)% )e De#s !a
"erra. T#)% le )eve %5e)!'a. Es"a !%va '%!'e*36% )% %r&#l% )a reale2a 9- !6% *%)a s#*%r"ar
a 8r$#la a!"&a )% %s. A *r%vs6% )e 1 )e 9#$% )e 1 $a!)%# $#)ar a l.a *ess%a )%
*l#ral *ara a l.a )% s!&#lar. Pass%# a es'rever(se ( Eu, el"re', $ao sa2er... D2 % 'r%!s"a,
*er'e5e!)% *ere"a$e!"e a ra26% es"l:s"'a, +#e ass$ se e2 *%r ser $as *r8*r% e )e'e!"e >
$a9es"a)e real4.

O $es$% se )- '%$ +#e$ es'reve. T%)% % es'r"%r +#e )ese9e %5s'#re'er a s#a *ers%!al)a)e e
#$)r(se e$ s$*a"a '%$ %s se#s le"%res, e$*re&ar- % *l#ral )e $%)/s"a ( %s. É "a$5/$ %
es"l% )%s %ra)%res e *r%ess%res, +#e *re"e!)e$ '%$ ss% )$!#r a )s"!'a +#e os se*ara )%s
%#v!"es.

Os al"%s *rela)%s )a I&re9a #sa$ a!)a !%s se#s )*l%$as % *r%!%$e %s. Or&!ara$e!"e )eva ser
#$ "ra"a$e!"% )e #$l)a)e7 % 'ee e'les-s"'% s%l)ar2ava(se '%$ %s se#s /s )e!"r% )#$a
'%$#$)a)e, )e +#e ele era % $as &ra)#a)%. '%$ % a!)ar )%s "e$*%s, 'res'e!)% a I&re9a e$ *%)er
e 5e!s "e$*%ras, a+#ela *ar":'#la *are'e# !6% #$ )es&!a"v% )e #$l)a)e, $as )e &ra!)e2a e
$a9es"a)e, re'%5er"as e$5%ra s%5 #$a a*ar!'a )e $%)/s"a. A esse *l#ral, e !es"es 'as%s, se
'a$a *l#ral )e $a9es"a)e4. E3a 'a$%#(le '%$ r%!a *l#ral )e 'as"a !%5re4.
1

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

Ve9a(se *%s '%$% a l:!&#a sa5e e$*re&ar a $es$a 8r$#la *ara !s )ere!"es e a"/ %*%s"%s.
C%$% e;*ress6% )e $%)/s"a 'er$%!%sa "e$%s a!)a % e$*re&% )a .a *ess%a. É % +#e a2e$%s
!%s re+#er$e!"%s, )r&)%s a *ess%as +#e sa5e$%s )e erar+#a s#*er%r. N6% )2e$%s= Eu,
ula%o !e tal... peo... Sera 5r#"al e )es'%r"s7 !velar(!%s(:a$%s '%$ a *ess%a a +#e$
e!)ere3a$%s a *e"36%. E$*re&a$%s *%s a .a *ess%a, 5a!!)% a+#ele %r&#l%s% eu e *%!)%
s$*les$e!"e % !%ss% !%$e= ula%o !e tal... pe!e... A 8r$#la "e$ a!)a es"a va!"a&e$= ala!)% !a
1.a *ess%a, *%)er:a$%s $e"er !% re+#er$e!"% se!"$e!"%s )e *a;6% e v%l!'a, )es'a5)%s e a"/
'%$*r%$e"e)%res. A .a *ess%a a'a#"ela $el%r a %59e'"v)a)e e a sere!)a)e )% )s'#rs%. É #$
*r%'ess% )e re"e!36% s%'al, )e '%r"esa, a"e!#a36% $*%s"a *el% *r8*r% !"eresse e *ela v)a e$
'%$#$.

*. Um pro%ome per'i'oK )/s. ( Pra"'a$e!"e, !a l!&#a&e$ )e "%)%s %s )as, 9- !6% e;s"e e$


*%r"#&#s % *r%!%$e s, salv% !% alar )e al&#$as re&<es *%r"#&#esas )% N%r"e e )a Bera. A+#
a!)a
re&<esse)%
e$*re&a !a .a *ess%a
Pa:s, s%5re"#)% *ara %)%S#l,
*l#ral.
es"eE;e$*l%= 05ss%a
$%)% )e )2er te%!esar'a:s$%
!6%'%$% 9#:2%, ra*a2es4. Nas %#"ras
e / &eral$e!"e
s#5s""#:)% *%r= V%'hs !6%t?m 9#:2%, ra*a2es4. L%&%, *%)e$%s ar$ar +#e a .a *ess%a )% *l#ral
es"- *ra"'a$e!"e *er))a e$ *%r"#&#s e / s#5s""#:)a &eral$e!"e *ela .a )% *l#ral.

A!"&a$e!"e s "a$5/$ se e$*re&ava '%$% "ra"a$e!"% )e 'er$8!a, s#5s""#!)% a .a *ess%a )%
s!&#lar. U$ *%e"a )r&a(se a #$a )a$a e )ese'ava(le es"e &ala!"e%= 5s so's me% 2em e meu
mal. F%9e es"e $%)% )e )2er es"- a5%l)%. Os *%e"as *reere$ "ra"ar $as )e$%'ra"'a$e!"e as
s#as !s*ra)%ras *%r tu, e!'#r"a!)% a )s"!'a e!"re #$ e %#"r%. N%"e(se *%r/$ +#e, e$ 'er"as
re&<es !%r"e!as, !6% - $#"%, se )ava % e!8$e!% !vers% '%$

%s !a$%ra)%s. ?#a!)% % !a$%r% es"ava *e&a)%, ra*a2es e ra*ar&as, +#e se "ra"ava$ !%r$al$e!"e
*%r tu, '%$e3ava$ a "ra"ar(se 'er$%!%sa$e!"e *%r s, *ara )ar a e!"e!)er a%s %#"r%s +#e !6%
ava e!"re s a$lar)a)es '%$*r%$e"e)%ras. Mas #$ e;e$*l%, e!"re "a!"%s %#"r%s 9- ale&a)%s,
)a !l#!'a )%s '%s"#$es !a l!&#a&e$.
Ve9a$%s al&#$s )%s 'as%s '%rre!"es )% "ra"a$e!"% )a
.a *ess%a, +#e reves"e %r$as vara)as, '%!%r$e as 'r'#$s"!'as, e e$*re&a !% &eral a .a
*ess%a )% s!&#lar=

1. F- 'er"% '%!e'$e!"% %# a$lar)a)e e!"re %s !"erl%'#"%res. A %r$a e$*re&a)a / oc?, +#e


es"- $#"% &e!eral2a)a e / a %r$a )% "ra"a$e!"% a$lar !% Brasl, '%$ e;'e*36% )e al&#$as
re&<es, %!)e se )2 tu. Na *r%v:!'a *%r"#&#esa, esse "ra"a$e!"% / '%!s)era)% *%#'% res*e"%s%
'%s"#$a )2er(se= 0oc? é es"re5ara4 e s#5s""#:)% *%r ossemec? !% Brasl osm'c?, a%c?- +#e
/, a!al, a $es$:ss$a '%sa, *%s oc? !6% / $as +#e #$a '%!)e!sa36% )e ossemec?, a$5%s
*r%ve!e!"es )e 5ossa Merc?.

W. F- *%#'a %# !e!#$a a$lar)a)e e!"re %s !"erl%'#"%res. Nesse 'as% % "ra"a$e!"% ass#$e


as*e'"%s vara)%s, '%!%r$e a 'a"e&%ra )as *ess%as a +#e$ !%s )r&$%s. A %r$a &eral /, !es"es
'as%s, o Se%*or. E;e$*l%= O Sr. / !9#s"% *ara '%$&%4. Para a'e!"#ar $as a 'er$8!a #sa(se a
%r$a 5. E.a E;e$*l%= . E.a ver- a+#l% +#e le '%!v/$4. N%"a % *r%ess%r Carl%s G8s +#e a
e;*ress6% 5ossa Ecel?%c'a / rara !% Brasl, *%r se %*%r a%s se!"$e!"%s )e$%'r-"'%s )% *%v%.
D%!)e se *%)era "alve2 '%!'l#r +#e a s#a $a!#"e!36% e!"re !8s, *%r"#&#eses, !)'a #$a 'er"a
s%5revv!'a )%s '%s"#$es a!"&%s, *r8*r%s )e #$a s%'e)a)e )e'a)e!"e.

E!$, se as *ess%as "$ ":"#l%, $e!'%!a(se(les a 'a"e&%ra, a'%$*a!a)a %# !6% )e Se%*or.


E;e$*l%s= Va
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

197

1 M. RODRIGUES LAPA

a'%$*a!ar % Sr. Doutor a"/ > *%r"a4.(O '!al3o "!a($e H *r%$e")% % arre!)a$e!"% )a
+#!"a4.

N6% vale a *e!a al%!&ar$%(!%s, '"a!)% %#"ras %r$as )e "ra"a$e!"% )a .a *ess%a, +#e as -, $#"%
vara)as e se$*re $as %# $e!%s a'%$%)a)as >s 'r'#!s"!'as e '%!)36% s%'al )%s ala!"es. O
+#e $*%r"a relevar / % )esa*are'$e!"% )% *r%!%$e s e a s#a s#5s""#36% *%r %r$as )a
.a *ess%a. Se!)% ass$, / '%!ve!e!"e !6% $s"#rar as %r$as *r%!%$!as )% s!&#lar '%$ %
ver5% !% *l#ral, '%$% a2e$ 'er"%s *r!'*a!"es. U$ e;e$*l%= Pe3% a% Sr. a !e2a )e $e
e%'ar!es a .a l36% e corr'3'r!es %s e;er':'%s )a .a4. ?#e$ ass$ es'reve# es+#e'e#(se )e +#e
Sr. / %r$a *r%!%$!al )a .a *ess%a e '%!#!)#(a '%$ % 'er$%!%s% e a!"+#a)% D[S. De#(se
#$ 'r#2a$e!"% e!"re a %r$a a!"&a e a $%)er!a, % +#e se )ever- se$*re ev"ar.

+. A $o%&ia e os pro%omes. ( O *r%!%$e -"%!% )a


.a *ess%a, o, a, os, as, es"- s#9e"% a 'er"as al"era3<es, +#a!)% se e!'%!"ra e$ *%s36%
e!'l:"'a. Para 5%$ e!"e!)$e!"% )es"e a'"%, / !e'ess-r% a)ver"r +#e a %r$a a!"&a )es"e
*r%!%$e era Io, Ia, los, Ias, a!)a %9e s#5ss"e!"e !a l!&#a&e$, '%$% va$%s ver.

?#a!)% )2e$%s7 =uem po!er/ $a(?"lo , essa %r$a a!"+#a)a a*are'e(!%s e$ "%)a a s#a
ev)!'a. N6% / ):'l e;*l'-(la, *el% i%&% )as les %!/"'as. A% *r!':*%, !%s *r$8r)%s )a
l:!&#a, )sse$%s $a(er Io )e*%s, a+#ele r ass$l%#(se a%  e *ass%# a )2er(se e a es'rever(se
$a(?llo, "#)% *e&a)%. E$ se&#)a, %#ve a s$*l'a36%, $a(?lo )e*%s, a se*ara36% )% ver5% e
)% *r%!%$e= $ a(?"lo. A+# "e$%s %s $%"v%s %!/"'%s *%r +#e as &raas amal"o, per!el"o, part'l"
o s6% err8!eas e *r8*ras )e +#e$ !6% '%!e'e a ra26% s"8r'a )%s a'"%s.

O *r%!%$e Io a*are'e *%s !a es'"a e !a *r%!!'a, se$*re +#e a %r$a ver5al a!"er%r a'a5a e$
r, s %# (: am/"lo  a$ar(l%, "# ama"lo ( a$as(l%, ele\-(%  a2(l%.

Ra#l Bra!)6% a"/ #sa a %r$a *%*#lar !%r"e!a >ué"los e;*l'-vel *%r #$a a!"er%r, >uer"los: se
- $%!"es, >ué"los + +#ere(%s s#5r e 'al'ar s%5 %s */s4. +Os po2res, e). 1QK, *-&. 11. Esses
%!e$as, r, s, (, ass$lara$(se a% l )% *r%!%$e se&#!"e e, *%r ss% $es$%, se *er)era$,
#$)!)%(se !ele.
Se$*re +#e !6% !"erv$ a+#eles %!e$as, e$ 5%a re&ra !6% se )eva )ar a ass$la36%, !6%
a*are'e!)% a %r$a a!"&a )% *r%!%$e. C%!"#)%, %s a'"%s 2%$5a$ )as les, a *r-"'a s%5re*<e(se
> "e%ra. F%9e, "a!"% se )2 ( u !e'aste"lo part'r,'%$% ( u !e'aste"o part'r. A$5as as
$a!eras s6% #s#as= a l"$a / '%!%r$e > re&ra7 a *r$era "e$ )eesa !a a!al%&a. Ass$ '%$%
se )2, se&#$)% a re&ra ( u !e'a"lo part'r, ass$ se '%# )2e!)%, *%r a!al%&a '%$ a .a *ess%a
)% s!&#lar )% *rese!"e )% !)'a"v% ( u !e'aste"lo part'r.P%r a+# ve$%s '%$% esse )e$8!%
+#e / a a!al%&a, $*%r"a!":ss$% !a l!&#a&e$, es'a!e'e )as !%r$as asse!"es *el%s
&ra$-"'%s. % esse $es$% *r!':*% )a a!al%&a +#e lev%# #$ &ra!)e es'r"%r 5rasler%,
Gra'la!% Ra$%s, )e $%)% es*%r-)'%, a es"e!)er % *r%'ess% ass$la"8r% a% *r8*r% ar"&%=
):'l $a&!-(las  $a&!ar as  ra3<es )e *ess%as, $s"#ra)as, )e'%$*%!)%(se !#$ $%!"#r%4.
+I%$C%c'a, e). 1Q, *-&. 1Q. É al-s % *r%'ess% )% &ale&% a'"#al, re"!"a$e!"e *%*#lar= Va
le/"lo !e!% a% $/)'%4.
?#a!)% a %r$a ver5al "er$!a e$ %!e$a !asal, )-(se "a$5/$ #$ e!8$e!% )e ass$la36%,
$as a% '%!"r-r%. Ve9a$%s es"es e;e$*l%s= ?#a!"% a% *rs%!er%, &#ar)a$(!% 5e$4. ( 0Fe"%os
a: "%)%s4. A+#ele %o e a+#ele %os s6% )es&#ra3<es )% *r%!%$e l o, los. A&%ra % % l )%
*r%!%$e +#e se ass$l%# > !asal a!"er%r e se '%!ver"e# e$ %. F- +#e$ *r%'#re ev"ar !a es'r"a
es"a ass$la36%, *reer!)% 3uar!am"o, pe"os. F- 'as%s )esses s%5re"#)% e$ Ra$al% Or"&6%=
0)olocaram"o s%5re #$a 'a)era4. +As arpas, v#,
1. É %r3ar a !%"a e r '%!"ra #$ #s%, +#e "e$ ra2<es *%)er%sas !% *r8*r% $e'a!s$% )a l:!&#a
vva.
19

M RODRIUE" LAPA

?#a!)% a *alavra a!"e'e)e!"e !6% / %r$a ver5al, e!"6% / le&:"$% e a"/ '%rre!"e !6% a2er a
ass$la36%. Dsse Ca$<es !#$ vers% '/le5re= =uem %7o sa2e a arte, %7o %a est'ma. E 9- % re D.
A%!s% X, % S-5%, es'revera, KK a!%s a!"es= *r%$e"e# )e e! %r)e! %a $e"er4. +)a%t. !e Sta.
Mar'a, 1, es". . F%9e, *%)e!)% )2er(se ass$, es'reve(se &eral$e!"e= !6% a est'ma ass$ '%$%
se
+#ees'reve sem ao %r$a
e$*re&a$ er, e$*%*#lar.
ve2 )e sem %o er 2em
P%r e;e$*l%, o se', E#
Ca$l%= !6%)e%o2em
e$ ve2 %o se'.aC%!"#)%,
'%!se!"a es'r"%res
$e# $ar)%47 L$a-
Barre"%= N6% avera +#e$ !6% %as a"r5#:sse a% C%!seler% A'-'%47 Ra#l Bra!)6%= ?#e$ %a
va *assar, )e 'al/ a ras"%s47 e % $%)er!% J%s/ R/&%= Os %l%s )as *e+#e!as 5e$ %o )2a$4.

9. O pro%ome re$(eGo si. ( Se&#$)% as re&ras &ra$a"'as, % *r%!%$e rele;% s' - )e reerr(se
se$*re a% s#9e"%, +#er es"e9a !% s!&#lar, +#er !% *l#ral. O #s% ve$ )e l%!&a )a"a. D2a #$ *%e"a
a!"&% *%r"#&#s, )% "e$*% )% re D. Ma!#el=

1. O '#)a)% +#e $as %#sa e +#e $as '%!a e$ s'.

. ?#e $al(av!)%s '#)a)%s $e "%$ara$ e!"re s'

N% *r$er% e se&#$)% 'as% ve$%s *ere"a$e!"e as %r$as rele;as )e ele, eles. Es"- "#)% e$
re&ra= % *r%!%$e reere(se a% s#9e"%.
F- 'as%s *%r/$ '%$*l'a)%s, +#e )esaa$ a l8&'a )%s &ra$-"'%s. S#*%!a$%s +#e al&#/$,
$#"% !el2, )esa%&a as s#as )es&ra3as e )2 *ara %#"r%=

O !%r"!% e2 )e m'm #$ "rs"e arra*% #$a!%. Ne$ $es$% a %!ra, "6% es"$a)a )%s el2es,
e;s"e 9- *ara
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

19:

Es"e )s'#rs% 'a$a(se )re'"%7 %s *r%!%$es es"6% !a"#ral$e!"e !a l.a *ess%a, ' % +#e se )2 "e$ %
'al%r )as '%sas *%er)as *el% *r8*r%, sa:)as )re'"a$e!"e )% '%ra36%. Se #$ %#"r% +#sesse
e;*r$r a s#5s"!'a )% )s'#rs%, $%)'ara % "re'% !es"e se!  )%=
De'lar%# e!"6% +#e % !%r"!% 2era !ele #$ "rs"e arra*% #$a!%, +#e !e$ $es$% a %!ra, "6%
es"$a)a )%s el2es, e;s"a 9- *ara ele6.

Nes"e )s'#rs%, 'a$a)% !)re'"%, !"r%)#2$%s a '%!9#$36% !"e&ra!"e, %s *r%!%$es *#sera$(se


!a .a *ess%a, e %s "e$*%s ver5as *assara$ )% *ere"% *ara % $as(+#e(*ee"% e )% *rese!"e *ara
% $*ere"%. Per)e#(se % ar)%r se!"$e!"al )% )s'#rs% )re'"%7 a&%ra % !arra)%r *r%'#ra '%!"ar %s
a'"%s %59e'"va$e!"e, '%$ sere!)a)e.

Os es'r"%res !ve!"ara$ *%r/$ #$ '#r%s% *r%'ess%, +#e '%!ss"e !#$a $s"#ra )%s )%s )s'#rs%s.
S#*%!a$%s +#e esse !el2 es"- ala!)% '%!s&% $es$%, $e)"a!)% !as s#as )es&ra3as. E!"6% %
!arra)%r !se!svel$e!"e, "e!)e a !"r%$e"er(se !%s se#s se!"$e!"%s, *%r #$ $%v$e!"% )e
s$*a"a. Per)e(se *r%*ra$e!"e a !%36% )e +#e$ ala, se / % a#"%r, se / % *r%"a&%!s"a=
O !%r"!% 2era )e s' #$ "s"e arra*% #$a!%. Ne$ $es$% a %!ra, "6% es"$a)a )%s el2es,
e;s"a 9- *ara s'6.

A es"e *r%'ess% 'a$a(se )s'#rs% se$)re'"% %# )s'#rs% !)re'"% lvre. Dver&e )% )s'#rs%
!)re'"% e$ !6% $e!'%!ar %s ver5%s )e'lara"v%s +!'(er, !eclarar, e"'. e '%!9#$3<es !"e&ra!"es,
e e$ #sa as %r$as rele;as )% *r%!%$e. P%r ele "e$%s a $*ress6% )e +#e +#e$ ala %# $e)"a se
)es)%5ra s%5re s $es$% e !arra e s%re a% $es$% "e$*% a a'36%. De a:, % e$*re&% )% rele;%.

Es"a '%!s"r#36% "e$ s)% '%!)e!a)a *el%s *#rs"as, '%$% '%!"r-ra >s re&ras )% *r%!%$e s',
+#e se "e$ )e ree(
13-

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

rr se$*re a% s#9e"%. F- #$s a!%s a"r-s, a *r%*8s"% )e #$ *r/$% l"er-r% )a A'a)e$a, %
'e!s#ra)% a% a#"%r *re$a)% % v'%s% e$*re&% )esse *r%!%$e. Os se!%res a'a)/$'%s !6% se
le$5rara$ )e +#e !#$a %ra36% )e )s'#rs% se$)re'"% - *r%*ra$e!"e )%s s#9e"%s ( % s#9e"%
&ra$a"'al e % s#9e"% *s'%l8&'%, +#e / % a#"%r )% )s'#rs%. L%&%, % *r%!%$e ver)a)era$e!"e
reere(se a% s#9e"% *s'%l8&'% e "#)% 'a 'er"%.
C%!s)ere(se es"e *ass% )% Ama!'s !e Gaula, !% +#al % re Ls#ar"e $e)"a s%5re %s !e&8'%s )a s#a
v)a= Be$ sa5a +#e, e$5%ra A$a)s 'asse *%r se# l% e s#a la $# %!ra)a '%$ ele, 'ara
"a$5/$ a'$a )e s', )% $*era)%r )e R%$a, )% Re Per%! e )e "%)%s %s %#"r%s &ra!)es se!%res.4

Se )/sse$%s %#v)% a%s &ra$-"'%s, "er:a$%s )e es'rever a'$a !ele6 $as )a: res#l"ara #$
e+#:v%'% )e se!")%, +#e se ev"a *ere"a$e!"e, reer!)% % *r%!%$e a% s#9e"% *s'%l8&'%, a%
a#"%r )a $e)"a36%.

Ve9a(se *%r/$ es"e "re'% )#$ 9%ve$ es'r"%r )%s !%ss%s )as= O A!"8!% Mar+#es es'#"ava(%,
)s"ra:)%. N% lvr% )e '6es4 % se# !%$e "!a )%$:!%. Mas a l%9a es"ava se$*re a5er"a *ara s'6.
A+# )eva es'rever(se *ara ele4. A %r$a s' s8 sera le&:"$a, se se "ra"asse )e )s'#rs%
se$)re'"%7 $as a!)a ass$ '%$*ree!)e$%s 5e$ +#e % s' res#l"a )e #$ *r%'ess% l:r'% ( %
a"r5#r(se a% A!"8!% Mar+#es a $e)"a36% s%5re a s#a s%r"e.
. O *r%!%$e *%ssessv%. ( U$ )%s *r!'*as *r%5le$as +#e )es*er"a % *r%!%$e *%ssessv% / % )e
sa5er(se +#a!)% )eve vr %# !6% a'%$*a!a)% )e ar"&%. Cas%s - e$ +#e % #s% )% ar"&%
'%rres*%!)e a #$ *r%*8s"% e;*ressv% $#"% 'lar%. É % +#e se )- !es"e e;e$*l%=

1. Es"e lvr% / meu.

. Es"e lvr% / % meu.


E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

131

N% 1. e;e$*l%
*er"e!'e($e !ss"$%s
a $$4. N% .!ae;e$*l%,
*%sse, *%r"a!"% !% *%ss#)%r,
a *rese!3a '%$%
)% ar"&% "e$ se )ss/sse$%s=
'%$% Es"ealvr%
res#l"a)% 'a$ar a"e!36%
*ara % %59e'"% *%ss#:)%, a2e!)% s#*%r a e;s"!'a )e %#"r%s %59e'"%s !6% *er"e!'e!"es a% s#9e"%.

A+#, % *%ssessv% #$'%!a *r%*ra$e!"e '%$% *r%!%$e. Ve9a$%s al&#$s 'as%s e$ +#e
#$'%!a '%$% a)9e'"v%. U$ &ra$-"'% 5rasler%, $#"% )s"!"%, % Pr%. Sa) Al, "eve % '#)a)%
)e a2er #$a es"a":s"'a, )e %!)e se *r%va a &ra)#al re+#!'a )% ar"&% a!"es )% a)9e'"v%
*%ssessv%, )es)e %s $as a!"&%s es'r"%res. er!6% L%*es s8 e$  j )%s 'as%s #sa % ar"&%
)e!)%, Ca$<es e$ K j, Vera e$ K j e Fer'#la!% e$ $as )e QK j. L%&%, es"a$%s
a5l"a)%s a asse&#rar +#e #$a rase '%$% es"a, +#e a!"er%r$e!"e a Ca$<es se )2a &eral$e!"e
ass$= $e( SUA ora7o e part'u lo3o, %9e se #sa )es"e $%)%= $e( X SUA ora7o e part'u lo3o.
Te$%s *%s )e a)$"r +#e, )e #$ $%)% &eral, a l:!&#a )e %9e re'%!e'e % e$*re&% e;*ressv% )%
ar"&% a!"es )% a)9e'"v% *%ssessv%. F- e;'e*3<es. V 9 a$%s as *r!'*as=

l. N%s !%$es )e *are!"es'%, s%5re"#)% !% $as :!"$%, - "e!)!'a *ara %$"r % ar"&%. E;e$*l%s=
Meu pa' 'e!s#r%#($e. ( M'%*a m7e res&!%#(se. É *%ss:vel +#e ss% se )eva a% '%s"#$e )e
$e!'%!ar$%s esses !%$es !% v%'a"v%= ++M'%*a m7e, +#a!)% )ev% sar@4 ( Y meu pa', 9- v# as
%ras@4 Sera #$ 'as% )e a!al%&a= "ra!ser#(se *ara %s %#"r%s )2eres a *r-"'a #sa)a !% v%'a"v%.

Es"e e$*re&% a!)a '%!s""# %9e #$ )%s *r%5le$as !"r!'a)%s )a Es"l:s"'a. O vel% )'%!ars"a
M%ras *r%!#$'%#(se s%5re % 'as%, e a s#a %*!6% $ere'e ser re&s"a)a, *el% +#e *%)e '%!"er )e
ver)a)e. Se&#$)% ele, %$"a(se % ar"&% a!"es )% a)9e'"v% *%ssessv%, +#a!)% % s#5s"a!"v% a +#e
es"e se 9#$"a s&!'ava #$a !)v)#al)a)e !'a, +#e e;'l#:a %#"ra )e $%)% a5s%l#"%. P%r ss%
se 9#s"'ava$ as l%'#3<es 0teu *a4, 0m'%*a $6e4, e"'. N6%
11 ( Es"l:s"'a
13#

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

"e!)% 'a)a !)v:)#% se!6% #$ *a, % ar"&% sera )s*e!s-vel, *%r+#e % *r%!%$e )e"er$!ava *%r s
$es$% % s#5s"a!"v% )e #$a %r$a e;'l#sva. ?#a!)% *%r/$ % s#5s"a!"v% "!a #$a s&!'a36%
$e!%s )e"er$!a)a %# $e!%s e;'l#sva, 9- a rase se *%)a '%!s"r#r '%$ %# se$ ar"&%= Ve!% !e
%# !a $!a 'asa4.

A %*!6% )e M%ras / #$)a)a s%5re % +#e 9- )sse$%s= % ar"&% a!"e*%s"% a% *r%!%$e "e!)e a
*ar"'#lar2ar % %59e'"%, a )ere!3-(l% )%s %#"r%s. ?#a!)% )2e$%s 0meu *a4, !6% *re'sa$%s )e
*ar"'#lar2ar #$a *ess%a +#e vale *%r s s8, +#e / !'a7 $as "ere$%s )e % a2er +#a!)% al#)$%s a
#$a e!"re %#"ras. P%r ss%= % meu r$6% J%s/4. ?#ere$%s )s"!&#r J%s/ )e e!"re %s %#"r%s r$6%s.

. N%s &r#*%s rase%l8&'%s "ra)'%!as "a$5/$ se '%$*ree!)e a %$ss6% )% ar"&%= em po!er !e,
em %ome !e, a car3o !e, em m'%*a op'%'7o, em meu e%te%!er, por o%ta!e !e, e"'. Se #sar$%s %
*%ssessv%, !6% *%)ere$%s, e$ 5%a l!&#a&e$, e$*re&ar % ar"&%. Ass$, !6% )re$%s=
( O l'mo est/ %o meu po!er,$as est/ em meu po!er, !6% la%ou"se aos seus pés, $as a seus pés. Os
*r!'*a!"es "$ 'er"a !'l!a36% *ara !r!&r es"e *re'e"%, 5arala!)% as '%sas.

O *r%!%$e *%ssessv% ass#$e *%r ve2es s&!'a3<es +#e *%#'% %# !a)a "$ +#e ver '%$ a *%sse.
Ve9a$%s %s *r!'*as )esses 'as%s, +#e %ere'e$ 'er"a )el'a)e2a es"l:s"'a =

1. P%)e )e!%"ar a$lar)a)e e #$ 'er"% se!"$e!"% )e s#*er%r)a)e. O C%!seler% A'-'% "ra"a


%s se#s a$&%s *%r % %osso, % meu. E;e$*l%s= O %osso J%r&e %*!a *el% '%2)%4. ( N6% a'a,
meu 5%$ Se5as"6% @4 ?#a!)% A'-'% )2 %osso, es"- e$ $e% )e #$ &r#*% )e *ess%as )e +#e ele
se s#*<e ser a &#ra $as releva!"e. ?#a!)% )2 meu, % *%ssessv% !a l.a *ess%a a'e!"#a a
$*%r"!'a )% s#9e"%,
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

13*

+#e '%!se!"e )es'er a #$a a""#)e )e a$lar)a)e. Na


.a *ess%a *%)e ass#$r val%r )!"'% e e;*r$r a #a!a )a *r%*re)a)e '%!)es'e!)e!"e= O
e$&ra)% e Mel'%r '%!s""#:a$ a Ar"#r #$a *e+#e!a '%r"e= &%s"ava )e %s ver > sua $esa,

5e5e!)%(le seu s#5l!a


+#e % *r8*r%%E3a '%!a+#e, '%r"e9a!)%(le
% *%ssessv% suaa"r5#r
*araale ama%te6"+A )ap'tal,
esse $a"2 l.a e)., *-&. . N%"e(se
)e s&!'a)%.

. S&!'a % a'"% %# s#'ess% a5"#al. E;e$*l%= O )%e!"e "eve % seu ata>ue $as a&%ra es"-
$el%r4.

. E$*re&a(se !a .a *ess%a, !a l!&#a&e$ e;al"a)a, s&!'a!)% +#e +#e$ ala !6% "e$ '#l*a !%s
$ales +#e reere. E;e$*l%= Re*ara !a $- e)#'a36% )% teu $'l*o6
( )r- #$ $ar)% ra)% *ara a s#a $#ler, a +#e$ a'#sa )e es"ra&ar '%$ $$%s a 'ra!3a.

. Usa(se e$ e;'la$a3<es, '%$ %r"e se!")% re'r$!a"v%. E;e$*l%s= Seu "ras"eH ( Sua
)esaver&%!a)aH Me# $e!"r%s%H

. E+#vale a #$ *r%!%$e %# e;*ress6% !)e!)a +al3um, certo, apro'ma!ame%te, e"'..


E;e$*l%s= a2 sua )ere!3a4. ( Ter- %s seus "rs $e"r%s4. ( A %5ra "e$ seus )ee"%s4. (
Te!% as m'%*as )v)as4.

. E;*r$e 'er"a $al:'a e r%!a a$lares. E;e$*l%= Ve$ '-, meu *a"r%"a, *e!sas"e !as "#as
res*%!sa5l)a)es @4.

. Te$, *ara +#e$ !arra, #$ val%r *"%res'%, )e$%!s"ra"v%= V%l"ava$ > s#a "erra %s meus '!'%
l#"a)%res4 Garre"", s"% /= os l#"a)%res )e +#e es"%# "ra"a!)%, +#e $e!'%!e a'$a. Pare'e aver
a+#, '%$ #$a 'er"a s#'!'a, #$a leve s%$5ra )e #$%rs$%.

. Ve9a(se, e!$, es"e e$*re&% '#r%s% e a!%r$al )% *%ssessv% se&#)% )% !!"%, e$ er!a!)%
Pess%a=

P%5re )e a!se%s "e# 'ar !%s 5a!'%s, %la!)% a %ra '%$% +#e$ s%rrsse...
13+

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

A e;*ress6% e+#vale a #$a rase e;'la$a"va e *r%'#ra, a% +#e *are'e, "ra)#2r #$a a""#)e
e;"-"'a. É '%$% +#e$ )ssesse= C%$% "# 'as, *%5re )e a!se%s, !%s 5a!'%s... l6

Os *#rs"as '%!)e!a$ % a5#s% )% *%ssessv% '%$% '%!"r-r% a% &/!% )a l:!&#a, )a l:!&#a 'l-ss'a,
9- se v. A5#s%s s6% se$*re )e ev"ar7 $as % se# e$*re&% !"el&e!"e val%r2a % es"l%, *%r+#e %
*%ssessv%, '%$ #!3<es a)9e'"vas, /, %# *%)e ser, #$ 5%$ ele$e!"% )e 'ara'"er2a36%. Na)a $as
el#')a"v%, a esse res*e"%, )% +#e %5servar as e$e!)as +#e E3a )e ?#er%2 !"r%)#2# !% "e;"% )a
!%vela S'%3ular'!a!es !uma rapar'3a loura, *#5l'a)a *ela *r$era ve2 e$ 1=

1. % !es"e *%!"% +#e Ma'-r% $e )sse '%$ a sua o( s!&#lar$e!"e se!")a.4

. Mas s"% 5as"%# a% seu es*:r"% "e'"% e sever% *ara % %5r&ar a "%$a(la '%$% es*%sa.4

Os *r%!%$es *%ssessv%s %ra$ !"r%)#2)%s )e*%s, !a e)36% )e!"va, e !6% - )v)a +#e
$el%rara$ es"ls"'a$e!"e % "e;"%.

7. O pro%ome 'emo%s&ra&i)o. ( Ta$5/$ % *r%!%$e )e$%!s"ra"v% s#s'"a '#r%s%s *r%5le$as


es"l:s"'%s. A*rese!"a$%s es"e 'as%, +#e se *ass%# e!"re #$ &ere!"e )e rr!a '%$e'al es"ra!&era
e #$ se# se're"-r% *%r"#&#s. Re)&# es"e #$a 'ar"a !%s se&#!"es "er$%s=
Da)a a s"#a36% )% *are!"e )e V. E;.a, "e!% a $*ress6% )e !6% le ser *%ss:vel !e$ '%!ve!e!"e
"%$ar #$a '%l%'a36%, %!)e s8 )a+# a  a!%s es"ar- real$e!"e ;a)%, e $es$% %esta al"#ra
re'e5e!)% a*e!as #$ %r)e!a)% > 9#s"a *ara as !e'ess)a)es $:!$as )a v)a, e$ Ls5%a4.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

139

O &ere!"e, le!)% a 'ar"a )% e$*re&a)% *%r"#&#s, "eve )v)as e ale&%# +#e a e;*ress6% !es"a
al"#ra4 s8 *%)era s&!'ar !% $%$e!"% *rese!"e4. O se're"-r% res*%!)e# +#e a '%!s"r#36% era
*ere"a$e!"e le&:"$a, $as !6% )e# ra2<es +#e '%!ve!'esse$ % %$e$ )e !e&8'%s, a$a!"e )a
l8&'a e )a 'lare2a.

A ver)a)e é +#e a$5%s "!a$ ra26%7 % *%r"#&#s "!a #$a ra26% s#5"l, +#e es'a*ava a%
es"ra!&er%, !6% a$lar2a)% '%$ as )el'a)e2as )% )%$a. ?#a!)% se e!#$'a #$ a'%!"e'$e!"%
#"#r%, a a!"asa e % se!"$e!"% *er$"e$ )e"er$!ar esse a'"% '%$% 9- *rese!"e7 % $es$% s#'e)e
'%$ % *assa)%, +#e a $a&!a36% *%)e a'"#al2ar. N% *ass% e$ +#es"6%, %esta altura *res#$e %s 
a!%s 9- *assa)%s= % #"#r% "%$%#(se $%$e!"a!ea$e!"e *rese!"e7 )a:, % 9#s"'a)% e$*re&% )%
*r%!%$e esta, e$ l#&ar )e essa, +#e "a$5/$ serve *ara % 'as% e "alve2 %sse $as 'lar%.
S$*les$e!"e, % #s% )e essa / $as !"ele'"#al7 % )e esta %5e)e'e $as > a!"asa +#e a*r%;$a %s
%59e'"%s, aas"a)%s *ela )s"!'a ' *el% "e$*%.

É $#"% '#r%sa a !vers6% +#e se )- )%s val%res )e este e esse !% alar e !a es'r"a 5raslera. Ora
e!'%!"ra$%s esse *%r este, '%$% !% se&#!"e *ass% )e J%r&e A$a)% +S7o Por3e !os Il*éus, .a e).,
*-&. , 5e$ re*rese!"a"v% *ela '%!"&#)a)e )% a)v/r5% a>u': a2a "#)% *ara ale&rar a v)a
)a &e!"e a+#, %esse )eser"%47 e !es"e )e J%s/ L!s )% Re&% +X3ua"m7e, .a e)., = M!a $6e,
a se!%ra / 5%a )e$as *ara %#vr essas '%sas. A se!%ra !6% $ere'e sa5er !essas $s/ras.4 Ora
se )- % '%!"r-r%= este %'#*a % l#&ar )e esse, '%$% se v !% $es$% r%$a!'e *-&. QK, )e*%s )e
#$ '%!"% $aravl%s% '%!"a)% *%r l*a a% se# !e"%, e$ +#e se a2a $e!36% )e #$ 5-lsa$% +#e
sarava as er)as= ?#e 5-lsa$% era este, $6e l*a@4 Ta!"% !% *r$er% '%$% !% se&#$)% 'as%,
%s #s%s )% *%r"#&#s )e P%r"#&al s6% '%!"r-r%s a%s )% *%r"#&#s )% Brasl7 e "#)%
M. RODRIGUES LAPA

se )eve levar > '%!"a )a $a&!a36%, +#e %ra )s"a!'a %ra a*r%;$a as '%sas )e +#e se es"-
ala!)%.

O *r%!%$e este, *%r s&!'ar $a%r *r%;$)a)e )% %59e'"%, "e$ 'ar-'"er $as *'"#ral. É "alve2
)ev)% a ss% +#e %s Cl-ss'%s % #sava$ a"/ '%$% a)v/r5% )e $%)%, se&#$)% se v )es"e *ass% )e
er!6% Me!)es P!"%=

Se % 5a!+#e"e / )e $#leres... "a$5/$ % serv3% *ela $es$a $a!era / )e $#leres e )e $%3as
vr&e!s $#"% er$%sas e $#"% r'a$e!"e ves")as, e$ "a!"% +#e *%r sere$ elas estas + ass'm-, se
'asa$ a+# '%$ elas $#"as ve2es $#"%s %$e!s !%5res.4 +Fere3r'%a7o, 'a*. 1K.

O )e$%!s"ra"v% )ese$*e!a "a$5/$ *a*el $*%r"a!"e '%$ reer!'a a *ess%as %# %59e'"%s


$e!'%!a)%s a!"er%r$e!"e. Se / #$ s8 %59e'"%, e$*re&a(se )e %r)!-r% % *r%!%$e este %#
mesmo. E;e$*l%s= P#;%# "a!"% % *re&%, +#e este se )es*re!)e#4. ( E!va$%s(le % ar"&%, a*8s
*e))% )% mesmo, e"% *%r V. S. - 1 )as4.

Se s6% )%s %s %59e'"%s, #sa(se este *ara % $as *r8;$%, a>uele *ara % $as )s"a!"e. E;e$*l%=
%ra$ l- *a e l%= este '%$ #$ 'es"% )e *ras, a>uele '%$ #$ sa'% )e !%2es4. Es"a re&ra *%r/$
"e$ e;'e*3<es. P%r ve2es #sa(se este e$ ve2 )e a>uele, +#a!)% se a"r5# $a%r val%r a% +#e es"-
$as aas"a)%. Ve9a$%s % se&#!"e *ass% )e Garre""=

A% */ )es"es '!'% e )e al"er'a36% '%$ eles ( l- )re *%r+# es"ava$ ses %# se"e %$e!s +#e e$ "#)%
*are'a$ %s se#s a!":*%)as. E$ ve2 )% 'al36% a$arel% e )a 9a+#e"a )e ra$a&e$ +#e 'ara'"er2a$ % %$e$
)% %r'a)%, es"es ves"a$ % a$*l% sa%"e &re&% )%s var!%s e % "a5ar)% arre+#a)% s'la!% )e *a!% )e varas.
O 'a$*!%, ass$ '%$% % sal%%, "e$ % '#$% )a ra3a ar'a!a7 estes s6% )a a$:la *elas&a= e3<es
re&#lares e $8ves, a %r$a -&l.4

Sera $as '%!%r$e > re&ra e$*re&ar a>ueles, *% al#)r a%s var!%s, $as aas"a)%s7 $as a
a"e!36% )% es'r"%r

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1
e )% le"%r es"- *%s"a s%5re %s var!%s, s6% eles +#e es"6% !% *r$er% *la!%7 l%&%, estes.

Se s6% $as )e )%s, re'%rre(se a %#"r%s *r%'ess%s. Geral$e!"e #sa$(se %s %r)!as, +#e "a$5/$
*%)e$ s#5s""#r este e a>uele. Ve9a(se % "re'% )e Te;era(G%$es=

O $%v$e!"% )a *raa / '%!":!#% e !"e!s%= s%l)a)%s )e ar"lara )e #$%r$es e 'a*a'e"es 5ra!'%s7


$ar!er%s )e ar)a$e!"% a2#l, s$*les, ele&a!"e e 5e$ "ala)%= %'as > *asa!a= e %s $al"eses )as
'%$e)%ras, e!r%#*a)%s )e l!% s#9%= %s pr'me'ro# r"%s e )es)e!%s%s7 %s se3um!os e!&%$a)%s e
es'%va)%s '%$% se sa:sse$ )as $6%s )% alaa"e7 %s o$'c'a's e$ la!elas '!2e!"as )e "#rs"a7 e %s lt'mos '%$
% se# ar 'ala5rs )e 'a5las e$ "ra9e e#r%*e#.4

E!$, res"a )2er +#e % )e$%!s"ra"v% "a$5/$ e;*r$e %#"r%s val%res, *%r ve2es ae'"v%s.
E;e$*l%s= ++A>uele A!)r/H +#e l%rH +#e ra*a2H4 ( ++A>u'lo é +#e / "e$%s%H4 ( 0Isto )e !e&8'%,
!6% / *ara "%)%s4. ( 0Isto s6% %ras )e e'ar4.
( 0Essa é +#e / essa\4

E$ *ar"'#lar, o *r%!%$e a>u'lo a)$"e e$ $#"%s 'as%s #$a s&!'a36% 'lara$e!"e *e9%ra"va.
C%!e'e(se % )"% *%*#lar= 0A>u'lo, !a $!a "erra, /...4 E re$a"a(se '%$ #$ *alavr6% *%#'%
l$*%. Es"a 'a*a')a)e )e al#s6% a eal)a)es, %rr%res e '%sas *%#'% assea)as ressal"a )es"e *ass%
)e V"%r!% Ne$/s%, a#"%r )eMau tempo %o )a%al:

U$a es'a)a )e 'a!"ara, &ra)ea)a )e err% > $a!era )as se*#l"#ras, )es'a )% 9ar)$ a #$a l%9a
)e arr#$a3<es. A% #$)% #$a **a, 'a;%"es, #$ av6%. ?#a!)% Ja!#-r% leva!"ava a 'a5e3a, )%
+#ar"% *ara % la)% )% 9ar)$, va a>u'lo.'t

C%$% +#e$ )ssesse, r%!'a$e!"e= va a+#ela l!)a '%sa4.


1

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

E$ M-r% )e A!)ra)e 'e&a a a*%!"ar $e!"al$e!"e % se;% e$!!% %# % a'"% )a '8*#la= +#a!)%
es"eve #$a ve2 '%$ a '%r)a !a &ar&a!"a *%r 'a#sa )% $/)'%, *e)!)% a>u'lo, %# v!"e 5a&ar%"es
*ela '#ra )% */ arr#!a)%4 ( +Os co%tos !e Jela(arte, .a e)., *-&. 11K. É *%ss:vel +#e %
s&!'a)% *%ra"v% )e a>u'lo "e!a res#l"a)% *re'sa$e!"e )% se# e$*re&% e$ "%$ r8!'%. Essa
r%!a,
C%#"%, )e
a% 'ar-'"er
!arrar as5e$ *#$&e!"e,
)es&ra3as a*are'e !")a$e!"e
)% !a#r-&% !es"e *ass%
)a !a# S. T%$/4, -'es)%)ees'r"%r
ev"ar, 'l-ss'% D%&% )%
se se "vesse$
"%$a)% 'er"as *re'a#3<es, +#e ele a*%!"a=

Mas %s *e'a)%s "a*ara$ %s %l%s a "%)%s *ara !6% e!"e!)ere$ 'sto e se *er)ere$ a+#eles +#e
!as'era$ *ara a>u'lo.6 P%r 'sto )eve(se e!"e!)er as *re'a#3<es +#e es"%# reer!)%47 *%r a>u'lo
%s %rr%res )% !a#r-&% a"r-s )es'r"%4.

Ma'a)% )e Asss %ere'e(!%s #$ "re'% '#r%s%, e$ +#e ressal"a la&ra!"e$e!"e % 'ar-'"er


)es)e!%s% )% *r%!%$e= Z *%r"a, *ar%# #$ %$e$, e!"r%#, e %l%# '%$ !"eresse *ara % re"ra"%.
O l%9s"a re*ar%# !a e;*ress6%7 *%)a ser al&#$ $&#els"a, $as "a$5/$ *%)a ser #$
'%le''%!a)%r...

( ?#a!"% *e)e % se!%r *%r 'sto 

( Isto F- )e *er)%ar7 +#er sa5er +#a!"% *e3% *el% $e# r'% Se!%r D. M&#el@4 +Esa e Pac,
e). )e 1Q, *-&. 1K.

Ta$5/$ 'sso *%)e ser e$*re&a)% '%$ se!")% *e9%ra"v%, '%$% se v )es"e "re'% )e errera )e
Cas"r%=

L5!%, a% *assar 9#$"% )ele, '#s*# *ara % '6%=


( Vas '%$er 'sso

A+#ele ss%4 es"ava 'e% )e re*#&!!'a. A!'e"% !6% res*%!)e#4 +A l7 e a %ee, .a e). *-&.
11.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA13:

Clar% +#e a a"$%sera e a e!"%a36% )ese$*e!a$ !es"e 'as% #$ *a*el $*%r"a!"e7 s6% elas +#e
$*r$e$ > e;*ress6% % ver)a)er% s&!'a)%.

P%)e a!)a % )e$%!s"ra"v% ser a "ra)#36% %ral )e #$ &es"% e s&!'ar *e+#e!e2, '%$% !es"e
*ass%= $8vel, se!"a)% !a "r*e3a, !6% ala!)% #$ 'sto6 M-r% )e A!)ra)e, Macumama, . E$
'sto, !% se!")% )e '%sa :!$a4, es"a$%s ve!)% % &es"% )e !)'ar #$a *%r36% $:!$a )% )e)%7 e
ass$ se &er%# #$ '#r%s% *r%'ess% )e !e&a36%.

. O pro%ome re(a&i)o. ( É *re's% '#)a)% '%$ % e$*re&% )% >ue. U$a rase +#e "e!a $#"as
)es"as *alavras, +#er se "ra"e )e *r%!%$es rela"v%s, +#er )e '%!9#$3<es, / !s#*%r"-vel )e as*ere2a
e "e$ #$ ar '%!"rae"%, +#e % 5%$ es"l% re*ele. O es'r"%r '#)a)%s% )a ar$%!a )a rase sa5e
ev"ar essa $*er"!e!"e re*e"36% )% >ue *%r v-ras $a!eras. S#*%!a$%s es"e e!#$'a)%= Es"e9a
'er"% )e >ue "ra"a '%$ #$ a$&% >ue "e$ v%!"a)e )e le ser "l4. U$a revs6% es'r#*#l%sa, '%$
*e!"e(!%, '%$% )2a E3a )e ?#er%2, s#5s""#ra a+#ela %ra36% rela"va *el% a)9e'"v%
'%rres*%!)e!"e= '%$ #$ a$&% !ese;oso )e le ser "l4. Ass$, 'ar:a$%s lvres )e #$ >ue.

O#"r% *r%'ess% / % )e s#5s""#r >ue *%r >uem, o >ual, a >ual. Es"e l"$% *r%!%$e, al/$ )e ev"ar
a $%!%"%!a, "e$ a va!"a&e$ )e *%)er )esa2er e+#:v%'%s. Ve9a(se es"a rase= A&%ra / % *r%ess%r
>ue ar$a >ue % !s*e'"%r / !'%$*e"e!"e4. Se $%)'ar$%s % rela"%, 9- a rase s%a $el%r= ... / %
*r%ess%r >uem ar$a >ue % !s*e'"%r / !'%$*e"e!"e4.

U$a rase )e Ve!'esla# )e M%ras= D% !%ss% e;a$e *%)e ser >ue res#l"e al&#$ la$*e9% )e
ver)a)e, o >ual ve!a l#$!ar % 'a$!% "%r"#%s% )e '%!9e'"#ras.4 O *r%!%$e >ue "era a
)esva!"a&e$ )e re*e"r )esa&ra)avel$e!"e % %#"r% >ue e )e 'rar #$ *e+#e!% e+#:v%'%, *%r se
*%)er reerr "a!"% a lampe;o '%$% a er!a!e.
17-

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

P%r ve2es, re'%rre(se > *%!"#a36%, *ara s#*r$r essa e!a)%!a *ar":'#la. Ve9a(se es"a rase
e$5arala)a )e #$ a*re!)2 )e re)a'36%= O $es$% se )- !a+#elas )#as rases, e$ >ue e# 9#l&%
>ue !a *r$era se al#)e > *ers%!al)a)e $%ral, a% '%!"r-r% )% >ue s#'e)e !a se&#$)a, e$ >ue se
*re"e!)e av#l"ar a %r$a :s'a4. Se +#s/sse$%s la!3ar 'lar)a)e e ar$%!a !es"e *er:%)%,
*r%'e)er:a$%s ass$=!a
*ers%!al)a)e $%ral7 Ose&#$)a,
$es$% se*el%)- !a+#elas
'%!"r-r%,)#as rases=
*re"e!)e !a *r$era
av#l"ar(se >ue se Ba!ra$(se
9#l&%:s'a4.
a %r$a al#)e >
"%)%s %s *r%!%$es rela"v%s e s8 '%# #$a '%!9#$36% !"e&ra!"e. Tra5al%# 5e$ % *e!"e(!%.

O#"ras ve2es a!)a, % es'r"%r "e$ ar"es )e s#5s""#r % >ue, e$*re&a!)% % )e$%!s"ra"v%. Ve9a(se
es"a ele&!'a )% es"l% )e Te;era(G%$es= A l#2 )% )a, *%r $, se$*re 'a *elas *%r"a)as )as
'asas, al#$a!)% s#'e!"e$e!"e % !"er%r )%s *-"%s, vas"%s estes e 'er'a)%s )e &alera, > $%)a
-ra5e.4 E!&e!%sa $a!era )e )s*e!sar % >ue, %!)e ele !6% era *r%*ra$e!"e #$ es"%rv%  >ue
s6% vas"%s. E!$, $%)%s )e s#5s""#r essa !'8$%)a *alavr!a, !'ara'"er:s"'a e $als%a!"e.

N%"e(se +#e 9- !% *%r"#&#s ar'a'% se sa5a ev"ar a )#re2a )% >ue, s#5s""#!)%(% *ela '%!9#$36%
'%*#la"va, '%$% se v )es"e *ass% )% Orto !o Esposo: E$ A"e!as ava #$ l8s%%, e "!a
'%!s&% #$ se# )s':*#l%.4

N6% v- *%r/$
a )re"%, '%$%%a+#ele
le"%r es"#)%s%
%$e$ )e'ar !#$a
+#e$ !%ses*/'e )e s#*ers"36%
ala Gra'la!% Ra$%s='%!"ra % >ue, ev"a!)%(%
re*ree!))% *el% &ra!)ea "%r"% e
es'r"%r )e se e;'e)er !% #s% $als%a!"e )a *alavra, 'a*r'%# e$ es'rever > $#ler #$a 'ar"a %!)e
!6% se la #$ s8 >ue +Memr'as !o c/rcere, ',l.a e).,
(. P%r ve2es, *%)e ser #$ ele$e!"% e;*ressv%, '%$% !es"a rase= A+#ele %$e$ /
e!&ra3a):ss$%= !6% se $a&!a >ue '%sas >ue ele )2H4 A l:!&#a a!"&a a5#sava )% *r%!%$e
rela"v%7 $as #$ es'r"%r )e &/!% '%$% er!6%

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 11

L%*es "a$5/$ % sa5a e$*re&ar *ara )ar real'e e !"e!s)a)e > $a&e$, '%$% !es"a )es'r36% )%
'er'% )e Ls5%a=

A!)ava$ %s $%3%s )e "rs e +#a"r% a!%s *e)!)% *6% *ela ')a)e *%r a$%r )e De#s, '%$% les
e!s!ava$ s#asera
'%rava$, >ue $6es7
"rs"ee $#"%s !6%
'%#sa )e "!a$ %#"ra '%#sa >ue les )ar se!6% l-&r$as >ue '%$ eles
ver.4

E '%$% !es"es )%s vers%s )e Ca$<es, !%s +#as a s#'ess6% ver"&!%sa )%s +#s4 *are'e $ar'ar a
*r%!")6% !'%!)'%!al )a e!"re&a= Ass >ue al$a, >ue v)a, >ue es*era!3a \ e >ue +#a!"% %r $e#
/ "#)% v%ss%.4

O $es$% ee"% e;*ressv% *r%'#ra J%s/ R/&% !% vers% se&#!"e +a!o, l.a e)., 1, +#e
"ra!s'reve$%s e$ 't/l'co:

Va&% !a s%$5ra e !a 5r#$a,

se / %$e$, %# se / $#ler

):'l / )e )2er
>uem >uer >ue é >ue a %o'te es$uma.

A e!er&a +#e res#l"a *ara % )s'#rs% )es"a %r"e $ar"ela)a )% >ue, v(se al-s )es"as e;*ress<es=
Te$ !e 'ar4.
( Te$ >ue 'ar4. Es"ls"'a$e!"e, es"as %r$as !6% s6% &#as. O >ue "ra)#2 $el%r a !"$a"va
)% +#e % !e. É '%$% se )/sse$%s #$ %r"e $#rr% !a $esa a a*%ar a )e'lara36%.

:. O pro%ome i%&erro=a&i)o. ( A!)a a+# !%s a*are'e, '%$% *r%5le$a #$)a$e!"al, % e$*re&%
)% ar"&% )e!)% a!"es )% !"err%&a"v% >ue. Os *#rs"as &eral$e!"e '%!)e!a$ % #s% )% ar"&%, e$
rases '%$% es"a= O >ue a2es "# a:@4 5%$ *%r"#&#s ser-, )2e$ eles= V'=ue a2es "# a:@4
Ee'"va$e!"e, era ass$ +#e )2a$ e es'reva$ %s Cl-ss'%s, se$ ar"&%. Mas a l:!&#a *r%&re)#,
$%)'%#(se, e %9e "6% 5%a / #$a '%!s"r#36% '%$% a %#"ra. Os es'r"%res $%)er!%s #sa$
a$5as7 e *are'e$ )ar *reer!'a > %r$a ar"'#la)a, +#a!)% +#ere$ a'e!"#ar a !"err%&a36%. Ve9a(
se
1

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

es"e *ass% )e E3a )e ?#er%2, e$ A Rel>u'a: Pla"%s '%!s)er%#(% #$ $%$e!"%, *e!sa"v%7


)e*%s, e!'%le!)% %s %$5r%s= ( Mas, %$e$, % >ue é a ver)a)e@4 Se "rar$%s % ar"&%,
ver'a$%s +#e a !"err%&a36% *er)e 'er"% val%r e;*ressv% e a rase s%re #$ *%#'% !% se# r"$%.

Al-s,
( Vas %l-e$*re&% )% F,
a2er % >u? ar"&% es"- %9e
é !a"#ral e;*l'a)%,
+#e se e!"rasse *%r #$a'%!"ra
a )2er, +#es"6% )e a!al%&a.
% #s% 'l-ss'%= C%$e3a!)%
O >ue vas "#a )2er(se
l- a2er@
E$ '%!'l#s6%= *%ss#:$%s el2$e!"e )%s $e%s e;*ressv%s *ara %r$#lar a !"err%&a36% )re'"a.
Use$%s )eles '%$% 5e$ !%s *are'er, "e!)% e$ '%!"a a*e!as % 5e!e:'% )a e;*ress6%.

1K. O pro%ome i%'e$i%i'o. ( A *r8*ra )e!%$!a36% )2 % s#'e!"e s%5re % "%$ )e $*re's6% e
$s"er%sa va&#)6% +#e 'ara'"er2a$ es"e *r%!%$e. Os &ra!)es es'r"%res "$ a!)a % *%)er )e
#&r a%s '%!sa&ra)%s es+#e$as &ra$a"'as e, *el% #s% )e l%'#3<es, a'e!"#are$ % !)e!)% )as
'%sas e )as 'r'#$s"!'as. É, *%r ss% $es$%, #$a e;*ress6% al"a$e!"e a)e+#a)a > *%esa. Ve9a(
se es"e *e+#e!% "re'% )e Ma'a)% )e Asss=

L#a 'ea, -&#a +#e"a, v%2es '%!#sas e es*arsas, al&#$ ":l5#r a *ass% %# a "r%"e, se&#$)% a
va2% %# '%$ &e!"e. al ou >ual 5rsa res'a4. +Esa e Pac, e). )e 1Q, *-&. 1.

?#e +#er )2er a+# tal ou >ual O 'as% / )el'a)% e *res"a(se a )v)a= 9#s"a$e!"e a
!)e"er$!a36%, a !)e!36% +#e *re"e!)e s#&err % a#"%r. Se!"$%s *%r/$ +#e - !essa l%'#36%
*r%!%$!al )#as !%"a3<es, *el% $e!%s= #$a )e "e$*% De ve2 e$ +#a!)% s%*rava #$a 5rsa
res'a4 %#"ra )e +#al)a)e e !"e!s)a)e A 5rsa era s#ave$e!"e res'a4. De #$ $%)%
'%!)e!sa)%, %9e "alve2 #$ *%#'% r:&)%, % es'r"%r 5rasler% s%#5e e;*ressar % l#r va&%,
)el'%s% e *%/"'% )a ara&e$ !#$a 5ela !%"e )e l#ar.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1

A )v)a es"l:s"'a $as $*%r"a!"e +#e s#s'"a %9e % *r%!%$e !)e!)% / % se# e$*re&% e
'%l%'a36% e$ rases !e&a"vas. N%s *r$er%s "e$*%s )a l:!&#a, *ara esses 'as%s #sava(se %
!)e!)% !e&a"v% %e%*um, a!"e'e)e!)% % s#5s"a!"v%. E;e$*l%= N6% - %e%*uma '%#sa )e
+#e s!"a re'e%4. É a!)a %9e a %r$a *%*#lar e '%rre!"e. C%$% ava !a rase )#as !e&a3<es
+%7o e %e%*uma- '%!s""#!)% *le%!as$%, %s es'r"%res, a$&%s )a l8&'a e )% +#e s#*#$a$ ser
ele&!'a,
$%)'a)a='%$e3ara$
N6% - aal3uma
av%re'er % e$*re&%
'%#sa )e al3um
)e +#e s!"a !a rase
re'e%4. J- !%!e&a"va.
s/'#l% ;vEa*are'e$
ass$ a rase %
'%!s"r#3<es
)es"e "*% e$ "e;"%s l"er-r%s. P%r e;e$*l%, !% Orto !o Esposo es'reve(se= N%$ le a2e$
al3um e$5ar&%4. ( A al$a !%$ a'a '#$*r$e!"% e$ al3ua '%#sa4. E$ 5reve se ver'%#
+#e % *r%!%$e *re'e)e!)% % s#5s"a!"v% a'e!"#ava *%r )e$as a )ea ar$a"va. Ps(se )e*%s, e
'%!se&##(se '%$ es"a )esl%'a36% #$ 5%$ ee"% e;*ressv%= N6% - '%#sa al3uma )e +#e s!"a
re'e%4.

A+# "e$%s, e$ "er$%s s$*les, '%$% se )e# a ev%l#36%. O e$*re&% )e %e%*um "e$ 'ar-'"er
*%*#lar, % )e al3um, 'ar-'"er $%)er!% e l"er-r%. É 5%$ #sar %s )%s, '%!%r$e as 'r'#$s"!'as
e se&#$)% as *reer!'as )e $%$e!"%. A l:!&#a / $#"% r'a e$ $e%s e;*ressv%s.
Sa5a$%s e$*re&-(l%s "%)%s, a se# "e$*%, *ara )ar vare)a)e a% +#e es'reve$%s. Os *#rs"as "$
a r#$ "e!)!'a *ara '%!s)erare$ #$a s8 %r$a '%rre'"a. Se !%s '%!ve!'er$%s )% '%!"r-r%, /
$e% 'a$!% a!)a)% *ara 'e&ar$%s a es'rever 5e$. E "re$%s )e "#)% s"% es"a '%!'l#s6%
se&#ra= a Es"l:s"'a, *re'%!2a!)% a l5er)a)e 'ra)%ra, es"- $#"as ve2es e$ '%!l"% '%$ as re&ras
)a Gra$-"'a, +#e se a*%a !%s )"a$es )#$a "ra)36% e$*e)er!)a
1K.

O VERBO

1. O ver5% s#5s"a!"v%. ( É 5e$ '%!e')% )e "%)%s +#e 'er"%s s#5s"a!"v%s, '%$% % ;a%tar, o !eer,
% a3e%te, o ou'%te, % 3u'sa!o, % co('!o, e"'., s6% %r$as ver5as 'rs"al2a)as. Per)e#(se a !%36% )%
a'"% ver5al7 a+#elas *alavras s6% ")as '%$% ver)a)er%s s#5s"a!"v%s, s#9e"a!)%(se *%s >s re&ras
+#e &%ver!a$ es"a es*/'e )e v%'-5#l%s. Esses a!"&%s !!"v%s e *ar"':*%s "$, '%$% +#al+#er
s#5s"a!"v%, % se# *l#ral= %s ;a%tares, "rs ou'%tes, )%s co('!os.
F- *%r/$ 'as%s e$ +#e a l:!&#a *%)e s#5s"a!"var % !!"v%, se$ +#e essa %r$a *er'a a s#a
!a"#re2a ver5al. Ve9a$%s es"e e;e$*l%, +#e '%!s""# #$ '#r%s% *r%v/r5% *%*#lar= A"/ ao laar
)%s 'es"%s / v!)$a4. A+#, laar, se!)% $%r%l%&'a$e!"e #$ s#5s"a!"v%, *%s es"- *re'e))% )%
ar"&% )e!)% o, '%!serva % se# )!a$s$% ver5al e '%rres*%!)e $as %# $e!%s a es"a 8r$#la=
A"/ +#e se laemZ-. P%)er:a$%s s#5s""#r a %r$a !!"va *%r #$ !%$e= ( A"/ > laa3em $as,
se re*arar$%s 5e$, a rase *er)e e$ e!er&a e $%v$e!"%= % s$*les s#5s"a!"v% !6% e;*r$e "6%
5e$ % a'"% )e lavar4.

Os !%ss%s es'r"%res 'l-ss'%s #sara$ lar&a$e!"e )% !!"% !%$!al. Ve9a(se es"a rase )e Vera=
O *%lv%, '%$ a+#ele !6% ter %ss% !e$ es*!a, *are'e a $es$a 5ra!)#ra.4 N6% *%)e$%s )e;ar
)e re'%!e'er a %r3a, % *"%res'% e % '%!)e!sa)% )es"a e;*ress6%. O es'r"%r $%)er!% !6% es'reve
ass$7 *are'e ass#s"-(l% % e$*re&% )a !e&a"va e )% a)9e'"v%

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1

)e$%!s"ra"v% a!"es )% !!"%. Se %9e +#s/sse$%s e;*r$r a+#ela )ea, )r:a$%s )e +#al+#er
)es"as $a!eras=

1. O *%lv%, *el% a'"% )e !6% "er %ss% !e$ es*!a, *are'e a *r8*ra 5ra!)#ra.

. O *%lv%, al"a!)%(le %ss% e es*!a, *are'e a *r8*ra 5ra!)#ra.

. O *%lv%, *%r "er al"a )e %ss% e es*!a, *are'e a *r8*ra 5ra!)#ra.

. O *%lv%, '%$ a+#ela al"a )e %ss% e es*!a, *are'e a *r8*ra 5ra!)#ra.

Na)a !%s '#s"ar- re'%!e'er +#e, a es"e res*e"%, a l:!&#a 'l-ss'a levava va!"a&e$ > a'"#al, e +#e /
"alve2 *ara la$e!"ar +#e *er)sse$%s esse $%)% )e e;*ress6%, +#e % &ale&% al-s a!)a '%!serva,
'%$ a a#)-'a e;*ressva )e #sar % !!"% !a %r$a *r%!%$!al=

Ds*#;% +#e % a&ar)ara! al as"ra % *r$er% !erret?rese )a !eve.4 R. O"er% Pe)ra%, O
se%*or'ta !a Re2ora'%a, 11.

A+#, % !!"% '%$% +#e se !'%r*%# '%$ a+#ele e *ara&8&'%, *ara a2er as ve2es )e s#5s"a!"v%.
N6% - )v)a +#e % *%r"#&#s )% Brasl e P%r"#&al, e!rea)% *ela Gra$-"'a, a!)a !6% 'e&%# a
es"e a*#r% )e e;*ress6%. A!)a %9e, *%r/$, se$*re +#e % es'r"%r +#er re*rese!"ar % $%v$e!"%, a
a'36% '%!":!#a, #sa % !!"% s#5s"a!"va)%, '%$% !es"e *ass% )e E3a )e ?#er%2= *%5re e
s#5al"er!%, a s#a v)a / #$ '%!s"a!"e sol'c'tar, a!ular, er3ar, raste;ar, atura%. Se !%s )/sse$%s a%
"ra5al%, !"l, )e s#5s""#r$%s %s ver5%s *el%s s#5s"a!"v%s '%&!a"%s s"% /, )a $es$a a$:la,
)a $es$a ra2, arra!9ar:a$%s sol'c'ta7o, a!ula7o, raste;ame%to, $as ver(!%s(:a$%s
e$5ara3a)%s *era!"e er3ar e aturar +#e !6% "$ s#5s"a!"v%s )erva)%s, *el% $e!%s
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

!a l!&#a&e$ #s#al. N6% r:a$%s $*r%vsar )esas"ra)a$e!"e, '%$% a2e$ al&#$s )esa9e"a)%s, #$
er3ame%to %# er3a7o, #$ aturame%to %# atura7o, +#e !6% "$ #s% '%rre!"e !a l:!&#a. Mas,
a!)a +#e %sse$ *er$")%s, !6% s#5s""#ra$ )e $%)% !e!#$ % v&%r%s% e e;*ressv% e$*re&%
)% ver5% s#5s"a!"v%, +#e "6% 5e$ sa5e re*rese!"ar a $%5l)a)e e '%!"!#)a)e )a a'36%.

A !'%$*ree!s6% )es"e a'"% "e$ leva)% a )es*r%*8s"%s, "a!"% $as la$e!"-ves +#a!"% / 'er"%
"ra"ar(se )e a'"%s %'as. N%s le"rer%s )a *%l:'a *%r"#&#esa )e "r!s"% 9- se l= É *r%5)% %
atraessame%to *elas *la'as 'e!"ras4. C%$% !6% *%)a$ es'rever traess'a al-s, e$*re&a)% *%r
Gra3a Ara!a, e$ traess'a !a mata-, *%r+#e % !%$e ev%'a '%sas )% $ar, !ve!"ara$ a+#ele
$%!s"r%2!%. N6% le$5r%# a% )&!% #$'%!-r% *%l'al +#al+#er '%sa '%$% s"%, )e $#"%
$el%r &%s"% e es"l%= É *r%5)% atraessar %# passar- *elas *la'as 'e!"ras4.

Es"a %r$a36% )e s#5s"a!"v%s e$ "me%to ve$ )e l%!&e. J- !%s lvr%s )% !a!"e D. Pe)r% e )e
er!6% L%*es, !% s/'#l% ;v, e!'%!"ra$%s e%cam'%*ame%to, re3ame%to, sat's$a('me%to, tapame%to,
per!'me%to, apa%*ame%to, !esterrame%to, $alame%to, a'same%to, e"'. Ne!#$a )essas )erva3<es
*er)#r%#, *%r )e$asa)% l%!&as e '%!"r-ras a% &/!% )a l:!&#a, +#e *reere, '%$% se v', as %r$as
'#r"as= re3a, apa%*a, !esterro,e"'. C%!"#)%, M%!"er% L%5a"% "eve a '%ra&e$ )e *r%*%r %r$a3<es
'%$% atrapal*ame%to, mara'l*ame%to, empol3ame%to +e3r'%*a, (.

Te$%s *%s +#e, al/$ )% se# val%r es"l:s"'%, a s#5s"a!"va36% )% !!"v% / #$a !e'ess)a)e
$*%s"a > l:!&#a *ela s#a al"a )e !%$es )erva)%s.

Ve9a$%s a!)a es"a rase )#$ a#"%r '%!"e$*%r!e%= N6% a"res > a'e )esse *%5re 'a!"%r )as r#as
% $ec*ar )esa*e)a)% )a "#a 9a!ela.4 F%9e va(se )2e!)% $ec*o e!"re !8s7 $as essa %r$a "e$ #$
!'%!ve!e!"e= e;*r$e !6% s8 % al"% )e e'ar $as a!)a % *r8*r% !s"r#$e!"%, a e'a)#ra.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1

P%r ss%, !% Brasl se a)%*"%# se$ )'#l)a)e % "er$% $ec*ame%to, '%$% se v e$ Ra#l P%$*/a=
*%r"as v%"a)as a. $ec*ame%to *ara se$*re4 +O Ate%eu, *-&, . P%)ere$%s re'%rrer, / 'er"%, a #$
"er$% s!8!$% ( o e%cerrame%to $as, '%$% 9- )sse$%s !#$ 'a*:"#l% a!"er%r, #$a %r$a
)ere!"e $*%r"a se$*re s&!'a)% $as %# $e!%s )ere!"e, e a *alavra )erva)a !6% *%)e
'a5al$e!"e
#$ *%)er%s%"ra)#2r
re'#rs%a)e
a'36% e;*ressa *el% !!"% )% ver5%. Es"a %r$a, !6% - )v)a !e!#$a, /
es"l%.

Os r%$!"'%s, e $#"% e$ es*e'al Fer'#la!%, "vera$ *%r ela ver)a)era *re)le'36%. Na ver)a)e,
se % !!"% "ra)#2 a $%5l)a)e, !a)a $el%r )% +#e essa %r$a *ara e;*r$r a a&"a36%, a
!+#e"#)e )a al$a r%$!"'a. Es al&#$s e;e$*l%s, '%l)%s !% a#"%r )% E%r'co: Pare'a e!v%l"%
e$ #$)% pe%sar6. ( ?#e$ $e res*%!)e *%r ele / % se# !orm'r *r%#$)%4. ( E!"6% res"a o
$u3'r6. ( Na+#ele r%s"% a*e!as se '%!e'a o 'er !% pro$um!ar )as )#as r #&as r%!"as4. ( Ele
5e$ sa5a +#e se se&#a o morrer6.

er!a!)% Pess%a, % &ra!)e *%e"a $%)er!s"a, "a$5/$ #s%# lar&a$e!"e )essa %r$a, e$
'%!)e!sa3<es a"rev)as, +#e s6% % )eses*er% )% &ra$-"'%= A"ravessa o eu %7o po!er ?"la #$a
$6% e!%r$e4. (A5re$ $6%s 5ra!)as 9a!elas se're"as \ e - ra$%s )e v%le"as 'a!)% \ !e *aer
#$a !%"e )e *r$avera l- %ra \ s%5re o eu estar )e %l%s e'a)%s...4 Ale&ra($e %#vr a '#va,
*%r+#e ela / % templo estar aceso6. N6% / #s#al a *l#ral2a36% )% ver5% s#5s"a!"v%. C%!"#)%, )e
+#a!)% e$ +#a!)%, a*are'e, '%$% !es"es e;e$*l%s = era #$ %$e$ )e teres6 "er %s se#s !ares e
tomares '%$ al&#/$4. A+# *%r/$ 9- % se!")% ver5al a*are'e $e!%s !:")%7 a #$36% ver5al
'rs"al2%# e arree'e# e$ s#5s"a!"v%. O $es$% se !6% )- !es"e *ass% )#$ 9%ve$ r%$a!'s"a )e
!%ss%s )as= Na era va #$a "e$*es"a)e )e r'3<es e es"al)%s, ro!op'ares e 2ateres, &r"%s e
'a!sa3%s4. A+# 9- % !!"% rea)+#r# a s#a #$36% ver5al7 $as *%)era, "alve2 se$ )esva!"a&e$,
"%$ar a %r$a )% s!&#lar, *re(

1 ( Es"l:s"'a
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

'e))% )% ar"&% !)e!)%= #$ ro!op'ar e 2ater. É 'er"% *%r/$ +#e % *l#ral "%$a $as '%!'re"a,
$as *"%res'a a re*rese!"a36%.

#. O )er2o &ra%si&i)o e i%&ra%si&i)o. ( Ca$a(se ver5% "ra!s"v%4 "%)% a+#ele '#9a a'36% re'a %#
"ra!s"a *ara #$L%&%
al#$% prepara. %59e'"%. E;e$*l%=
a'#)ra O al#$%
a *er&#$"a= prepara
( Pre*ara as l3<es4.
% +# N6%preparar
@ O ver5% *%)er:a$%s
!6% )2er a*e!as
se 5as"a a s ( O
*r8*r%7 re+#er l%&% a*8s #$ '%$*le$e!"%, +#e e$ Gra$-"'a se 'a$a %59e'"% )re'"%4 %#
'%$*le$e!"% )re'"%4.

J- se )sser$%s= A 'ra!3a c*ora6 ( se!"$%s +#e a rase es"- *ere"a, a2 se!")% 'lar%7 % ver5%
'%rar 5as"a(se a s $es$%, !6% e;&e !e!#$ '%$*le$e!"%. A es"es ver5%s +#e !6% *re'sa$ )e
"ra!s"ar *ara #$ %59e'"% e s6% *%r s s8 *le!a$e!"e e;*ressv%s, )-(se % !%$e )e !"ra!s"v%s4.

Is"% / a "e%ra. Pra"'a$e!"e, a l:!&#a e %s es'r"%res !6% rar% 5arala$ es"as 'a"e&%as. ?#a!)% se
)2= A 'ra!3a c*ora"6, % es*:r"% a*ree!)e l%&% #$ %59e'"% $a&!-r%, +#e s6% as l/3r'mas.
P%)er(se(a "ra)#2r= A 'ra!3a ver"e l-&r$as )e $$%47 $as a l:!&#a, %# a!"es % es'r"%r, !6% es"-
'%$ esse "ra5al% e )2 )re'"a$e!"e= A 'ra!3a '%ra l-&r$as )e $$%4. C%$e"e #$ *le%!as$%
re*e"36% )e *alavras '%$ % $es$% se!")%, +#e res#l"a al-s e;*ressv% *ela !"e!s)a)e +#e
$*r$e
a$:la )%> ver5%
re*rese!"a36%. Va a!)a
s#5s"a!"v% $as l%!&e=
'%&!a"%4. 'e&a
Ve9a(se es"eae;e$*l%
e$*re&ar
)e'%$% %59e'"%
er!6% L%*es=)re'"%
?#e$ #$v%s
!%$e
"al )a
'%#sa )sse me%t'u"os $# &ra!)e me%t'ra6 +)r%'ca !e D. Po7o I, *ar"e I, 'a*. Q, e a!)a es"e,
$%)er!% e $#"% )% #s% l"er-r%= O s-5% 'eu #$a '!a )e $%)/s"a4. É !a ver)a)e $as
e;*ressva )% +#e se )ss/sse$%s, s$*les$e!"e= O s-5% vve# $%)es"a$e!"e4. A re*e"36% )e
*alavras '%&!a"as real3a a $a&e$ ver5al

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1Q

Ta$5/$ al&#$s ver5%s "ra!s"v%s *%)e$ ser e$*re&a)%s '%$% !"ra!s"v%s. O +#e $*%r"a, !%
'as%, / a a'"v)a)e )% s#9e"% e !6% *r%*ra$e!"e % %59e'"% s%5re +#e ela se e;er'e7 *%r ss% esse
%59e'"% !6% ve$ reer)%. E;e$*l%= A $6e l'a, % l% estu!aa, e a 'ra)a laaa !% "a!+#e4. Os
%l%s )% es*:r"% es"6% )re'"a$e!"e *%s"%s !a a'36% e es+#e'e$%s $%$e!"a!ea$e!"e % %59e'"%
)re'"%, +#e / res*e'"va$e!"e #$ l'ro6, as l'es6, a roupa6.

O $as l#s"re )e "%)%s esses ver5%s '%$ )#*la #$36% /, se$ )v)a, % ver5% amar. P%r ss%
$es$%, % es'r"%r 5rasler% M-r% )e A!)ra)e !""#l%# )es"e 9e"% #$a )e s#as $as 'a"va!"es
!%velas= Amar, er2o '%tra%s't'o. Tra"a(se )e Carl%s, #$ $%3% )e 1 a!%s, a +#e$ % *a
arra!9%# #$a *re'e*"%ra ale$6 )e  a!%s, *ara le e!s!ar ale$6% e % !'ar e$ se;%l%&a.
Carl%s a'a5%# *%r a*re!)er a a$ar !% '%r*% )a *r%ess%ra7 $as era #$ a$%r e;*er$e!"al
!"ra!s"v%, +#e s8 *%)a "er s#9e"% e !6% %59e'"%= es"e !6% *assava )e $er% !s"r#$e!"% )% a$%r.

F- *%s !es"e s/'#l% a*ressa)% 'er"a "e!)!'a *ara s#5e!"e!)er % %59e'"% )re'"%, *r!'*al$e!"e
!a l!&#a&e$ )%s !e&8'%s, e$ +#e $*%r"a s%5re"#)% a a'36%. ?#a!)% % $er'eer% !%s )2= (
0Ma%!amos a 'asa4, 9- sa5e$%s )e +#e se "ra"a= +#er s&!'ar +#e $a!)a %s &/!er%s a% !%ss%
)%$':l%. ?#a!)% #$ *!"%r a2 a!#!'ar +#e epe !a Galera B%5%!e4, 9- sa5e$%s +#e e;*<e
%s se#s +#a)r%s '%$ !"e!36% )e %s ve!)er4. É *%r es"e $%"v% +#e al&#/$ 9- )sse +#e a
a5#!)!'a )%s ver5%s !"ra!s"v%s / #$ !):'% )e 'vl2a36%, *%r "ra2ere$ s#5e!"e!))%s )e!"r%
)e s "%)%s os ele$e!"%s +#e )e!e$ a a'36%, se$ *re'sare$ )e '%$*le$e!"%.
Se % !"ra!s"v% se 5as"a a s $es$%, / *%r+#e "e$ $as *%)er )e s#&es"6% e $as e!er&a
e;*ressva. Os "ra!s"v%s !6% *%ss#e$ % se# '%l%r)%, a s#a 'a*a')a)e 'ara'"er2a)%ra. Ve9a$(se
a*e!as es"es e;e$*l%s= O r% murmura6. ( O *!al %e3re;a a% l%!&e4. P%r ss%, % !"ra!s"v%
1-

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

/ *reer)% *el%s es'r"%res, +#a!)% )ese9a$ *!"ar4, '%$% se v *ere"a$e!"e !es"e s%!e"% )e
G%!3alves Cres*%, e$ +#e !6% - *r%*ra$e!"e ver5%s "ra!s"v%s=

D#as %ras )a "ar)e. U$ s%l ar)e!"e

!%s '%l$%s )ar)e9a!)% e !%s era)%s. S%5releva a%s s#ss#rr%s a5aa)%s % &r"% )as 5&%r!as es"r)e!"e.

A "a5er!a / va2a7 $a!sa$e!"e "re$e % l%#rer% !%s #$5ras *!"a)%s7 2#$5e$ > *%r"a !se'"%s vare&a)%s,

e!v%lv)%s )% s%l !a l#2 "re$e!"e.

a > s%lera #$a vel!a. O l%, !% '/# $al a'%r)%# )a a#%ra % 5rle,^1  sa# *ara %s 'a!sa3%s )a
lav%#ra.

A !%ra lava !% r5er%, e %s !e"%s a% l%!&e '%rre$, se$!#s, !+#e"%s, !% $ar %!)ea!"e )a seara l%#ra.
Mas %s es'r"%res !6% se sa"sa2e$ '%$ esse la'%!s$%, *r8*r% )%s %$e!s a*ressa)%s, e se!"e$
*%r ve2es *ra2er !a %*era36% !versa= reves"r )e '%$*le$e!"% %s ver5%s !"ra!s"v%s, *ara "%$ar
$as ev)e!"e, $as %r"e e '%l%r)a a a'36%. Es"a "r)!s"v2a36% )%s ver5%s / *r8*ra )a *%esa
$%)er!s"a. D2 #$ l8l%&%, +#e es"#)%# es"e *r%'ess% !%s *%e"as s$5%ls"as= U$a *%esa +#e
a'e"a "%)a a es*/'e )e se're"as !l#!'as %*era!"es !%s e!8$e!%s )eve e;*a!)r a% $-;$% a
%r3a "ra!s"va )%s ver5%s= $lor'r, !orm'r, morrer, c*oer, s6% *ara %s s$5%ls"as ver5%s reere!"es
!6% a*e!as a% s#9e"%, $as ver5%s )e a'36% +#e $*l'a$ $%)'a3<es )% $#$)% e;"er%r4. V(se
ss% *ere"a$e!"e )es"es vers%s )e er!a!)% Pess%a= Se!"%($e a% */ )%s s/'#l%s *er))%s, \
c'smo % se# *erl )e !/r'a e v%%...4 ( E# 9- !6% s%# +#e$ era7 \ % +#e e# s%!e, morr'"o.6 ( O
%#"%!% mora $-&%as a%s %#"er%s.4
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

11

A s"8ra )a l:!&#a $%s"ra +#e $#"%s ver5%s, e$*re&a)%s a!"&a$e!"e '%$% "ra!s"v%s, %ra$
*%#'% a *%#'% a)+#r!)% a *re*%s36% a!"es )% '%$*le$e!"%. De "ra!s"v%s )re'"%s "%$ara$(se
"ra!s"v%s !)re'"%s ( "al / a )es&!a36% +#e se les )- e$ Gra$-"'a. N% *er:%)% ar'a'% e
'l-ss'% era$ *ere"a$e!"e !%r$as '%!s"r#3<es '%$% es"as=

1. N6% *)e res'st'r a $ora )% !$&%.

. o3e a '!a "#r5#le!"a )as &ra!)es ')a)es.

. O ')a)6% )ever- o2e!ecer es'r#*#l%sa$e!"e a le'.

. Ro3ou"o +#e le $%s"rasse % )re"% 'a$!%.


O #s% 5rasler% )a l:!&#a '%!serv%# al&#$as )es"as '%!s"r#3<es "ra!s"vas, +#e % *%r"#&#s 9-
re9e"%#= 0ass'st'r as a#las4, 0a3ra!ar a $6e4, 0per!oar o l%4.

N6% / ):'l ver #$ )%s $%"v%s, se$ )v)a #$)a$e!"al, +#e )e"er$!ara$ % e$*re&% )a
*re*%s36%= % #$a !e'ess)a)e )e 'lare2a. O e$*re&% "ra!s"v% )% ver5% 'r%# #$a
a$5&#)a)e )e s&!'a36%, +#e se $%s"ra *ere"a$e!"e !a *r$era rase, a +#al "a!"% *%)er-
s&!'ar= N6% *)e res'st'r B $ora )% !$&%4, '%$%, *%r #$a !vers6% '%rre!"e !a l:!&#a= A
%r3a )% !$&% !6% *)e ress"r4. S8 a e!"%a36% *%)era )s'r$!ar % ver)a)er% s&!'a)% )a
rase. N6% 5as"ava7 a l:!&#a re$e)%# % 'as% '%$ % a#;:l% )as *re*%s3<es, +#e !"r%)#2ra$
'lare2a !% )s'#rs%. F%9e, !varavel$e!"e, es'reve$%s e )2e$%s a+#eles '%$*le$e!"%s re&)%s
)e *re*%s3<es %# )% *r%!%$e *ess%al l*e +" a ele= B $ora, B '!a, B le', ro3ou"l*e. A es"a
!'l!a36% *ara $a%r !ase e 'lare2a se )eve *r%vavel$e!"e % '#r%s% e$*re&% )% ver5% amar !a
ala *%*#lar )% Brasl, rever"e!)% al-s a #$ #s% a!"&% )% *%r"#&#s l"er-r%= a$a a De#s4, %# >
a!al%&a '%$ % ver5% >uerer: +#erer 5e$ a al&#/$4. É &eral$e!"e '%!e')% % '%!"% &ra'%s%
)e M%!"er% L%5a"% +e3r'%*a, .a e)., *-&s. 11(
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

(1, !% +#al % a#"%r !%s reere a )esve!"#ra )#$ *%5re rapa(, +#e *er)e# a !a$%ra)a s8 *%r "er
#sa)% !#$ 5le"e +#e le $a!)%# % e% s%le's$%= E# a$%(\ce4. O +#e *are'e s&!'ar s"%= -
'%sas +#e se )2e$, $as !6% se es'reve$, s%5 *e!a )e &raves '%$*l'a3<es.

Cas%s -, '%!"#)%, e$ +#e s#5ss"e$ as )#as '%!s"r#3<es. A l:!&#a, +#e / #$a -5l e'8!%$a, )-
&eral$e!"e a #$a e %#"ra #$ $a"2 )ere!"e )e s&!'a36%. Ass$, 0!'spor % )!er%4 )ere )e
0!'spor )% )!er%4. N% *r$er% 'as% e!"e!)e(se +#e % )!er% / *%s"% e$ %r)e$4, !%
se&#$)%, +#e / e$*re&a)%, )ese$5%lsa)%4. ?#a!)% se )2 0apo%tar para % re"ra"%4, es"-(se
ve!)% #$ )e)% es"e!))% !a )re'36% )% re"ra"%7 9- e$ 0apo%tar #$ err%4 !6% ve$%s % )e)%,
'%$*ree!)e!)% +#e % ver)a)er% s&!'a)% )e apo%tar é a+# % )e reerr4, $e!'%!ar4. '%$ %
ver5% cumpr'r )-(se "a$5/$ #$ 'as% '#r%s%. Ta!"% se *%)e )2er, %9e '%$% a!"&a$e!"e,
0cumpr' as $!as %5r&a3<es4 %# 0cumpr' com as $!as %5r&a3<es4. ?#a!)% *%r/$ se "ra"a )e
+#as+#er %5r&a3<es +#e !6% s6% !ere!"es a% !)v:)#%, +#e !6% )e*e!)e$ )ele, !6% se #sa
&eral$e!"e a *re*%s36% com. E;e$*l%= 0)umpr' as %r)e!s +#e $e %ra$ )a)as4.

*. Ver2os impessoais.( F- )%s $%)%s #$)a$e!"as )e a*ree!)er$%s %s e!8$e!%s. U$as ve2es


$*<e$(se a5s%l#"a$e!"e > !%ssa '%!s'!'a7 e;*er$e!"a$%s % e!8$e!% se$ '#)ar !% +#e %
$%"v%# e !% ee"% +#e "eve. E;e$*l%s= )*oe. Est/ calor. a( e%to,e"'. É, '%$% 9- v$%s, #$a
a'"v)a)e !"ra!s"va7
leva)%s a rela'%!ar '%$% ver5% +#e e;*r$e
% e!8$e!% % e!8$e!%
a s#a 'a#sa e % se# 5as"a(se a s $es$%.
ee"%, '%$% +#a!)% O#"ras ve2es
)2e$%s= s%$%s
O e%to
a3'ta as /rores. A+# 9- "e$%s #$ ver5% +#e e;*r$e a a'36% +a3'ta-, #$ a&e!"e +#e a real2a e
+#e e$ Gra$-"'a se 'a$a s#9e"%4 +o e%to-, e #$ %59e'"% %# a'"#a)% s%5re +#e re'a a a'36%,
'a$a)% e$

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

Gra$-"'a %59e'"% )re'"%4 +as /rores-. É #$ *r%'ess% "ra!s"v%.

A vela Gra$-"'a "!a )'#l)a)es e$ a)$"r ver5%s se$ s#9e"%, s"% /, ver5%s $*ess%as. E
a%s ver5%s $e"e%r%l8&'%s, c*oer, troe;ar, ama%*ecer, e"'., +#e s6% %s $as *#ra$e!"e
$*ess%as,
s#9e"% %'#l"%5#s'ava a"r5#r
)e troe;ar, s#9e"%s
c*oer, e"'.,+#e es"ara$
sera De#s4s#5e!"e!))%s *%roral*ar
%# % C/#4, )e *r%'ess%sera
el:*"'%. Ass$, %e"'.
a $a!64,
P%)e ser +#e !%s "e$*%s )a $"%l%&a, e$ +#e "#)% se reera a #$a e!")a)e )v!a, ass$ %sse.
F%9e e$*re&a$%s esses ver5%s )e $%)% $*ess%al, se$ %s reerr a !e!#$ a&e!"e. C%$*ree!)e(
se +#e es"e a'"% )eve )ar a% ver5% $*ess%al 'er"a a#"%!%$a e "a$5/$ 'er"% $s"/r%, #$a
$*ress6% )e va&%, +#e %s ar"s"as sa5e$ a*r%ve"ar !a s#a '%$*%s36%. C%$*are$(se %s )%s
)2eres= 5'%*a rompe%!o a ma%*7e Ama%*ec'a. O *r$er%, '%$ % se# s#9e"%, / $as 'lar%7 %
se&#$)% )-(!%s "%)% % $s"/r%, a *%/"'a va&#)6% )% r%$*er )% )a.

N%"e(se +#e a !%ssa l:!&#a "e$ ar"es )e "%$ar es"es ver5%s *ess%as, e$ se!")% *r8*r% e &#ra)%.
É #$a e;'ele!"e a+#s36% )e es"l%, *%r+#e esses ver5%s '%$#!'a$ > rase % se# e!'a!"% *%/"'%.
Al&#$s e;e$*l%s= 1. )*o'am as *e)ras l- )e '$a. . As 9a!elas ama%*eceram 'eas )e l%res. .
A v%2 )% "r5#$% troe;aa '8leras s%5re %s %#v!"es. . Os $#"%s a!%s %earam"l*e a 'a5e3a.
P%):a$%s )2er, e '%$ ee"% 9- se va )2e!)% e a"/ *reer!)%= 0De ma%*7, as 9a!elas apareceram
'eas )e l%res4. Mas a %r$a ama%*ecer é $as '#r"a, $as '%!)e!sa)a e se$ )v)a $as
s#&es"va. C%!"#)%, '%$% a l:!&#a / #$ !s"r#$e!"% )e '%$#$'a36%, as %r$as )ese!v%lv)as,
a!al:"'as, s6% $as 'laras, e$5%ra $e!%s *%/"'as, e v6% )es"r%!a!)% as %r$as s$*les. O
*r%&ress% / *%#'% a$&% )a a!"asa )%s *%e"as.

Res"a$ %s ver5%s +#e, se$ sere$ *%r !a"#re2a $*ess%as, *%)e$ #sar(se )esse $%)%. S6%
$#"%s e vara)%s.
1+

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

E$ *r$er% l#&ar, #$ &r#*% )e ver5%s, $#"% #s#as, +#e *%)e$ e$*re&ar(se $*ess%al$e!"e !a
.a *ess%a !esse 'as% s6% 'a$a)%s #$*ess%as4= *aer, ser, $a(er, !ar, 'r, $'car, estar, !oer,
a!m'rar, lem2rar, es>uecer, e"'.

'%$ % *r$er%,
5rasler% !'#l"%-a s#5s""#:(l%
'er"a )'#l)a)e e$$as
*%r ter a'e"ar
a!)a% se# 'ar-'"er
a*are'e $#"aa5s"ra'"% e $*ess%al,
&e!"e +#e, e$ ve2 )%% &ra$a"'al
+#e lev%# %
0.*oue '%sas4, *reere )2er 0*oueram '%sas4. Le$5re(se a+# a+#ela *ers%!a&e$ )% es'r"%r
er!a!)% Na$%ra, a )ev%"a D. ?#"/ra, +#e *res#$a )e 5e$ ala!"e=

E!"re as *ess%as le"ra)as )a vla '%!"ava(se +#e D. ?#"/ra, !#$a )as re'e*3<es )% *a3% e*s'%*al, )s'#"ra
e$ v%2 al"a '%$ %#"ra se!%ra % e$*re&% )% */ e )% *7o. D. ?#"/ra, *%r $, *re"e!)era es$a&ar a rval
'%$ e;e$*l%s '%!'re"%s=

( E!"6% a se!%ra )2 - '%sas4 %# 6% '%sas4 @

( F- '%sas4, ev)e!"e$e!"e.

Y(Y P%s )2 $al= '%sas4 / *l#ral.

C%!"ava(se +#e % 5s*%, a% %#vr % re$a"e )a '%!versa, '%!'l#:ra *ara #$ a5a)e +#e % a'%$*a!ava=

((É es"*)a, $as '%ere!"e.4 er!a!)% Na$%ra, O tr'3o e o ;o'o,


.a e)., *-&s. (Q.

'%$ % l"$%, es>uecer, "a$5/$ - al&#$a '%sa a '%!"ar. ?#a!)% % *%v% )2= N6% te es>uea )e
res > %!"e4, ala *%r"#&#s 'l-ss'%, se$ % sa5er. E$*re&a % ver5% es>uecer '%$% $*ess%al, >
$a!era )e Ca$<es, +#e % #s%# ass$ !a+#ele a)$r-vel s%!e"% Al$a $!a &e!"l4. Es'reve# %
&ra!)e *%e"a= N6% te es>uea )a+#ele a$%r ar)e!"e4, )a!)% #$ se!")% es*e'al > rase e
!ss"!)% $as s%5re a a'36% e % %59e'"% )% +#e s%5re a *r8*ra *ess%a. P%s %s e)"%res 9#l&ara$
+#e % !s#*er-vel ar"s"a se "!a e!&a!a)% e *ess%al2ara$, )e"#r*a!)%(%, #$ vers%, +#e s8 al'a!3a
% se# ver)a)er% s&!'a)% !a %r$a $*ess%al. Re'"'ara$ ass$, )es)e a .a e)36%, )e 1Q=
N6% te es>ueas )a+#ele a$%r ar)e!"e4. Se %#vsse$ a v%2 )% *%v%, +#e '%!serva

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1

a "ra)36% )a l:!&#a 'l-ss'a, !6% '%$e"era$ "6% &ra!)e )s*ara"e.

O#"ra %r$a )e e;*r$r a $*ess%al)a)e / e$*re&ar

'%$ % ver5% !a .a *ess%a )% s!&#lar % *r%!%$e rele;% se.

E;e$*l%= T%)a a !%"e se 2a'lou !% *avl6% e!e"a)% )e

$#r"a4. O s#9e"% es"- %'#l"% *%r )e"r-s )a+#ele *r%!%$e se.

P%)ere$%s s#5s""#r a %r$a rele;a *ela .a *ess%a )%


*l#ral= T%)a a !%"e 2a'laram...#6 $as - #$a *e+#e!a

)ere!3a= !% *r$er% 'as% *are'e +#e !"erv$%s "a$5/$

!a a'36%7 !% se&#$)% 'as%, a *ess%a +#e ala %# es'reve es"-

)s"a!'a)a )% a'"%. A *r$era %r$a / $as l:r'a, $as

ae'"va7 a se&#$)a $as !arra"va, $as !"ele'"#al. E$

a$5as % s#9e"% / !)e"er$!a)%7 $as *are'e a)v!ar(se

%# *resse!"r(se '%$ $as !")e2 !a se&#$)a %s rapa(es

e as rapar'3as, )e +#e a!"er%r$e!"e "alve2 se "vesse

ala)%.

Dsse$%s a"r-s +#e % ver5% ser "a$5/$ se e$*re&a $*ess%al$e!"e. É % +#e s#'e)e e$ rases
'%$% es"a= 0Era !#$a res'a $a!6 )e *r$avera47 %# $es$%, se$ *re*%s36%= 0Era #$a res'a
$a!6 )e *r$avera4. N6% se *%)e )2er +#e ma%*7 se9a s#9e"% )e era. A rase "e$ 'ar-'"er
$*ess%al e '%rres*%!)e,
!e!#$a )es"as $as
e;*ress<es %# $e!%s,
'%$*%s"as a est/amos
"ra)#2 "6% 5e$ a%uma..., se%t'a"se'%$%
$*ess%al)a)e uma, a+#ela
e"'. C%!"#)%,
%r$a )%
ver5% ser.

Os es'r"%res a*r%ve"ara$ a5l$e!"e *ara as s#as !arra"vas es"e 'ar-'"er va&% e $*re's% )%
ver5%, a*r%*ra)% a%s 9%&%s )a a!"asa. Ve9a(se es"e e;e$*l% )e E3a )e ?#er%2= Para % #$)% )%
vale, 'lara "a$5/$ !% l#ar, era a &re9!a )e Cra+#e)e.4 Se s#5s""#r$%s essa %r$a *%r estaa,
!'st'%3u'a"se, e"'., a rase "%$a(se $as *ess%al e *er)e(se % +#e - !ela )e a!"asa e $*re's6%.
U$ %#"r% e;e$*l% )% $es$% &ra!)e ar"s"a, !a )es'r36% )#$ *esa)el%= 0Era, e$ "%$% )% le"%,
#$ er8'% rel#2r e re"!r )e err%s4. S#5s""#a$%s era *%r *a'a: l- se va "%)a a
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

$*ress6% )e $s"/r%, )e '%!#s6% $%v$e!"a)a, +#e '%r.s""# a *%esa )a rase. O $es$% se )-


!es"e *er:%)% )e J%r&e A$a)% +Seara ermel*a, 1, e$ +#e a %r$a, a*are'e!)% !% $ )a rase,
"e$ #$ *%)er%s% ee"% ev%'a)%r e / !s#5s""#:vel *%r %#"r% $e%= A*e!as % s%l )es'a$5ava e %
%r2%!"e s%5re % $ar a'e!)a(se e$ ver$el%, as l#2es el/"r'as 5rlava$, e a !%"e 9- era6.
G#$ar6es
vs#al)a)eR%sa e$*re&a, '%$
e )e '%!'re"s$% a $es$a
"ra"a(se )e '%l%'a36%, ver5% estar,
#$ 5#rr%= %L%!&e !#$ a#$e!"%
)%s %#"r%s, !%"-vel
)e;a)% !#$ )e
e;"re$%, !%
'a!"% $as es'#r% e es+#er)% )% "eler%, Se"e()e(O#r%s estaa6. +Sa3ara%a, .a e)., *-&. 1.
Al-s, % se!")% %r&!-r% )e ser é es"ar se!"a)%4, e estar, !a l:!&#a a!"&a, +#era )2er s%5re"#)%
es"ar e$ */, $8vel4. Tal val%r a!)a / %9e *a"e!"e e$ !%$es '%$% est/tua, estaca, esta!ul*o,
e"'. P%r a+# se v +#e % se&#$)% ver5% a5ra!&e #$ 'a$*% vs#al $#"% $as *re's%, '%$% "#)%
+#a!"% se )e;a ver )e al"% a 5a;%. Os es'r"%res "$ )ss% '%!s'!'a, e$5%ra %s )%s ver5%s
a!)e$ %9e $as %# $e!%s '%!#$))%s.

A )ere!3a, $#"% !:")a, e!"re ser e estar a*are'e *ere"a$e!"e !es"e "re'% )e D. J%6% )a
C$ara, !% +#al % '%!"s"a )es'reve a a!se)a)e )#$ avare!"% e$ 5#s'a )% se# "es%r% es'%!))%=

0Era !% al"% )a serra +#e % se# "es%r% %ra es'%!))%. V!a a#$e!"-(l% !a+#ela !%"e, v!a *al*-(l%...
S#5"a$e!"e es"a'%#. Na 'larera, !% $e% )% *!al, era a '%#*a!a )% &#ar)a... De"%# a '%rrer *el% *!al
%ra... a '%rrer, a '%rrer a"/ a% al"% )a serra, %!)e se )e;%# 'ar e;"e!#a)% a% */ )#$ e!%r$e *!er%
$a!s%... Era al % se# "es%r% C%$e3%# a 'avar, a 'avar, a"/ +#e !al$e!"e % err% 5a"e# )e e!'%!"r% a%
err%... Al estaa % se# "es%r%H Se#H k %lava *ara % '%re '%$ "er!#ra, '%$ #$a la&r$a2!a !% %l%.4
+)o%tos, .a e)., *-&s. (Q.

A %r$a era, !%s "rs e;e$*l%s, "ra)#2 $*re's6%, !e5#l%s)a)e, )s"a!'a$e!"% e a a&"a36% )%
avar% >
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 17

*r%'#ra )% )!er%. Mas +#a!)% % "e$ > vs"a, e!"6% 9- essa *rese!3a, 'er"a e *al*-vel, se
e;*r$e *ela %r$a estaa. U$ &ra!)e es'r"%r 5rasler% se e!'arre&ar- )e !%s e;*l'ar, !#$
%r$%s% "re'%, a )ere!3a e!"re % é e % est/, % *r$er% "%'a)% )e a5s%l#"% e )e e"er!%, % se&#$)%
*la!"a)% !% '%!"!&e!"e, *ara re&al% )a vs"a. M%!"er% L%5a"% va #$ )a a Tarr"%d!, !a A$/r'a
)% N%r"e7 e !6% *%)e re*r$r a $*ress6% )e ;"ase *era!"e a )el'%sa *asa&e$ )e $ )e %#"%!%=

 (Ve9a a+#ele &r#*% )e -rv%res !a+#ela $a!s6% )e es+#!a. Faver- !a)a r!as es"%!"ea!"e$e!"e 5el%, e$
"ar)e 5ela ass$ @ N6% es"- l!)%, l!)% @

A $ss4 s%rr#.

( Mas se$*re % ass$H... N6% est/ l!)%. K l!)%. Dsse e %(se '%$ #$ &ra'%s% &%%)(5e4.

( N6% est/, é[... re*e" '%$&%, *r%'#ra!)% *e!e"rar % se!")% )a res*%s"a. S8 $as "ar)e % *er'e5
*le!a$e!"e. A+#ele &r#*% )e -rv%res vara "a!"% )e as*e'"%s, +#e / se$*re #$a e;*ress6% )e 5ele2a.
Es"ava !a+#ele $%$e!"% ves")% '%$ *s )e %#r% e r#5s. De*%s, '%$ a e!"ra)a )% !ver!%, se )es*ra
)e "%)as as %las *ara a*rese!"ar #$a !%va %r$a )e 5ele2a, *r%#$)a$e!"e $ela!'8l'a, !a !#)e2 )a
&alara s/*a. De*%s se re'%5rra )e !eve ( e 5ra!+#!a a"/ !%s $:!$%s ra$s'#l%s, "era #$a 5ele2a )e
s%!%. De*%s re5e!"ara e$ %las !%vas ( e "era a 5ele2a )a es$eral)a +#e !as'e. De*%s % ver6%
"r#'#le!"% "ra!s%r$ara as es$eral)as "e!ras e$ ver)es a*%*l/"'%s ( e "er:a$%s % !'% "%$ )e 5ele2a a +#e
es"a$%s ae"%s !%s *a:ses )e ver6% e"er!%4. T!a ra26% a $ss4. N6% estaa. Era...6 M%!"er%
L%5a"%, Amér'ca,
.4 e)., *-&. Q.

A )ere!3a )e s&!'a)% e!"re %s )%s ver5%s % '%rre'"a$e!"e e;*l'a)a *%r Cal)as A#le"e !%
se# D'c'o%/r'o r#5r'a ser-, +#a!)% !%s )2 +#e 0ser se e$*re&a +#a!)% a +#al)a)e a"r5#:)a a%
s#9e"% le / !ere!"e e !a"#ral %# a5"#al, e % ver5% estar !% 'as% '%!"r-r%4. E #$ &ra!)e e!sa:s"a
es*a!%l, Salva)%r )e Mara&a, % $as l%!&e= v# !a )ere!3a e!"re %s )%s ver5%s #$ ras&%
'ara'"er:s"'% )%
1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

%$e$ s*!'%= a "e!)!'a *ara )s"!&r % +#e / esse!'al )% +#e / *assa&er%, e!"re % ser, +#e
/ *er$a!e!"e, e as 'r'#$s"!'as, +#e s%$e!"e est7o6.

. V%2 a'"va, *assva e rele;a. ( I$a&!e$%s es"e *e+#e!% +#a)r%= D%s 'a$*%!eses *assa$ *%r
#$ a!"&% *al-'%, '#9%s )%!%s es"ava$ )es)e $#"% a#se!"es e +#e era &#ar)a)% a*e!as *%r #$
vel% 'ra)%. Nesse )a, as 9a!elas a*are'era$ a5er"as. Re*ara!)% !ss%, #$ )eles *%)er- e;*r$r
% a'"% )as se&#!"es $a!eras, )2e!)% *ara % %#"r%=

1. O 'ra)% a5r# %9e as 9a!elas.

. As 9a!elas %ra$ a5er"as *el% 'ra)%.

. A5rra$ as 9a!elas )% *al-'%.

. A5rra$(se as 9a!elas )% *al-'%.

Es"as +#a"r% $a!eras )e e;*r$r #$a )e"er$!a)a a'36% '%!')e$ !% #$)%, $as !6% s6% )e
$%)% !e!#$ e+#vale!"es. Se !6%, ve9a$%s= Na *r$era rase, % 'a$*%!s 'a$a a a"e!36% *ara
% a&e!"e, +#e / % 'ra)%. O %59e'"% +as ;a%elas- 'a $as !a s%$5ra. O +#e $*%r"a *ara ele !a+#ele
$%$e!"% !6% s6% "a!"% as 9a!elas '%$% % 'ra)% +#e as a5ra. C%$% +#e se s#5e!"e!)e es"e
$%v$e!"% )e '#r%s)a)e= *ara +#e "era ele a5er"% as 9a!elas@

Na se&#$)a rase, 9- % %59e'"% )a a'36% a*are'e e$ *r$er% *la!% e % a&e!"e e$ *la!%


se'#$)-r%. A% !)v:)#% +#e *ass%# !"eressava$ !a+#ele $%$e!"% s%5re"#)% as 9a!elas, +#e va
a5er"as, '%!"rara$e!"e a% '%s"#$e. P%r ss% *s % %59e'"% e$ *r$er% l#&ar, '%!s"r#!)% a rase !a
v%2 *assva.

Na "er'era rase, a a"e!36% / re'la$a)a *ara % a'"% e$ s. O s#9e"% / !)e"er$!a)%, e a s#a al"a
"e$ '%$% res#l"a)% %r"ale'er a *r8*ra s&!'a36% )% ver5%. O +#e $*%r"a s%5re"#)% / % a'"% )e
a5rr.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1Q

E!$, !a +#ar"a rase, a )e"er$!a36% )as rela3<es e!"re % s#9e"%, % ver5% e % %59e'"% / 9-
$e!%s *re'sa. A %ra36% *%)e a)$"r )#as s&!'a3<es= a- as 9a!elas a*are'era$ a5er"as *%r s,
'%$ a a9#)a )e al&#$ ele$e!"% +#e se &!%ra ( "alve2 % ve!"% s&!'a36% rele;a7 2- %# %ra$
a5er"as *%r al&#/$, +#e !6% / )e"er$!a)% s&!'a36% *assva. Dava(se *%s #$a '%!#s6%,
+#e a l:!&#a "ra"%# )e ev"ar $#"% s$*les$e!"e= e$ ve2 )e *r % ver5% !% *l#ral, '%$% $a!)a$
as re&ras, e$*re&%#(% !% s!&#lar, '%$% $*ess%al= A2r'u"se as 9a!elas. O *r%!%$e rele;% %
'%!s)era)% e+#vale!"e a #$ *r%!%$e !)e!)%= al&#/$4, #$a *ess%a4. O *r%'ess% /
e!&e!%s% e !a)a re*#&!a > :!)%le )a l:!&#a7 / "a$5/$ '%rre!"e !% ra!'s. S$*les$e!"e, a
'%!s"r#36%, #sa)a !as eseras *%*#lares, !6% es"- a5%!a)a *el%s &ra$-"'%s, +#e a '%!)e!a$.
U$ )a 'er"a$e!"e e!"rar- !a Gra$-"'a= ser- % "r#$% )a 'lare2a s%5re a '%!#s6%. P%r %ra,
a!)a l- !6% 'e&-$%s.

Dev)% a es"a $es$a '%!#s6%, !6% *%)e$%s %9e )2er= A5rl a$(se as 9a!elas *el% 'ra)%4. Era
'%!"#)% essa '%!s"r#36% *ere"a$e!"e #s#al e$ *%r"#&#s 'l-ss'%, *%s a2r'ram"se e+#vala e!"6%
a %ra$ a5er"as *%r al&#/$4. Es #$a rase '%rre!"e e!"re %s a!"&%s es'r"%res= Des'%5r#(se
essa la *%r #$ &r#*% )e *%r"#&#eses4. F%9e "ere$%s )e )2er= % )es'%5er"a essa la *%r #$
&r#*% )e *%r"#&#eses4. Se&#$)% % #s% a'"#al, a '%!9#&a36% rele;a serve *ara e;*r$r a *assva,
$as !6% se -()e !%$ear % a&e!"e. Nessa '%!%r$)a)e, 9- *%)e$%s )2er= Des'%5r#(se a la e$
1K4.

Na l!&#a&e$ %'al #sa(se a v%2 *assva %# a v%2 rele;a '%$ val%r )e *assva, *%r+#e as
)e"er$!a3<es le&as )r&e$(se a #$a $assa *assva %re!"a)a s#*er%r$e!"e *%r #$ 8r&6% a'"v%,
+#e se a)v!a se$*re *rese!"e= o Es"a)%. Ass$ se 9#s"'a % 'ar-'"er $*ess%al )essa l!&#a&e$,
*ara a +#al vale$, $as +#e as *ess%as, %s a'"%s *ra"'a)%s *%r elas. Para e;e$*l% ve9a(se % ar".
Q. )%
1QK

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

C8)&% A)$!s"ra"v% P%r"#&#s= Se$*re +#e #$ #$'%!-r% a)$!s"ra"v% )e;e )e


'%$*are'er a% serv3% )#ra!"e '!'% )as, )e*%s )e e;*ressa$e!"e "er $a!es"a)% a s#a !"e!36%
)e a5a!)%!ar % 'ar&%, ser- *el% se# $e)a"% s#*er%r er-r+#'% leva!"a)% a#"% )e a5a!)%!% )%
l#&ar.4 N6% se )2 % se# s#*er%r leva!"ar-4, *%r+#e *#$a e$ ev)!'a a *ess%a )% #$'%!-r%,
+#a!)% % +#e $as $*%r"a a'e!"#ar / % a'"%, a #$36%.
D% +#e 'a e;*%s"% '%!'l#(se +#e % e$*re&% )a v%2 a'"va, *assva e rele;a se !6% a2 >s 'e&as.
F- ra2<es )el'a)as +#e $*<e$ % se# #s%, '%!%r$e as 'r'#$s"!'as. ?#e$ *%ss# % se!"$e!"%
)a l:!&#a )'l$e!"e se e!&a!ar- !essa $a!*#la36% )%s !&re)e!"es )% es"l%. U$ e;e$*l%= E3a
)e ?#er%2 *<e #$ se# *ers%!a&e$ a !arrar e*s8)%s )a $e!!'e. A%s se"e a!%s, % *e+#e!%, 9-
8r6% )e $6e, *er)era s#5"a$e!"e % *a. D2 % es'r"%r= As 9a!elas )a re!"e )a 'asa $oram
$ec*a!as6. P%)era s&!'ar % $es$%, re'%rre!)% >s %r$as !)'a)as !%s !.%s  e  )%s !%ss%s
e;e$*l%s= a %r$a $*ess%al '%$ % ver5% !a .a *ess%a )% *l#ral "0$ec*aram as 9a!elas47 e a %r$a
rele;a \"++$ec*aram"se as 9a!elas47 $as, se re*arar$%s 5e$, % *r%'ess% es'%l)% !% 'as% *el%
r%$a!'s"a / % $as a*r%*a)%. Tra"a!)%(se )e #$a 'ra!3a, '%!v/$ 'a$ar a a"e!36% *ara as
9a!elas, 9#$"% )as +#as %s $e!!%s '%s"#$a$ 5r!'ar e )%!)e %5serva$ % $#$)% e;"er%r. P%r
ss% % s#9e"%, as ;a%elas, % *%s"% > re!"e )a rase. O e$*re&% )% *ar"':*% *assa)%, $ec*a!as, *<e
$as e$ ev)!'a % s#9e"%. A !a"#re2a a)9e'"va )esse *ar"':*% 'ara'"er2a, )- '%r a% s#9e"% e
*are'e a"/a +#e
l#$!ar rase,> *r8*ra
"%$a!)%a'36%
$as)% ver5%.eE!$,
vs:ves % e$*re&%
*"%res'%s % s#9e"%)ae v%2 *assva
% ver5%= / a+#
)e*%s )e#$ *r%'ess% )e
ver$%s4
'lara$e!"e as 9a!elas, ve$%s4 'lara$e!"e +#e se e'a$. O $es$% !6% s#'e)era !%s )%s %#"r%s
'as%s.

N% +#e res*e"a > v%2 rele;a *r%*ra$e!"e )"a, '%!v/$ !%"ar +#e a l:!&#a %ere'e "a$5/$ 'er"as
)el'a)e2as.
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1Q1

Al&#$s !"ra!s"v%s a)$"e$ a %r$a *r%!%$!al, *ara )are$ #$ !%v% $a"2 )e s&!'a36% a%
a'"% e;*ress% *el% ver5% %# *ara a'e!"#are$ $as e;*ressva$e!"e a &#ra )% s#9e"%. Ve9a$%s
es"es )%s e;e$*l%s=

1. O r/# s%rra, %#v!)% a+#elas a'#sa3<es.

. O *a s%rra(se '%$ as 5r!'a)eras )% l%.

A )ere!3a / #$ *%#'% s#5"l, $as e;s"e ee'"va$e!"e. A *r$era $*ress6% +#e !%s )e;a$ as
)#as rases / +#e !a *r$era % s#9e"% )e!#$'a 'er"% re"ra$e!"%, es"- '%$% e'a)% e$ s
$es$%= ', ev)e!"e$e!"e, #$a '%!se+#!'a )% ver5% !"ra!s"v%, +#e !6% se e;*a!)e !#$
%59e'"%. Na se&#$)a rase, "#)% a*are'e es*%!"!e% e $%v$e!"a)%= % s%rrs% )e;a )e ser e'a)%,
a'a5a(se % $s"/r%, ( ve$%s *a e l% e$ '%$#$6% )e ale&ras. T#)% s"% se '%!se&## '%$ a
%r$a *r%!%$!al. Al&#$s &ra$-"'%s 'a$a$ a es"e *r%!%$e rele;% %59e'"% )re'"% )e
es*%!"a!e)a)e4. É #$a )es&!a36% '%$% +#al+#er %#"ra7 $as, e!$, "ra)#2 '%$ 'er"a ver)a)e %
+#e 'ara'"er2a *r!'*al$e!"e % s#9e"% e a a'36%= es*%!"a!e)a)e, $%v$e!"% se!"$e!"al,
s$*a"a '%$#$'a"va, !"$)a)e r8!'a, e"'.
Os Cl-ss'%s "!a$ a '%$*ree!s6% )es"e val%r e;*ressv% )a %r$a *r%!%$!al e #sava$(!a
lar&a$e!"e. Os ver5%s 'r"se, 'r"se, part'r"se, su2'r"se, $'car"se, !escer"se, e"'., a)+#ra$
s&!'a)% #$ *%#'% )ere!"e )%s s$*les 'r, 'r, part'r, su2'r, $'care !escer. U$ *%e"a +#e;%s%
)e a$%res !6% )r- ( %# *%r esses $%!"es, s#s*ra!)%47 $as, '%$ $as )!a$s$% e *a"/"'% (
05ou"me *%r esses $%!"es, s#s*ra!)%4.

P%r a+# se v +#e a %r$a *r%!%$!al "e$ 'ar-'"er ae'"v% e l:r'%, *%s !"eressa $as vva$e!"e
% s#9e"% !a a'36%. P%r ve2es, % s#9e"% a'a(se "6% a5s%rv)% !% se# es"a)% %# a'36% +#e !6% )-
'%!"a )% +#e se *assa e$ re)%r= / #$a a""#)e )e '%!'e!"ra36% e )eesa. Os a!"&%s es'r(
1Q

M RODRIGUES LAPA

"%res e$*re&ava$ !es"e se!")% al&#$s ver5%s, *r!'*al$e!"e estar. Ve9a(se es"a rase= 0Esou"me
+#e"!% !% $e# 'a!"%, se$ sa5er % +#e va *el% $#$)%4. Se!"$%s $e)a"a$e!"e +#e %
*r%!%$e !"r%)#2 !a rase #$ $%v$e!"% )e al$a, #$ !"eresse ae'"v% +#e % s$*les !"ra!s"v%
!6% '%$*%r"a.

E$ %#"r%s 'as%s a v%2 rele;a / #$a es*/'e )e %r$a *r%&ressva, *%s a'e!"#a % *r%l%!&a$e!"% e
a le!")6% )% a'"%, '%$ #$ :!"$% *ra2er )a *ar"e )% s#9e"%, +#a!)% / !%$e )e *ess%a. O ver5%
morrer"se é *ar"'#lar$e!"e e$*re&a)% !esse se!")%. E;e$*l%, "ra)% )e al% )e Al$e)a=
T!a al!ava)% es"e lvr% !%s 8'%s )a 5ela es"a36% +#e se morr'a.6 O s$*les morr'a era 5r#"al,
se'%, *ere$*"8r%7 '%$ % rele;% e;*r$e(se a le!")6% s#ave )a+#ele !)ar )e es"a36%. I&#al ee"%
'%!se&#e$ % es'r"%r 5rasler% E)#ar)% rer%= O !el2 ar'a!% morr'a"se )e $e)%4

( +O mameluco Joae%tura, .a e)., 1K ' % *#5l's"a &ale&% S:lv% Sa!"a&%= P%r es"a *%!"e
*assa #$ re&#er% +#e se morre )e se)e4( +5'lar!eHs, K. U$ es'r"%r $:s"'% es'reve#=
0.Morra"se !essa &ra!)e sa#)a)e +#e se!"e4. ?#er s&!'ar '%$ ss% !6% a $%r"e '%r*%ral,
s5"a, )e!"va, $as #$ va&ar%s% e )el'a)% a&%!2ar, #$ v%l#*"#%s% )esa2er(se !a sa#)a)e.

9. A e(ipse 'o )er2o.( Cr'#$s"!'as - e$ +#e a rase se '%!s"r8 %# *%)e '%!s"r#r se$ ver5%0 %
val%r se!"$e!"al
&ra$a"'al ?#a!)%,)as)a!"e
'%sas, % re*e!"!%
)#$ )a s#a vs6%
5el% *a!%ra$a, )s*e!sa$
e;'la$a$%s= *ere"a$e!"e
A)$r-vel esse !s"r#$e!"%
*asa&e$H4

( *r%)#2$%s #$a %ra36% ae'"va, a +#e *r%*ra$e!"e !6% al"a % ver5% !e$ *re'sa se+#er )e se
s#5e!"e!)er. Se )ss/sse$%s= Es"a *asa&e$ / a)$r-velH4 ( s%5re'arre&ar:a$%s se$
!e'ess)a)e a rase e, re*ara!)% 5e$, !6% '%!se&#r:a$%s % $es$% ee"% se!"$e!"al, +#e se
e;*r$e "6% e!er&'a$e!"e *%r a+#ele &r#*% )% a)9e'"v% e s#5s"a!"v%.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA1:*

A es"e *r%'ess% el:*"'% 'a$a(se es"l% )e !%"as %# )e )-r%. As '%sas *!"a$(se e )es)%5ra$(se
e$ s/re7 / '%$% % )e'%rrer )#$a "a )e '!e$a. S#*%!a$%s +#e *re"e!)e$%s )es'rever *%r es"e
$e% $*ress%!:s"'% #$a va&e$ )e Ls5%a a C%$5ra. P%)er:a$%s re&s"ar ass$ as !%ssas
$*ress<es =

Ma!6 '!2e!"a. Par")a )e Ls5%a. Os *r$er%s as*e'"%s )a 'a$*!a r5a"e9a!a= "%#r%s, 'a$*!%s
)e vara a% al"%, searas !!"as. De*%s, $#"a36% )e 'e!-r%= l%res"as )e *!er%s ver)e(!e&r%s,
%#"er%s. U$a a5er"a )e l#2= 'a$*%s e;"e!s%s )e $l% e arr%2as. E!$, % "#% es*ess% )%
C%#*al. C%$5ra, )e5r#3a)a s%5re % M%!)e&%H4

A %$ss6% )% ver5%, $#"% )% &%s"% )% $*ress%!s$%, serve a!)a *ara % s$*les )es'r"v% )#$
+#a)r%. É '%$% +#e #$a !%"a36% )e 'e!-r%, '%$% se *%)e ver !es"e "re'% )e Te;era(G%$es=

Sala )e *r/)% !%v% !% *-"% )% T%r'. Or!a$e!"a3<es l5er"4 !a s#a 'lara "%!al)a)e *reer)a,
+#e #$)e % ver)e $ar e$ r%sa *-l)%. D#as &ra!)es 9a!elas *%r %!)e se *ers*e'"va a Ba;a e #$
lar&% "re'% )% r%. A *are)e )% s#l '%r"a)a *%r "rs ar'%s e!v)ra3a)%s +#e )6% *ara #$a es*/'e )e
es"#a res'e!)e!"e4.
A )s*e!sa )% ver5% !6% / *r%'ess% !%v%7 / a!"es #$ $%)% *r$"v% )e re&s"ar as $*ress<es )as
'%sas. E;*l'a(se *%r "rs $%"v%s *r!'*as= a- #$a e;*ress6% )5a %# !'%$*le"a )%
*e!sa$e!"%7 2- #$a 'er"a "e!)!'a *ara a 5rev)a)e e *ara % $e!%r es%r3%7 c- e a !l#!'a
*%)er%sa )#$ '%+#e se!"$e!"al.

A *r$era 'a#sa e;*l'a a 'a$a)a re"'!'a4. ?#a!)% )2e$%s ( E# a l-, $as...4 ( % es*:r"%
*r%'#ra *ree!'er a la'#!a e es"a5ele'er a 'lare2a )% se!")%. É '%$% +#e$

1 ( Es"l:s"'a
1Q

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

)ssesse= E# a l-, mas %7o se' se olto mas te%*o rece'o !e >ue me e%*a mal6, e"'. A $es$a
'%!s'!'a )a el*se a*are'e e$ %r$as )e '%r"esa %# '%!s"ra!&$e!"% s%'al. ?#a!)% )2e$%s
*ara #$ s#*er%r= ( Se V. E;.a ass$ % )ese9a...4 ( "e$%s *le!a '%!s'!'a )% +#e al"a !a l%'#36%
e *r%'#ra$%s $e!"al$e!"e '%$*le"ar= ser/ $e'ta a ossa o%ta!e. Clar% +#e !e$ se$*re a
'%!s'!'a )essas la'#!as / *ere"a$e!"e !:")a, vara!)% !a"#ral$e!"e )e *ess%a *ara *ess%a.
E;e$*l%s )a "e!)!'a *ara a 5rev)a)e ele&a!"e e *ara % $e!%r es%r3% *%)e$ ser es"as )#as
rases. U$a a$%s"ra )e Vera= Ve$(le a s#'e)er !% $ % +#e a%s *e&a)%res )% $ar4.
S#5e!"e!)e(se al a %r$a ver5al suce!e, $as % es*:r"% +#ase !6% "e$ '%!s'!'a )a s#a %$ss6%.
C%!"#)%, %9e *reer$%s a '%!s"r#36% se$ el*se= Ve$(le a s#'e)er !% $ % +#e suce!e a%s
*e&a)%res )% $ar4. S#*%!a(se a&%ra es"e )-l%&%= ( Se!"e 'al%r @ ( E# !6%, e v%' @4 A+# !6% -
'%!s'!'a )a el*se. Sera a"/ a5s#r)% +#e se res*%!)esse= ( E# !6% s'%to, e v%' se%te F6

Res"a a "er'era 'a"e&%ra, +#e / "alve2 a $as !"eressa!"e *ara a Es"l:s"'a= #$ a5al% se!"$e!"al
ae'"a "%)a #$a rase e, *%r $e% )#$a e!"%a36% $as %# $e!%s e;'la$a"va, )-(le % val%r )#$
&r#*% rase%l8&'%. Al&#/$ v % se# !$&% 'ar )e #$ 'aval% a5a;%. E;'la$a, !#$ re*e!"e
)es#$a!% )e v!&a!3a= ( 0Jem $e'to \4 O se!")% )a e;'la$a36% *%)e "ra)#2r(se *%r es"a *er:rase=
Mere'es"e % $al +#e "e s#'e)e#, e es"%# $#"% '%!"e!"e '%$ ss%4. Ve$%s #$ a$&% +#e !6%
es*er-va$%s7 l%&% le
)e "e ver *%r a+#4. )2e$%s=
T#)% ( T# *%r
s"% '%!se&#e a+# @H4 É'%rre!"e,
a l!&#a&e$ '%$% +#e$ )2= Es"%#
)s*e!sa!)% a)$ra)% e '%!"e!"e
*ere"a$e!"e % ver5%.

Os es'r"%res $"ara$ % *r%'ess%, '%$% se )e;a ver )es"e "re'% )e J%r&e A$a)%= V%!"a)e )e
*%)er es'rever #$a 'ar"a '%!"a!)% > "a Mar"a "#)% a+#l%, "%)a a+#ela ale&ra e$ "%$%4 ( +Seara
ermel*a, 1. E a!)a )es"e *ass%
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1Q

)e *r%sa &ale&a= A)r-! %la!)% !#a 'ar"elera *e!s%# +#e ;- %s es"re!%s !%! "e!e! a $*%r"a!2a
)%#"r% "e$*%. Fe%same%to )0es'r5r #$ e!sa% e!'%l )% "e$a4 ( O"er% Pe)ra%, Arre!ar !e s',
*-&. 11. C%$% +#e$ )ssesse= A'%)e($e % *e!sa$e!"% )e...4 U$ )%s +#e $as a*l'a36% le
)era$ % se$ )v)a al% )e Al$e)a, e$ al&#$s *ass%s a"/ )e )#v)%s% &%s"% l"er-r%. Ve9a(se
es"e e;e$*l%= $as % es"#)a!"e !6% % *%)a a"#rar, $es$% &a!as )e le re$e!)ar %s #$)l%s '%$
la$a )a %5%"a
es%r3% )re"a4.
ver5% A rase
ter: 0t'%*a "e$ 'ar-'"er
mesmo ae'"v%7
3a%as...6. *%r ss%
Mas, !es"e se s#5e!"e!)e
e;e$*l%, '%$ #$*%r
a el*se es*ala *%#'%
"%)a)ea rase
#$a 'er"a %5s'#r)a)e= a s!"a;e '%# )e al&#$ $%)% '%$*r%$e")a. P%r ss%, !6% / *r#)e!"e
$"ar servl$e!"e es"es *r%'ess%s, $es$% +#a!)% a5%!a)%s *%r &ra!)es es'r"%res.
11.
O VERBO II

1. Ver2os 'e$e&i)os.( Ass$ se 'a$a$ %s ver5%s a +#e al"a$ 'er"as %r$as, +#er *%r $%"v%s )e
l8&'a, +#er *%r $%"v%s )e e#%!a. Os 'a$a)%s ver5%s 'l$-"'%s '%!9#&a$(se )e %r)!-r% !a
.a *ess%a. E$ 5%a l8&'a, !6% *%)e$%s )2er eu oral*o, tu oral*as. N% $es$% 'as% es"6% %#"r%s
ver5%s $*ess%as. N!&#/$ r- )2er eu aco%teo. F- a '%!s'!'a !:")a )e +#e es"es ve5%s,
se!)% )es*r%v)%s )e s#9e"%, s8 *%)e$ #sar(se !a .a *ess%a.

O $es$% !6% s#'e)e '%$ %#"r%s ver5%s, +#e s6% )ee'"v%s *%r ra26% %!/"'a, %# *ara ev"ar
+#al+#er e+#:v%'% )e se!")%. U$ '%$er'a!"e e$ v/s*eras )e al!'a !6% )r-= 0Eu $alo )e!"r% )e
*%#'% "e$*%4. Arra!9ar- %r$as *err-s"'as %# e$*re&ar- %#"r% ver5%= ]ou $al'r, tere' !e $al'r,
rece'o $al'r, e%*o a $al'r,e"'.7 %# ou"me a2a'o, a2ro $al?%c'a, c*amo cre!ores,e"'. De $%)% +#e
% #s% $*<e +#e % ver5% $al'r s8 se #se !as %r$as +#e '%!serva$ a v%&al '. Es"6% !es"e 'as%,
se&#$)% a %*!6% )%s &ra$-"'%s, %s ver5%s a2ol'r, a!'r, 2a%'r, color'r, !el'%>u'r, !el'r, !emol'r,
!escome!'r"se, empe!er%'r, etor>u'r, $lor'r, re!ar3u'r, re%*'r, retor>u'r. S#'e)e *%r/$ +#e %s
es'r"%res !6% +#ere$ +#e a Gra$-"'a se9a %5s"-'#l% >s s#as !e'ess)a)es )e e;*ress6%, e 'ra$
%r$as '%$% 2a%e, carpe, carpem"sc, colore, !ele, !emolem, etor>uem, re!ar3ue, retor>ue, e"'.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1:7

'%$ #$ *e+#e!% !$er% )e ver5%s %s &ra$-"'%s s6% $as !)#l&e!"es e '%!se!"e$ +#e se #se$
"a$5/$ as %r$as "er$!a)as e$ e. Ass$= !'scer%'r, eplo!'r, emer3'r, $ul3'r, 3a%'r, lat'r,
e *%#'%s
$as. Ora a ver)a)e / +#e !a)a $*e)r-, se!)% !e'ess-r%, +#e #$ es'r"%r #se %r$as '%$%
!'sc'r%o, eplu!o %# eplu!a, $ul;a, em'r;a, %# emer;a. D2a s%5re es"es 'as%s M-r% Barre"%,
l8l%&% 5rasler% '%$*e"e!":ss$%= A $%r%l%&a !6% "e$ les es*e'as *ara e;'l#r )e s#a
%r$a36% "%"al !e!#$ )%s ver5%s +#e se "$ *%r )ee'"v%s. Ne!#$a le )e es"r#"#ra se %*<e a
+#e se %r$e a2ole, colorem, pule, 2a%e, !ele, !emulo. O e$*re&-(l%s !#$a %r$a e )e;ar )e
e$*re&-(l%s !%#"ra / '%sa +#e "%'a a% #s%4. Ass$ /, !a ver)a)e7 "a!"% ass$, +#e !a ls"a )e
)ee'"v%s a*rese!"a)a *el%s &ra$-"'%s ve$%s '%!s"a!"es al"era3<es e )s'%r)!'as.

Deve !%"ar(se, a es"e res*e"%, +#e !% Brasl *are'e aver $as a#)-'a !% #s% )%s )ee'"v%s. N#$
9%r!al 'ar%'a la(se a!)a - *%#'%= É !)s*e!s-vel +#e % G%ver!% a;a '%$ e!er&a47 e #$
es'r"%r, A!"8!% Calla)%, !6% es"a e$ es'rever= E# %# 5%"ar %s 'a$*%!eses !a r#a. O G%ver!%
!6% a3e, a;o e#4( +=uarup, .a e)., *-&. K. E$ P%r"#&al a!)a se !6% 'e&%# a es"e *%!"%,
e$*re&a!)%(se !a+#ele 'as% %r$as '%$% actue %# proce!a, *aa ev"ar a '%!#s6% '%$ *a;a, )%
ver5% *aer.

A %r$a !ele  +!e ele- e$ ve2 )e !ele, e;*l'ava(se, se&#$)% #$a re%r$a %r"%&r-'a *%r"#&#esa
e %#"ra 5raslera, *re'sa$e!"e *ela *%ss5l)a)e )e e;s"r #$ %$8&ra% !ele, .a *ess%a )%
s!&#lar )% *rese!"e )% !)'a"v% )% ver5% !el'r. C%!v/$ !%"ar '%!"#)% +#e % *%v% *are'e "er
*reer!'a *ela %r$a !'le, e$5%ra *%#'% #sa)a, !a"#ral$e!"e. Mas 9- #$ &ra!)e es'r"%r 'l-ss'%,
J%6% )e Barr%s, !6% es"%# e$ +#e5rar % e!'a!"% )esse ver5% )ee'"v%, #sa!)% a %r$a !'lem: E,
"%$a)a a+#ela $assa, a !'lem !a -&#a > $a!era )e *%l$e4.

O e;e$*l% $as rsa!"e )e '%$% a l:!&#a "e!)e a


1Q

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

re*elr % *r!':*% )%s ver5%s )ee'"v%s /(!%s )a)% *el% ver5% precaer, $#"% #s#al. Os
&ra$-"'%s !6% se e!"e!)e$ '%$ a s#a '%!9#&a36%. A $a%r *ar"e, e!"re"a!"%, '%!)e!a a '%!9#&a36%
)es"e ver5% !as "rs *r$eras *ess%as )% s!&#lar e !a .a )% *l#ral )% *rese!"e )% !)'a"v% e e$
"%)% % '%!9#$"v%. L%&%, !6% / a'e"-vel )2er(se precao, preca?s, preca?, precaém, precaa,
e"'. Mas a l:!&#a,
&ra$-"'%s, '%!s)era!)%
e2 #$a % ver5%
'%sa '#r%sa= e;*ressv%
ass$l%#(% e re*#&!a!)%(le
a%s ver5%s a )ee'"v)a)e
er e 'r, '%$ %s +#as !a)a$*%s"a
"e$, e *el%s
'%!9#&%#(% !as %r$as +#e le al"a$ *el% $%)el% )a+#eles )%s ver5%s. Ass$, / '%$#$ %9e
)2er(se precae;o, preca?s, preca? %# precae%*o, precaé%s, precaém, e"'. U$ e;e$*l%, "ra)%
)e #$ 9%r!al )a $a!6= A ra!3a precaém"se e$ J5#"4. O#"r%, e;"ra:)% )as %5ras )e Te;era(
G%$es= A'% '%!ve!e!"e +#e se precae%*a '%!"ra %s $*#ls%s )a s#a s$*a"a4. Ta$5/$ se
*%)era )2er
( e / "alve2 $as '%rre!"e ( preca?"se e se precae;a. É #$a +#es"6% )e &%s"% *ess%al. Os
&ra$-"'%s 5ra)a$ +#e essa '%!9#&a36% / a5#sva. Ser-7 $as esses re'#rs%s )a a!al%&a s6%
'%rre!":ss$%s !% )%$a, e % +#e %9e se !%s a&#ra a5#s% e e;"rava&!'a, / a$a!6 !%r$a a'e"a
e 5e$(v!)a. A+#elas %r$as re*rese!"ar6% #$a !e'ess)a)e e;*ressva@ Se ass$ /, 'ar6% !a
l:!&#a. C%!"#)%, se as !6% +#ser$%s #sar, a l:!&#a "e$ s#5s""#"%s *ara *ree!'er as %r$as
)ee'"vas7 #sa !es"e 'as% %s ver5%s precatar %# precatar"se, acautelar, pree%'r, e"'.

Na)a
'!'a$as ser- *re's%Br#$%"=
)a l!&#a&e$, )2er s%5re ver5%s
Ca)a )ee'"v%s
#$ )e )% +#e
!8s *%ss#, *araes"as *alavras
%s ver5%s )#$ &ra!)e
)ee'"v%s, a s#a$es"re )a
'%!9#&a36% *ar"'#lar7 / a $/)a )es"es #s%s +#e '%!s""# a !%r$a )e %9e4. N6% ve!a$ *%s %s
&ra$-"'%s $*%r(!%s ar5"rara$e!"e as s#as ls"as ver5as. J- sa5e$%s % val%r rela"v% +#e les
)eve$%s a"r5#r.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1QQ

O *%v% %# %s es'r"%res $%s"ra$ &%s"% *%r #$a %r$a7 'a !% #s%, e % #s% / +#e a2 le.

#. A $o%&ia e os )er2os. ( As %r$as ver5as a!)a %9e es"6% s#9e"as a 'er"% !$er% )e err%s e
va'la3<es *%r *ar"e )a+#eles +#e !6% )s*<e$ )e s8l)a !s"r#36% &ra$a"'al. A s#&es"6% )a
*r%!!'a e % $#"as
se e!'%!"ra$ e!8$e!% )a a!al%&a
ve2es s6%&e!"e
!a *e!a )e &eral$e!"e %s '#l*a)%s
'#l"a. N6% )esses )esl2es
/ rar% ver$%s es'r"as eas!'%er!'as, +#e
%r$as ca'em,
sa'em, !estr' em, atr'2ulem, e a"/ cr?'em, l?'em, e'em. S6% .as *ess%as )% *l#ral )% *rese!"e )%
!)'a"v% )%s ver5%s ca'r, sa'r, !estru'r, atr'2u'r, crer, ler, er.As )#as *r$eras %r$as 9- se
e!'%!"ra$ a+# e a'%l- e$ %5ras )e a#"%res $%)er!%s. Ee'"va$e!"e, !a *r%!!'a !%r$al 9-
se a2 se!"r a+#ele ' e#8!'%7 $as !a l!&#a&e$ a *r%!!'a va $as )e*ressa )% +#e a &raa.
/ *%ss:vel +#e #$ )a se9a !%r$a % +#e %9e '%!s""# #$a al"a, e *asse$%s a es'rever '%$ ' / a"/
% $as !a"#ral. A!)a !6% 'e&-$%s a ss%, ra26% *%r +#e as !'as %r$as '%rre'"as s6% as +#e
!6% "$ a v%&al e#8!'a= caem, saem, !estroem, e"'.

Cas% )!"'%, $as *%r $%"v%s )ere!"es, / % +#e ve$%s e$ &raas "as '%$% passe'aa,
rece'amos, estre'ou"se,e"'. Ve9a(se es"a rase )% '%!"s"a Al5er"% Bra&a= Fava $as )e $ea %ra
+#e e# passe'aa !a sala )e es*era4. Es"as err8!eas es'r"as, re+#e!"es al-s e$ a#"%res *assa)%s,
*r%'e)e$ )e #$a !l#!'a v'%sa )a 1.a *ess%a )% s!&#lar )% *rese!"e )% !)'a"v% e#
passe'o, e# rece'o, e# estre'o-. Ora / '%!ve!e!"e a)ver"r +#e es"e ' !6% *er"e!'e *r%*ra$e!"e a%
ver5%7 % #$a v%&al +#e se !"er'al%# *%r $%"v%s )e e#%!a. A!"&a$e!"e, !% "e$*% )%s
Cl-ss'%s, )2a(se e es'reva(se= passeo, receo, e"'. L%&%, s8 s6% le&:"$as as %r$as passeaa,
receamos, estreou"se,e"'. A+# !e$ se+#er se %#ve o ', !a *r%!!'a !%r$al, '%$% !% 'as%
a!"er%r7 / *%s )e "%)a a ra26% 5a!r % e$*re&% )essa v%&al.
KK

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

O#"ra *er"#r5a36% v'%sa )a a!al%&a se ver'a !as K1 $as erra)as )a .a *ess%a )% *l#ral )%
*re"/r"% *ere"%
( amas'e's, e%c?ste's, partste's, +#e al-s s8 se e$*re&a %9e e$ es"l% re"8r'%. A+#ele ', +#e !6%
*er"e!'e a% ver5%, / )ev)% > a!al%&a '%$ %#"ras %r$as, '%$% ama's, am/e's, am/sse's, +#e %
*%ss#e$ *%r !a"#re2a.
%9e '#l"va)% O err%,
*%r $#"%s +#e a*are'e
a*re!)2es %# a*are'e# e$ al&#$s es'r"%res )e 5%a !%"a, / a!)a
)e re)a'36%.

Is"% s6% *r%*ra$e!"e %s err%s7 $as %s ver5%s "$ a!)a l#"#a3<es !% e$*re&% )e 'er"as %r$as.
C%$% )2er= !esa3ua %# 7esa3oa, e%a3ua %# e%a3oa A$5%s %s $%)%s )e )2er s6% le&:"$%s7
$as *re)%$!a$, *%r ee"% )a a!al%&a, as %r$as '%$ u. Para $#"%s 9%ve!s es"#)a!"es )a l:!&#a
*%r"#&#esa ser- "alve2 !%v)a)e +#e % ver5% ap'e!ar se '%!9#&a rre&#lar$e!"e !as %r$as e$ +#e
% a'e!"% "8!'% )evera 'ar s%5re % e. Ass$, )2(se ap'a!o"me, ap'a!as"te, e"'., e$ ve2 )% +#e
sera re&#lar= ap'e!o"me, ap'e!as"te, e"'. Es"as %r$as e$ a, #$ *%#'% $as e#8!'as, !6% %ra$
!ve!"a)as7 a l:!&#a % 5#s'-(las > vela &raa ap'a!ar, #s#al e!"re %s $as a!"&%s es'r"%res )%
Class's$%. C%!"#)%, $es$% essas %r$as s6% '%!s)era)as %9e $als%a!"es e s#5s""#:)as *%r
*r%'ess%s *err-s"'%s= ter p'e!a!e, ter !, compa!ecer"se, e"'.

O#"r% $%"v% )e es"a3<es es"- !%s ver5%s e$ "ear e "'ar. Se&#$)% a l8&'a, %s ver5%s )a se&#$)a
'a"e&%ra
cop'o, )eva$aprec'e,
alum'as, "er "%)%s a v%&al ' e"'.
co%trar'es, !as %r$as
S#'e)e )% *rese!"e
*%r/$ +#e, )%
*%r!)'a"v%
!l#!'ae)a
)%'%!9#&a36%
'%!9#$"v%.e$Ass$=
"ear,
%9e )2e$%s o!e'o e !6% !'o, a%se'o e !6% a%s'o, reme!e'o e !6% remé!'o. O#"r%s 'as%s s6% a!)a
)#v)%s%s e *er$"e$ a es'%la )%s !"eressa)%s, se&#$)% % &%s"% *ar"'#lar. P%)e$%s *%s )2er,
se$ re'e% )e *al$a"%a)as, prém'o %# preme'o, !'l'3e%c'as %# !'l'3e%ce'as, e'!e%c'a %#
e'!e%ce'a, 3lor'a"se %# 3lore'a"se. Se / 'er"% +#e *are'e aver e!"re !8s a!)a 'er"a *reer!'a
*elas %r$as

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA#-1

e$ "e'a +%e3oce'a, comerce'a, '%ce%!e'a-, !6% / $e!%s ver)a)e +#e, *ara as *alavras $e!%s
a!"&as, s6% as %r$as re&#lares as !'as #sa)as= acar'c'o, apropr'am"se, !'sta%c'a, co%trar'a, e"'.
É !a"#ral +#e es"as a'a5e$ *%r 'a$ar as %#"ras > re&#lar)a)e, e "#)% e!"rar- !%s e;%s. N% Brasl
9- se )- )e'sva *reer!'a >s %r$as e$ "'o, *%s se *reere, *%r e;e$*l%, se%te%c'o a se%te%ce'o.

*. O empre=o 'os &empos e mo'os. ( É )%s *%!"%s $as )el'a)%s )a s!"a;e *%r"#&#esa %
e$*re&% )%s "e$*%s e $%)%s )%s ver5%s. A+#, s8 !%s '#$*re "ra"ar, )e $a!era *r-"'a, as
+#es"<es #$)a$e!"as +#e )e*e!)e$ !6% *r%*ra$e!"e )a Gra$-"'a $as )a Es"l:s"'a.

C%$% *r!':*% &eral *ara % e$*re&% )%s "e$*%s, se9a )"% )es)e 9- +#e % !%ss% es*:r"% "e!)e a
"%$ar *rese!"es, vv)%s a'"#al$e!"e, %s a'"%s +#e se )era$ !% *assa)% %# s#'e)er6% !% #"#r%. A
!%ssa $a&!a36% e % !%ss% se!"$e!"% *r%'#ra$ reerr "#)% a% *rese!"e. U$ e;e$*l%= 0Morreu
% re7 % *r:!'*e a' a% *al-'% e e'3e l%&% )%s '%r"es6%s % 9#ra$e!"% )e )el)a)e4. P%r #$
ver5% !% *ere"% +morreu- !)'a$%s +#e se "ra"a )e #$  a'"% *assa)%7 l%&% )e*%s, *ara $el%r %
ver$%s, a*r%;$a$%s )e !8s % *assa)% e '%!s)era$%(l% *rese!"e7 ass$ se 9#s"'a %
e$*re&% )e a' e e'3e, e$ ve2 )e $o' e e'3'u, '%$% sera $as l8&'%. A es"e *rese!"e )% *assa)%
'%s"#$a 'a$ar(se *rese!"e s"8r'%4. Te$%s 5%a a$%s"ra )esse *r%'ess%, +#e *r%'#ra "ra)#2r,
)e #$ $%)% *"%res'%, % $%v$e!"% e a v)a, !es"e *ass% )e r. L#:s )e S%#sa= N% $es$% *%!"%
+#e % *e)%s% *rela)% "eve !%r$a36% )% +#e se *assava, se$ $e"er "e$*% e$ $e%, )e;%# "#)%=
sa' )e 'asa e pe"se a 'a$!% *ara r '%!essar a er)a4.

Ve9a$%s a&%ra #$ 'as% )% #"#r% '%!s)era)% '%$% *rese!"e= A$a!6 c*e3a % "e# *r$% J%s/7
a's > es"a36% es*er-(l%4. A a!"asa e % se!"$e!"% a*r%;$a$ )e !8s % a'"% #"#r% e !'er"%7 a
a!"asa "%$a(% *rese!"e, % se!"$e!"%
K

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

"%$a(% '%sa 'er"a ( !e$ *%r s%$5ras se a)$"e +#e a9a al&#$ es"%rv% *ara a v!)a )ese9a)a )%
*r$% J%s/. L%&'a$e!"e, a+#ela rase )evera ser ass$ re)&)a= A$a!6 c*e3ar/ o "e# *r$%
J%s/7 'r/s > es"a36% es*er-(l%4. C%$% ve$%s, a l!&#a&e$ vva 2%$5a )a l8&'a, *%r+#e !ela
'%!s"a!"e$e!"e se e;er'e$ as %r3as )a $a&!a36% e )% se!"$e!"%, +#e '%!s""#e$, *%r ass$
)2er, %s ele$e!"%s *r$%r)as )% !%ss% ser.
Pel% +#e res*e"a a%s $%)%s, "a$5/$ a l:!&#a *reere a+#eles +#e e;*r$e$ se&#ra!3a e !6%
!'er"e2a )a *ar"e )e +#e$ ala. Na l:!&#a, '%$% !a v)a, rar% se )e;a % 'er"% *el% )#v)%s%. Es"e
*r!':*% &eral v(l%(e$%s a*l'a)% $as a)a!"e, '%$ % $%)% )% '%!9#$"v%.

. O *ere"% e % $as(+#e(*ere"%. ( E$ r&%r, es"es )%s "e$*%s !6% se )eve$ '%!#$)r. O


*r$er% serve *ara e;*r$r a a'36% *assa)a, % se&#$)% a a'36% a!"er%r a %#"ra +#e 9- *ass%#.
E;e$*l%s=

1. O $e!)&% c*e3ou, a$!"% e 'a!sa)%.

. O $e!)&% c*e3ou 9- t'%*a a%!a!o ses l/&#as.

. T%)%s se espa%taram )e +#e t'esse res'st'!o "a!"%.


N% *r$er% e;e$*l% !)'a$%s #$ a'"% a5s%l#"a$e!"e *assa)%, *%r $e% )% *ere"% c*e3ou. N%
se&#$)%, re*rese!"a$%s )#as a'3<es !")a$e!"e )ere!'a)as !% "e$*%= *r$er%, % $e!)&%
a!)%# ses l/&#as, e s8 )e*%s 'e&%# a )e"er$!a)% *%!"%. N% "er'er%, a*are'e$ &#al$e!"e
)ere!'a)%s %s )%s "e$*%s )a !arra"va7 $as, e$ ve2 )% $%)% )% !)'a"v%, e$*re&%#(se % )%
'%!9#!"v%, *%r+#e a a'36% a&%ra / $a&!a)a *%r al&#/$ e !6% s$*les$e!"e !)'a)a, '%$% !%
se&#$)% e;e$*l%.

?#a!)% se "ra"a *%r/$ )e *er:%)%s l%!&%s, e$ +#e a s#'ess6% )%s "e$*%s se !6% )ese!a '%$
!")e2, % e$*re&% )essas )#as %r$as )% *ere"% leva *%r ve2es a es"a3<es e
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

#-*
a"/ a err%s. Ve9a(se es"e "re'% )e #$ a#"%r )%s !%ss%s )as=

Pa)re A!sel$% es'a*#l#(se, "6% e!'%l)% '%$% e!"rara. O ar+#"e'"% $'cara es"#*ea'"%. É 'er"%
+#e ele "%$ara "%)as as *re'a#3<es e +#e a )s'r36% )% &#ar)a %ra a)+#r)a 5e$ 'ara.4

A+#ele $as(+#e(*ere"% $'cara !6% se 9#s"'a 5e$ al, #s#r*a!)% % l#&ar )% *ere"% "$'cou. Sera
le&:"$% e$*re&ar $'cara, se % ar+#"e'"% se "vesse es*a!"a)% a!"es )e % *a)re se "er es'a*#l)%7
$as / *re'sa$e!"e % '%!"r-r% +#e +#er s&!'ar % a#"%r. O #s% )e $'cara )-(!%s a $*ress6% )e
+#e % a#"%r, e$ ve2 )e !arrar %59e'"va$e!"e a a'36%, es"- a '%!"-(la !)re'"a$e!"e a %#"re$.
Ve9a$%s, s%5re s"%, #$ e;e$*l%=

O J%s/ Das '%!"%#(le e!"6% % se# )esas"re=


( # re&ar a %r"a )% C'% Ga$elas7 $as as "ravessas

)% *%3% es"ava$ *%)res, e e# 'a:, 5a" '%$ a 'a5e3a !#$a

*e)ra e es"ve va(!6%(va a a%&ar($e. P%r s%r"e a!)ava

*%r al % r$!%, +#e a'#)# a%s &r"%s e $e "r%# )% *%3%.4

E;*er$e!"e$%s *r es"e )"% )% J%s/ Das e$ )s'#rs% !)re'"%. Te$%s % se&#!"e res#l"a)%=

O J%s/ Das '%!"%#(le e!"6% +#e $ora re&ar a %r"a )% C'% Ga$elas7 $as as "ravessas )% *%3%
es"ava$ *%)res, e ele cara, 2atera '%$ a 'a5e3a !#$a *e)ra e est'era va(!6%(va a a%&ar(se. P%r
s%r"e a!)ava *%r al % r$!%, +#e acu!'ra a%s &r"%s e % t'rara )% *%3%4.

Gra$a"'al$e!"e, es"- $*e'-vel= "%)% % s#'ess% +#e se re*r%)#2a e$ )s'#rs% !)re'"% )eve levar
%s ver5%s !% $as(+#e(*ere"%, *%r+#e - a !%36% )e )%s "e$*%s *assa)%s= a+#ele e$ +#e ala %#
$e)"a a *ers%!a&e$, e %
K

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

%#"r%, a!"er%r, e$ +#e se *assa$ %s a'"%s +#e reere. ?#a!)% *%r/$ a !arra36% / l%!&a, a
)ere!3a )%s "e$*%s '%$% +#e )esa*are'e, e as )#as %r$as *%)e$ ser e$*re&a)as. Ass$, !%
"re'% a!"er%r, 9- *%):a$%s es'rever, !% l"$% *er:%)%= P%r s%r"e a!)ava *%r al % r$!%, +#e
acu!'u a%s &r"%s e % t'rou )% *%3%4. O e$*re&% )% $as(+#e(*ere"% )- )e *r!':*% a !%36% )%s
)%s
l "e$*%s
$a!"er *assa)%s,
essa )e*%s'r%!%l8&'a=
)ere!'a36% 9- se )s*e!sa,
"#)%*%r !6%aser
"e!)e -'l *ara
es5a"er(se +#e$
!#$ '%!"a"e$*%
$es$% e *ara*assa)%.
+#e$ %#ve
F-%#
'%!"#)% es'r"%res +#e $a!"$ )el)a)e a% #s% )% $as(+#e(*ere"% $es$% !as !arra3<es
'%$*r)as. U$ )eles / errera )e Cas"r%. É sa5)% % '#)a)% '%$ +#e ele $ar'a !%s se#s
r%$a!'es, a"/ *%r $e% )e s!as &r-'%s, % #s% )% )s'#rs% !)re'"% e se$)re'"%.

Os es'r"%res a!"&%s )a I)a)e M/)a e )% Class's$% e$*re&ava$ $#"as ve2es % *ere"% e$ ve2
)% $as(+#e(*ere"%, '%$% se v )es"e *ass% )e er!6% L%*es= "aes  %#ve +#e *e!sar%$ +#e era$
al&##s +#e !%$ eerom a% sa$e!"%47 e )es"%#"r% )e J%6% )e Barr%s= e *%r %!ra )e s#a )a le
$a!)%# Vas'% )a Ga$a e!"re&ar "%)%l%s $%#r%s +#etomou !% 2a$5#'%4. O!)e se v 'lara$e!"e
+#e eerom es"- *%r t''%*am ''%!o e tomou *%r tomara. O es'r"%r $%)er!% / $as r&%r%s% e sa5e
)s'r$!ar '%$ $a%r 'lare2a %s "e$*%s )% *assa)%.

C%!"#)%, a al"a )e '#)a)% %# #$ se!"$e!"% '%!#s% )as les )a l:!&#a "e$ leva)% al&#$s
es'r"%res a e$*re&are$
!6% sera "6% )esas"ra)%, !a)ver")a$e!"e
*%s, '%$% v$%s,%es"e
$as(+#e(*ere"%, e$asl#&ar
l"$% *%)e a2er )%)%
ve2es *ere"%. O '%!"r-r%
*r$er%. E % +#e
a'%!"e'e !es"e 5%'a)% )e *r%sa )e J%s/ L!s )% Re&%=

O se# e)"%r vera *res"ar '%!"as e Pa#l% % *#sera *ara %ra )e 'asa. O %$e$ se +#e;ara !a
lvrara= ( O )%#"%r Mara es"ava $e% %ra )e s. Pare'a $al#'%. P%s
BSTILÍSTkA DA LLNGUA PORTUGUESA

K

$ora levar(le % )!er% )as "rs e)3<es )% se# lvr% e ele $e rece2era '%$% #$ !$&%. Deva
ser a $%r"e )% r$6%.4 +X3ua"m7e, .a ')., 1Q.

N%s "e$*%s s#5l!a)%s )% )s'#rs% )re'"% '%!vra *r % *ere"% e$ l#&ar )% $as(+#e(*ere"%,
+#e al se !6% 9#s"'a7 % *%r '%!"-&% )% )s'#rs% !)re'"% +#e % &ra!)e r%$a!'s"a % leva)% a
#sar "al "e$*%.

?#a!)% s"% se )- e$ es'r"%res )a e!ver&a)#ra )% a#"%r )e o3o morto, !a"#ral / +#e se ) e$


r%$a!'s"as )e $e!%r 'a"e&%ra. Ve9a(se es"e "re'% )#$ a#"%r )%s !%ss%s )as, e$ +#e % $as(+#e(
*ere"% "%$a !)ev)a$e!"e % l#&ar )% *ere"%=

O *r$er% $%v$e!"% )e Ire!e "ra)#2#(se e! sa'#)r a $6% )e se# l%, '%$% a +#er(l% #r"ar > vs"a
)a+#ele %$e$. Mas l%&% se )e"eve, al+#e5ra)a. O %"8&ra%, *%r #$ es%r3% er8'%, 2al2uc'ara:

( É V. E;.a +#e +#er "rar % re"ra"% @ Ire!e, $#"% *-l)a, calara"se. De*%s !'ssera:

( N6% s%# e#(/ % $e# l%...


lvar% Pes"a!a, % %"8&ra%, curara"se e murmurara: #

( a2 av%r )e se se!"arH4

É $a!es"% +#e !%s "er$%s e$ "-l'% '%!vra e$*re&ar % *ere"% e !6% % $as(+#e(*ere"%, *%s
a !arra"va *r%&r)e se$ re"r%'ess% !e$ s%5re*%s36% )e *la!%s ( *r%va )e +#e a%s 9%ve!s
r%$a!'s"as al"a #$a "/'!'a !6% a*e!as &ra$a"'al $as es"l:s"'a.

F- *%r/$ 'as%s '%$*l'a)%s, '%$% es"e )e Ca$l%, +#e es'reve#= 0D'ssera % S- )e Mra!)a +#e
*%e"as "#)% *#$a$ e$ l%res, e )e r#"%s !a)a ava +#e es*erar4 ( +Do(e casame%tos $el'(es, .a
e)., *-&. . Sera $as '%rre'"% D'sse $as a+# )eve e!"e!)er se= J- "!a )"%, e$ "e$*%s, S-
)e Mra!)a, a!"es )e %#"r%s +#e )ssera$ '%sas se$ela!"es4. Te$%s a+# #$ 9%&% s#5"l )%s
"e$*%s= % $as re$%"%
K

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

$as(+#e(*ere"% e % $as re'e!"e *ere"%, +#e !e$ se+#er / ass!ala)%.

O #s% !)ev)% )% $as(+#e(*ere"%, s%5re 5aralar %s "e$*%s )a !arra36%, )- a% )s'#rs% #$ "%$


re$%"% e ar"'al. Essa $*ress6% / a!)a a&rava)a *el% #s% +#e %s es'r"%res a2e$ )% $as(+#e(
*ere"% s$*les, +#e / %9e, salv% e$ al&#$as re&<es )% alar *r%v!'a!%, #$a %r$a 5a!)a )a
l:!&#a '%rre!"e, a +#al s8 '%!e'e a %r$a '%$*%s"a, $#"% $as e;*ressva, )ev)% > *rese!3a )%
$*ere"% e )% *ar"':*% a)9e'"v%. Deve *%r/$ a)ver"r(se +#e, !a l:!&#a )% Class's$%, esse
$%)% e "e$*% a)+#r# $a"2es )el'a)%s )e s&!'a36%, +#e )eve$%s "er *rese!"es, se +#ser$%s
5e$ !"er*re"ar %s res*e'"v%s a#"%res. Ve9a(se, *%r e;e$*l%, es"e %r$%s:ss$% s%!e"% )e Ca$<es=

D%'es le$5ra!3as )a *assa)a &l8ra, +#e $e "r%# %r"#$a r%#5a)%ra, )e;a($e )es'a!sar e$ *a2
#a %ra, +#e '%$&% &a!as *%#'a v"8ra.

 I$*ressa "e!% !0al$a a lar&a s"8ra )es"e *assa)% 5e$, +#e !#$'a $ora %# $ora e !6%
passara $as, 9- a&%ra, e$ $$ !6% *%)e aver $as +#e a $e$8ra.

Vv% e$ le$5ra!3as, $%#r% )e es+#e')%


1K )e +#e$ se$*re !eera ser le$5ra)%, se le lem2rara es"a)% "6% '%!"e!"e.

O, +#e$ "%$ar pu!era a ser !as')%=

sou2era"me l%&rar )% 5e$ *assa)%,

se '%!e'er sou2era % $al *rese!"eH 

Ev%'a36% )e #$ a$%r *assa)%, +#e se %5s"!ava a *er)#rar !a $e$8ra, "%)% % s%!e"% &ra e$
"%$% )e s#5"s

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA #-7

"ra!s*%s3<es )e "e$*% e $%)%, +#e a l:!&#a 'l-ss'a sa5a e;*r$r *el% $as(+#e(*ere"%
s$*les. Da$%s % se!")% a*r%;$a)% )%s )ere!"es *ass%s )% *%e$a7 e *%r a: se v a e;"re$a
'%$*le;)a)e )essa %r$a ver5al=
@, >ue %umca $ora  +#e %;al- !#$'a "vesse e;s")%7

, ou $ora e %7o passara  %#, a "er e;s")%, !#$'a "vesse *assa)%7

1K, !eera  )evera7

11, se l*e lem2rara  se le le$5rasse7

1, pu!era  *#)esse7

1, sou2era"me  sa5er($e(a7


1, sou2era  s%#5esse.

<. O $*ere"%. ( O *ere"% $ar'a )e $%)% a5s%l#"% % e!8$e!% *assa)%, se$ rela36% '%$ %
*rese!"e !e$ '%$ a *ess%a +#e ala. É #$ "e$*% %59e'"v%, sere!%, *r8*r% )% s"%ra)%r +#e
!arra as '%sas s#'e))as. E;e$*l%= O *r:!'*e morreu !a &#erra7 !e'ou "rs l%s a!)a
$e!!%s, +#e $oram cr'a!os )esvela)a$e!"e *ela *r!'esa4. M%)+#e$%s a&%ra % *er:%)% !es"e
se!")%= O *r:!'*e morreu !a &#erra 7 !e'aa "rs l%s a!)a $e!!%s, +#e eram a&%ra "%)% %
'#)a)% )a *r!'esa4. A *r$era %ra36% a!)a re*rese!"a ra$e!"e % *assa)%7 as )#as %#"ras
re'e5era$ a&%ra #$ "%$ )ere!"e= '%$% +#e !%s "ra!s*%r"a$%s a% *assa)%, *ela a!"asa e
*el% se!"$e!"%, e vve$%s )#ra)%ra$e!"e %s s#'ess%s. E!$, "e$%s #$ */ !% *rese!"e, %#"r% !%
*assa)%. Mas #$ e;e$*l%= Ce&-$%s a% '#$e )% $%!"e. % e!"6% #$ *as$%= e$ "%)a a v%l"a
er3u'am"se %#"er%s ver)e9a!"es7 re&a"%s *ra"ea)%s e l#2e!"es serpe%teaam *elas e!'%s"as4.
De*%s )e $e!'%!ar$%s % a'"% *assa)%, '%$ % a#;:l% )% *ere"%, +#ere$%s "ra)#2r as
$*ress<es )% 'a$!a!"e, a% *er'%rrer, #$ )a, esses l#&ares. Usa$%s % "e$*% )a s$*a"a, +#e
/ % $*ere"%.

%ra$ %s es'r"%res $%)er!%s +#e )es'%5rra$ %s re'#r(


K

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

s%s e;*ressv%s )es"a %r$a ver5al, "6% *r8*ra *ara % )es'r"v% e *ara a !arra36%. Os *%e"as e
r%$a!'s"as !6% s6% '%$% %s s"%ra)%res= e!'ara$ % *assa)% '%$% se %sse *rese!"e e "e!)e$ a
vver !ele '%$ as %r3as )a $a&!a36% e )% se!"$e!"%. N6% s6% %5r&a)%s a #$a r&%r%sa
%59e'"v)a)e. De a:, a *re)le'36% *el% e"er!% $*ere"%4, '%$% le 'a$ara$.

Dr(se(-= se #sar % $*ere"% / vver !% *assa)%, *%r #$ es%r3% )e s$*a"a, *%)e s#5s""#r(se
!a"#ral$e!"e *el% *rese!"e s"8r'%, a% +#al es"- reserva)% % $es$% *a*el. E$ *ar"e, ass$ /= *%r
ss%, al&#$s es'r"%res $%)er!%s '%$%, *%r e;e$*l%, J%a+#$ Pa3% )0Ar'%s e$ A%s'e!a!e,
e$*re&a$ % *rese!"e '%$% "e$*% )e !arra36%= Os 'a$%!s pe%etram, '%$ es"r%!)%, !% "!el )a
es"ra)a. O *%r"6% olta a e'ar(se. Ecoam "r%s *ara as 5a!)as )e Al'!"ara. A rev%l#36% est/ !a
r#a4. Mas % *rese!"e s"8r'% !6% a2 $as )% +#e a*r%;$ar )e !8s % *assa)%, '%$% #$a le!"e
+#e !%s a2 ver $el%r %s %59e'"%s )s"a!"es. O *r%'ess% "e$ 'ar-'"er vs#al7 !6% se !"r%$e"e !ele,
*%r va )e re&ra, % se!"$e!"% !e$ a a!"asa. N% $*ere"% es"es a'"%res !"erv$ e$ lar&a es'ala,
e % *r8*r% a'"%, va'la!"e e!"re % *rese!"e e % *assa)%, 'arre&a(se )e $s"er%sa $*re's6% e )-(
!%s #$a '%$% +#e $*ress6% )e !"er$!-vel. Os )%s "e$*%s a*are'e$ *%r ve2es $s"#ra)%s,
'%$% !es"e *ass% )e E3a )e ?#er%2=

O!%re, e!'%s"a)% a% *ara*e"%, e$5e5)% !a res'#ra e !a *a2 )% l#ar, se!"a, !a+#ele sl!'% #!versal, %
5a"er 'a!sa)%
( a"r5#!)% )% se# >'%ra36%.
s%$e!"e Mas $es$%
s#a $ser'8r)a esses !s"a!"es
% $*#ls% )e re*%#s%
+#e % arra!'ara %s )ava
)e!"re a% Se!%r,
%s %$e!s e % l%)% e$ +#e eles se
)e5a"e$, % "r%#;era > *#re2a !esta s%l)6%, %!)e a e"er!a ver)a)e se a'sta "6% 'lara$e!"e, '%$% a+#ela
&ra!)e l#a, l#s"r%sa e '%!s%la)%ra4 + ^lt'mas p/3'%as,
.a e)., *-&. 1Q.

Es"a$%s ve!)% % *r%'ess%= % a#"%r !s"al%#(se !% *assa)%, *ar"la!)% %s se!"$e!"%s )e O!%re,


$as se$ +#e5rar
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA KQ

*%r '%$*le"% as l&a3<es '%$ % *rese!"e. P%r ss% e$*re&%# % $*ere"%. U$a ve2 !% *assa)%,
*er)e#(se a '%!s'!'a )%s )%s "e$*%s, e "#)% % '%!s)era)% a'"#al. Da: % e$*re&% )%
)e$%!s"ra"v% esta e )% *rese!"e a'sta, +#e, e$ r&%r, )eva$ ser s#5s""#:)%s *%r !a>uela e
a'staa. N% *%r"#&#s )% Brasl, % $*ere"%, '%!"ra*%s"% a% *rese!"e, *%)e a"/ a)+#rr #$
'#r%s% s&!'a)% )e !e&a36% e )v)a, '%$% !es"e *ass% )e Ér'% Ver:ss$%= Pe!sa +#e va
*es'ar #$ $ar)% ass$@ Pes'avas...i( +)lar'ssa,
.a e)., Q. E$ P%r"#&al, !#$ 'as% )es"es, )2(se a!"es= É % pescas...6 C%$*ree!)e(se +#e a
s#&es"6% !e&a"va res#l"%# *re'sa$e!"e )% '%+#e e!"re #$ "e$*% 'lar% '%$% % *rese!"e e
#$ "e$*% %5s'#r% '%$% / % $*ere"%. Ta$5/$ !% )s'#rs% 'a$a)% se$)re'"% % $*ere"%
)ese$*e!a *a*el $*%r"a!"e. J- v$%s, !#$ 'a*:"#l% a!"er%r, e$ +#e '%!ss"e esse
)s'#rs%, +#e serve *ara % $%!8l%&% !"er%r e *ara re*r%)#2r '%$ vve2a a ala )as *ers%!a&e!s.
O a#"%r *<e(se !a *ele )% %ra)%r, e a$5%s se e!'%!"ra$ a '%!"ar % 'as%. Es"a $s"#ra es"l:s"'a /
%5ra )% $*ere"%. Ve9a(se es"e "re'%, e$ +#e % *arv% $%!#$e!"al +#e / % '%!seler% A'-'% /
re*rese!"a)% e$ )%s )s'#rs%s, % )re'"% e % se$)re'"%. Tra"a(se )% a!"&% Passe% ls5%e"a, a%
)%$!&%, +#e al&#/$ )ssera ser #$a &ra!)e se!sa5%ra=

 ( N6% sere "6% sever%, Sr. Br"%H ( Mas *are'a(le +#e, '%$ ee"%, a!"&a$e!"e era #$a )&ress6% $as
a&ra)-vel. Y( E$ *r$er% l#&ar ( e;'la$%# '%$ $#"a '%!v'36%, e!)re"a!)%(se ( !a)a, $as !a)a,
a5s%l#"a$e!"e !a)a *%)e s#5s""#r a 'ara!&a )a Ar$a)aH
( Al/$ )ss%, ava a +#es"6% )%s *re3%s... AH "!a es"#)a)% $#"% % ass#$"%. Os *re3%s )$!#"%s
av%re'a$ a a&l%$era36% )as 'lasses s#5al"er!as... Be$ l%!&e )% se# *e!sa$e!"% la!3ar )es)%#r% !essa
*ar"e )a *%*#la36%... As s#as )eas l5eras era$ 5e$ '%!e')as.

( A*el% *ara a Sr.a D. L#:saH()sse.(Mas, e!$, se$*re era $as a&ra)-vel e!'%!"rar #$a r%)a es'%l)aH
E, e!+#a!"% a s, !#$'a a a% Passe%. Talve2 !6% a're)"asse$, $as !e$ $es$% +#a!)% ava %&% )e
vs"asH Nesses )as, s$, a ver *%r %ra )as

1 ( Es"l:s"'a
#1-

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

&ra)es. N6% *%r e'%!%$aH De'er"% !6%. N6% era r'%, $as *%)a a2er a'e a essa '%!"r5#36% )$!#"a. Mas
/ +#e re'eava %s a')e!"esH É +#e %s re'eava $#"%H C%!"%# a s"8ra )#$ s#9e"%, '#9% !%$e le es'a*ava, a
+#e$ #$a 'a!a )e %&#e"e #rara % 'r!%. E, al/$ )ss%, !a)a $as -'l +#e 'ar #$a a&#la a'esa !a 'ara,
!#$ paletot !%v%... ( É '%!ve!e!"e "er *r#)!'a (Y res#$#, '%$*e!e"ra)%, l$*a!)% %s 5e3%s '%$ % le!3%
)e se)a )a :!)a, $#"% e!r%la)%4 +O Fr'mo Jasl'o, 1.a e)., *-&. 1K.

3. O o%@8m&i)o. ( Se % $%)% )% !)'a"v% e;*r$e a real)a)e )% a'"%, '%!s)era)% e$ rela36%


a% *assa)%, *rese!"e e #"#r%, % )% '%!9#$"v% e;*r$e a s#a *%ss5l)a)e, '%$ "%)as as
'%!se+#!'as +#e essa a""#)e )e !'er"e2a *%)e "ra2er *ara % es*:r"% )% %$e$= % se!"$e!"% )a
)v)a, % )es'%!e'$e!"%, % )ese9%, a s#r*resa, a *r%5a5l)a)e, e"'. De #$ $%)% &eral,
e;*r$!)% % '%!9#$"v% % a'"% '%!'e5)% *el% es*:r"%, a)+#re *%r ss% $es$% #$ "%$ a5s"ra'"%
e !"ele'"#al, +#e % "%$a *%#'% es"$a)% )a l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e. Ve9a$%s es"e e;e$*l%= C%$% %
e%co%trasse a ler, !6% le )sse !a)a4. A '%!s"r#36% es"- '%rre'"a= % !%ss% es*:r"% +#er s&!'ar
!6% "a!"% % a'"% )e ele es"ar a ler, '%$% a ra26%, % $%"v% )e ele es"ar le!)%. P%r ss% a %ra36% )e
como é 'a$a)a 'a#sal. Mas se!"$%s +#e a '%!s"r#36% / )e$asa)% a5s"ra'"a e *reer$%s )2er )e
%#"ra $a!era, e$5%ra "alve2 se$ % $es$:ss$% se!")%= C%$% % e%co%tre' a ler, !6% le )sse
!a)a47 %#= ++E%co%tra%!o"o a ler, !6% le )sse !a)a47 %# a!)a= 0E%co%tre'o"o a ler e !6% le )sse
!a)a4. D% '%!9#$"v% *ass%#(se *ara % !)'a"v% e )% $*ere"% *ass%#(se *ara % *ere"%. '%# a
)ea $as 'lara, *er)e!)% e$5%ra #$ *%#'% )a s#a s#5"le2a.

Os Cl-ss'%s, +#e #sava$ $as )% +#e !8s % '%!9#$"v%, "alve2 s%5 a !l#!'a )a s!"a;e la"!a,
!%"ara$ % 'ar-'"er !"ele'"#al )esse $%)% e 9- *r%'#rava$ s#5s""#:(l%. U$ e;e$*l% )e r.
A!"8!% )as Ca&as= A'%($e )es"as 5a!)as, e / *r%v-vel +#e !6% *e' !e oltar a elas4. A
'%!s"r#36% l8&'a sera a!"es olte. O es'r"%r *reer# #sar %

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA #11

#"#r% *err-s"'%, "ra!s%r$a!)% #$a )v)a !#$a es*/'e )e 'er"e2a #"#ra. O $es$% se )ava
'%$ a l%'#36% é possel, +#e %9e "%)ava '%!s"r#:$%s se$*re '%$ % ver5% !% '%!9#$"v%. O
P.e A!"8!% Vera #sava !es"es 'as%s % !)'a"v%, +#a!)% +#era a'e!"#ar a real)a)e )% a'"%
e e;*r$r, *%r '%!"ras"e, a s#r*resa *r%v%'a)a= É *%ss:vel +#e %s *e;es a;u!am > salva36% )%s
%$e!s, e %s %$e!s la%am a% $ar %s $!s"r%s )a salva36% @4 F%9e, )r:a$%s a;u!em e la%cem,
*%r #$ re&ress% > l8&'a e a% *e!sa$e!"% a5s"ra'"%. Essa "e!)!'a *ara % '%!9#$"v%, +#e
)$!# % *"%res'%, a vs#al)a)e )% es"l%, a*are'e, *%r e;e$*l%, !a l!&#a&e$ )e Te;era(
G%$es, '%$ #$a !ss"!'a s#r*ree!)e!"e= De*%s )% 9a!"ar, '%$% suce!a >ue procuremos #$
5a!'% !a *ra3a Gl V'e!"e.4 ( Mas, *%r+#e e$ "%)as essas &re9as %s $es$%s vara)%s es"l%s se
e%co%trem re*rese!"a)%s4. É #$a )as *r%vas, e )as $as '#r%sas, )a %r)e!a36% l8&'a, )%
'lass's$%4 )% se# es"l%.

Ve9a$%s a&%ra es"e $%)% '%rre!"e )e )2er= Se tem pla%ta!o essa -rv%re, 9- t'%*a a$e;as *ara %
a!%H4 O $%)% l8&'%, &ra$a"'al )e )2er s"%, sera= Se t'esse pla%ta!o essa -rv%re, 9- ter'a
a$e;as *ara % a!%H4 Mas a l!&#a&e$ a$lar, +#e se $%ve *%r ra2<es +#e !6% s6% *r%*ra$e!"e
as l8&'as, *reere >s !'er"e2as e *8"eses )% '%!9#$"v% e )% '%!)'%!al as real)a)es *rese!"es
)% !)'a"v%. Se$*re a $es$a "e!)!'a *ara re)#2r *assa)% e #"#r% a% *rese!"e, e "ra!s%r$ar
a )v)a $%r"'a!"e e$ 'er"e2a '%!s%la)%ra.

7. O impera&i)o. ( F- e$ *%r"#&#s )%s $*era"v%s, a% '%!"r-r% )% +#e s#'e)e e$ %#"ras


l:!&#as, '%$% !% ra!'s e "ala!%= #$ $*era"v% *%s"v% e %#"r% !e&a"v%. E;e$*l%= ( 5a'
)e*ressaH ( N6% "e !emores  ( 5'%!e 'e)%H
( N6% e%*a's "ar)eH O *r$er% / e;*ress% *%r #$a %r$a +#e '%rres*%!)e *ra"'a$e!"e > .a
*ess%a )% s!&#lar e )% *l#ral )% *rese!"e )% !)'a"v%, '%$ #$ s a $e!%s= aca2a, aca2a', resole,
resole', parte, part'. Es"e $*era"v% $ar'a
1

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

#$a %r)e$ )a)a '%$ e!er&a. O %#"r% / e;*ress% *el% '%!9#$"v%7 e '%$% es"e $%)% / #$ ve:'#l%
)e )v)as e va'la3<es, '%$*ree!)e(se +#e a %r)e$ *r%5"va se9a $as a"e!#a)a )% +#e a %r)e$
*%s"va, e$ +#e se $a!es"a %r"e$e!"e a v%!"a)e )% %r)e!a!"e. Nas a!"&as l:!&#as )ava(se ss%=
as )ere!"es a""#)es )e +#e$ ala era$ "ra)#2)as e$ $%)%s )ere!"es. O *%r"#&#s '%!serva
'%$ el')a)e essa *r$"va )ere!'a36%.
P%r/$ a %r3a )a a!al%&a e 'er"a )esa"e!36% )as s#5"le2as a2 +#e !6% rar% se %#3a e a"/ se es'reva
% se&#$)% $*era"v% '%$ a %r$a )% *r$er%= (N6% '%!e "ar)eH
( N6% se!e a*ressa)%sH ( N6% cre!e !ss%H É %r$a #s#al !a l:!&#a *%*#lar 5raslera, '%$% se v )a
'a!"&a= N6% toma' %#"r%s a$%res \ se$ sa5er $e# $ *r$er%4. Ca$l% !%"%# !#$a "ra)#36% )%
Fa$le"4 )e Saes*eare es"a 5es"al)a)e !&ra$a"'al4, '%$% le 'a$a= Se)e ra2%-vel, !6%
'!e6. O "ra)#"%r arre*el%#(se )a!"e )a %r$a ar'a'a a!es, al )ev)a, e '%$e"e# #$ err% )e
&ra$-"'a. Al-s, essa %r$a )a .a *ess%a )% *l#ral !6% se #sa e$ es"l% '%rre!"e e "e$ 'ar-'"er
a!"+#a)%. N% es"l% a$lar s#5s""#(se *ela .a *ess%a= ( N6% e%*am "ar)eH ( N6% se;am
$*a'e!"es H

Ta$5/$ se ver'a a "e!)!'a !versa= *ara a"e!#ar a )#re2a )% $*era"v% 'a"e&8r'%, e$*re&a(
se % '%!9#$"v%= 0Se;as 5e$(v!)%, $e# +#er)% a$&%4. Se!"e(se *ere"a$e!"e +#e a %r$a se;as
é"ra)#2r
$e!%s #$
se'a, $as)a
)ese9% )%'e e ae'"va
*ess%a )% +#e s?. É a s"% +#e se 'a$a % '%!9#$"v% %*"a"v%, *%r
+#e ala.

?#a!)% a %r)e$ / )a)a a #$ '%!9#$"% )e *ess%as !)e"er$!a)as, %# +#a!)% se +#er )$!#r a


$*%r"!'a )a *ess%a a +#e$ se ala, a2e!)% !')r a a"e!36% s%5re % a'"% e$ s, e$*re&a(se %
!!"v%. E;e$*l%= N6% a2r'r '%$ % '%$5%% e$ a!)a$e!"%4. ( B%as !%vas v%s "ra&%. Ale3rar,
+#e / 'e&a)a a %ra )e v%s r)es *ara % '/#H4 ( 05'%3ar,ra*a2esH artar, vla!a&e$H4

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

#1*

. A e%'orreia. ( É ass$ +#e %s *#rs"as 'a$a$ a% a5#s% )% &er!)% e a% se# #s% *%#'%
ver!-'#l%, e$ rases '%$% es"a= Re'e5e# #$a 'a;a co%te%!o r%#*a4. A '%!s"r#36% 'era a
ra!'esa, e / !a ver)a)e
*%r"#&#s$e!"e= '%!"r-ra
Re'e5e# a%s >ue
#$a 'a;a #s%sco%t'%*a
)a l:!&#ar%#*a4,
'l-ss'a%#e Re'e5e#
*%*#lar, +#e
#$a)ra a rase
'a;a com $as
r%#*a
!e%tro6. O *r%5le$a '%!ss"e e$ sa5er se )e a'"% % #s% )% &er!)% "ra2 va!"a&e$ es"l:s"'a s%5re
%s %#"r%s *r%'ess%s. O ar&#$e!"% )% 'lass's$%4 !6% serve= !6% *%)e$%s !e$ )eve$%s es'rever
%9e '%$% !% "e$*% )e r. L#:s )e S%#sa.

N% 'as% e$ +#es"6%, % *r$er% $%)% *r%*%s"% / es"ls"'a$e!"e !er%r= a %ra36% rela"va '%$ %
$*ere"% "e$ 'ar-'"er ar"'al, se!)% a '%!s"r#36%, al/$ )ss%, )e$asa)% l%!&a e $als%a!"e. E
a!)a s%ara *%r, se %#"ra rela"va le a'res'e!"asse$= Re'e5e# #$a 'a;a >ue '%!"!a r%#*a, >ue
a "a le $a!)ara4.

N6% - )v)a *%s +#e % #s% )% &er!)% / e$ 'er"%s 'as%s *reer:vel > %ra36% rela"va, s%5re"#)%
+#a!)% !6% "e$%s % re'#rs% a'er"a)%, e;*ressv%, )as *re*%s3<es. N6% a5#se$%s )ele, $as !6%
es"e$%s e$ e$*re&-(l%, se$*re +#e % re'%!e3a$%s s#*er%r a %#"r%s $%)%s )e es'rever. Te$
#$ *%)er 'ara'"er2a)%r se$ela!"e a% a)9e'"v%, '%$% se v )es"e *ass% )e E3a )e ?#er%2= Os
se#s 5ra3%s re)%!)!%s )es'%5ra$ *%r 5a;%, +#a!)% se er&#a$, *re!)e!)% as "ra!3as, %2!%s
louros $ r's a%!o e $a(e%!o!!%4. Ne!#$ %#"r% *r%'ess% )ara % '%l%r)% $%v$e!"a)% )%
&er!)% !a 'ara'"er2a36% )% %59e'"%. Para +#e ave$%s *%s )e 5a!r )a l:!&#a es"e !s"r#$e!"%
e;*ressv%, s%5 a a'#sa36% )e +#e !6% era #sa)% *el%s !%ss%s "resav8s e !%s ve% )re'"a$e!"e ) %
ra!'s @ O +#e al-s !6% / !"era$e!"e ver)a)er%, *%s se a*%!"a$ e;e$*l%s )essa '%!s"r#36%
e$ a#"%res '%$% % P.e Ma!#el Ber!ar)es e Ale;a!)re Fer'#la!%. Para se avalar a"/ +#e *%!"% )e
e;a&era36% r):'#la
#1+

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

*%)e levar % $e)% )a e!)%rrea4 a'%$a)a *el%s *#rs"as, ve9a(se es"a rase, )#$ a#"%r 5rasler%
)%s !%ss%s )as= O#"ras re%r$as real2a)as !%s l"$%s a!%s e ersa%tes s%5re +#es"<es
!a!'eras4. O !el2 ver!a'#ls"a +#s ev"ar % &al's$%4 ersa%!o, +#e / % +#e '%!v/$ !a
rase, e % 5#s'ar #$ $%s"re!&% ar'a'%, !'%$*ree!s:vel e !a)$ss:vel *ara %s -5"%s )a l:!&#a
a'"#al.
:. O par&i?pio. ( Sa5)% '%$% - ver5%s '%$ )%s *ar"':*%s, #$ re&#lar, %#"r% rre&#lar, / a!)a
#$ *r%5le$a )e es"l% % #s% )e #$ e )e %#"r% !as %r$as '%$*%s"as. C%$% )re$%s= O lavra)%r
"!a mata!o % *%r'%4, %# O lavra)%r "!a morto % *%r'% @4 A Gra$-"'a e!s!a(!%s +#e a$5as
as %r$as s6% '%rre'"as, $as +#e '%$ %s ver5%s ter e *aer é $as #s#al % *ar"':*% re&#lar.
C%$*e"e > Es"l:s"'a )ar a ra26% )% a'"%, +#e a Gra$-"'a rara$e!"e e;*l'a.

N%s 'a$a)%s *ar"':*%s rre&#lares +morto, aceso, 3a%*o, 3asto, salo, e"'., a %r$a ver5al
'rs"al2%#, *%r ass$ )2er, !#$ a)9e'"v%. U$a ve2 '%!'l#:)a a a'36%, s#r&# #$ es"a)% +#e
!e'ess"a )e ser )e!)% *%r $e% )#$ a)9e'"v% ver5al. P%r ss% se )2= O %$e$ es"- morto6.
O 'a!)eer% '%# aceso6. ( A "r*#la36% %sala6. Morto, aceso, sala s6% ver)a)er%s
a)9e'"v%s +#e 'ara'"er2a$ % s#9e"%. J- se )sser$%s= T!a ace%!'!o % 'a!)eer%4 ( T$
mata!o "%)as as *er)2es4 ( % *ar"':*% re&#lar )-(!%s #$a !%36% ver5al, a'"va, )% e!8$e!%
real2a)%.
E$ res#$%= '%$ %s *ar"':*%s rre&#lares e;*r$$%s s%5re"#)% % es"a)%7 '%$ %s re&#lares
"ra)#2$%s a a'36%. Os *r$er%s "$ #$ 'ar-'"er *ara)%, es"-"'%7 %s se&#$)%s s6% vv%s e
)!$'%s. ?#a!)% %#v$%s )2er= T!a mata!o % *%r'%4, "e$%s a re*rese!"a36% s5"a )% a'"% e
)a '%$*l'a)a %*era36% +#e se le se&#e. A %#"ra %r$a, T!a morto % *%r'%4, !6% 'a#sa e$ !8s
% $es$% ee"% e a"/ se *%)e '%!#$)r '%$ %#"ra, +#e !%s )- #$a )ea 5e$ )ere!"e= T!a %
*%r'% morto6. Os es'r"%res, s%5re(

ESTILlSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA#19

"#)% %s &ra!)es, +#e "$ % !% se!"$e!"% )a l:!&#a, vra$ 5e$ % 'as%. E #$ )eles, a*%a)% !%
#s% *%*#lar, !6% es"%# e$ e$*re&ar mata!o, '%!"ra as re&ras )a Gra$-"'a, $as se&#!)% as )a
Es"l:s"'a= E %ra$ %s *r8*r%s a!$as +#e, mata!a a se)e, re"%$ara$ a $ar'a4. (Y G#$ar6es

se!")%Sa3ara%a,
R%sa, *-&.es"-
*r%&ressv%, 1.
e$Se
ve2es'revesse morta, % ee"% !6% era % $es$%7 a+#ele mata!a, '%$
)e te%!o mata!o.

N%"a(se $%)er!a$e!"e 'er"a !'l!a36% *ara as %r$as rre&#lares, $es$% +#a!)% e$*re&a)as '%$
% ver5% ter. É % 'as% )e 3a%*o, 3asto, salo, ele'to, escr'to. Pare'e aver 'er"a *reer!'a *elas
)'3<es= "e!% 3a%*o, "e!% 3asto, "!a salo, "!a ele'to, "e!% escr'to. É !a"#ral$e!"e #$a
+#es"6% )e a!al%&a. A l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e, '#)a)a, $e!%s se!s:vel >s )el'a)e2as )e s&!'a)% e
a$&a )as %r$as '#r"as, *reere % a)9e'"v% *ara re*rese!"ar % es"a)% e a a'36%7 $as a!)a !es"es
'as%s '%!"!#a a ser '%rre'"%, +#a!)% !"erv/$ % ver5% ter, % e$*re&% )% *ar"':*% re&#lar. O *%v%
a!ala5e"%, '%$ !"#36% *r%#$)a, )-(le *reer!'a.
1.

A CO6CORD6CIA

1. O erro 'e o%or'%ia. ( U$a )as '%sas +#e $as *r%#$)a$e!"e )s"!&#e$ a Gra$-"'a )a
Es"l:s"'a / % '%!'e"% )e err%= a% '%!"r-r% )% +#e s#'e)e !a Gra$-"'a, e$ Es"l:s"'a !6% -
*r%*ra$e!"e err%s, *%r+#e *ara %s $a%res )esv%s / a'a)a #$a )e"er$!a!"e *s'%l8&'a, !a"#ral.
A Es"l:s"'a "e$ *%r $ss6% e;*l'ar, es'lare'er7 a Gra$-"'a ss"e$a"2a e $*<e !%r$as, $#"as
ve2es '%$ r&)e2 e;'essva. A "e%ra )a '%!'%r)!'a, e!'ara)a s%5re"#)% !a s#a ev%l#36%
s"8r'a, )e$%!s"ra *ere"a$e!"e es"a )ere!3a #$)a$e!"al e!"re as )#as )s'*l!as.

S#*%!a$%s +#e #$ a*re!)2 )e es"l% es'reve #$a rase )es"as= 0D/ #$ as*e'"% !"eressa!"e, %s
*r/)%s '%$ as 9a!elas 'eas )e l#24. U$ &ra$-"'% 'e!s#ra l%&% a rase e a*%!"a a al"a )e
'%!'%r)!'a e!"re % ver5% e % s#9e"%=((A+#ele !/ es"- erra)%= )eva es'rever(se !7o. O "/'!'% )%
es"l% !6% se )e;a levar *%r esse ar&#$e!"%, e *r%'#ra, '%$ 5ase !a *s'%l%&a, es'lare'er a+#ela
!ra'36%. ?#e$ ass$ es'reve# '%$% +#e a!"e'*%# a s#a vs6% e '%!s)er%# !6% %s *r/)%s !a s#a
vare)a)e, $as !% se# '%!9#$"%. Da:, % e$*re&% )% s!&#lar *el% *l#ral. ?#e essa %*era36% /
!a"#ral, *r%va(% % se&#!"e *ass% )e ra!'s'% )e M%ras, !% Falme'r'm !e I%3laterra: P%r %!)e
!6% é *%#'% )e es"$ar as co%ersaes 'rtuosas e )e %$e!s s-5%s4. A+#elas co%ersaes s6%
")as '%$% #$ "%)%, )e +#e se e;"ra +#al+#er '%sa r#"#%sa. '%$ esse "%)%, '%$ essa '%sa
'%!'%r)a a+#ele é.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

Ve$%s *%s +#e, a +#a"r% s/'#l%s )e )s"!'a, '%!')ra$ !#$ $es$% *r%'ess% )e es"l% %
a*re!)2 e % es'r"%r +#!e!"s"a. Des"e $%)%, a5%!a)a '%$% a!)a '%$ #$ e;e$*l% 'l-ss'%, /
*r%v-vel +#e % &ra$-"'% e'e %s %l%s > rre&#lar)a)e.

O#"r% err%, $#"% re+#e!"e= O e$*re&% )es"es "er$%s !emo%stram 5%$ '%!e'$e!"% )a
l:!&#a4. Es"-(se ve!)% a %r&e$ )% )esl2e= % ver5%, e$ ve2 )e '%!'%r)ar '%$ % s#9e"%
+empre3o-, % a"ra:)% *ara % '%$*le$e!"% )e"er$!a"v% !% *l#ral +!estes termos-. O &ra$-"'%
!6% )e;ar- )e 'e!s#rar a '%!s"r#36%, '%$% err8!ea7 s8 a)$"e "al '%!'%r)!'a, a +#e 'a$a
a"ra'"va4, +#a!)% % s#9e"% %r #$ !%$e '%le'"v%, '%$% *%r e;e$*l% !es"a rase= U$ 5a!)%
)e '%rv%s pa'raam s%5re % 'a)-ver4. O es"ls"a *%r/$ !6% se!"e )'#l)a)es e$ *r%var +#e
a+#ela '%!s"r#36% era #s#al !% *er:%)% 'l-ss'% e 9- ve$ )% s/'#l% ;v, '%$% se v )es"e *ass% )%
Orto !o Esposo: E$ #$ $%!"e - #as -rv%res )e $aravl%sa al"#ra, e % r#"% )elas som )e $#
5%$ %)%r4. U$ e;e$*l% a*e!as )e J%r&e errera )e Vas'%!'el%s, es'r"%r 'l-ss'% 5e$
'%!e')%= S8 a &ra3a )esses %l%s e%ceram %s 5r#"%s a!$as4.

Es"as a$%s"ras, a +#e $#"as %#"ras se *%)era$ 9#$"ar, )2e$(!%s '%$ s#'e!"e 'lare2a +#e a
'%!'%r)!'a / #$ 'a$*% $#"% vas"%, e$ +#e 'er"as '%$5!a3<es )a !"el&!'a, )a $a&!a36% e
)a v%!"a)e a!)a$ '%!s"a!"e$e!"e e$ 5r&a '%$ a l8&'a &ra$a"'al. Da+# res#l"a '%!s""#r #$
)%s 'a*:"#l%s $as )s'#")%s )% es"#)% )a l:!&#a. Ev)e!"e$e!"e, !6% *%)e$%s a'e"ar '%$% 5%!s
"%)%s %s 'a*r'%s )a a!"asa7 - !e'ess)a)e )#$a 'er"a %r)e$, )#$a ra2%-vel )s'*l!a7 $as
!6% va$%s "a$5/$, e$ !%$e )es"e *r!':*%, )e;ar )e re'%!e'er %s )re"%s )% es*:r"% 'ra)%r e
a 5ele2a s#&es"va )e 'er"as l5er)a)es.

N% ss"e$a )a '%!'%r)!'a )-(se *re'sa$e!"e % '%!"r-r% )% +#e s#'e)e e$ %#"r%s )%$:!%s )a


s"8ra )% )%$a= %s e;e$*l%s )a l:!&#a a!"&a a#"%r2a$ as $a%res
#1

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

rre&#lar)a)es )a l:!&#a $%)er!a. ?#al+#er )%s e;e$*l%s )e '%!s"r#36% rre&#lar *%r !8s
a*rese!"a)%s / ver)a)era$e!"e !%e!sv%, se % '%$*arar$%s >s a#)-'as )%s es'r"%res 5e$
ver!-'#l%s )%s s/'#l%s ;v e ;v!. Ve9a$(se a*e!as es"as +#a"r% rases, res*e'"va$e!"e )e Fe"%r
P!"%, J%6% )e Barr%s, ra!'s'% )e M%ras e r. A!"8!% )as Ca&as=

1. A %r$%s#ra )e Pars e Fele!a $oram 'a#sa )a )es"r#36% )e Tr8a.

. Os *%v%s )es"as las é )e '%r 5a3a e 'a5el% '%rre)%.

. o' D. D#ar)%s e l/r)a a*%se!"a)%s !% a*%se!"% +#e "!a % se# !%$e.

. P%#'% $*%r"a +#e "e!a a 'asa 'ea )e */r%las e )a$a!"es, se se !6% a*r%ve"a !elas.

Se a"e!"ar$%s 5e$ !es"as rases e !as %#"ras 9- a*rese!"a)as, ve$%s +#e esses )esv%s a*are!"es )e
'%!'%r)!'a se e;*l'a$ s%5re"#)% *%r "rs $%"v%s= #$, +#e '%!ss"e e$ '%!'%r)ar as *alavras
!6% se&#$)% a le"ra $as se&#$)% a )ea7 %#"r%, se&#$)% % +#al a '%!'%r)!'a vara '%!%r$e a
*%s36% )%s "er$%s )% )s'#rs%7 e #$ "er'er%, +#e "ra)#2 % *r%*8s"% )e a2er a '%!'%r)!'a '%$
% "er$% +#e $as !"eressa a'e!"#ar %# val%r2ar. A l.a e .a rases s6% #$ e;e$*l% )essa
'%!'%r)!'a
'%!s)era$(se$e!"al, a +#e se )e
)%s e;e$*l%s 'a$a sle*se4.
%r$%s#ra, e *%rNass%
*r$era,
se *s %'%$%
ver5%se!%
"ra"a )e )#as
*l#ral. *ess%as, rase,
Na se&#$)a
"e$%s e$ $e!"e, *ara al/$ )% *l#ral, a $a&e$ '%le'"va, re*rese!"a)a *%r a popula7o, a 3e%te.
N% "er'er% e;e$*l%, se!"$%s *ere"a$e!"e +#e % s!&#lar $o' se )eve a*e!as > s#a l%'al2a36% !%
*r!':*% )a rase7 se *#ser$%s % ver5% )e*%s )% s#9e"%, 9- !6% / *%ss:vel essa '%!s"r#36%= D.
D#ar)%s e l/r)a $oram a*%se!"a)%s...4. E!$, !a .a rase, %9e )r:a$%s
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

#1:

a!"es !eles $as % a#"%r *reer# reerr(se a pérolas, *%r ser *ara ele a *alavra $as e;*ressva e
*%/"'a.

?#e ave$%s
%# #$a )e '%!'l#r
$*r%*re)a)e %)e "#)% s"% @e$*re&a)%
lar&a$e!"e ?#e % +#e*el%s
%9e se a&#ra
!%ss%s a%s %l%s
$el%res )% &ra$-"'%
es'r"%res #$ err%
'l-ss'%s.
Ca$<es, e$ "#)% 'ra)%r e &e!al, #s%# lar&a$e!"e )e "%)as es"as l5er)a)es )e '%!'%r)!'a. É
+#e, )e #$ $%)% &eral, % ss"e$a )a '%!'%r)!'a "e$ ev%l#:)% )e %r$a +#e se "$ rerea)% as
l5er)a)es )a sle*se e$ 5e!e:'% )a '%!'%r)!'a l"eral. Te$ s)% % "r#$% )a l8&'a s%5re a
$a&!a36%. E res#l"a )a:, !6% - )v)a, $a%r )s'*l!a e $a%r 'lare2a.

Va$%s ver '%$%, !a %'!a )e #$ &ra!)e es'r"%r, se *r%'essa es"e "ra5al% )e 'lar'a36% e
$el%ra )% es"l%. Na l.a vers6% )a s#a !%vela, S'%3ular'!a!es !uma rapar'3a loura, e$ 1, E3a
)e ?#er%2 es'reve#= e *are'a a Ma'-r% +#e "%)% % '/#, a *#re2a, a 5%!)a)e )as l%res e a
'as")a)e )as es"relas estaa !a+#ele 'lar% s%rrs%4. O a#"%r, !as e)3<es se&#!"es e$e!)%# *ara
estaam, e "eve 5%as ra2<es *ara ss%= a+#ele s%rrs% es*elava "%)%s %s ele$e!"%s e !6% a*e!as %
'/#.

É *%s se$*re l:'"% a%s ar"s"as es'%ler a '%!'%r)!'a +#e $el%r les *are'e. Os &ra$-"'%s, /
'lar%, rea&e$ '%!"ra s"%. Para eles, !6% )eva aver l5er)a)e )e es'%la, e / se$*re la$e!"-vel
+#e #$a re&ra "e!a e;'e*3<es. Ve9a$%s % +#e )2 s%5re s"% % &ra$-"'% 5rasler% Carl%s G%s,
a#"%r )% $as '%$*le"% "ra"a)% )e '%!'%r)!'a e$ *%r"#&#s= A l:!&#a *%r"#&#esa "e!)e 'a)a ve2
$as a #$%r$2ar(se= *r%'#ra *%s es"ra"'ar as s#as %r$as )e )2er, #&!)% a% s!'re"s$%, +#e
)eve ser #$ e!8$e!% a!"es )as l:!&#as a!)a e$ %r$a36% )% +#e )e #$ )%$a 9- e$a!'*a)% e
'%!s"r#:)%4.

Es"a$%s ve!)% a%!)e se +#er 'e&ar= a% )eal )#$a l:!&#a a'a5a)a, !'a, %!)e !6% a9a essa
*#l#la36% )e %r$as e '%!s"r#3<es, esse s!'re"s$%4, +#e "a!"% arrela %s
K

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

%r)e!a)%res )as re&ras &ra$a"'as. Ora a l:!&#a !6% a'#$#la %r$as )e )2er e es'rever s8 *%r
a$%r > vare)a)e. Essas vara!"es "ra)#2e$ %#"r%s "a!"%s $a"2es )% se!"$e!"% e )a )ea. N6% s6%
*%r"a!"% %r$as e+#vale!"es, $e%s s#*/rl#%s )e e;*ress6%. N% )a e$ +#e a"!&:sse$%s % )eal
$*%ss:vel )e #$a l:!&#a *ere"a, )sse'a)a, se$ e;'e*3<es, "er:a$%s $a"a)% a Ar"e. Ora, $%rrer
*%r $%rrer, +#e $%rra a!"es a Gra$-"'a...
#. O )er2o e o s8@ei&o. ( Me!'%!are$%s a*e!as %s 'as%s $as !"eressa!"es )a '%!'%r)!'a )%
ver5% '%$ % s#9e"%=

a- "8@ei&o o(e&i)o. ( Se$*re +#e se !%s )e*ara #$ s#9e"% '%le'"v%, *%)e$%s "er a res*e"% )ele
#$a )#*la re*rese!"a36%= a )% "%)% e a )as *ar"es )e +#e se '%$*<e. O "er$% $loresta *%)e s#&err(
!%s #$a !%36% &l%5al, a5s"ra'"a )e +#a!")a)e= %# e!"6% *%)e$%s ver as -rv%res #$a a #$a, e
"ere$%s ass$ #$a re*rese!"a36% *ar'al, '%!'re"a, )e +#al)a)e. Es"as )#as %*era3<es
)ese$*e!a$ *a*el $*%r"a!"e !a '%!'%r)!'a )% ver5% '%$ % s#9e"% '%le'"v%, *%r+#e #$as
ve2es !"eressa(!%s $as 'a$ar a a"e!36% *ara % '%!9#$"%, %#"ras *ara % se# )es)%5ra$e!"% e$
*ar"es.

Dr:a$%s %9e= O *%v% *e)#(le +#e se 'a$asse Re&e)%r4. N% *er:%)% a!"&% )a l:!&#a, !%
"e$*% )e er!6% L%*es, es"a rase % *%r ele ass$ '%!s"r#:)a= O *%v% le pe!'ram +#e se
'a$asse Re&e)%r4. O ver5% *s(se !% *l#ral, *%r+#e % s#9e"%, poo, era #$ '%le'"v%. F%9e sera
$*%ss:vel es"a '%!'%r)!'a, *%r 5r&ar '%!"ra a l8&'a7 $as % &ra!)e es'r"%r +#e era er!6%
L%*es !6% va !% *%v% #$a e!")a)e a5s"ra'"a, a!"es +#al+#er '%sa )e $#"% '%!'re"% e )e $#"%
vv%, +#e ervlava *elas r#as e *ra3as )e Ls5%a, !a !sa )e es'%ler #$ re. A '%!s"r#36%
$%)er!a, '%$ % s!&#lar, / $as l8&'a, $as !"ele'"#al7 a '%!s"r#36% a!"&a / $as *"%res'a, $as
vs#al. Me!%s 'a*a2 )e a5s"ra'3<es, % *%r"#&#s )e %#"r%s "e$*%s "!a

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

a "e!)!'a *ara *l#ral2ar %s seres '%le'"v%s. A%!s% X, J%6% )e Barr%s, Ca$<es, r. L#:s )e
S%#sa, *ara s8 '"ar$%s %s &ra!)es, #sara$ lar&a$e!"e )% *r%'ess%, *reer!)% a '%!'%r)!'a
$e!"al
v6% *%r>%r)e$
$%r%l8&'a e "ra!)%
res*e'"va= )ss% '#r%s%s
O co%e%to ee"%s
learo% e;*ressv%s,
l%&% )al a $%3a4.'%$% se v )es"es
( O sa'er)%"e e;e$*l%s,
*e3a "a$5/$+#e
a%
poo >ue ro3uem a De#s *ela al$a )% I!a!"e4. ( A er$%sa e %r"e '%$*a!a \ % )a +#ase "%)%
est7o *assa!)%4. ( ++Ge%te +#e $a('am '%!"a +#e t'%*am a *resa 'er"a4.

De J%6% )e Barr%s - %#"r% e;e$*l% '#r%s% )e '%!'%r)!'a $e!"al= A9#$"%# )%#s 5a"/s *ra
a!)ar '%$ s&a e ar*<es a eles 5alea"%s, % +#al passatempo le *oueram )e '#s"ar a v)a4. O
ver5% *s(se !% *l#ral, *%r+#e a a"e!36% es"- ;a)a s%5re %s )%s 5a"/s. O *assa"e$*% era
'%!s""#:)% *%r )#as *es'as )versas= a )a s&a e a )% ar*6%. A essa )vers)a)e se reere % ver5% !%
*l#ral.

Pare')% '%$ es"e / a+#ele 'as% )% vers% )% )r's$al, +#e "e$ +#e5ra)% a 'a5e3a a%s '%$e!"ars"as=
%#ve #$ *as"%r e *as"%ra \ +#e '%$ "a!"% a$%r se a$ara$ \ '%$% $ales le causaram \ este 2em,
+#e !#$'a %ra4. Deva ser causou $as '%$% 2em se reere a%s )%s, % ver5% '%!'%r)a !6% '%$ %
"er$% a5s"ra'"% !% s!&#lar, $as '%$ a $a&e$ '%!'re"a )%s )%s *ers%!a&e!s.
Na l:!&#a $%)er!a ( )sse$%s ( es"a '%!'%r)!'a / $*%ss:vel, % +#e !6% %5s"%# a +#e M-r% )e
A!)ra)e ass$ es'revesse= e % 'asal es>ueceram +#e ava $#$)%4 ( +Macumama, . C%!"#)%,
+#a!)% % s#9e"% '%le'"v% es"- $as )s"a!'a)% )% ver5%, 9- es"e se *%)e *r !% *l#ral, >
se$ela!3a )a '%!s"r#36% a!"&a. Ve9a(se !#$ e;e$*l% )e Garre""= O res"% )% e;/r'"% reals"a
eacua !es"e $%$e!"% Sa!"ar/$7 7o e$ #&a *ara % Ale!"e9%4. O *r$er% ver5% a!)a se *s !%
s!&#lar, *%r es"ar s%5 a !l#!'a *r8;$a )% '%le'"v%7 % %#"r% 9- % *ara % *l#ral, "%$a!)%(se a
$a&e$ $as '%!'re"a e $as vva= a&%ra 9- !6% / #$ &r#*%


M. RODRIUE" LAPA

#$)% e )s'*l!a)%, $as #$a "#r5a e$ )es%r)e$, $as %# $e!%s )s*ersa, +#e se re"ra. T%)% es"e
ee"% se '%!se&## '%$ a+#ele *r$er% ver5% !% s!&#lar e '%$ % se&#$)% !% *l#ral.

O l8l%&% 5rasler% Sa) Al e;*l'ava % ver5% !% *l#ral '%$% #$ *r%*8s"% !%s es'r"%res, +#e
*re"e!)a$
)e$%!s"ra *%r$*ress%!ar *el%e;e$*l%.
a+#ele l"$% !$er% eleva)%
O a#"%r,)e !)v:)#%s.
'%$ % #s% )% N6% / 5e$
*l#ral, +#eressa a ra26%,
)ar #$ ee"%'%$% se O
vs#al.
*l#ral, )ss%'a!)% % !$er%, a2 ev)e!'ar as *ar"es e 'ra % *"%res'%. O e;e$*l% )e J%6% )e
Barr%s, a)#2)% *%r Sa) Al, l#s"ra 5e$ % a'"%= Ve!)% %s !%ss%s '%$% a 3e%te )es"as "erra)as
a%!aam !a)a!)% *%r se a'%ler a "erra4. C%$% +#e es"a$%s ve!)% %s &r#*%s )s*ers%s )e $%#r%s,
#s"&a)%s *el%s *%r"#&#eses, !a)a!)% al"va$e!"e e$ )re'36% > *raa.

2- S#9e"% $l"*l%. ( ?#a!)% % s#9e"% se '%$*<e )e v-r%s ele$e!"%s 9#s"a*%s"%s, / )e 5%a l8&'a
+#e % ver5% se *%!a !% *l#ral= O #rs% e % l%5% s7o a!$as er%2es4. N% !%ss% es*:r"% - a
)ss%'a36% 'lara )esses )%s ele$e!"%s. Es"a re&ra &eral s%re *%r/$ $*%r"a!"es e;'e*3<es, "%)as
elas s#5%r)!a)as $as %# $e!%s a% *r!':*% 9- e;*%s"%= a "e!)!'a *ara ass%'ar %# )ss%'ar as
*ar"es, a *%s36% )%s "er$%s '%!'%r)a!"es, e a !"e!36% )% a#"%r e$ sale!"ar #$ )%s "er$%s. Os
&ra$-"'%s re&s"a$, a% "%)%,
1 e;'e*3<es. Ve9a$%s %s 'as%s $as re*rese!"a"v%s=

?#a!)% as *ar"es )% s#9e"% $l"*l% %re$ e;*ress<es s!8!$as %# %r$are$ #$ "%)% !)vs%, %
ver5% *<e(se &eral$e!"e !% s!&#lar. O '%!e')% *ass% )e Ca$<es '%$*r%va 5e$ % 'as%= Trs"e
ve!"#ra e !e&r% a)% %s c*ama !es"e "erre!% $e#4. Se&#$)% %s &ra$-"'%s, / )e r&%r %$"r %
ar"&% a!"es )% se&#$)% "er$%, '%$% !es"a rase )e D%&% )% C%#"%= A $-&%a e )%r le
ressusc'tou % e!"e!)$e!"%4. Se *#s/sse$%s % ar"&% a!"es )e !or, 9- %s )%s
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



"er$%s !6% 'ava$ 5e$ s!8!$%s, e % ver5% )eva, e$ r&%r, *r(se !% *l#ral= A $-&%a e a )%r
le ressusc'taram % e!"e!)$e!"%4. '%$ ee"%, a #$36% )% ar"&% )e!)% / a )e *ar"'#lar2ar %
%59e'"%7 e *ara +#e )%s %# $as ele$e!"%s *%ssa$ %r$ar #$ "%)%, / !e'ess-r% +#e !6% se
a'e!"#e$ as *ar"'#lar)a)es +#e os )s"!&#e$.
C%!"#)%, 'as%s - e$ +#e essa *ar"'#lar2a36% e a *r%;$)a)e )% ver5% '%!s*ra$ *ara )ar a%
l"$% ele$e!"% #$ l#&ar $ar'a!"e !a rase. E!"6%, 9- a '%!'%r)!'a se *%)e a2er '%$ ele. É %
+#e s#'e)e !es"a rase )% P.e A!"8!% Vera= ?#e 'aa S$6%, es"- $#"% 5e$ 'a:)%7 +#e $%rra,
"a$5/$ es"ara $#"% 5e$ $%r"%, +#e % se# a"rev$e!"% e a s#a ar"e )a58l'a % merec'a6.
C%$*e"e a%s 5%!s es'r"%res '%!s"r#r a rase )e $a!era +#e esse ele$e!"% +#e )e"er$!a a
'%!'%r)!'a e "e$ s&!'a)% $as $*%r"a!"e es"e9a '%l%'a)% !% l#&ar +#e le / )ev)%. Mas !e$
se$*re ass$ s#'e)e. D. ra!'s'% Ma!#el )e Mel% v%l%# es"e *r!':*%, !% se&#!"e '#r%s%
*ass% )% se# a*8l%&% O escr'tr'o aare%tos%5re % *%)er )% )!er%= e *%ssa a+#ele '#r"%
!"eresse a2er $a%res e $e!%res %$e!s a+#eles +#e De#s e a Na"#re2a $e( &#as4. A *alavra
)e s&!'a36% #$)a$e!"al / ev)e!"e$e!"e *ara % a#"%r % "er$% Deus, +#e )eva *r(se e$
se&#$)% l#&ar, *r8;$% )% ver5%. Mas !% es"l%, '%$% !a v)a, "a$5/$ - % se!"$e!"% )as
)es&#al)a)es. Sera *%#'% )e'e!"e *ara #$ 'a"8l'% )% s/'#l% ;v! *r a Na"#re2a > re!"e )e
De#s, al/$ )e +#e a rase res#l"ara $#"% *%#'% $#s'al= ...a+#eles +#e a Na"#re2a e De#s $e(
&#as4. U$a %#"ra s/re )e '%!s)era3<es )eve# !l#r !% es*:r"% )% a#"%r= %s s#9e"%s Deus e a
ature(a %r$a$ #$ "%)%, e$ +#e s%5ressa !a"#ral$e!"e a )ea )e De#s, )e +#e a Na"#re2a era
#$a es*/'e )e e$a!a36%, #$ s:$5%l%. A )%#"r!a rel&%sa )% "e$*% $*#$a *%r"a!"% a
#$)a)e )%s )%s '%!'e"%s, l%&%, % ver5% !% s!&#lar. F%9e )r:a$%s a!"es $'(eram, *%r+#e,
'%$ % &ra)#al e!ra+#e'$e!"% )a )ea )e De#s,
##+

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

%s )%s '%!'e"%s 9- s6% e+#vale!"es e se*ar-ves. É #$ e;e$*l% '#r%s% )e '%$% % a$5e!"e


es*r"#al *%)e a'"#ar !% *r%'ess% )a '%!'%r)!'a.

S#*%!a$%s a&%ra es"a rase= A as"'a e a '%ra&e$ aleram"l*e )e *%#'%4. O ver5% *<e(se
!%r$al$e!"e !% *l#ral.
'%!'%r)a!)% '%$ Mas se$as
% ele$e!"% '%l%'ar$%s
*r8;$%=% De
s#9e"% )e*%s,
*%#'% 9- % ver5%
le aleu se *<e
a as"'a e ae$ re&ra !% Ta$5/$
'%ra&e$4. s!&#lar,
*%)e$%s )2er aleram $as / $as !a"#ral, $as re'%$e!)-vel *r % ver5% !% s!&#lar, s%5re"#)%
+#a!)% se "ra"a )e !%$es a5s"ra'"%s. A e;*l'a36% !6% / ):'l= v!)% % s#9e"% a!"es, s%$%s leva)%s
a real2ar #$a %*era36% )e '%!"a&e$, #$a a)36%, *%!)% *%r ss% % ver5% !% *l#ral. N% 'as%
!vers%, a %r$a ver5al "e$ )e ser ;a)a a!"es )e se *r%'e)er > '%!"a&e$ e / !a"#ral$e!"e a"ra:)a
*ela %r$a )% *r$er% ele$e!"% )% s#9e"%. ?#e s"% / ass$, *r%va(% % a'"% )e, a!)a +#e %
se&#$)% ele$e!"% es"e9a !% *l#ral, % ver5% '%!'%r)ar '%$ % $as *r8;$%, '%$% se v *%r es"e
e;e$*l% )e Garre""= F%9e $es$% estar/ e$ $!a 'asa % "a5el6%, as "es"e$#$as e %s !%ss%s
*are!"es4. Es"a a!"e'*a36%, *r8*ra )a l!&#a&e$ %ral, $*s(se )e*%s > l!&#a&e$ es'r"a. É
el#')a"v% ver'ar, a es"e res*e"%, +#e a+#ela rase )e Garre"" / "ra)a )e #$a )as s#as '%$/)as.

c) "8@ei&o 0 Pro%ome re(a&i)o. ( Re*are(se !as )#as rases *%r"a)%ras )e


)#as '%!'%r)!'as= S%#
#$ *%5re %$e$ +#e !6% $ao $al a !!&#/$4. ( S%# #$ *%5re %$e$ +#e !6% $a( $al a
!!&#/$4. A l-#'a &ra$a"'al
Ca$<es e Ber!ar)es7 *re"e!)e 5a!r
e ass$ se '%!"rara % #s% avv%
se&#$)a '%!s"r#36%,
)a l:!&#a, s8 *%r+#e
*ara a +#al as )#as!6% / a5%!a)a
rases "$ #$*%r
val%r es"l:s"'% )ere!"e. O *r$er% $%)% )e )2er / $as e!/r&'% e $as ae'"v%, *%r '%!'e!"rar
"%)% % !"eresse !a *r$era *ess%a= / #$ *r%'ess% l:r'%. A se&#$)a '%!s"r#36%, '%$ % ver5% !a
"er'era *ess%a, *er)e !"e!s)a)e ae'"va e

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



"%$a(se *r%*ra$e!"e !arra"va. De $%)% +#e as )#as '%!'%r)!'as, !6% se!)% e+#vale!"es,
)ever6% '%!servar(se e e$*re&ar(se '%!%r$e as 'r'#$s"!'as. E ass$ se a2 ee'"va$e!"e,
+#era$ %# !6% +#era$ %s &ra$-"'%s.

U$ 'as% "a$5/$
*r$er%s $#"as
+#e c*e3ou ve2es )e5a")%
l- a'$a4. "e$ s)%'e!s#ra$
Os &ra$-"'%s % )a '%!'%r)!'a
es"a %r$a)e rases '%$% '%!%r$e
e *re'%!2a$, es"a= %>)%s
5%a
l8&'a, % ver5% !% *l#ral= ... +#e c*e3aram l- a'$a4. Ora a ver)a)e / +#e %s Cl-ss'%s #sara$
"a$5/$ a *r$era %r$a, '%$% se *%)e ver )es"es )%s e;e$*l%s )e r. L#:s )e S%#sa e )e Ma!#el
Ber!ar)es=

1. % #$a )as *r$eras "erras )e Es*a!a, +#e rece2eu a / )e Crs"%.

. U$a )as '%#sas, +#e !erru2ou Gal5a, % "ar)ar al&#$ "a!"%.

T#)% )e*e!)e a!al e$ sa5er +#al / % a!"e'e)e!"e )% *r%!%$e rela"v%= se uma, se % *l#ral +#e se
le se&#e. V(se 5e$ +#e %s )%s es'r"%res e$*re&ara$ % ver5% !% s!&#lar, *%r+#e +#ere$
'a$ar $as v&%r%sa$e!"e a a"e!36% *ara #$a "erra e *ara #$a '%#sa7 % *l#ral ara '%$ +#e essa
"erra e essa '%#sa se !6% )s"!&#sse$ *ere"a$e!"e )% &r#*% )as %#"ras, e$ '#9a '%$*a!a v$
$e!'%!a)as. Es"e 'as% )e )#*la '%!'%r)!'a )-(se e$ %#"ras l:!&#as. E a A'a)e$a ra!'esa
"eve, e$ 1Q, % 5%$ se!s% )e a)$"r % s!&#lar %# % *l#ral e$ rases '%$% es"a= A as"r%!%$a /
#$a )as '!'as +#e $as *o%ra %# *o%ram- a #$a!)a)e4. Sera a !%ssa 'a*a2 )es"a
l5eral)a)e @

!- "8@ei&o om o )er2o %o i%$i%i&i)o. ( D2e$ %s &ra$-"'%s +#e / !)ere!"e % #s% )% s!&#lar %#
)% *l#ral, e$ rases '%$% es"as=

1. As es"relas parec'a s%rrre$.

. As es"relas parec'am s%rrr.

1 ( Es"l:s"'a
##3

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

A *r$era '%!s"r#36% / $as 'l-ss'a, $as l"er-ra, a se&#$)a $as *%*#lar e '%rre!"e, $as
*r8*ra )a l:!&#a ala)a. Es"ls"'a$e!"e, % e$*re&% )% ver5% parecer !% s!&#lar, se!)% $as
l8&'%, e!"%r*e'e % val%r )a re*rese!"a36%, "%$a(a $as a5s"ra'"a e !"ele'"#al2a a rase7 a*e!as %
!!"% *ess%al )- v)a > $a&e$. Na se&#$)a rase, $as ae'"va, a+#ele !!"v% $*ess%al
la!3a #$parec'am
es"relas *%#'% )esorr'rem6,
ral)a)e s%5re a re*rese!"a36%.
e$5%ra %s &ra$-"'%s P%r ss% - aa"e!)!'a
s8 a)$"a$ *ara
'%!s"r#36%, se )2er=
+#a!)% as
% !!"v%
es"ver a #$a 'er"a )s"!'a )e parecer, '%$% !a se&#!"e rase )e Fer'#la!%= As aves a+#-"'as
parec'am, !%s se#s v%%s !'er"%s, %ra va&ar%s%s, %ra r-*)%s, $ol3arem '%$ %s *r$er%s )as )a
es"a36% )%s a$%res4. O 'er"% / +#e es'r"%res )a e!ver&a)#ra )#$ J%6% )e Barr%s e$*re&ava$ 9-
!% s/'#l% ;v a+#ela '%!'%r)!'a= V!a$ ass %r)e!a)%s e$ eras +#e parec'am 'rem !a
%r)e$ )as *r%'ss<es4. C%$% )2 Sa) Al, +#e "ra"%# $a&s"ral$e!"e a +#es"6%, a )es!!'a
*ess%al !% !!"v% )e;a(!%s '%$% +#e ver %s '%!"%$%s e % )ese!% )a $a&e$ )% s#9e"%4.

A es"e res*e"%, %s &ra$-"'%s )e!#$'a$ a $*r%*re)a)e )% !!"v% *ess%al e$ rases '%$%


es"a )e Ber!ar)$ R5er%= V as aves2uscarem se#s *%s%s4. Ora a ver)a)e / +#e a %r$a *ess%al
/ $#"% $as e;*ressva, *el% +#e '%!"/$ )e vs#al)a)e, )e *"%res'%. F- '%$% +#e #$
*r%l%!&a$e!"% )a vs6%, +#e !%s *er$"e )es'er >s *ar"'#lar)a)es )% %59e'"% e$ $%v$e!"%, %
+#e !6% se )- '%$ % !!"% $*ess%al, )e #$a se'#ra a5s"ra'"a, *ara)a.

e- "8@ei&o om o )er2o pro%omi%a( se=8i'o 'e i%$i%i&i)o. ( Os &ra$-"'%s '%s"#$a$ *r%!#$'ar(
se s%5re a ver!a'#l)a)e )as )#as rases se&#!"es=

1. N6% se !ee !r!&r as les.

. N6% se !eem !r!&r as les.


ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

##7

Preere$ a se&#$)a, *ara +#e !6% *%ssa *are'er +#e % se )a *r$era #$'%!e '%$% s#9e"%. Ora /
*re'sa$e!"e ss% +#e se !6% *%)e !e$ )eve ev"ar. O val%r es"l:s"'% )a+#elas %r$as / %9e
)ere!"e= !% *r$er% 'as% 'a$a(se a a"e!36%, *%r $e% )% rele;%, *ara a *ess%a, !)e"er$!a)a,
s#s'e*":vel )e !r!&r as les7 !% se&#$)% 'as%, )ev)% > '%!'%r)!'a, a a"e!36% re'a "%)a !%
%59e'"% ( as les. N6% se *%)e *%s 5a!r #$a %r$a e$ *r%ve"% )a %#"ra.

O a#"%r 'l-ss'% r. A!"8!% )as Ca&as es'reve#= De "6% l%!&e !6% se po!e !ar re&ras *ara a
%ra36%4. Ps % ver5% !% s!&#lar, *%+#e +#s e;*ressa$e!"e real3ar a $*%ss5l)a)e )% s#9e"%,
!5)% )e )ar '%!sel%s *%r es"ar $#"% l%!&e. É 'lar% +#e a+#ele se, !es"e 'as%, +#era$ %# !6%
+#era$ %s &ra$-"'%s, #$'%!a '%$% s#9e"% e e+#vale a #$ *r%!%$e !)e!)%= #$a *ess%a,
#$ s#9e"%, a &e!"e. O &ale&% $%)er!% s%#5e '%!servar el2$e!"e esse !)e!)%= 0um  #$a
*ess%a !%! )e5e !r!;r as leses4, se&#!)% as *sa)as )% ra!'s= 0o% %e !o't p/s e%$re'%!re l?s
los6 e re$%3a!)% a a!"&a '%!s"r#36% &ale&%(*%r"#&#esa= 0ome% !%! )eve...4. Ve$ *%s )e $#"%
l%!&e esse e$*re&%, !6% / &al's$%, e !"r%)#2 #$ $a"2 )e s&!'a36% +#e / )as '%sas $as
el2es )% )%$a. Os &ra$-"'%s !a)a *%)e$ '%!"ra ss%.

*. O a'@e&i)o e o s82s&a%&i)o. ( Se&#$)% a re&ra &eral, % a)9e'"v% '%!'%r)a e$ &/!er% e !$er%


'%$ % s#5s"a!"v%. Na)a $as l8&'%. A )'#l)a)e a*are'e +#a!)% - $as )e #$ s#5s"a!"v% )e
!$er% e &/!er% )ere!"es, +#a!)% - $as )e #$ a)9e'"v% %# +#a!)% % a)9e'"v% / #$ !%$e )e
'%r. Ve9a$%s es"a rase= Revel%# a'"v)a)e e e!er&a!esusa!a6. D2e$ %s &ra$-"'%s +#e, e$
'as%s )es"es, "a!"% a2 e$*re&ar % a)9e'"v% !% s!&#lar '%$% !% *l#ral7 $as +#e a '%!'%r)!'a !%
s!&#lar / $as )% &/!% )a l:!&#a. P%)e ser7 $as % +#e $*%r"a / a'e!"#ar +#e as )#as rases !6%
s6% e+#vale!"es e$ *%)er e;*ressv%. ?#a!)% )2e$%s
M. RODRIGUES LAPA

a'"v)a)e e e!er&a !esusa!a6, se!"$%s +#e % a)9e'"v% s8 +#al'a, *%r ass$ )2er, %
s#5s"a!"v% +#e le es"- $e)a"a$e!"e *r8;$%7 se )sser$%s a'"v)a)e e e!er&a !esusa!as6, 9-
% *l#ral a5ra!&e *%r &#al % &r#*% )%s s#5s"a!"v%s. Para ev"ar +#e % *r$er% s#5s"a!"v% +#e
se$ ser +#al'a)%, a l:!&#a -(l% &eral$e!"e *re'e)er )e #$ ele$e!"% )e 'ara'"er2a36%, % ar"&%
!)e!)%= Revel%# uma a'"v)a)e e e!er&a !esusa!a6, E esse ser-, 9#$"a$e!"e '%$ a %r$a )%
*l#ral, % $el%r es"l%, *%r !6% )e;ar !a s%$5ra #$ )%s ele$e!"%s a 'ara'"er2ar. P%)e$%s *%s
"rar )s"% #$a '%!'l#s6%= ser- se$*re $el%r '%!'%r)!'a a+#ela e$ +#e % a)9e'"v% *%ssa
+#al'ar "%)%s %s s#5s"a!"v%s a +#e )2 res*e"%.

Es"e *r!':*% ve'a(se +#a!)% - )%s %# $as s#5s"a!"v%s !% s!&#lar, )e &/!er% )ere!"e.
E!"6%, % a)9e'"v% *<e(se e$ le&ra !% $as'#l!% )% *l#ral= T!a a 'a5e3a e % "r%!'%
mo%struosos6. N6% *%)e$%s )2er mo%struoso, *%r+#e *er)e$%s )e vs"a a 'a5e3a. ?#a!)%,
*%r/$, os s#5s"a!"v%s s6% a5s"ra'"%s, % 'as% / 9- )ere!"e. Ta!"% *%)e$%s )2er Iss% re+#er
es"#)% e *a'!'a !emora!os6 '%$% Iss% re+#er es"#)% e *a'!'a !emora!a6 $as a
'%!'%r)!'a '%$ % $as *r8;$% +!emora!a- é a!)a a $as '%rre!"e. C%$% e;*l'ar es"a
rre&#lar)a)e @ Os &ra$-"'%s *re'e"#a$ es"a '%!'%r)!'a, se$*re +#e %s s#5s"a!"v%s s6%
s!8!$%s O #r%r e rava *uma%a6- $as a+# !6% se "ra"a )e "er$%s s!8!$%s. A e;*l'a36%
s8 *%)e ser #$a= )%s !%$es a5s"ra'"%s, )es)e +#e !6% se9a$ a!"8!$%s, "e!)e$ a %r$ar !% !%ss%
es*:r"% #$ "%)% !)vs:vel. Ora a #$36% )% *l#ral, '%$% "e$%s vs"%, / a )e )ss%'ar as *ar"es,
"%$a!)%(as $as '%!'re"as, $as vs#as. Da:, % e$*re&% )% s!&#lar.

Se - )%s s#5s"a!"v%s )e &/!er% e !$er% )ere!"e, % a)9e'"v% "e!)e a '%!'%r)ar '%$ % $as
*r8;$%. Os &ra$-"'%s '"a$ %s se&#!"es e;e$*l%s 'l-ss'%s= '%$ *es'%3% e $6%s elosas6 %
es"#)% e *r%ss6% mo%/st'ca6. O $es$% 9

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA Q

se )- +#a!)% a$5%s %s s#5s"a!"v%s es"6% !% *l#ral= "erra e $ares a$asta!os6, $ares e "erras
!esco%*ec'!as6. C%!"#)%, es"a "e!)!'a 'l-ss'a es"- $#"% l%!&e )e ser &eral. F%#ve e -
!'l!a36% *ara *r % a)9e'"v% !% $as'#l!% )% *l#ral, s%5re"#)% +#a!)% #$ )%s s#5s"a!"v%s,
e$5%ra !6% % $as *r8;$%, es"- !es"e &/!er% e !$er%. Ass$, *%)e$%s )2er es"#)%s e
*r%ss6% mo%/st'cos6, $ares e "erras !esco%*ec'!os6 $as 'a se$*re )#v)%s% se !6% - #$a
leve
*%r )ere!3a )e se!")%
$ares e "erras e!"re es"es al#)$%s
!esco%*ec'!as6, v-r%s $%)%s )e '%!'%r)ar.
s%5re"#)% Nae$
> &!%r!'a ver)a)e, +#a!)%
+#e es"a$%s )as)2e$%s
"erras7 se
)2e$%s !esco%*ec'!os, *%$%s %s )%s !%$es a% $es$% !:vel, +#a!"% a% )es'%!e'$e!"% e$ +#e
es"a$%s )e a$5%s.

Es"a a"ra'36% )% $as *r8;$% )-(se a!)a +#a!)% % a)9e'"v% es"- '%l%'a)% a!"es )%s s#5s"a!"v%s.
É #$ 'as% se$ela!"e >+#ele )% ver5% a!"es )% s#9e"% $l"*l%= "ere$%s )e ;ar a!"es )e $as
!a)a a %r$a )% a)9e'"v%, e, !a"#ral$e!"e, *%$%(l% )e a'%r)% '%$ % s#5s"a!"v% $as *r8;$%7
!6% "e$%s "e$*% )e a2er a '%!"a&e$ e a )s'r$!a36% )%s &/!er%s. É % +#e se v !es"a rase )e
Garre""= 0I%$orma!a a *r!'esa e se# '%r"e9%4.

A!alse$%s a&%ra e;e$*l%s e$ +#e a*are'e % s#5s"a!"v% !% *l#ral e )%s %# $as a)9e'"v%s !%
s!&#lar. Carl%s G%s $e!'%!a as se&#!"es rases, )e Ca$<es e P.e Ma!#el Ber!ar)es= O +#ar"%
e +#!"% A$o%sos6. (Y M# versa)% e$ l%3uas &re&a, e5ra'a, sr:a'a, 'al)a'a4. O &ra$-"'%
5rasler% 'a$a a es"a s!"a;e l8&'a4, *%r+#e %e!)e a erar+#a &ra$a"'al, *%!)% %
s#5s"a!"v% s#5%r)!a)% a% a)9e'"v%. E a5%!a(se '%$ % *%v%, +#e !6% *ra"'a essa '%!'%r)!'a
*re"e!s%sa, '%$ a +#al %s l"era"%s '#)a$ real3ar % es"l%. O &ra$-"'% 5rasler% !6% v# 5e$ a
+#es"6%. ?#a!)% a2e$%s #$a '"a36% !#$/r'a )e )%s %# $as ele$e!"%s, *r%'e)e$%s
$e!"al$e!"e a #$a %*era36% )e s%$ar, +#e '%!)#2 !ev"avel$e!"e a% *l#ral. O *l#ral
#*-

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

$*<e(se a!)a !a *r$era rase '"a)a, *%r "er$%s a )ea a!"e'*a)a )e se "ra"ar )e #$a &ra!)e
s/re. Re'%$e!)a$ %s &ra$-"'%s )% *ar")% )e G%s +#e se )&a ( $# versa)% !a l:!&#a &re&a,
!a e5ra'a, !a sr:a'a, !a 'al)a'a4 e % +#ar"% e % +#!"% A%!s%4. Mas, re*ara!)% 5e$, %
s&!'a)% )as rases !6% / "alve2 % $es$%= a re*e"36% )% ar"&% !% s!&#lar a'e!"#%#
e!a"'a$e!"e
!"eressava a% %a#"%r.
val%r )as *ar"es e )$!## a $*%r"!'a )% '%!9#$"%, +#e era *%rve!"#ra % +#e

N% +#e res*e"a a%s !%$es )e '%res, - +#e $e!'%!ar *r$era$e!"e % 'as% e$ +#e % a)9e'"v% /
!%$e )e '%r *r%ve!e!"e )e s#5s"a!"v%. Carl%s G%s '"a e;e$*l%s )e e;*ress<es '%!"ra'"as4,
se&#$)% les 'a$a= ves")%s rosa, &rava"as lara%;a, l#vas pérola, $eas salm7o, la3%s mala, e"'.
Ora a ver)a)e / +#e % #s% )% *%r"#&#s !6% a)$"e a $a%r *ar"e )esses 'as%s )e )s'%r)!'a,
$*%r"a)%s )%s &#r!%s ra!'eses. Os e;e$*l%s a)a!"e '"a)%s )%s $*ress%!s"as G#ler$e
Ga$a e al% )e Al$e)a s%a$, *%r e!+#a!"%, '%$% ev"-ves &al's$%s= #$ $ar s%sse&a)% e
rosaZ &%"as pérola v%&a!)% '%$% al&as )e l#24. Dre$%s, *%r va )e re&ra= ves")%s '%r()e(
r%sa, &rava"as '%r()e(lara!9a, e"'. S8 se ver'a a )s'%r)!'a, +#a!)% a*l'a$%s !%$es ra!'eses=
"as 3re%at, $eas 2e'3e, l#vas marro%, e"'.

O#"r% 'as% a '%!s)erar / % )% a)9e'"v% '%$*%s"%. De #$ !+#/r"% a +#e *r%'e)e$%s !%s $e%s
e$!!%s
*r%er$%s'%s"#rer%s, ver'-$%s
a rase !% s!&#lar= U$ +#e - $#"as
ves")% es"a3<esDe*%s
er!e"3arra$a. !a '%!'%r)!'a. Pr$era$e!"e,
)sse$%s= D%s ves")%s... e a
!"err%&a)a es"a5ele'a a '%!'%r)!'a. A %r$a )% s!&#lar '%!serv%#(se #$%r$e$e!"e e$
!%$es "as '%$% rosa"el*o, preto"a(e'c*e, amarelo"torra!o.O *l#ral s8 a*are'e# se$ es"a36%
e$ a(u's claros, e ss% "alve2 se )eva a +#e a *alavra !6% / '%!s)era)a a!)a '%$*%s"a. F%#ve
'%!"#)% es"a36% e!"re a(ul"escuro e a(u's"escuros, er!e"escuroe

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

#*1

er!es"escuros 'ara$ *re)%$!a!"e$e!"e !% s!&#lar a(ul"$errete, a(ul"celeste, a(ul"eléctr'co,


a(ul"sa$'ra, a(ul"mar'%*o, a('!"pa7o $as a!)a a+# se %#va )e +#a!)% e$ +#a!)% a(u's"celeste
%# a(u's"ceUstes, a(u's"eléctr'co %# a(u's"eléctr'cos. O#"r%s !%$es e$ +#e %#ve es"a36%= er!e"
3arra$a %# er!es"3arra$a, er!e"a(e'to%a%# er!es"a(e'to%a, preto"car7o%# pretos"car7o.

?#a!)% % a)9e'"v% se %r$a )e )%s ele$e!"%s, )%s +#as % *r$er% #$'%!a '%$% a)v/r5%, /
'%$ % se&#$)% +#e se a2 a '%!'%r)!'a. Nes"e 'as%, a '%r res#l"a )a '%$5!a36% )as )#as
"%!al)a)es, '%$% !es"es e;e$*l%s )e Fer'#la!%, Garre"" e E3a= %!)as %e3ro"a(u's6, "%*%s
par!o"a(ula!os )as serras4, l%res er7e"2r'l*a%tes6, 5ar5a casta%*o"escura6. Ass$, )re$%s
%s ra$%s er!e"%e3ros )%s *!er%s4. O *r%'ess% a!)a % a*l'a)% *%r Garre"", !#$a
'%$5!a36% )% :s'% e )% $%ral= %l%s lC%3u'!o"a(u's6. Se&## !ss% % e;e$*l% )% se# $es"re
l!"% El:s%, +#e, !%s !s )% s/'#l% ;v$, *re'%!2ava % e$*re&% )as *alavras '%$*%s"as, *ara
)are$ '%r a% *e!sa$e!"%. Mas, a!)a a+#, / l:'"% a%s ar"s"as *reerre$ a %r$a !var-vel.
Te;era(G%$es es'reve= As $e!sas r%)as er!e"%e3ro )as alarr%5eras47 e E3a= #$ ra$% )e
r%sas ma3e%ta"escuro, $a&!:'as4. Nes"e e;e$*l%, % !%$e )a '%r *are'e !var-vel, a 9#l&ar *el%
a)9e'"v% se&#!"e. Al-s, !% !+#/r"% a'$a '"a)%, %#v#(se re+#e!"e$e!"e )2er= )%s ves")%s
er!e"escuro6. Ér'% Ver:ss$% se&#e % $es$% 'a$!%, es'reve!)%= r%#*a a(ul eléctr'co6.
+Sa3a, e). )e 1Q, *-&. 1.
Es"e +#a)r% *er$"e %r$#lar #$a re&ra, +#e "e$ '%!"#)% !#$er%sas e;'e*3<es. Se$*re +#e !%
a)9e'"v% '%$*%s"% ve$%s $as %# $e!%s )#as #$)a)es )e *e!sa$e!"%, - "e!)!'a *ara
es"a5ele'er a '%!'%r)!'a= )%s )%s ele$e!"%s, +#a!)% se "ra"e )e )%s a)9e'"v%s, )%s +#as #$ )-
a '%r, % %#"r% % $a"2+a(u's"claros- )% ele$e!"% )% $, +#a!)% % *r$er% a)9e'"v% "e$ #!36%
a)ver5al +er!e"


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

"%e3ros-. N% *r$er% 'as%, % *r%'ess% )e '%$*%s36% !6% / a!)a *ere"%, *%)e!)% es'rever se
a(u's claros, se$ :e!7 !% se&#$)%, - "e!)!'a *ara a '%$*%s36% *ere"a, a "al *%!"% +#e 9- se
*%)e es'rever er!'%e3ro. ?#a!)% *%r/$ % '%$*%s"% !%s )es*er"a #$a !'a $a&e$, a %r$a )%
s!&#lar serve "a$5/$ *ara % *l#ral. Clar% +#e ser- *er$")% a +#e$ +#er ver #$a #$)a)e %!)e
%#"r%s
&arraa7ve$ )#as.
%#"r%s, $as er!e"3arra$a,
E$s!"/"'%s, #$s
9#$"a$ *%)e$
as )#as "er #$a!#$a
$a&e!s )#*las8re*rese!"a36%= ve$
"%!al)a)e. P%r ss%,%%s
ver)e e #$a
*r$er%s
)2e$, !% *l#ral, er!es"3a%a$7s, %s se&#$)%s er!e"3arra$a.

. O !%$e *re)'a"v%. ( D6% %s &ra$-"'%s es"a re&ra= ?#a!)% % s#9e"% / !%$e )e '%sa e % !%$e
*re)'a"v% es"ver !% *l#ral, % ver5% ser '%!'%r)a *%r a"ra'36% '%$ % *re)'a"v% e !6% '%$ %
s#9e"%= A s#r*resaeram %s *sse&%s4. Mas !6% )6% as ra2<es )% a'"%. Ora % $%"v% / s$*les=
!a+#ela rase e )!"'as, % es*:r"% !6% )s"!&#e 'lara$e!"e e!"re % s#9e"% e % !%$e *re)'a"v% e
"e$ !a"#ral$e!"e "e!)!'a *ara *r e$ s#9e"% % !%$e $e!%s a5s"ra'"%= Os *sse&%s eram a
s#r*resa4. A!)a $es$% +#e % s#9e"% e % *re)'a"v% se9a$ a$5%s !%$es '%!'re"%s, % +#e es"- !%
*l#ral / *%r va )e re&ra % $as '%!'re"% e / '%$ esse +#e % %#"r% '%!'%r)a= A 'a$a s6% #$as
*alas4. ?#e s"% / ass$, *r%va(se )as rases se&#!"es, e$ +#e % ver5% se *<e !% s!&#lar, *%r+#e
% $as '%!'re"% es"- !esse !$er%= O *sse&% é as )el:'as )a ra*a2a)a4. ( Es"e ra*a2 é %s $e#s
*e'a)%s4. A a"e!36%, ;a !% !%$e '%!'re"%, e;&e % ver5% !% s!&#lar.

?#a!)% a *ess%a )% ver5%, !% *l#ral, se reere a #$ s8 !)v:)#%, '%s"#$a *r(se % *re)'a)% !%


s!&#lar, '%$% !es"e e;e$*l% )e J%6% )e Barr%s= A!"es se9a$%s 2ree +#e prol'o6. O a#"%r #s%#,
!% ver5%, % *l#ral )e $%)/s"a7 $as % a)9e'"v% !6% )eve ser a"!&)% *%r esse *l#ral e )eve

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

#**

l%&'a$e!"e reerr(se > *r$era *ess%a )% s!&#lar. F- *%r/$ #$a l8&'a )% *e!sa$e!"% e #$a
l8&'a )a l:!&#a7 e ass$ / +#e %9e a+#ela rase se *%)e '%!s"r#r '%$ % *re)'a"v% !% *l#ral.
Al-s, % a)9e'"v% !% s!&#lar )es"r8 #$ *%#'% % ee"% )e $%)/s"a )% ver5% !% *l#ral. Ter-
'%!"r5#:)% "a$5/$ *ara s"% a 'r'#$s"!'a )e +#e$ ala %# es'reve se se!"r s%l)-r% '%$ as
*ess%as +#e %#ve$ %# le$. Os &ra$-"'%s a2e$ re*ar% !es"e *ass% )e Vera, e$ +#e a
'%!'%r)!'a, )2e$, se a2 $e!%s l%&'a$e!"e= S%$%s c*e3a!os a% l"$% s%!% )e Xaver4.
Ora % *l#ral reere(se !6% s8 a% %ra)%r, $as a!)a a%s %#v!"es, !"eressa)%s !a *r/)'a. De $%)%
+#e, '%er!'a l!&#:s"'a, a'e!"#a36% )a $%)/s"a e *r%*8s"% )e '%$#$'a5l)a)e, s6% $%"v%s
+#e '%!'%rre$ %9e, $as a!)a +#e %#"r%ra, *ara *r % *re)'a"v% !% *l#ral.

S%5re % !%$e *re)'a"v% )% '%$*le$e!"% )re'"% "a$5/$ - al&#$a '%sa a )2er. Re*are$%s
!es"as )#as rases=

1. Os *a*/s +#e e$ s#a $6% t'%*a !epos'ta!o.

. Os *a*/s +#e e$ s#a $6% t'%*a !epos'ta!os. \

Na *r$era rase, t'%*a !epos'ta!o re*rese!"a(se(!%s '%$% #$ a'"% s$*les, e$ +#e %s )%s
ele$e!"%s )% ver5% es"6% !"$a$e!"e l&a)%s7 !epos'ta!o / #$ *ar"':*% se$ !)e*e!)!'a,
reer)% a% s#9e"%= !6% "e$ +#e '%!'%r)ar '%$ % '%$*le$e!"%. Na se&#$)a rase, a% '%!"r-r%,
!epos'ta!os 9- !%s a*are'e e;*r$!)% #$ es"a)%, '%$ a !a"#re2a )e #$ a)9e'"v%, )esl&a)% )%
ver5%, s#5$e")% *%r ss% > '%!'%r)!'a '%$ % '%$*le$e!"% a% +#al se reere. O se!")% / %9e
)ere!"e7 '%!"#)%, !% "e$*% )%s Cl-ss'%s era $as %# $e!%s e+#vale!"e, !%"a!)%(se *reer!'a
*ela se&#$)a %r$a, se$*re +#e se +#era 'a$ar a a"e!36% $as *ara % '%$*le$e!"% )% +#e *ara
% s#9e"%.

E$ $#"as e)3<es )%s Lusa!as, &ra$-"'%s !'%$*ree!sv%s a)#l"erara$ %s se&#!"es a)$r-ves


vers%s )e Ca$<es,
#*+

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

al#sv%s > *e!%sa 'a$!a)a )e Le%!%r )e Se*lve)a *el% )eser"% ar'a!%=

Os 'rs"al!%s $e$5r%s e *er'lar%s > 'al$a, a% r%, a% ar ver6% )es*)%s, )es*%s )e "er p'sa!o l%!&a$e!"e
'0%s )el'a)%s */s a area ar)e!"e.

O +#e es"- !a l.a e)36% / p'sa!a e / ass$ +#e )eve ser, *%r+#e a %r$a e$!!a, ver)a)er%
a)9e'"v% 'ara'"er2a)%r, s#&ere a vs6% )% areal $e!s%, +#e / *re'sa$e!"e % +#e % &ra!)e *%e"a
+#er *r e$ relev%.

9. O ri&mo. ( O se!"$e!"%, *%r ve2es %5s'#r%, )% r"$% "a$5/$ )ese$*e!a % se# *a*el !a
'%!'%r)!'a. Ve9a(se, *%r e;e$*l%, es"a rase= Pa*as )e l!a3a, é $#"% 5%$4. A+#ela *a#sa,
!)'a)a *ela v:r&#la, )esl&a a rela36% l8&'a e!"re % s#9e"% e % ver5% e )- "e$*% a +#e se
'%!s)ere *a*as )e l!a3a4 '%$% #$ re$/)% #s#al, e!#$'a)% e$ s#a &e!eral)a)e a5s"ra'"a, e
*%r ss% '%$ % ver5% !% s!&#lar. Se "rar$%s a v:r&#la, 9- !6% *%)e$%s $a!"er a )s'%r)!'a=
Pa*as )e l!a3a s7o $#"% 5%as4.

C%sa )!"'a s#'e)e !es"e *ass% )e Garre""= As l-&r$as era #$ r%4. D2e$ %s &ra$-"'%s +#e a
)s'%r)!'a se )eve > a"ra'36% )% ver5% ser *ara % !%$e *re)'a"v%. Mas !6% - )v)a +#e a
e!"%a36% )ese$*e!a
*%)e re*rese!"ar !ss% *a*el
&ra'a$e!"e *%r$*%r"a!"e, "alve2 )e'sv%.
$e% )e "ravess6% a2(seAs
%# re"'!'as= #$al-&r$as...
*a#sa &ra!)e, +#er%4.
era #$ se
Essa *ara&e$ !6% s8 +#e5r%# %s la3%s )a '%!'%r)!'a, $as a!)a av%re'e# #$a !"e!sa
re*rese!"a36% '%le'"va  ss% "#)%, esse &ra!)e '%r%.

U$a rase )e Vera= F%9e %s *re&a)%res s6% e# e %#"r%s '%$% e#4. O $as '%rre'"%, % $as
!%r$al sera )2er sou eu. Nes"e 'as% a *ar"e as'e!)e!"e )a rase "er$!ara e$ pre"
E"TIL5"TICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

#*9

3a!ores: F%9e %s *re&a)%res \ s%# e#...4. Mas Vera *r%'#ra %#"r% ee"% e *%r ss% )- > rase
%#"r% r"$%= F%9e %s *re&a)%res s7s \ e# e %#"r%s '%$% e#4. E!"%a!)% ass$, "%)% % !"eresse re'a

!6% s%5re pre3a!ores,


e;*ressv% +#e *r%'#ra$as s%5re a*le!a$e!"e
e al'a!3a *ar"e )es'e!)e!"e
% &ra!)e)a%ra)%r. eu e outros
rase= L%&%, a rasecomo
)eveeu.
serÉass$
esse ee"%
*%!"#a)a= F%9e %s *re&a)%res s6%= e# e %#"r%s '%$% e#4.

U$a %#"ra rase )% $es$% es'r"%r, +#e se es'lare'e > l#2 )% $es$% *r!':*%= D% $es$% *a
%asceu Isaa' e Is$ael4. F%9e, s%5re"#)% a% es'rever, )r:a$%s %asceram. Mas / 5%$ !6% es+#e'er
+#e Vera *r%era e$ *5l'% %s se#s ser$<es e #sava % r"$% '%$% #$ *r%'ess% e;*ressv%.
Pr%!#$'ara *%s a rase= D% $es$% *a !as'e#= Isaa' \ e Is$ael4. '%$ a *a#sa )e*%s )e Isaa',
s&!'ara +#e %s )%s l%s "!a$ !as')% e$ "e$*%s )ere!"es. De $%)% +#e a '%!'%r)!'a
s8 / le&:"$a, e$ vr"#)e )% r"$% +#e a es'lare'e.
1.

PALAVRAS INVARIVEIS I

N% !$er% )as *alavras !var-ves '%!"a$ %s &ra$-"'%s %s a)v/r5%s, as *re*%s3<es e as


'%!9#$3<es. C%!v/$ !% e!"a!"% rsar +#e %s es'r"%res !e$ se$*re res*e"a$ %s )"a$es )a
Gra$-"'a e %#sa$ *%r ve2es "%$ar var-ves, *el% $e!%s, %s a)v/r5%s, e$*re&a!)%(%s !% *l#ral.
S6% ras&%s )e es"l% +#e *re"e!)e$ $%)'ar a 'a"e&%ra )as *alavras, '%!ver"e!)% %s a)v/r5%s
e$ ver)a)er%s s#5s"a!"v%s. I!"eressa!"es, a esse res*e"%, es"es )%s *ass%s )e r. A!"8!% )as
Ca&as= E#, vl:ss$a 'ra"#ra, '#9%s a%tes !6% %ra$ !a)a, '#9%s a3oras s6% #$ *8, '#9%s !epo's
6% )e ser '!2a4. ( N6% "$ serve!"a %s lo%3es, a*ele$%s *ara %s pertos6. O es'r"%r $:s"'%
*%)era "er )"% '#9% passa!o6, '#9% prese%te6, '#9% $uturo6 $as, e$*re&a!)% %s a)v/r5%s
'%$% s#5s"a!"v%s, '%!se&## $#"% $el%r ee"%, *%r+#e a re*rese!"a36% a)+#r# a&%ra #$ "%$
s$58l'% e se!"$e!"al, a +#e !6% / es"ra!a, 5e$ e!"e!))%, a *l#ral2a36% )a+#eles v%'-5#l%s.

N%#"r% &ra!)e es'r"%r, esse $%)er!%, % 5rasler% M-r% )e A!)ra)e, "a$5/$ se 5r!'a
e;*ressva$e!"e '%$ %s a)v/r5%s, s#5s"a!"va!)%(%s e *l#ral2a!)%(%s= se!"$e!"%s e$ $$ )%
asperame%te6, e %s pere%eme%tes )a l&a36% $e!sal4. O *r%'ess% )e s#5s"a!"va36% '#l$!%#
!es"e "re'% )e Ce':la Mereles, !% +#al a &ra!)e *%e"sa 5raslera, !a%5ra(*r$a +#e / a
Eoca7o lr'ca !e L's2oa, 'e&a a s#*r$r
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



% ar"&% )e!)%, *ara !%s )ar a $s"er%sa ala!3a +#e se!"$%s e$ Ls5%a e!"re as s#&es"<es )a
Fs"8ra e a v)a s$*les e !a"#ral )% Prese!"e=

'as "6% r'% )e a%t'3ame%te, "6% ve!')% *%r #$ a$%r )e 'a!'%!er%, *%r #$a "er!#ra '%!ve!"#al,
)%l%r%sa, ( e a% $es$% "e$*% )ese9as s%rrr, )a!3ar, !6% *e!sar !a)a, 'ar !essas *ra3as, *%r esses 9ar)!s
+#e s6% a $a&e$ )a v)a, e *%r %!)e a!)a$ 'ra!3as '%$% *e+#e!as l%res s%l"as, '%$ la3%s !%s 'a5el%s,
&#as a el2es 5%r5%le"as a*rs%!a)as.4 Revs"a C!eV2%4, !.  1Q, *-&s. (.

'%$ % a)v/r5% lo%3e e2(se $as7 !6% s8 % e$*re&ara$


( e a!)a %9e % e$*re&a$ (Y '%$% s#5s"a!"v% ve9a(se es"a rase )e E3a, !as Frosas 2/r2aras:
A+#eles *%e"as a5re$ !a al$a lo%3es s#r*ree!)e!"es4, $as a"/ se le )e# 'a"e&%ra )e a)9e'"v%7
)ss%
"vesseres#l"%# #$a )asE$as
)esa*are')%. 5elas e;*ress<es
'%!e')% )a l:!&#a
a+#ele sa#)%s% *ass%*%r"#&#esa, +#e / "alve2)e*ara
)a !%vela se!"$e!"al la$e!"ar
Ber!ar)$
R5er%= Me!!a e $%3a $e levara$ )e 'asa )e $e#s *as *ara lo%3es "erras4. Lo%3e !6% e+#vale
5e$ a !'sta%te )- > )s"!'a #$ "%$ )e !)e"er$!a36% e se!"$e!"%, +#e % a2 *r8*r% )%s l-5%s
+#e;%s%s e )%s '%ra3<es $a&%a)%s )e sa#)a)e.

'%$ % se# re'e% ae'"v% e '%$ a+#ela e!"%a36% al%!&a)a )a !asal, /, !6% - )v)a, #$a )as
$as *%/"'as *alavras )a !%ssa l:!&#a, '#9% val%r se$!"'%, '%$% e$ "a!"as %#"ras, !6% %
)es&as"a)% *el% "e$*%. O *%e"a &ale&% E)#ar)% P%!)al, #s%#(a !%s =ue'umes !os p'%os: O
!%5re *ere&r!%... +#e ve! )e lo%3es "erras4 l.a e)., *-&. 1. Ta$5/$ A+#l!% R5er% s%#5e
ress#s'"ar % %r$%s% v%'-5#l%, e$*re&a!)%(% '%$% a)9e'"v%, !a Estra!a !e Sa%t'a3o: C%$%
r%$er% +#e, v%lve!)% e!a)a)% )e lo%3e er$)a, a)%r$e'e a s%!ar '%$ % '/# !#$ *%s% )%
'a$!%4. I&#al$e!"e % e2 Carl%s Dr#$$%!) )e A!)ra)e= Pe3% a*e!as +#e "e )e5r#'es s%5re
es"a $esa, a '#9a r%)a - )%s $e!!%s )% $as lo%3e
#*

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

ser"6%4. ( +)o%tos !e apre%!'(,.a e)., *-&. . E #$ *%e"a &ale&% )%s !%ss%s )as, U;%
N%v%!era, a)9e'"v%# %s )%s a!"8!$%s, perto e lo%3e, !es"es vers%s= #a '%#sa +#e)a \, lo%e e
perta, \ !a +#e "%)% es"- e !a)a se !%$5ra4 ( +Os E'!os, .a e)., 1Q *-&. .

Al-s, % a)9e'"v%
5rasler% %r)!-r%
s%#5e al"erar / *r%*ra$e!"e
e$ lo%3'%*o: lo%3%>uo,
alava %r$a%sl"er-ra
'%$% $#&e$ "%#r%s *%#'% e;*ressva,
a$arra)%s, +#e!%
+#e ve$ %
*res/*% )% $%rr% )% *as"% as va'as "ra!+#las, r#$!a!"es e "6% lo%3'%*as6. ( A!"8!% Calla)%,
=uarup, .a e)., *-&. . O &ale&% )s*<e )e lo%a%o, $#"% $el%r= Na s#a "es"a re$/;e!se as
%r$as, as le$5ra!3as )a l#s e )as '%res )a "erra lo%a%a6 ( L#:s Se%a!e, ar!el !e e's'la!o, 17 e
)% *r8*r% s#5s"a!"v% lo%a%a, 5ela$e!"e s#&es"v%= % va&a$#$)% s!"e a !%s"al;a )as
lo%a%as e $ra ;a$e!"e % $ar4 ( Raael Des"e, Dos ar>u'os !o tras%o, l.a e)., .

Ta$5/$ !6% - l$"es 5e$ )e!)%s e!"re a *re*%s36%, % a)v/r5% e a '%!9#$36%. ?#a!)%
)2e$%s= 0com seres $as r'%, !6% s#*%!as +#e $e #$las4, e$*re&a$%s #$a *re*%s36% '%$
#$3<es e s&!'a)% )e '%!9#$36% '%!'essva= e$5%ra se9as $as r'%...4. Nes"%#"ra rase=
Pare'e($e s"%7 a3ora, se "e!s %*!6% )versa, )2e4, a+#ele a)v/r5% )e "e$*% '%!ver"e#(se
!#$a '%!9#$36% a)versa"va, '%$ se!")% $as %# $e!%s e+#vale!"e a $as4, '%!"#)%4. E J%s/
L!s )% Re&% !6% )#v)a a2er )e em2ora #$ a)v/r5% %# #$a *re*%s36%, !)% 'er"a$e!"e a"r-s )a
s!"a;e *%*#lar=
es"e $%"v% A a$2a)e
+#e !6% "e$ *ara%ra
!8s 'res'e!)%, em2ora asa 'a"e&%ra,
&ra!)e $*%r"!'a res"r3<es $as
)a $6e4( +X3ua"m7e,
% ver)a)er% 1. É)a
s&!'a)% *%r
e;*ress6% e *r!'*al$e!"e % $a"2 $as %# $e!%s se!"$e!"al )as *alavras !var-ves. P%r ss% as
!6% se*ara$%s e$ &r#*%s !"era$e!"e )s"!"%s, '%$% a2 a Gra$-"'a.
E"TIL5"TICA DA L56UA PORTUUE"A

#*:

1. Aspe&os =erais 'o a')r2io. ( A Gra$-"'a %# % D'%!-r% ;a$ *ara 'a)a a)v/r5% #$ 'er"%
se!")%7 $as a l!&#a&e$ %ral e es'r"a es"- '%!s"a!"e$e!"e a re#$)r esse s&!'a)% %r&!al,
$*r$!)%(le vara3<es $as %# $e!%s *r%#$)as. P%r e;e$*l%, ora é #$ vel% a)v/r5% )e
"e$*%, #$ *%#'% s!8!$% )e a3ora. E!'%!"ra$%(l% !#$ vers% )e S- )e Mra!)a, +#e a2 *ar"e )a
'ar"a a% se# r$6% Me$ )e S-= 0Ora *r *e"% > '%rre!"eH4. ?#er % *%e"a(l8s%% )2er '%$ a+#ela
s$*les *ar":'#la= E v- l- a&%ra #$a *ess%a l#"ar '%!"ra "#)% s"%7 / $*%ss:velH4. O a)v/r5% )e
"e$*%, s%5 a a'36% )e #$a )es'ar&a ae'"va, "%$%# !%v%s as*e'"%s )e s&!'a)% e *ass%# a
"ra)#2r se!"$e!"%s '%$% a s#r*resa, % a5%rre'$e!"%, a )v)a, e"'. É % +#e se v !as e;*ress<es
'%rre!"es= 0Ora esta \4A&%ra *, es"a l"$a re+#e!"e !% alar *r%v!'a!% *%r"#&#s e
*r%!#$'a)a a3ora Se !6% "v/sse$%s e$ '%!s)era36% % +#e a'a5a )e ser )"%, *%rve!"#ra
"er:a$%s !"er*re"a)% $al a+#ele vers% $ra!)!%.

O +#e se )- '%$ % "e$*%, ''%rre "a$5/$ '%$ % l#&ar, '%$ % es*a3%. O a)v/r5% l/ "e$ #$ se!")%
5e$ )e!)%, )e l#&ar $as %# $e!%s )s"a!"e, se$ $*l'a3<es se!"$e!"as= %# l/ !%
)%$!&%4. S#*%!a$%s *%r/$ es"a rase )e M&#el T%r&a= Es"ve e!"re a v)a e a $%r"e7 l/ vv4.
A !%36% )e l#&ar %5l"er%#(se *%r '%$*le"%7 % +#e % es'r"%r +#er s&!'ar '%$ % a)v/r5% / s"%=
a $#"% '#s"%, '%$ $#"%s es%r3%s '%!se&# vver4. É #$ *%#'% % se!")% )% a)v/r5% !a rase
'%rre!"e ( V- l/, +#e $ar'a #$a '%!'ess6% '%$% +#e arra!'a)a a '#s"%. J- !es"e *ass% )e Maler%
Das, % $es$% a)v/r5% "e$ #$ val%r $#"% )ere!"e= Fe )e ver % +#e "# a2es +#a!)% l/ % "e# "e
)e;arH4 A+# % l/ e;*r$e )e*re'a36%, r%!a, '%$% +#a!)% )2e$%s= (N6% +#ere$ l/ ver, %
%$e!2!%H4 Mas %!)e % $%re$a a"!&e % se# $as al"% &ra# e;*ressv% / !es"e vers% )e A%!s%
D#ar"e, %!)e se se!"e #$ e'% )%#"r% vers%
#+-

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

'a$%!a!% e$ l%#v%r e sa#)a)e )a *asa&e$ '%$5r6= E# *%ss% l/ $%rrer, "erra l%r)aH4 É #$
re%r3% a*a;%!a)% )a !e&a"va, %!)e *are'e '%!"#)% !s!#ar(se #$ va&% re'e% )a $%r"e.

'%$ % a)v/r5% c/ )-(se % $es$%, '%$% se ver'a !es"e "re'% )e E3a= Va v%' ver % +#e / #$
'al)% )e &al!a e"% c/ *ela se!%raH Da &e!"e se 5a5arH4 É ev)e!"e +#e % ver)a)er% s&!'a)%
)e c/ !6% / % !%r$al a+# e$ 'asa47 % a)v/r5% "!&e(se )e ae'"v)a)e, '%$% +#e$ )ssesse=
*ela $!a +#er)a e '%$*e"e!"e e$ '#l!-ra se!%ra4.

N6% sa5e$%s, !e$ / -'l se&#r a ev%l#36% )e%l8&'a )%s a)v/r5%s, a"/ )are$ es"e res#l"a)%= $as
'%$*ree!)e$%s +#e ss% se )eve# a e$5a"es se!"$e!"as, e +#e as *alavras )"as !var-ves !6%
%ra$ $e!%s a"!&)as +#e as %#"ras *%r esses '%+#es ae'"v%s. A l:!&#a '%# $#"% e!r+#e')a
'%$ %s !%v%s val%res se$!"'%s7 $as !6% - )v)a +#e % es"#)% e a"/ a '%$*ree!s6% )esses "%!s
)e s&!'a)% a*rese!"a$ $#"a )'#l)a)e, *ela s#a e;'essva '%!)e!sa36%. É a *ar"e )a l:!&#a
+#e %ere'e $a%r ress"!'a a% es"ra!&er%.

U$a 5%a a$%s"ra )ss% / % a)v/r5% tam2ém. Or&!ara$e!"e era #$a e;*ress6% '%$*ara"va,
'%$% se v )a vela Re3ra !e S. Je%to e). B#r!a$, 'a*. v= le - )e seer re+#er)% '%!"% tam
2em )a s#a )%#"r!a come )a %5e)!'a )%s se#s )s':*#l%s4. O se# se!")% era "a!"%4.
Se&#)a$e!"e a *alavra re'#*er%# a s#a a#"%!%$a e, '%$ a l5er)a)e, a)+#r# val%res +#e !6%
"!a )e a!"es. Essa ev%l#36% 9- se )e;a ver !%s !s )% s/'#l% ;v, !es"es )%s vers%s )% *%e"a
D%&% Bra!)6%= es*er% r$e )e ser \ !a v)a tam 2em !a $%r"e4. ( +)a%c'o%e'ro !e Rese%!e, $,
1. D#$a !%36% s$*les$e!"e +#a!""a"va e '%$*ara"va *ass%#(se a %#"ra esera e$ +#e 9- "r!
'a5$e!"% %s val%res ae'"v%s. S6% essas !%vas "%!al)a)es, "%$a)as *ela *alavra %9e e$ )a, +#e
va$%s ver res#$)a$e!"e a se&#r.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1

D&a$%s, )es)e 9-, +#e "%)%s %s e;e$*l%s a*rese!"a)%s *er"e!'e$ > l!&#a&e$ )al%&a %# a%
)s'#rs% se$:)re'"%, +#e ve$ a ser +#ase a $es$a '%sa7 / a l!&#a&e$ vva, "re*)a!"e,
se!"$e!"al *%r e;'el!'a. Ve9a(se es"e *ass% )e O Fr'mo Jasl'o: J#la!a *s(se a "%$ar % se#
'al)% '%$ va&ar $%r5#$)%. J%a!a '%!s%lava(a 5a;%= ( am2ém, a Sr.a J#la!a arre!e&ava(se *%r
+#al+#er '%sa4. O a)v/r5% !6% "e$ a+# % s&!'a)% !%r$al7 !6% % "era, $es$% +#e !6%
es"vesse '%l%'a)%
ra!+#e2a4, > re!"e.
real$e!"e47 $asP%)er:a$%s s#5s""#:(l%
!e!#$a )es"as a*r%;$a)a$e!"e
l%'#3<es *%r= !a% ver)a)e4,
"e$ a es*%!"a!e)a)e, '%$
'al%r )e al$a e a"/
$es$% a '%$*le;)a)e )e se!")% )a+#ele tam2ém. A *alavra, *r%er)a e$ "%$ va&a$e!"e
e;'la$a"v%, $ar'a #$a a""#)e )e %*%s36%, )e )s'%r)!'a a$&-vel )a *ar"e )e +#e$ es"-
ala!)%.

I!ss"$%s !% "%$ !"er9e'"v% )a e;*ress6%, al-s 9- re'%!e')% ar&#"a$e!"e *%r Cal)as A#le"e, !%
se# D'%!-r%, % +#al !sere e;e$*l%s )% tam2ém e;'la$a"v% e!"re eles= 0am2ém, % *a
se$*re )2 '%sasH...4 e !%"a '%$ 9#s"e2a % s&!'a)% )e )es&%s"%, )es'%!"e!"a$e!"% %#
es"ra!e2a. O *%!"% )e e;'la$a36% "ra)#2 e a'e!"#a % 'ar-'"er ae'"v% )a *alavra. É % +#e se v
!es"e e;e$*l%, '"a)% *%r Jl% M%rera, l8l%&% +#e se )e)'%# $er"%ra$e!"e a% es"#)% )a
l!&#a&e$ %ral= A+#ele %$e$ / $#"% a5r#"ala)% '%$ %s 'aval%s= tam2ém, "e$ a*a!a)%
'a)a "ra$5%l6%H4 A+# )es'%r"!a(se #$a rela36% )e '%!se+#!'a, e;*ressa )e #$ $%)%
e;*l%sv%, se!"$e!"al= "ra"ava $al %s 'aval%s, por 'sso / +#e )ava $#"%s "ra$5%l<es4. E '%$% a
rela36% )e '%!se+#!'a a!)a es"re"a$e!"e l&a)a > rela36% )e 'a#sa, !6% / *ara es"ra!ar +#e %
a)v/r5% "a$5/$ e;*r$a a 'a#sal)a)e, '%$% !es"a rase= Gra!)es /&#asH am2ém, % +#e e# as
%l%, % +#e as "ra"%H4 C%$% +#e$ )ssesse= N6% / ss% $#"% )e es*a!"ar, por>ue as %l% e "ra"%
5e$4. A*are'e a!)a $as 'lara a rela36% )e 'a#sal)a)e !es"e "re'% )e Ra#l P%$*ea= N%
re're%

l< (0 Es"l:s"'a


M. RODRIUE" LAPA

'%$*a!er%s ve!')%s *ela ar"era )!a$"e7 as re'%s"as *%r %!)e se ave!"#ra, cautelosame%te, %5r&a$(!% a
)%5rar(se e$ '%!":!#as '#rvas r-*)as e "ra3%eras7 e!+#a!"% +#e % D%#r%, e$ 5a;%, *r%$e"e(le
r'so%*ame%te #$ )el'%s% 5a!%, se *%r a'as% ele es'%rre&ar %# "r%*e3ar !a va *er&%sa. k % '%l%ss%
'%rre)%r, +#e s8 v%l%# es"a 'ra"#ra 5rava, s%5 a '%!)36% es'rava )e *%r ela ser )%$a)% eter%ame%te,
e!'%le(se e "%$a !a s#a $ar'a !!"as *re'a#3<es $e)r%sas, arras"a!)%(se *um'l!eme%te, !#$a
s#5$ss6% $a!%sa e !"eressera4 *-&. 1K.

Ee'"va$e!"e, a *r%#s6% )esse "*% )e a)v/r5% *assa "alve2 as $ar'as7 $as / *re's% !%"ar +#e
essa *re)le'36% era *r8*ra )a /*%'a )% reals$%, e +#e #$ &ra!)e es'r"%r '%$% E3a )e ?#er%2
s%#5e e;*l%rar '%$ $6% )e $es"re a e!er&a e;*ressva '%!")a !esses a)v/r5%s. U$a rase s#a=
0Fouco a pouco a "ar)e 'a:a. 5a3arosame%te r%l-va$%s !a s%$5ra %l%r%sa4. Os a)v/r5%s s6%
*%s"%s > re!"e e a)+#re$ !)e*e!)!'a7 )r(se(a +#e s6% a&%ra %s ele$e!"%s #$)a$e!"as )%
)s'#rs%, e!'arre&a)%s )e e;*r$r a le!")6% )a+#ele !)ar )% )a e )a+#ele *asse% *%r e!"re as
s%$5ras. Para a'e!"#ar a a#"%!%$a )a re*rese!"a36%, % a)v/r5%, *%s"% a% *r!':*%, / $#"as ve2es
se*ara)% *%r v:r&#la=

1. Sere%ame%te, S6% re5rlava a% s%l. . Su2'tame%te, T%*s#s *arara, a5ra %s 5ra3%s. . E 'me!'atame%te,
#$ 5a!)% v%ra2 )e %$e!s s8r))%s e!v%lve#(!%s '%$ ala!)%. . Su2'tame%te, al&#/$ "%'%# !% %$5r% )%
s"%ra)%r )%s Fer%)es. . er%ame%te, a9#)%# a se!"ar % vel%. . 5'ame%te, R# a&arra % 5ra3% )% r$6%.

A e;*l'a36% )es"e *r%'ess% )e es"l% !6% / ):'l. O es'r"%r $*ress%!s"a, a% )ar(se )e"er$!a)%
e!8$e!%, "e$ l%&% a !"#36% )% "e$*% e )a +#al)a)e, se!"e, !#$a rea'36% es*%!"!ea,
!v%l#$"-ra, '%$% % e!8$e!% se real2a, e s8 )e*%s "%$a '%!s'!'a )% $es$%. Para "ra)#2r
es"a a""#)e !a)a $as *r8*r% )% +#e *r % a)v/r5% > re!"e )% *er:%)%. A '%!se+#!'a )es"a
)esl%'a36% 9- se

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



)e;a ver= % *%)er a)9e'"va!"e )% a)v/r5% "ra!s$"e(se a% s#9e"%, )a!)%(le $a%r real'e, $as
vs#al)a)e. Bas"a '%$*arar$%s as )#as rases=

1. R# a&arr%# 'ame%te % 5ra3% )% r$6%.


. 5'ame%te, R# a&arr%# % 5ra3% )% r$6%.

Na *r$era, % a)v/r5% es"- !a s#a %r)e$ l8&'a e reere(se a% *re)'a)%7 a a"e!36% es"- *%s"a
s%5re a *ess%a )e R# e l%&% e$ se&#)a s%5re % a'"% +#e *ra"'a. Na se&#$)a rase, se!"$%s
$e)a"a$e!"e % sa'6% v%le!"%, e l%&% a se&#r *%$%s, '%$ $as a"e!36%, %s %l%s !% s#9e"%, +#e
% a)v/r5% a'a5%# "a$5/$ *%r 'ara'"er2ar. P%r ss% / +#e #$a rase '%$% ( _+Sere%ame%te, S6%
re5rlava a% s%l4 a)$"e, e$5%ra $as r%#;a, es"%#"ra %r$a= 0Sere%a, S6% re5rlava a% s%l4.

A"/ $es$% +#a!)% a *alavra !var-vel !6% / '%l%'a)a > re!"e, % es'r"%r "e!)e a se*arar *%r $e%
)e v:r&#las a re*rese!"a36% a)ver5al=

1. E!"r%# !a '%3a, tr'um$alme%te, '%$ % assa)% +#e #$e&ava. . A$5%s l%#vara$, ar!e%teme%te, % Se!%r.
. E % %$e$, le%tame%te, !a "reva 'a$!%# *ara !8s. . O $a&s"ra)% *a&%# % '-, %o2reme%te. . Mas
"ar)e, !% $e# +#ar"%, )es*!)%($e, se!"($e "rs"e, '%$'%'tame%te. . Al&#$s le&%!-r%s rra$, crassame%te.
. D#as l-&r$as 'a:ra$(le, s'le%c'osame%te. . O s%l 5a!ava(a, sumtuosame%te

Es"a )esl%'a36% *ara a )re"a, +#e "e$, '%$% a %#"ra, *%r ee"% a'e!"#ar % val%r e;*ressv%
)% a)v/r5%, +#e5ra!)% as rela3<es l8&'as +#e % l&a$ a% ver5% e a% a)9e'"v%, % )e*%s
#sa)a *%r %#"r%s es'r"%res, e!"re eles Ve!'esla# )e M%ras, % $*ress%!s"a )as '%sas )%
Ja*6%. É )ele es"a rase= S#'e)e$(se ve!)l<es )e l%res, es*a)a!a!)% %s ra$%s
art'st'came%te )%s 'a5a2es4. A es'r"a l8&'a sera es*a)a!a!)% art'st'came%te %s ra$%s47
$as %


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



es'r"%r )e$%ra"e$%s
re*rese!"a36%, $as )#as
a a"e!36% s%5re
%# "rs, % %59e'"%
al/$ e % a'"%, e )e
)e #$ a'r/s'$% % res#l"a)% / +#e,
!"e!s)a)e e$ ve2
ae'"va. O )e "er$%sa2
a)v/r5% #$a%
ee"% )e #$ re"ar)a)%r, +#e !%s )e;a ver '%$ $as !")e2 % $%v$e!"% e a %r$a. Deva es"ar
*r%*ra$e!"e e!"re v:r&#las, % +#e *%)e ser )es'#)% )% e)"%r %# a"/ $es$% )% a#"%r. O $es$%
*r%'ess% #s%# Ra$#$)% C%rrea !% se# s%!e"% Ja%(o, +#e e;*r$e a !%s"al&a )% !e&r% 5rasler%,
"ra)% > %r3a )a selva ar'a!a=

Va '%0a s%$5ra 'res'e!)% % v#l"% e!%r$e )% 5a%5a5... E 'res'e !0al$a % v#l"% )e #$a "rs"e2a $e!sa,
'me%same%te...

errera )e Cas"r%, !% *r%*8s"% )e a#"%!%$2ar % a)v/r5%, 'e&a a"/ a se*ar-(l% *%r $e% )e
"ravess6%, +#e '%!s""# *a#sa $a%r +#e a v:r&#la= L- e$ '$a a *%!"e )% '%$a!)%, %!)e !6% se
vsl#$5rava #$a !'a &#ra7 '- e$ 5a;%, as 5aleeras, 5ra!'as, 5ra!+#!as, #$a a se&#r > %#"ra
( 3arr'!ame%te6 +Eter%'!a!e, .a e)., 1.

Es"a s#s*e!s6% a#"8!%$a )% a)v/r5% a"!&e a)$r-vel ee"% *%/"'% !es"es vers%s )% es'r"%r
5rasler% J%a+#$ Car)%s% +Foemas, Q=

A $!a 'asa a$arela "!a ses 9a!elas ver)es )% la)% )% s%l !as'e!"e7 9a!elas s%5re a es*era!3a
*asa&e$, pro$um!ame%te.

E % $es$% a)v/r5%, '%$ a $es$a '%l%'a36%, rea*are'e !%s )%s vers%s )e Carl%s Dr#$$%!) )e
A!)ra)e, e$ +#e ele ev%'a % !a$e!"e e )esl&a$e!"%4 )% se# &ra!)e a$&% e *%e"a Ma!#el
Ba!)era= a*8s a )es!"e&ra36% )a $a"/ra / +#e se revela a *#re2a e *r%#$))a)e )a *%esa=
A&%ra

Ma!#el Ba!)era / *#ra \ *%esa, pro$um!ame%te6. +Impure(as !o 2ra%co, .a e)., *-&. Q1.
Re*are$%s a&%ra !es"e *ass%, "a$5/$ )e E3a )e ?#er%2 = Cr#&es res*rava lar3ame%te,
oluptuosame%te6. Se&#$)% %s *re'e"%s )a es'r"a 'l-ss'a, a+#ele *er:%)% )evera '%!s""#r(se
)es"e $%)%= Cr#&es res*rava lar&a e v%l#*"#%sa$e!"e4. C%$% ava #$a se$'%!s'!'a )e
+#e a+#ele ele$e!"% )% $ era %# % se*ar-vel, *r%'e)e#(se a #$a %*era36% )e e'%!%$a, +#e /
#$a %5ra(*r:$a )e l8&'a= *s(se % "me%te !% $ a servr *ara %s )%s a)9e'"v%s e l&ara$(se %s
)%s "er$%s *%r #$a '%!9#$36% '%*#la"va. Mas +#e )s"!'a !6% va )e #$ a %#"r% *r%'ess% )e
es"l%H Na rase 'l-ss'a, / ev)e!"e a se'#ra !arra"va *r8*ra )e #$ s"%ra)%r +#e '%!"a
%59e'"va$e!"e % a'"%7 !a rase $*ress%!:s"'a, "#)% se e!v%lve )e #$ ar ae'"v%, a re*e"36% )%
"me%te *r%)#2 #$a se!sa36% )e !"e!s)a)e, e % a#"%r e!"ra '%$ s$*a"a !a *r8*ra !arra"va. É %
+#e a'%!"e'e !es"e "re'% )e L$a Barre"%, e$ +#e se ev%'a #$ sal6% )e es"as )%s vel%s "e$*%s.
A *ar":'#la, "rs ve2es $ar"ela)a, '%$% +#e "ra)#2 %s la$e!"%s )e sa#)a)e )#$a /*%'a
rrevers:vel= O s%al% &e$a, &e$a *ar"'#lar$e!"e, !olorosame%te, a%3ust'a.!a.me%te... ?#e
sa#)a)es !6% ava !esses &e$)%s )%s 5reves */s )as $e!!as +#e5ra)3as +#e % "!a$
*al$la)% "a!"% "e$*%H4 +Recor!aes ao escr'7o Isaas )am'%*a, .a e)., *-&. 1.

C%!s)ere$%s a&%ra es"a rase= Era, portu3uésme%te ala!)%, #$ )%"a 'a*a)%4. O a)v/r5%
portu3u?sme%te reves"e(se )e #$ s&!'a)% r8!'%, #$%r:s"'%, +#e *r%v/$ 'er"a$e!"e )a
rar)a)e )a %r$a36% e )% se# 'ar-'"er ar'a2a!"e7 '%$ ee"%, !6% )2e$%s, *%r va )e re&ra,
'%3l?sme%te, $ra%c?sme%te, e"'. T#)% *%s +#e v- '%!"ra % #s% es"a5ele')% 'a#sa e$ !8s #$ a5al%,
+#e se *%)e '%!ver"er !#$ es&ar )e rs%. J- v$%s ss% a *r%*8s"% )% ar'a:s$%. É esse $es$% "%$
r8!'% +#e e!'%!"ra$%s !es"e *ass% )e al% )e Al$e)a= Ca!"a$ s%5re"#)% )e !%"e os ,


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

R%#;!8s, +#a!)% as $as aves )%r$e$ 2ur3uesame%te6. D%!)e *r%'e)e a+# a $*ress6%
#$%r:s"'a *r%)#2)a *el% a)v/r5% @ O es'r"%r % '%!"ra % #s% '%$#$, es'reve!)%
2ur3uesame%te, +#a!)% )eva e$*re&ar 2ur3u?sme%te, > se$ela!3a )e cortesme%te. Es"e )esv%
'%!"ra a !%r$a e;*l'a % ee"% '8$'% )% a)v/r5%, +#e !6% )e;a )e ser #$ '#r%s% a'a)% )e
es"l%. al%
se*ara)%s, es'reva
*ara 2ur3uesame%te,
a'e!"#ar $as
5e$ a r%!a. É +#ese!"a 2ur3uesa)ame%te,
a '%!s'!'a '%$ )%s
%r&!-ra ele$e!"%s
se*ara36% 5e$"er$%s
)%s )%s
a!)a se !6% *er)e# )e "%)% e serve a"/ *ara %s 9%&%s )e *alavras, '%$% se v )es"e *ass% )e
Ca$l%= V%sse$e', +#e e# '%!e' e$ Ls5%a, "%$a!)% 'a*l/s e "ra)#2!)% !%velas *ara a
B5l%"e'a E'%!8$'a )e E)#ar)% ara4 %H '%$ame me%te- +#er(se %9e elevar >s al"#ras )a
'r:"'a4.

A $*%ss5l)a)e &ra$a"'al )e #$r a "er$!a36% "me%te a s#5s"a!"v%s 'r%# *ara a Es"l:s"'a #$


!%v% *r%'ess% )e #$%rs$%. h )% $es$% Ca$l% es"a rase= De;%#, 5e$ )e!)%, % $/"%)% )e
$a"ar cl'ster me%te6. C%!e'e$(se %#"ras %r$a3<es, '%$% mul*erme%te, lucrec'ame%te,
sar!a%apalame%te, e"'., e$ +#e a !"e!36% r8!'a %# )e*re'a"va / ev)e!"e. C%!"#)%, )ever-
)2er(se +#e a l:!&#a "e!"%# a!"&a$e!"e essa %r$a36% a)ver5al se$ val%r #$%r:s"'%. % !"l7
a*e!as res#l"%# )ss% % a)v/r5% cr'meme%te, e$ rases '%$% es"a )e Cas"a!e)a= O G%ver!a)%r %
$a!)%# *re!)er *ara % 'as"&ar cr'meme%te6. F%9e !6% - ves":&%s )essa %r$a.

Ta$5/$ !6% / '%rre!"e essa %r$a36% a)ver5al '%$ a)9e'"v%s )e '%r7 !6% se )2, *%r va )e re&ra=
2ra%came%te, %e3rame%te, amarelame%te, *%r+#e a "er$!a36%, )e a'%r)% '%$ a s#a %r&e$, se
#$e a a)9e'"v%s +#e )es&!e$ $%)%s, es"a)%s, s"#a3<es. A re&ra !6% vale *ara %s ar"s"as7 e ass$
E3a )e ?#er%2 !6% es"%# e$ es'rever= s#5%r)!a... a &#ra )% Dre"% >s -5r'as +#e #$e&a$,
%e3rame%te`. ( +Frosas 2/r2aras, e). 1Q, *-&. . D% $es$% $%)%, % *%e"a
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

Q

&ale&% )e !%ss%s )as, R'ar)% Car5al% Caler%, 'r%#, !#$ 5el% arr%9% e;*ressv%, % a)v/r5%
er!eme%te: a es$eral)a )a "erra, $e)a, 5rla er!eme%te6. +A%o !a terra, 1K.

.
"$O ar"es
s#*le"vs$% a)ver5al.
)e s#5s""#r ( O *%v%
%s a)v/r5%s *%re l%'#3<es
%s es'r"%res, es"es l"$%s
e *r%'ess%s +#ase
)e %r"e se$*re
*%)er $"a!)%
e;*ressv%. % *%v%,
?#ase
se$*re ss% s#'e)e +#a!)% se +#er )ar > re*rese!"a36% #$ "%$ !"e!sv%, s#*erla"va!"e. Ve9a$%s
es"e e;e$*l% )a l!&#a&e$ )e "%)%s %s )as= '%# a tremer, a tremer,+#a!)% v# % $/)'%4. A
re*e"36% )% ver5% s#&ere a re+#!'a !"e!sva )as e$%3<es. É #$ *r%'ess% $e'!'%, *r$"v%,
*r8*r% )a l!&#a&e$ *%*#lar7 $as '%$% / e$!e!"e$e!"e e;*ressv%, #$ es'r"%r 'l-ss'%, Fe"%r
P!"%, !6% )#v)%# e$*re&-(l% !#$ *ass% '%$% es"e= Se$ela!"e a% #$% +#e so2e e so2e e
e!$ !a $a%r al"#ra se )esa24. E r. L#:s )e S%#sa !es"%#"r%= E;'la$ava )e $a!era +#e a2a
tremer e tremer % a#)"8r%4. Se re*arar$%s !es"as rases, ave$%s )e ver'ar +#e % se# 'ar-'"er
!"e!sv% )e*e!)e e$ &ra!)e $e))a )% se# *"%res'%, )a s#a vs#al)a)e. O val%r s#*erla"v%
e!"ra(!%s *el%s %l%s, se ass$ *%)e$%s )2er.

D%s es'r"%res $%)er!%s / "alve2 errera )e Cas"r% +#e$ $%s"ra $as *re)le'36% *%r es"e re'#rs%
)e es"l%= Sa:ra )% Par- a l%"la )%s 'ala$5e+#es7 e %ae3a, %ae3a, e!"rara a*8s $#"as
se$a!as a 5%'a )% Ma)era4. É '%$% +#e$ )ssesse= e !ave&a!)% se$*re, !ave&a!)%
'%!"!#a$e!"e4. O#"r% e;e$*l% )% $es$% a#"%r= De*%s, %#v#(se % r#:)% )% &#!'%, e%rola,
e%rola, a"/ % 'as'% )% !av% es"ar *res"es a r%3ar % 5arra!'% )e!e&r)%4.

Se$ela!"e a es"e e "a$5/$ $#"% #sa)% *el% *%v% / % *r%'ess% +#e '%!ss"e e$ l&ar as )#as
%r$as ver5as *%r #$ >ue: 5a"e(+#e(5a"e4, #ra(+#e(#ra4, &ra(+#e(&ra4. A+# 9- a !%36% )e
!"e!s)a)e a!)a $as es"re"a$e!"e l&a)a > )e $%v$e!"%. Ve9a$%s es"e e;e$*l% )e G#ler$e
K

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

Ga$a= O vel% lavra)%r a!)ava )es)e % a$a!e'er caa">ue"caa6. ?#e % a#"%r, #$


$*ress%!s"a, "e$ &%s"% *%r es"e 9e"% )e es'rever, v(se a!)a )es"a rase. E %s a!9"%s, a$!"%s,
r%"%s, +#ase !#s, l- v6% pe!e">ue"pe!e *elas r#as4. C%$% se )ss/sse$%s= *e)!)% se$*re4, %#
*e)!)% a+#, *e)!)% a'%l-4.

I)!"'% *r%'ess% #s%# M-r% )e A!)ra)e, a% es'rever= Ma'#$a:$a trem'a >ue ma's trem'a6e
Ma'a)% )e Asss e!"r%# $es$% *el%s )%$:!%s )a %!%$a"%*ea, '%$ % !"#"% )e e;*r$r a
!"e!s)a)e e a *ressa= % alaa"e, +#e al es"ava *rese!"e, e +#e e!"s'ava, >s !%"es, > l#2 )e #$a
'a!)ea, (/s">ue"!ar/s, *#;a!)% a a&#la4. +&'str'as sem !ata, .

I&#al a es"a, $as se$ % re'#rs% > %!%$a"%*ea, / a l%'#36% a)ver5al #sa)a *el% &ra!)e *%e"a
&ale&% Ra$8! Ca5a!llas= ?#er% r#5r %s *e!e)%s, \ ca%ta >ue te ca%tar/s6, s"% /= se$*re
'a!"a!)%. +o !esterro, l.a e)., *-&. 1.

Para "ra)#2r #$a )ea s#*erla"va - a!)a % re'#rs% )a $a&e$, )a '%$*ara36%. U$ e;e$*l%=
Es"- $a&ra como 'sto ( e $%s"rava #$ )e)%4. Ta$5/$ *er"e!'e$ a% )%$:!% )as $a&e!s, $as
$as es5a")as e a"/ *%r ve2es !)e'r-ves %9e, )2eres '%$% es"es= Es"- #$ r% )e ra'ar4.
C%ve a 5%$ '%ver4. Era es"*)% '%$% +#4, '%$% #$a *%r"a4, e"'. O *%v%, !a *re%'#*a36%
)e re)#2r a '%!'re"%
'%$*ree!)e$%s a )ea a5s"ra'"a
*ere"a$e!"e, $as +#e)e )esaa
!"e!s)a)e, !ve!"%#
*%r ve2es #$a $as
a a!-lse '#r%sa rase%l%&a, +#e
s#5"l.

Res"a #$ %#"r% *r%'ess%, 9- $as ela5%ra)%, +#e '%!ss"e e$ e$*re&ar ver5%s )e se!")% *are')%
%# '%!"r-r% '%$ a)v/r5%s )e l#&ar, *ara "ra)#2r a s#r*resa e % $%v$e!"%, s%5re"#)% %
$%v$e!"% re"ar)a)%. Es #$a rase )e A+#l!% R5er%= Tr%*e3a a>u', es'%rre&a al', a%'!a
além, #&a$(le )a 5%'a *ra&as +#e ara$ "re$er %s sa!"%s !%s al"ares4. As !%"a3<es )e l#&ar
*r%'#ra$ e;*r$r %s )vers%s "e$*%s )a a'36% e, *ara al/$ )% "e$*%, )6%(!%s % $%v$e!"% e a
%r$a= es"a$%s ve!)% '%$ %s %l%s )% es*:r"%

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

%#s%#
s#9e"% e$ a""#)es
lar&a$e!"e )es"es#'essvas
e;*e)e!"e)ees"l:s"'%=
"r%*e3ar, es'%rre&ar e a%'!ar.
Trl% +#ase Ta$5/$
$*er'e*":vel errera
s%5re %las)ee ra:2es,
Cas"r%
)%5ra a>u', e!)re"a al', )esa*are'e acol/ s%5 &al%s e la!as, a l&a!)%, !% $s"/r% )a l%res"a,
#$a ser!&#era > %#"ra4.(A *e&a, )e 'a#)a "r/$#la, !+#e"a, sara'%"eava e!"re 'ar#$as e
#r&#eras, es'%!)e a>u', s#r&e al'6. " Ma!#el )a B%#3a leva!"%#(se e, *sa a>u', arras"a al' o */
)%l%r)%, a"ravess%# % *!al4.

Es"a #"l2a36% )e a)v/r5%s )e l#&ar /, '%$% se v, #$ ele$e!"% )e *"%res'% !a !arra36%, e "e$ a
s#a %r&e$ !%s *aralels$%s )a l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e e *%*#lar, +#e a)%*"a '%!"#)% %r$as $as
s$*les= U$ */ a>u' %#"r% acol/, '%!se&## e!$ 'e&ar a 'asa4.

+. 6o&açHes a')er2iais 'e e%<rio. ( S%5 es"e ":"#l%, )es&!%# #$ 'ele5ra)% l8l%&% ale$6%, Le%
S*"2er, a+#elas !)'a3<es )e "e$*%, l#&ar e $%)%, +#e s6% e$*re&a)as a*e!as *ara s#s'"are$
'er"% ee"%, )e '%!"ras"e, )e *a alels$%, e"'. A e!'e!a36%4, )2 ele, '%!ss"e e$ a2er +#e a a'36%
se e;*r$a !6% )e #$ $%)% s$*les, !)e*e!)e!"e, $as e$ $e% )e "%)%s %s "%!s +#e va&a$e!"e
le '%rres*%!)a$ !a !a"#re2a %# !% es*:r"% )% es*e'"a)%r4. U$ e;e$*l%, "ra)% )e E3a= Re'e5e#
a %r)e$ )% $e# al$%3%, se$ $e %lar, %um "/)% res&!a)%4. A !%"a36% a)ver5al, %#
'%$*le$e!"% 'r'#$s"a!'al, es"- *re'e))a *ela *re*%s36% em $as / )e !%"ar +#e, a!"es )e E3a,
a+#ele '%$*le$e!"% se '%!s"r#:a '%$ a *re*%s36% com. Ve9a$%s a )ere!3a e!"re as )#as
'%!s"r#3<es. Se es'revsse$%s 0com #$ "/)% res&!a)%4, !)'-va$%s 'lara$e!"e,
%59e'"va$e!"e, #$a 'r'#$s"!'a )e $%)%. Es'reve!)% 0%um "/)% res&!a)%4, % $%)% es"- 9-
l&a)% :!"$a e $s"er%sa$e!"e a% l#&ar e a% "e$*%, e "#)% ss% '%!s*ra *ara 'rar #$a a"$%sera
se!"$e!"al, )e !"e!s)a)e e$%"va. Pass%# a ver(se a &#ra $as !)e'sa e $as *r%#$)a$e!"e
e!v%lv)a e$ "/)%.


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

Tal % % *ar")% +#e %s es'r"%res $%)er!%s "rara$ )as *re*%s3<es. Esses !s"r#$e!"%s l8&'%s )%
)s'#rs% s%rera$ #$a re#$)36%, &a!ara$ #$a *%/"'a !)e"er$!a36% e #$a e!er&a ae'"va,
+#e a2e$ )eles ele$e!"%s *re'%s%s *ara "ra)#2r as $s"er%sas '%rres*%!)!'as e!"re % %$e$ e
% se# a$5e!"e. Desses ele$e!"%s, a *re*%s36% em /, !a"#ral$e!"e, a $as lar&a$e!"e #sa)a,
*%r+#e, e;*r$!)%
)e"er$!a)a rela3<es
a"$%sera. )e es"e
Ve9a(se l#&ar, )e "e$*%
"re'%= e $%)%,
A sala es"avaserve '%$%%uma
)eser"a, !e!#$a %#"ra %s
l#2 *ar)a7 *ara 'rar #$a
%&<es
la$e9ava$7 e %ra, %o sl!'% )% )%$!&%, %as r#as $#)as, a !eve 'a:a se$ 'essar4. O +#e $as
se es"ra!a !es"e *ass% / % e$*re&% )a *re*%s36% em '%$ #$ s#5s"a!"v% "6% $a"eral '%$%
s'l?%c'o. % #$a &ra!)e rev%l#36% es"l:s"'a es"a es*/'e )e '%!'re"2a36% )% a5s"ra'"% *%r $e%
)as *re*%s3<es. A e;*ress6% &a!%# '%$ ss% #$ %r"e *%)er s#&es"v% e #$a es*/'e )e
'%!'e!"ra36% se!"$e!"al. Ve9a$(se es"as rases=

P%s"&%s )e 'ase5res v6% e!"rea5r!)%, %a s$*l')a)e rs"'a )a vla, %s se#s $es+#!%s %l%s
s%!%le!"%s4.
( Os se#s *ass%s arras"ava$(se $as !'er"%s, %a a)&a )#$a 9%r!a)a *e!%sa4. ( Re*%#sava$,
%a &rav)a)e )as l%$5a)as )e 'ar!era, &r%ss%s 8l%s4. C%$% se v )es"es e;e$*l%s, a *re*%s36%
)- #$a !%"a )e'%ra"va, )e a$5e!"e7 e % "er$% a5s"ra'"% re%r3a a!)a essa !%"a '%$ #$a !%36% )e
$%)% al"a$e!"e 'ara'"er2a)%ra.

Al/$ )a *re*%s36% em, %#"ras serve$ a!)a *ara a re*rese!"a36% )e a$5e!"es, s%5re"#)% a+#elas,
/ 'lar%, +#e e;*r$e$ #$a rela36% )e l#&ar= Os s%l)a)%s $ar'ava$ *e!%sa$e!"e, so2 #$ 'al%r
as;a!"e4. A+#, % e$*re&% )as *re*%s3<es por e em !6% era "6% a*r%*ra)%, *%r+#e e$ s%%
se!"$%s e ve$%s %s ra%s )% s%l 'a!)% %*ressva$e!"e s%5re %s s%l)a)%s.

O#"r% e;e$*l% a!)a, !#$ lvr% )e J%r&e A$a)%= e'%# %s %l%s so2 as $6%s )e Vr&:l% !% se#
'%r*%4.

DA LINGUA
( +erras !o Sem 'm

*%s36% !6% $ar'a a] 0  # b U$a !%"e )e a$e.

2r $as Pre'sa$e!"] ` `  P%)era ra

e;*r$r a )el:'a ) 0 com a F`ssao !as d%s... Para

s8 #$a *ar":'#la e$ ] T]K0 +UG VÍ!a m4 5a;% as !%3<es )e 'a#sa, l# n oT4 "e 4 '%!#$)]

Es"e e$*re&% l"er #\ A 1U So2#

*r%)#2 a!)a #$ 5el% ee"%  ]  PV C%!e'e J- ve$ )%s es'r"%res ` ($ %s s#5s"a!"v%s
a5s"ra'"%s "%)%s le)%s, so2 a 5 e)levas0 Aps$ e$ er!6% L%*ese"% a)ea!"eW +)r`;`$#`
]ara$ )e leva\se# so2 s&$'a mma '%5er"% P P]"e I, 'a*. . A

N%"e(se "a$5/$ es" Ca)% '%$4v%la &e$a so2 %  )" e@] )e errera )e Cas"r%= U$a a vs6%,
$*re'sa $as a40  $re$a a'%r)a e$ !8s as s#as se)#3<es e $s"ePe"l'a )#$a !%"e )e l#ar
'%$ "%)as )e '$a e e$5ele2a "#)K l, ,TK U$ esPle]%r +#e ve$

Ve9a$%s % e$*reR% F V

es"l% 'e!%&r-:'%. U$ )a P]*%s3% a!"8!$a, so2re, e$ '%sa ass$, "6% 5ra!'SS )e E@a )e
?#er%2= Era )els%5re % #$)% a2#l )% ] "a% I%#ra0 )#$a l!a "6% *#ra ":!a$%s #$a vs6% )e 0
O\U"r es'revesse 0%o #$)%4 )#2 e$ !8s % ee"% )& J!9#$"%7 % e$*re&% )e so2re *r%la)% e,
e$er&!)% )ele TT Pla!S= #$ #$)% a2#(
$#ler. A *re*%s36K e!"e0 a )el'%sa &#ra )e se!")% l"eral7 "e$W d *%)e ser "%$a)a !% se#
!"e!sv%. 0 ` )lss%( #$ $ar'a)% 'ar-'"er

'%$ as %#"ras *reXk=7 (

se *%)era$ )ar e;e$*L]0b# ` mte#e"'^ 5U2ar % val%r )es"es Vr $eS$a "e!)!)a Pa "'a '%$%
s$*es !s"CTS0:1CO!S:)era)%s *ela Gra$-(

0De!"%s )e rela3<es l8&'as.


1.

PALAVRA" I6VARIÁVEI"

II

1. Aspe&os =erais 'a preposição. ( A *re*%s36% / )e!)a *el%s &ra$-"'%s '%$% #$


!s"r#$e!"% )e l&a36% )as *ar"es )% )s'#rs%. É *%s #$ $%re$a !)s*e!s-vel *ara #$a 5%a
!"el&!'a )a rase, #$ ele$e!"%, )&a$%s, )e *re's6% l8&'a. P%r a+# se '%$*ree!)e % el%&%
e!"#s-s"'% )#$ &ra$-"'% '%$% Carl%s G%s, +#e le 'a$a *alavra a)$r-vel, ver)a)er%
'$e!"% )a rase, *r!'*al !s"r#$e!"% )e 'lare2a )e #$ )%$a4.

D&a$%s )es)e 9- +#e es"a )e!36% !6% / "%"al$e!"e ver)a)era. E$ *r$er% l#&ar, a *re*%s36%
!e$ se$*re l&a )%s ele$e!"%s )% )s'#rs%, *ela s$*les ra26% )e +#e / '%l%'a)a $#"as ve2es >
re!"e. C%$% s#'e)e '%$ % a)v/r5%, %s es'r"%res reals"as, !%$ea)a$e!"e E3a )e ?#er%2, "$
$ar'a)a "e!)!'a *ara a#"%!%$2ar % $%re$a, *%!)%(% e$ l#&ar )e relev%, > re!"e )% *er:%)%.
Al&#$s e;e$*l%s a*e!as=

1. Do #$)% )a '%3a r#)e... ve% #$ le!"% &e$)%. . com !!"a 'ar)a)e e )%3#ra % a5ra3%#. . a s#a
#$l:ss$a #$l)a)e !6% se '%!s)erava !e$ % &#al )#$ ver$e. . E%tre )#as *e)ras a'e!)e# #$a
%&#era. . So2 a r%!)e, a 5#2!a )% *%r+#er% ress%ava a&%ra. . Atraés !e "%)a a I"-la, se$ )es'a!s%,
*re&%# % Eva!&el% e"er!%. . Fara #$r serv%s +#e *e!ava$ s%5

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



#$ a$% er%, *e!e"rava !as &re9as. . Fela a5#$)!'a e *er*e"#)a)e )a %ra36%, ele arra!'ava )a s#a al$a
as ra:2es $as $)as )% *e'a)%.

N6% )re$%s +#e #$a rase '%$% a *r$era es"- )esl%'a)a *%r #$ $er% 'a*r'% )% a#"%r, e +#e a
%r$a re&#lar le e+#vale *ere"a$e!"e= U$ le!"% &e$)% ve% !o #$)% )a '%3a r#)e4. O
a#"%r, +#e !s*ra es"e !%ss% lvr%, sa5a $#"% 5e$ % +#e es'reva e % +#e +#era= )ese9ava e;*r$r
e$ *r$er% l#&ar a 'r'#$s"!'a, e s8 )e*%s % a'"% e % s#9e"%. O $es$% +#e s#'e)e !% a)v/r5%,
'%$% v$%s= % +#e a'%)e *r$er% a% es*:r"% / % $%)%, as 'r'#$s"!'as e$ +#e % a'"% se real2a7
s8 e$ se&#)a se "%$a '%!s'!'a 'lara )% e!8$e!%. O a#"%r, )esl%'a!)% a *re*%s36%, se&## >
rs'a %s )"a$es
*r!':*%s )a ar"e)a$*ress%!s"a
re&#la)%res Gra$-"'a. e '%!se&## #$ 5el% ee"% es"/"'%, *ese e$5%ra a%s

Ta$5/$ !6% / ver)a)e +#e a *re*%s36% se9a #$ la$e !)s*e!s-vel *ara a !"el&!'a )%
)s'#rs%. Ve9a(se es"e "re'% )e Tr!)a)e C%el%= Alse +#e)ava a %lar % T%$/ +#e % 'a$ava, (
#$ &ra!)e rs% )e ale&ra !as e3<es a$%re!a)as4. O es'r"%r %$"# a *re*%s36% com, e % se!")%
!6% )e;%# )e se a*ree!)er, av%re')% *%r a+#ela *a#sa $ar'a)a *ela v:r&#la e *el% "ravess6%. O
*r%'ess%, re+#e!"e, '%$% v$%s 9-, !%s a#"%res $*ress%!s"as, ve$ )e l%!&e, '%$% se )e;a ver
)es"es )%s e;e$*l%s )e ra!'s'% )e M%ras e r. L#:s )e S%#sa= O )a )% se# e!"erra$e!"%, "%)a
C%!s"a!"!%*la sa# '%5er"a )e )8, ves")#ras !e&ras e "rs"es4. ( De;%# )es*a'a)% #$ &ale6%,
'%$ %r)e$ +#e *ar"sse, e!"ra)a )e %#"#5r%4. N% *r$er% *ass%, *%)e e!"e!)er(se a el*se )a
*re*%s36% com, %# !e, +#e 9- es"ava a!"er%r$e!"e. N% se&#$)%, s#5e!"e!)e(se a *re*%s36% a %#
em +B, %a-. Es"e l"$% *r%'ess% / a!)a %9e #sa)% !as e;*ress<es )e "e$*%. É )e al% )e
Al$e)a es"a '%!s"r#36%= Pa3% X$/!e2 era % a!$al )e l#;% )as $#leres, essa es"a36%4  !essa
es"a36%.


M. RODRIUE" LAPA

E!$, res"a )2er +#e a *re*%s36% !e$ se$*re )ese$*e!a #$3<es r&%r%sa$e!"e l8&'as7 !a
l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e e !a )%s es'r"%res !s!#a$(se '%!"!#a$e!"e val%res ae'"v%s, '%$%
*assa$%s a ver )e al&#$s e;e$*l%s=

1. O lvr% es"- so2re a $esa.


. A 9a!ela )e"avaso2re % 9ar)$.

. So2re ser *arv%, / a!)a $a#2!%.

N% *r$er% e;e$*l%, "#)% / 'lar% !a re*rese!"a36%= % so2re e;*r$e #$a rela36% )e l#&ar +#e !6%
)- $ar&e$ a )v)as e +#e / a*e!as )% )%$:!% )a !"el&!'a. N% se&#$)% e;e$*l%, 9- a
*re*%s36% é lar&a$e!"e !va))a *ela a!"asa. Mas l8&'% sera "alve2 )2er )e"ava para %
9ar)$4, e / ass$ +#e se )2 "a$5/$ '%rre!"e$e!"e7 $as % e$*re&% )a *re*%s36% so2re )- #$a
!'%$*ar-vel s#&es"6% *%/"'a= '%$% +#e es"a$%s ve!)%, )e '$a, )a 9a!ela, % e!'a!"% l%r)% )%
9ar)$. N% "er'er% e;e$*l%, e!$, a *re*%s36% a)+#r# #$ 'ar-'"er $%ral7 "%)a a rela36% )e
l#&ar se )esva!e'e# e, e$ l#&ar )ela, "e$%s a&%ra #$a %r"e $*ress6% )e !"e!s)a)e, +#e, $e!%s
l"erara$e!"e, % v#l&% '%s"#$a e;*r$r *%r além !e. A+# "e$%s '%$% a a!"asa e % se!"$e!"%
s#s'"ara$ !as *re*%s3<es $a"2es !%v%s )e s&!'a36%, e$5%ra les 2esse$ *er)er #$ *%#'%
)a+#ela 'lare2a l8&'a "6% *re'%!2a)a *el%s &ra$-"'%s.

O#"r%s e;e$*l%s se *%)era$ a*rese!"ar )es"a es'ala )e val%res se!"$e!"as +#e %ere'e$ as
*re*%s3<es. C%!s)ere$%s a*e!as a *re*%s36% por !%s 'as%s se&#!"es=

1. Z v%l"a, "eve )e *assar por C%$5ra.

. É por "%l'es )essas +#e a'%!"e'e$ )esas"res.

. Pe3%("e, a2e ss% por $$H

N% *r$er% e;e$*l%, a *re*%s36% por e;*r$e s$*les$e!"e #$a rela36% )e l#&ar *%r %!)e, +#e
'e&a a"/
E"TIL5"TICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

W<

!8s *%r va $era$e!"e !"ele'"#al. N% se&#$)% e;e$*l%, *assa$%s )% :s'% *ara % $%ral7 a
*re*%s36% a&%ra "ra)#2 #$a )ea )e 'a#sa, $as se!"$%s +#e essa )ea es"- '%!"a$!a)a,
*er"#r5a)a *%r #$ se!"$e!"% )e *esar. N% "er'er% e;e$*l%, e!$, a *re*%s36% a)+#re 9- #$ "%$
!"era$e!"e ae'"v%. É '%$% se )ss/sse$%s *%r a$%r )e $$4. A 'a#sa e % $ e!"rela3ara$(se
!#$ '%$*le;% se!"$e!"al, e res#l"%# )essa a$-l&a$a #$ *%)er%s% ee"% e;*ressv%.

Se *assar$%s )a l!&#a&e$ ala)a *ara a es'r"a, "a$5/$ e!'%!"ra$%s re+#e!"e$e!"e a)er!'as


ae'"vas !a *re*%s36%. Ve9a(se, *%r e;e$*l%, es"e "er'e"% 'a$%!a!%, )#$ s%!e"% 9- a+# '"a)%=
Vv% em le$5ra!3as, $%#r% !e es+#e')% )e +#e$ se$*re )evera ser le$5ra)%, se le le$5rara es"a)% "6%
'%!"e!"e

O &ra!)e *%e"a s%5re'arre&%# as )#as *re*%s3<es )e val%res se!"$e!"as e !"e!sv%s, +#e


*%)er:a$%s, $as %# $e!%s, "ra)#2r )es"e 9e"%= Vv% !"era$e!"e a5s%rv)% *el% 5%$ a$%r )e
%#"r%ra7 $as, a% $es$% "e$*%, s!"%($e $%rrer, *%r $e ver "6% es+#e')% )a+#ela...4.

Cas%s - e$ +#e a *re*%s36% a!)a )sar3a)a, e$ vr"#)e )a ev%l#36% l!&#:s"'a. U$ )esses 'as%s
( e )%s $as '#r%s%s ( es"- !es"a rase )e M%!"er% L%5a"%= Mas, péla !6% "er$%s %9e, / a5s#r)%
!e&ar$%(!%s )re"% > s%!%$a. ( +I!e'as !e Peca atu,.a e)., Q. Is"% "ra)#2)% e$ "er$%s )e
l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e, s&!'a= Mas, *el% a'"% )e a !6% "er$%s %9e...4. O es'r"%r !6% e2 $as )%
+#e ress#s'"ar a '%!s"r#36% 'l-ss'a, %!)e a %r$a )e por a*are'e 5e$ vs:vel= Mas, pola !6%
"er$%s %9e...4. E '%$ ss% *r%)#2# #$a s:!"ese e;*ressva, +#e sera "alve2 a!)a $as el%+#e!"e,
se "a$5/$ '%!servasse a %r$a ar'a2a!"e pola, +#e e;s"e a!)a %9e e$ &ale&%.

1 ( Es"l:s"'a
#9

M. RODRi=8es LAPA

Ve9a$%s a&%ra, #$a *%r #$a, al&#$as )as *re*%s3<es #$)a$e!"as +#e $a%r !"eresse
a*rese!"a$ *ara a Es"l:s"'a.

. A *re*%s36% a4. ( D2a #$ vel% &ra$-"'%, Evars"% Le%!, $#"% *re%'#*a)% '%$ as %r&e!s
la"!as )a l:!&#a
a #$ "er$%, '%$%*%r"#&#esa, +#e a *re*%s36%
% )a se"a arre$essa)a a s&!'a
a% alv%4. *r$%r)al$e!"e
Ee'"va$e!"e, #$
/ esse, e$ $%v$e!"%
"er$%s )r&)%
*%/"'%s, %
s&!'a)% )% $%re$a, +#e le ve$, !6% - )v)a, )% se# /"$% la"!% ( a7. Dessa !%36% )e
$%v$e!"% vsa!)% #$ %59e'"v% )erv%# !a"#ral$e!"e #$a )ea )e !"e!s)a)e e #$ !"eresse
ae'"v%, +#e a!)a %9e s#5ss"e$ !al&#$s 'as%s. ?#a!)% al% )e Al$e)a es'reve
( E a "%rre!"es a '#va4 (, se!"$%s +#e a *re*%s36% e;*r$e s$#l"a!ea$e!"e % $%)% e a
!"e!s)a)e. Ta$5/$ %s Cl-ss'%s es'reva$ a$ar a De#s4, +#erer a al&#/$4, e"'. A *re*%s36%
"ra)#2a % erv%r a*a;%!a)% )% s#9e"% e$ rela36% a% %59e'"%. P%)e ver(se 5ela$e!"e esse e$*e!%
a*a;%!a)% !%s '%!e')%s vers%s )% s%!e"% 'a$%!a!%= $as !6% serva ao *a, serva a ela, \ +#e
a ela s8 *%r *r/$% *re"e!)a4.

U$ es'r"%r '%$% % P.e A!"8!% Vera, +#e '%!e'a *r%#$)a$e!"e %s se&re)%s )a l:!&#a, e2
!#$ )%s se#s ser$<es a )s"!36% e!"re 'rer em De#s4 e 'rer a De#s4. #$)a)% !% se!")% )as
*re*%s3<es, Vera $%s"rava +#e 'rer em De#s4 se l$"ava a 'rer *as5va$e!"e !a s#a )v!)a)e7
'rer a De#s4 era
a a*r%;$ar(se #$ e!/r&'%)ele.
a$%r%sa$e!"e $%v$e!"%
P%r ss%)e)2a,
al$a,e;*l%ra!)%
+#e levavasa5a$e!"e
% 'rs"6% a %'rer !a )as
val%r *alavra
)#as)e De#s e
*re*%s3<es, +#e %s %$e!s )% se# "e$*% a!)a 'ra$ em Crs"%, $as !6% 'ra$ a Crs"%. +)artas,
$, 1.

Os es'r"%res $%)er!%s re9e"ara$, !% &eral, essa '%!s"r#36%, +#e se )#$)ra !% *er:%)% 'l-ss'% e
a'a5ara *%r

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

#9:

servr *r%*8s"%s )e r"$% e )e 'lare2a7 $as % $%re$a a!)a a*are'e e$ A+#l!% R5er% e e$
errera )e Cas"r%, e$ '#9as %5ras / *a"e!"e a !l#!'a )% Class's$%. Ve9a(se )% *r$er% es"a

rase= '%$ )el:'a


!"e!s'ava(se, a2e!)% s%rrr, )ea *le!a
v# Tavare)e M8!'a $#"% *-l)a4.
sa"sa36%, E )% se&#$)%
a Cae"a!%4. es"%#"ra=
A *re*%s36% O"e$
9- !6% )ra$a
val%r
ae'"v%7 !es"es e;e$*l%s / a*e!as #$ ele$e!"% )e 'lar'a36% )% se!")% e )e e+#l:5r% r:"$'%.
Bas"a %$"r$%s esse *e+#e!!% a, *ara ver$%s % )esas"r%s% ee"% +#e )a: res#l"a.

Os ar"s"as $%)er!%s s%#5era$ )ar > *re*%s36% $a"2es !%v%s )e s&!'a)%, $#"as ve2es 5e$
):'es )e a!alsar. er!a!)% Pess%a "e$ *%r esse $%re$a vva !'l!a36%. Ve9a$%s es"e vers% se#=
l%rr )% )a a 'a*"/s )e L#2...4. A *re*%s36% a+# !6% !)'a a*e!as % $%)%, +#e se "ra)#2ra
"alve2 $el%r es'reve!)% 0em 'a*"/s )e L#247 va $as l%!&e e, )e a'%r)% '%$ % se# s&!'a)%
#$)a$e!"al, e;*r$e % *%!"% a"/ %!)e 'e&a essa l%res'!'a )% )a. C%$% se )ss/sse$%s= %
)a l%res'e# a "al *%!"% +#e se asse$ela a 'a*"/s )e L#24. J- e$ %#"r% vers% )% $es$% *%e"a, %
se!")% )a *re*%s36% / *%#'% $e!%s +#e e!&$-"'% =

E, l#)% a e5res e!"re #$ le$5rar )e aras, % '%!v/s se$ !!&#/$ 'e% )e $alas...
N6% se sa5e a+# 5e$ se % $%re$a !)'a #$a rela36% 'a#sal )e e5res, *%r "er e5res, %# )e
$%)%, %# )e '%!se+#!'a. O +#e *are'e !)#5"-vel / % se# 'ar-'"er !"e!sv%, a s#a vee$!'a
se!"$e!"al.

. A *re*%s36% '%$4. ( T%)a a &e!"e '%!e'e a )ere!3a +#e - e!"re es"es )%s $%)%s )e )2er=
#$ '%*% !e -&#a4, #$ '%*% com -&#a4. Pel% *r$er%, e!"e!)e$%s #$ '%*% +#e serve *ara
5e5er -&#a, *el% se&#$)% #$ '%*% +#e
#3-

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

"e$ -&#a )e!"r%. N% *%!"% )e vs"a es"l:s"'%, % !e "ra)#2 #$a )ea )e reer!'a #$ *%#'%
'%$*l'a)a7 % com e;*r$e #$a se!sa36% vs#al )re'"a= es"a$%s ve!)% a -&#a )e!"r% )% '%*%.
Mas a!)a= #$ '%*% !e -&#a4 / #$a es*/'e )e &r#*% rase%l8&'% e$ +#e - a*e!as #$a
#$)a)e se$!"'a7 e$ #$ '%*% com -&#a4 se!"$%s +#e - )#as #$)a)es, *%r+#e )s"!&#$%s
*ere"a$e!"e %s )%s ele$e!"%s
( % '%*% e a -&#a.

Es"e a'"% "e$ a*l'a3<es !a l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e e l"er-ra. S#*%!a$%s es"a rase= O Alre)%
es"ava l-, com as s#as "rs las4. Se )ss/sse$%s= O Alre)% e as s#as "rs las...4, % ee"% !6%
era % $es$%= *a e las '%!s""#ra$ #$ !'% +#a)r%, #$ *%#'% )es5%"a)%. O com se*ara %
&r#*% e$ )%s +#a)r%s e a2 9%rrar l#2 s%5re eles. A *a#sa, !)'a)a *ela v:r&#la, a9#)a %s %l%s a 
a2 'e$ a se*ara36% e a vere$ $el%r.

Esse 'ar-'"er vs#al )a *re*%s36% com !6% *%)a es'a*ar a%s es'r"%res reals"as. E3a s%#5e
e$*re&-(la *r%#sa$e!"e, '%$% ele$e!"% )e 'ara'"er2a36% e *"%res'%, !%s re"ra"%s e !% )es'r"v%=

1. Avs"ava$(!% a&arra)% > 5e!&ala, com #$a a'e $a'le!"a, a 5ar5a )esle;a)a e com #$ 5arre"!% )e se)a
e!"erra)% $ela!'%l'a$e!"e a"/ a% 'a'a3%. . L#:sa )a!"e )% es*el% %lava(se, s%rra com % se# s%rrs%

+#e!"e,
. '%!"e!"eves")a
A '%s"#rera, )as s#as
)e l!as.
*re"%, com #$ 'a*/# )e "as r%;as, es*erava se!"a)a > 5era )a causeuse, com #$
%lar !el2 e % se# e$5r#l% !%s 9%el%s. . Asse!"%#, *re&%#, al!av%#, ala!)% 5a;%, com #$a
#$l)a)e "rs"e e #$a "%ss!a se'a7 e a*e!as ela sa#, )e leve, com % se# a!)ar )e s%$5ra, D. el')a)e
'%$e3%# l%&% a alar )ele. . E $e)a"a$e!"e, com %s %l%s a rel#2r )e 'ar)a)e e )e a$%r, a&arr%# % aa)%
*%)6% +#e *%#sava s%5re % $#r% )a %r"a. . E % )%$!&% "er$!ava, com #$a sere!)a)e 'a!sa)a e "rs"e.

N% l"$% e;e$*l%, % ar"s"a *%)era "er es'r"% 0%uma sere%'!a!e6 $as % ee"% !6% era % $es$%=
a *re*%s36% em

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUUE"A #31

s#s'"ara #$a $*ress6% )e'%ra"va, )e 'e!-r%, e *%r "%)a a rase '%rrera #$a !)e!)a e
e!erva!"e la!&#)e2. Es'reve!)% com, % es'r"%r ev"%# essa $%le2a a*a&a)%ra )as $a&e!s,
se*ara!)% $as !")a$e!"e as re*rese!"a3<es. O $%re$a / '%$% +#e #$ saa!6% +#e se )- a #$
)%r$!%'% *ara a5rr %s %l%s e ver $as 'lar%.
É '%!e')% 9- % se!")% )e 'a#sal)a)e +#e *%r ve2es %ere'e a *re*%s36%= 0com % se# *ass!%
$)%, *are'a #$a arvela '%!"e!"e4. A *re*%s36% / a!)a #$ ele$e!"% )e 'ara'"er2a36%,
e;*r$!)% % $%)% )e ser7 $as se!"$%s +#e % $%re$a '%!"/$ #$ s&!'a)% a'ess8r% 'a#sal=
)ev)% a% se# *ass!% $)%, *%r 'a#sa )% se# *ass!% $)%4. O al"% val%r e;*ressv% )a
*re*%s36% es"- e$ re#$r !#$a s:!"ese *ere"a es"as )versas re*rese!"a3<es. A s&!'a36%
'a#sal 9- ve$ )e l%!&e, !a s"8ra )a l:!&#a. D%s e;e$*l%s a*e!as, "ra)%s )a &'str'a tr/3'co"
mart'ma, !%s +#as / *ere"a$e!"e !:")a essa )ea )e 'a#sal)a)e= E "%$-$%s a% !%ss%
'a$!%, )e +#e !#$'a !%s vr-$%s, com % &ra!)e )ese9% +#e ":!a$%s )e 'e&ar4. ( ?#e,
com % )!er% +#e e$ #$ )a se a2a !a+#ela -&#a, a% %#"r% %#vesse +#e$ a %sse 5#s'ar4.

Da rela36% *r$"va )e '%$*a!a / !a"#ral +#e se "vesse )ese!v%lv)% a )e s$#l"a!e)a)e7 )#$a


rela36% )e es*a3% *ass%#(se *ara %#"ra '%rrela"va )e "e$*%. É ass$ +#e ve$%s #$'%!ar a
*re*%s36%, 9- !% *er:%)% 'l-ss'%, e$ rases '%$% es"a= E!"6% $e )ssera$ +#e $e !6% a&as"asse,
+#e eles +#era$ r a "erra, '%$% l%&% %ra$, com $e )e;are$ !% se# 5a"el arre'a)a)%4. F%9e,
s#5s""#r:a$%s % com *%r #$a '%!s"r#36% )e &er!)%= )e;a!)% $e, a% $es$% "e$*%4. Mas
es"%#"ra rase +#!e!"s"a / *ere"a$e!"e a'"#al= Ca)a #$ se re'%le#, es*era!)% a "%$a)a )a
$a!6, com a +#al *ass-$%s % r%4. A+# % com vale % $es$% +#e !ura%te.

Res"a alar !% se!")% '%!'essv% )a *re*%s36%, )e "%)%s "alve2 % $as $*re&!a)% )e


ae'"v)a)e. Essa s&!(


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

'a36% "era s#r&)% )e #$a rase '%$% es"a= A+# %!)e $e vs, com %s $e#s sesse!"a,
a!)a s%# 'a*a2 )e "e a2er re!"e * K #$ ele$e!"% )e 'ara'"er2a36%, "ra)#2!)% #$a
rela36% )e $%)%7 $as "e$, al/$ )ss%, #$ ev)e!"e s&!'a)% '%!'essv%, *%s se
*%)era s#5s""#r a l%'#36% *%r a*esar )%s $e#s sesse!"a4. J- !a l:!&#a ar'a'a e
'l-ss'a, % $%re$a "!a "%$a)% esse se!")%. Na l!&#a&e$ )e D. D!s, 0com "%)% es"%4
s&!'ava a*esar )e "#)% s"%47 e !#$a rase '%$% es"a )% *er:%)% 'l-ss'%, v(se
$e)a"a$e!"e % s&!'a)% '%!'essv% )a *re*%s36%= T%)%s sa5:a$%s +#e !6%
":!a$%s $as $a!"$e!"% +#e s8 *ara v!"e )as, com "%)a a es"re"e2a +#e se *#)esse
*r4.

Para es"e $a"2 '%!'essv%, se$ ser !)s*e!s-vel, / '%!"#)% val%sa, '%$% se v )%s
l"$%s e;e$*l%s, a *r%;$)a)e )% *r%!%$e 'o!o. É $es$% *r%v-vel +#e esse
s&!'a)% "e!a s#r&)% )essa v2!a!3a. A *alavra co%tu!o, %9e #$a '%!9#$36%
a)versa"va, % %r&!ara$e!"e #$a e;*ress6% '%!'essva e es'reva(se se*ara)a$e!"e=
'%$ "#)%4  a*esar )e "#)%. Al-s, % ee"% )esse *r%!%$e *%)e ver(se )es"as )#as
rases=

1. com o se# "ale!"%, '%!+#s"ar- %s $as al"%s l#&ares.


. com "%)% % se# "ale!"%, !6% *assar- )a 'e*a "%r"a.

E$ a$5as a *re*%s36% e;*r$e #$a rela36% )e $e%7 !a se&#$)a esse s&!'a)% /


a'res')% )e #$ val%r '%!'essv%, +#e % '%!"e;"%, a *r%;$)a)e )% *r%!%$e to!o e "alve2
'er"% 9e"% )e e!"%a36% a9#)ara$ a 'rar. Mas #$ e;e$*l%, e!"re "a!"%s %#"r%s +#e "e$%s
a)#2)%, )e +#e a rase "e$ $*%r"!'a #$)a$e!"al !a ;a36% )% val%r se$!"'% )a
*alavra.

+. A preposição 'e. ( N% se# s&!'a)% *r$"v%, a *re*%s36% !e $ar'a % l#&ar


)%!)e, a %r&e$= Sa# !e



'asa4. ( É !e 5%a a$:la4. E '%$% a !%36% )e 'a#sa a!)a es"re"a$e!"e l&a)a > )e
%r&e$, !6% / )e es"ra!ar +#e a *re*%s36% a'a5asse "a$5/$ *%r e;*r$r a 'a#sal)a)e,
'%$% !es"a rase= A"/ *#lava !e '%!"e!"e4.

?#a!)% se se&#e #$ ar"&% %# *r%!%$e '%$e3a)% *%r v%&al, a *re*%s36% #$)e(se '%$
eles, *er)e!)% o e e %r$a!)% #$a s8 *alavra= !o, !uma, !a>uele, !al3um, e"'. Os
es'r"%res *%r/$ a'a$ +#e, !es"e *r%'ess% )e els6%, a *ar":'#la *er)e #$ *%#'% )% se#
val%r e;*ressv%. C%$*are$%s as )#as %r$as=

1. Se# *a $%rre# !uma a*%*le;a.


. Se# *a $%rre# !e #$a a*%*le;a.

A )s"!36% / "alve2 #$ *%#'% s#5"l7 $as, '%$% %s %l%s )ese$*e!a$ "a$5/$ 'er"%
*a*el !a l!&#a&e$ es'r"a, se!"$%s, real$e!"e, +#e a )ea )e 'a#sal)a)e s%5ressa '%$
$as vve2a !a se&#$)a %r$a, e$ +#e a *re*%s36% a*are'e *%r !"er%. O#"ras ve2es, %s
es'r"%res ev"a$ essas els<es #$ *%#'% 5r#"as, '%$ #$ *r%*8s"% )e 'lare2a, '%$% se
$%s"ra !es"e *ass% )e E3a )e ?#er%2= (( E e# ve!% a9#)-(l%, *r$%H ( )sse ela, a!$a)a
*el% se#)%*r8*r%
ale&ra %$e$rs%, *ela 'as%
( !esse ale&ra !ees'r"%
"era a+#ele)a+#ele
%$e$ a%$e$47
se# la)%4.+#erOe;*r$r
a#"%r !6%a ale&ra
al#)e > )ela,
*%r "(l% a se# la)%, !essa vs6% )e s%!%. P%r ss% $a!"eve !"a'"a a *re*%s36%. É *%r
es"e $es$% *r!':*% +#e as &ra$-"'as a'%!sela$ a !6% a2er els6% a!"es )% ver5% !%
!!"%. Ass$, )ever- es'rever(se= )e*%s !e % G%ver!% "er 'a:)%4 e !6% )e*%s !o
G%ver!% "er 'a:)%4.

J%s/ R/&%, )e "%)%s %s es'r"%res *%r"#&#eses $%)er!%s, % +#e$ $as "e!a2$e!"e
*re"e!)e# a'e!"#ar % val%r e;*ressv% a#"8!%$% )% $%re$a, e$ 'as%s e$ +#e % as*e'"%
&r-'% '%!"ra)2 9- $#"% % #s% %ral )a l:!&#a= ra !e ele


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

'%$% %s %#"r%s47 07e ela !6% es*erava "al es"#*)e247 e ela &%s"ava !e ele6 %s !a$%ra)%s )e
r%)a !e ela6 ( +&'str'as !e mul*eres-. E J%s/ R%)r&#es M&#es va a!)a $as l%!&e= '%l%'a a
*re*%s36%, )es&arra)a, !% $ )a rase, ass%'a)a a %#"ra e %r$a!)% #$a l%'#36% a)ver5al=
P%r+#e a le"#ra e'#$)a, '%$ % A$%r, / *rvl/&% )a 9#ve!"#)e, +#e )e;as"e *assar B"espera"!e
\4 ( +Ge%te
es*era !a se
)e !6% terce'ra
sa5e %classe, *-&. .
+#4. Al-s, O se!")%
% *r%'ess% ser-"er+#al+#er
*are'e %r&e$ '%sa '%$%=
*%*#lar, *%s!)e!)a$e!"e
% ve$%s >
)%'#$e!"a)% !es"e *ass% )e G#$ar6es R%sa= Se % se!%r !6% a'e"a, / re !% se#7 $as, a5#sar,
!6% !ee"!e*"+Sa3ara%a, *-&. .

Al/$ )e 'a#sal)a)e, a *re*%s36% *%)e a!)a "er #$ se!")% )e reer!'a, 9- v#l&ar e$ la"$.
?#a!)% es'reve$%s, e$ ":"#l%, ( Das %r&e!s )a *%esa l:r'a *%r"#&#esa4, s&!'a$%s +#e va$%s
)sser"ar a'er'a )esse "e$a7 $as +#e, %# *el% ass#$"% a!)a $al es'lare')%, %# *ela !s#'!'a
)%s !%ss%s re'#rs%s, % a2e$%s !'%$*le"a$e!"e e !6% )e $%)% )e!"v%.

Es"a $*re's6% )a *ar":'#la ava )e a&ra)ar a%s es'r"%res $%)er!s"as. É ass$ +#e *are'e
e$*re&-(la er!a!)% Pess%a !es"es 5el%s vers%s=

D%r$e s%5re % $e# se%, s%!a!)% !e s%!ar... N% "e# %lar e# le% ] #$ l5r'% va&ar.

D%r$e !% s%!% )e e;s"r e !a l#s6% )e a$ar.

C%rre!"e$e!"e, )2e$%s s%!ar com al&#$a '%sa47 +#er )2er +#e, !a !'%!s'!'a )% s%!%, !%s
e!'%!"ra$%s '%$4 essa '%sa e$ 'r'#$s"!'as $*revs"as. U$a rase '%$% s%!a!)% !e
so%*ar6 é $#"% $as *%/"'a, *%r+#e, !#$a '%$% +#e !/v%a )e rreal)a)e, se al#)e
$*re'sa$e!"e a%s s%!%s +#e se "era$ a res*e"% )e %#"r%s s%!%s. É '%$

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



es"e $es$% s&!'a)% +#e M&#el T%r&a e$*re&a a *re*%s36% =

Na+#ela v)a se$#$


la re*rese!"ava ar e!!"%
se$ al"#ra +#e %ra
%r2%!"e a )ele, ae 'avar
)e ve!"#ra e a #$e&ar(se )e *8s )a A5ss:!a, % s%!% !a
)e *ere36%4.

Tra"a(se )e #$ *%5re %$e$, '%!)e!a)% a $%!er, e '#9a $#ler es"- &r-v)a. I)eal2a % *r8;$%
l%, +#e +#era %sse #$a ra*ar&a, '%$% #$ '$#l% )e 5ele2a e *ere36%. O es'r"%r e;*r$e )e
$a!era s!"/"'a % )eva!e% )% *%5re 'ava)%r e$ v%l"a )a 'ra!3a +#e es"ava *ara !as'er, 'ra!)%
'%$ a *re*%s36% !e essa a"$%sera )e e!"er!e')% $a&!ar +#e '%!v/$ > s"#a36%. A *r%*8s"%
)es"e e$*re&%, '"a Carl%s G%s a rase )e Garre"" ( ?#a!)% % !e se# l"$% !a$%r%4 ( )2e!)%
+#e o !e é $er% e;*le"v% +#e !e!#$a al"a a2 a% '%!"e;"%. Ora !6% / 5e$ ass$= % !e s#&ere,
'%$ $*re's6%, $as '%sas *ara al/$ )% '%!"e;"%7 ve$%s !6% a*e!as % !a$%r%, $as as
'r'#$s"!'as +#e % r%)eava$.

A *re*%s36% "a$5/$ serve *ara )es&!ar % $, '%$% se $%s"ra !a l%'#36% 'asa !e 9a!"ar4 
'asa para 9a!"ar. J- #$ *%e"a )% s/'#l% ;v!, J%6% Xaver )e Ma"%s, a e$*re&%# !esse se!")%= /
*%r+#e va 5#s'a!)% \ !%v%s 'a$!%s !e $e a!)ar $a"a!)%4.
er!a!)% Pess%a, +#e $%s"r%# s!&#lar *re)le'36% *el% $%re$a, #sa(% e$ *ass%s '%$% es"e=

a)a $al'%sa %# !'er"% &!%$% a)a)% %#vesse !e !6% *re"e!)er $0e# !"#"% &l%r:%la, '%$ "er a -rv%re )%
$e# #s% % !'% *%$%...

E$ l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e, )r:a$%s= %#vesse a)a)%, *ara +#e e# !6% *re"e!)esse4. É #$a
&e!eral2a36% )%


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

e$*re&% )% ver5% ser'r, +#e "a!"% se *%)e '%!s"r#r '%$ par a '%$% '%$ !e: serve para
)es&!ar4 %# serve !e )es&!ar4. C%$*ree!)e(se a !"e!36% )% *%e"a= % para )es&!a #$ $ $as
%# $e!%s l%!&:!+#%7 *%r ss% e$*re&%# % !e *ara s&!'ar a% $es$% "e$*% a *r%*re)a)e e % $
$e)a"%. C%$% +#e$ )ssesse= $e "vesse $*%s"% % a)% )e e# !6% *re"e!)er...4.

O#"ra !%va36% )% $es$% es'r"%r= !'ar '%$ a *re*%s36% !e #$a *%r36% )e )s'#rs% e+#vale!"e
a #$ a)9e'"v%= #$ )a &#al a%s %#"r%s, )a e"er!a a$:la !e sere$ ass$4. Era $*%ss:vel
e$*re&ar #$ a)9e'"v% +#e '%!vesse a% '%$*l'a)% )a )ea7 % *%e"a 'r%# #$a %r$a *ara
e;*r$r % se# *e!sa$e!"%. É % +#e se )- !es"%#"r% vers% se#= Arr#$% $el%r a $ala '%$ %s
%l%s !e *e!sar e$ arr#$ar4. Se es'revesse *e!sa"v%s !a arr#$a36%4, !"r%)#2ra "alve2 $as
'lare2a, $as !6% e;*r$ra % '%!9#$"% )e se!"$e!"%s '%$*l'a)%s +#e a&"a$ a al$a )% *%e"a. A
'%!s"r#36%, *%r $#"% %#sa)a +#e *are3a, / a!al #$a a)a*"a36% )a %r$a '%rre!"e ( '%$ %l%s !e
ver4, e$ +#e % !e e;*r$e, '%$% 9- v$%s )e %#"r% e;e$*l%, a *r%*re)a)e e % $.

Es"e '%!'e"% va&% )e *r%*re)a)e a*are'e a!)a e$ l%'#3<es '%$% es"as, )e #s% '%$#$= +#!"a
!as A$e!)%eras4, %!"e !os Cas"a!er%s4, e"'. A *re*%s36% !6% $ar'a #$a rela36% )e *%sse )%
se&#$)% ele$e!"% *ara '%$ % *r$er%, s"% /, !6% s6% as a$e!)%eras +#e *%ss#e$ a +#!"a, %s
'as"a!er%s +#e *%ss#e$ a %!"e. O !e a+# / #$ ele$e!"% )e 'ara'"er2a36% )% *r$er% !%$e e
!'a #$a
"ra)#2r l%'#36%
#$a l%!&a e+#vale!"e a #$ a)9e'"v%.
*er:rase= +#!"a É #$a %r$a
+#e se 'ara'"er2a *elas '%!)e!sa)a
s#as &ra!)es)ee l!&#a&e$, +#e *r%'#ra
5elas a$e!)%eras4. O
*%)er s#&es"v% )a *re*%s36% es"- e$ a'res'e!"ar > )es&!a36% )e *r%*re)a)e #$ al"% *%)er
ev%'a"v% )e %r3a e )e 5ele2a. Is"% $es$% se v !es"a rase )e E3a= re Ge!e5r% a5e!3%%# %
vel%, "%$%# %

l
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



se# 5%r)6%, )es'e# a '%l!a !os &ra!)es 'arval%s4. N%"e(se a "e!)!'a *ara a2er a'%$*a!ar a
*re*%s36% )% ar"&% )e!)%7 / +#e es"e $%re$a, '%$% v$%s 9-, *el% se# 'ar-'"er vs#al, / #$
%r"e ele$e!"% )e *"%res'%.

?#a!)% *%r/$, se "ra"a )e !%$es a5s"ra'"%s, a *re*%s36% a*are'e se$ '%!"a$!a36% )% ar"&%, %
+#e / *ere"a$e!"e l8&'%, *%r+#e as '%sas $a"eras, '%$% )sse$%s 9-, !6% se *%)e$ a*%!"ar a
)e)%. Tal é % 'as% )e %lar !e *e)a)e4, s%rrs% !e "er!#ra4, e"'. Es"as '%!s"r#3<es, +#e *are'e$
"er a s#a %r&e$ !% es"l% 5:5l'%, s6% e+#vale!"es a a)9e'"v%s= %lar p'e!oso6, s%rrs% ter%o6,
e"'.
Ve9a$%s *%r +#e $%"v% s6% *reer)as as l%'#3<es *re*%s'%!as "a!"% !% es"l% l"er-r% '%$% !a
l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e. E$ *r$er% l#&ar, +#a!)% se )2 %lar *e)%s%4, % a)9e'"v% e;*r$e
+#al)a)e !ere!"e a% e!"e vsa)%, #$a *r%*re)a)e )e se$*re7 se )sser$%s %lar !e *e)a)e4,
s&!'a$%s a!"es #$a +#al)a)e )e $%$e!"%. De*%s, % !e *are'e )ar > re*rese!"a36% #$a
es*/'e )e &ra# s#*erla"v%, #$a !"e!s)a)e +#e se *%)era e;*r$r !es"es "er$%s= %lar 'e% )e
*e)a)e4, s%rrs% 'e% )e "er!#ra4. Es"a !%"a +#a!""a"va )e s#*erla"v)a)e, se$ e;'l#s6%
)%#"ras s#&es"<es, a*are'e al-s !%#"r%s 'as%s e$ +#e / e$*re&a)a a *re*%s36%= 0De '%!"e!"e, !e$
re*ar%# +#e es"ava er)%4  )e "6% '%!"e!"e.... (?#e !e + +#a!"as $e!"ras e# %#v e!"6%H4
E!$, #$ &r#*% 8!'% '%$% ol*ar N !e p'e!a \ !e, *el% se# "%$ as'e!)e!"e   , *are'e "er
$as '%!ss"!'a r:"$'a, $e!%s $%!%"%!a )% +#e % s$*les &r#*% )% s#5s"a!"v% $as a)9e'"v%=
ol*ar [ p'e!o \ s8   .

Res"a alar )% 'as% e$ +#e a *re*%s36% / #$ !s"r#$e!"% )e '%$*ara36%, serve #$ *r%'ess%


$e"a8r'%. ?#a!)% )2e$%s #$ rs% !e 'rs"al4, )e!"es !e !eve4, +#ere$%s s&!'ar +#e % rs%
se asse$ela a% "!)% )#$ 'rs"al, +#e %s )e!"es, )e "6% 5ra!'%s, *are'e$ !eve. A *ar":'#la
%ere'a *%r"a!"%, )ev)% a% se# *%)er )e s#&es"6%, &ra!)es *%ss5l)a)es a%s ar"s"as, +#e l%&%
!ver"era$ a %r)e$ )%s


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

ele$e!"%s e 'rara$ #$a %r$a e$!e!"e$e!"e *%/"'a= % 'rs"al )% se# rs%4, a !eve )%s se#s
)e!"es4. U$ &ra!)e *%e"a s$5%ls"a, Ca$l% Pessa!a, #"l2%# es"e *r%'ess% !#$ )%s se#s vers%s=

Pass%# % %#"%!% 9-, 9- "%$a % r%...


( %#"%!% !o se# rs% $a&%a)%.
?#al ser- % ver)a)er% s&!'a)% )a *re*%s36% !es"e vers%@ Tra"a(se, !6% - )v)a, )e #$
*r%'ess% $e"a8r'%, e a *re*%s36% !e serve *ara s#s'"ar a $a&e$, +#e *are'e ser= OH '%$% %
se# rs% $a&%a)% $e le$5ra a )%'e "rs"e2a )% %#"%!%H4

9. A preposição em.( J- v$%s '%$% a *re*%s36% em )ese$*e!a #$ *a*el $*%r"a!"e !a


)es'r36% )%s a$5e!"es, !% 'e!-r% +#e e!v%lve %s a'"%s )as *ers%!a&e!s. C%$%, *ara %s es'r"%res
reals"as, / % a$5e!"e +#e )e"er$!a % $%)% )e ser )% !)v:)#%, !6% / )e es"ra!ar +#e !% #s% )a
*re*%s36% em se !s!#e $#"as ve2es, $as %# $e!%s 'lara, #$a )ea )e 'a#sal)a)e= O se!%r,
%a e;'"a36% !erv%sa +#e le )ava$ as !s8!as, rr"ava(se '%$ % $e!%r r#$%r4. F- a+#,
'lara$e!"e, #$a rela36% 'a#sal, +#e se '%s"#$a e;*r$r *elas l%'#3<es *%r $%"v% )e4, )ev)%
a4, )e &ra!)e r&%r l8&'%. O a#"%r, *%r/$, e$ ve2 )e !%s )ar a5er"a$e!"e a 'a#sa, *reere e!v%lv(
la !#$a a"$%sera e$%'%!al. Da:, % e$*re&% )% em. P%)a$ $#l"*l'ar(se a% !!"%, s8 e$ E3a
)e ?#er%2, %s e;e$*l%s )es"e e$*re&% se!"$e!"al('a#sal )a *re*%s36% em:
1. As $es$as l%res '%$ +#e ela, %o se# arra!9% e %o se# &%s"% )e res'#ra, %r!ava as $esas, )e*ressa
$#r'ava$ !a+#ele ar a5aa)% )e e5re. W. Re'#%#, %o es*a!"% )a+#ela 'ar)a)e !es*era)a.
. a va)a)e )a s#a !"r&a r%$!"'a, a'ava re*#&!a!"e a+#ele se!"$e!"als$% se!l. . Es"ava $#"%
!el2, %a>uela es"a36% e!"re %s $*#ls%s )a '%!'#*s'!'a e as *r#)!'as )a e'%!%$a.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

#3:

Ve$%s *%s +#e a *re*%s36%em a)+#r# !a l"era"$a $%)er!a #$ val%r ae'"v%, #$a !"e!s)a)e
e$%"va +#e es"ava l%!&e )e *%ss#r e$ a!"&%s "e$*%s. Es"a re#$)36% se!"$e!"al, es"a
"e!)!'a *ara a !"er%r2a36% a*are'e$ '%$% !%"a 'ara'"er:s"'a )% es"l% )e M-r% )e S-(
Car!er%, % !%"-vel *%e"a $%)er!s"a= R%3a$ *%r $$, em l%!&e, a "e%ra \ )%s es*as$%s &%la)%s
r#va$e!"e4. Se se )ssesse, '%rre!"e$e!"e, a% l%!&e4, al/$ )% a5s#r)% +#e )a: res#l"ara, a
re*rese!"a36% )a )s"!'a era e"a ra$e!"e )e )e!"r% *ara %ra7 0em l%!&e4 e;*r$e, '%$
vee$!'a ae'"va, a )s"!'a vs"a )e %ra *ara )e!"r%.

Es"e )!a$s$% se!"$e!"al, a*%a)% *el%s %#"r%s ele$e!"%s )% )s'#rs%, / ev)e!"e e$ rases
'%$% es"a= re Ge!e5r% a'#)# em &ra!)e )84. A *re*%s36%com "ra)#2ra $as 'lara$e!"e %
$%)%, a $a!era. Mas % es'r"%r !6% *re"e!)e a*e!as e;*r$r % $%)%7 +#er a!)a e!v%lver )e
"er!#ra 'ar)%sa e a*ress#ra)a a &#ra )e re Ge!e5r%7 e '%!se&#e(% *ere"a$e!"e *%r $e% )a
*re*%s36% em. Al-s, % *r%'ess% / '%!e')% )a l!&#a&e$ *%*#lar. U$ e;e$*l%= C%$a %o
*res#$"% '%$% #$ )a!a)%4. A *re*%s36% em e;*r$e "a$5/$ a+# % alv%r%3%, % *ress#r%s%
!"eresse )e)'a)% a% a'"%. D%!)e / l:'"% '%!'l#r +#e $#"as )as !%va3<es a*%!"a)as *%r !8s
'%$% se!)% %5a )e l"era"%s "$ ra:2es *r%#$)as !a l!&#a&e$ )% *%v%.
1.
PALAVRA" I6VARIÁVEI"

i%

1. As o%@8mçHes. ( Ta$5/$ !as '%!9#$3<es se )- % $es$% +#e !as *re*%s3<es= a e;*ress6% %ral
es"- '%!s"a!"e$e!"e a s#5s""#r as %r$as &ra$a"'as, )a!)%(les $a"2es !%v%s )e s&!'a)% e
#$ '#$% *reere!"e$e!"e se!"$e!"al. Ve9a$%s es"a rase, *r8*ra )a l:!&#a es'r"a= N6% leve %
'a*/#, se le !6% a&ra)a4. A l&a36% e!"re as )#as %ra3<es )% *er:%)% / *ere"a, r&%r%sa$e!"e
l8&'a= ve$ *r$er% a %ra36% *r!'*al, )e*%s a s#5%r)!a)a, *re'e))a )a '%!9#$36% '%!)'%!al
se. Mas a l:!&#a '%rre!"e *reere a essa re2a !"ele'"#al, *r8*ra )e &a5!e"e, % alv%r%3% a'"v%,
*r8*r% )a v)a e$ '%$#$. E )2 ass$= N6% le a&ra)a % 'a*/# @ E!"6% !6% % leveH4 F%#ve
a+# #$ ver)a)er% "erra$%"%. E$ *r$er% l#&ar, )esa*are'e# a l&a36% l8&'a, !"r%)#2)a *ela
'%!)'%!al se. A %r)e$ )%s ele$e!"%s )a rase % !ver")a7 e a e!"%a36% $#)%# *%r '%$*le"%,
*assa!)% )e !arra"va a !"err%&a"va e e;'la$a"va. P%r "%)a a rase a&%ra - #$ 'al%r )e al$a,
#$a !"e!s)a)e +#e !6% ava !a *r$ea.

U$ %#"r% e;e$*l% )a l!&#a&e$ es'r"a= N6% "ra res#l"a)%, e$5%ra "ra5ale $#"%4. O 'ar-'"er
a5s"ra'"% )a %r$a '%!'essva e % ver5% !% '%!9#$"v% !6% s6% $#"% )% a&ra)% )a e;*ress6% %ral.
P%r ss% )2 a!"es= Tra5ala

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 1

'%$% #$ $%r%, mas !6% "ra res#l"a)%4. A rase "%$%#(se $#"% $as '%!'re"a e *"%res'a
'%$ a !"r%)#36% )a+#ela $a&e$, e a )ea '%!'essva % s#5s""#:)a *%r #$a a)versa"va,
e;*ressa *%r mas, '%$ % ver5% !% !)'a"v%. Es"as !"erer!'as )% es"l% %ral "$ $#"a
$*%r"!'a, '%$% va$%s ver, !% es"#)% )as '%!9#$3<es, l$"a)% *%r !8s +#ase e;'l#sva$e!"e >s
'%!9#$3<es '%*#la"vas e a)versa"vas, +#e s6% as +#e a*rese!"a$ $a%r !"eresse *ara a
Es"l:s"'a.

#. A o%@8mção e4. ( P%)e )2er(se +#e a *e+#e!a *ar":'#la e "e$ *ara a Es"l:s"'a a $es$a
$*%r"!'a +#e % ar"&% )e!)%, "al / a vare)a)e )%s se#s as*e'"%s. Clar% +#e !6% !%s !"eressa
a+# % as*e'"% l8&'%, *r%*ra$e!"e &ra$a"'al, )a '%!9#$36%, *%r )e $as '%!e')%7 $*%r"a
s%5re"#)% re'%!e'er e !"er*re"ar % se# val%r ae'"v%.

Es'reve# % 'r%!s"a er!6% L%*es a res*e"% )e #$ "ra)%r > 'a#sa *%r"#&#esa= 0e el % )e*%s
"%$a)% e *res% e arras"a)%, e )e'e*a)% e e!%r'a)%4 ( +)r%'ca !e D. Po7o I, *ar"e I, 'a*. 1. S8
"e$ #$a v:r&#la, *ara $ar'ar #$a *a#sa r:"$'a !a l!&#a&e$ )% a#"%r, +#e $e"e !a *ressa
)esvr&#la)a )a rase a s#a *a;6% !a'%!als"a.

Re*are(se !es"e "re'% )e Te;era(G%$es= Ve9%(a s#r&r, e '%rrer e !'l!ar(se, '%$ %s %l%s $e%
'erra)%s, e #&r e )esa2er(se e )esa*are'er *elas s%$5ras l#$!%sas )% arv%re)%4.
E;*er$e!"e$%s "rar a '%!9#$36% e s#5s""#:(la *%r v:r&#las, *r%'ess% +#e a Gra$-"'a '%!e'e
*el% !%$e )e '%%r)e!a36% ass!)/"'a. Re'e5e$%s #$a $*ress6% )ere!"e. Se$ a *ar":'#la e,
%s *er:%)%s )a a'36% s6% $as se*ara)%s e $as le!"%s, ve$(se $el%r, #$ a #$. Mas !6% / ss%
% +#e % a#"%r *re"e!)e7 ele +#er )ar(!%s % $%v$e!"% !!"err#*"%, % e!"#sas$% ver"&!%s%
)a+#ele 5ala)% e o '%!"-&% )e +#e % *r8*r% es*e'"a)%r se se!"e *%ss#:)%. P%r ss% e$*re&%# a
'%!9#$36% '%*#la"va.


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

O *r%'ess% !6% / !%v%, 9- ve$ )% la"$, e a l!&#a&e$ *%*#lar e a !a!"l a)%*"a$(!% '%$
*re)le'36%, *%r+#e %5e)e'e$ )e %r)!-r% a $%"v%s )e %r)e$ se!"$e!"al. ?#a!)% %s a#"%res
+#ere$ *r !a '%%r)e!a36% #$a !%"a )e !"e!s)a)e ae'"va, !6% "$ $as )% +#e $"ar essa
l!&#a&e$, '%$% Pa3% )0Ar'%s !es"e "re'%, +#e *are'e #$ '%!"% *%*#lar '%!"a)% a 'ra!3as=

N6% *)e $as )%$!ar a v)a )% al"% )a s#a sa'a)a )e )%e!"e. Da: e$ )a!"e % a $%r"e +#e % )%$!%#. Os
se#s l"$%s )as %ra$ #$a l%!&a e e;a#s"va l#"a '%$ a $%r"e7 l#"a +#e "era s)% $as *e)%s% !6%
*r%l%!&ar7 $as % *a, +#e era $/)'%, re'e"ava7 e a $6e, +#e era s$*les$e!"e $6e, $*l%rava7 e R%la!),
+#e !6% "!a a '%ra&e$ )e )e;ar $%rrer % '%!)e!a)%, a *ara % +#ar"% )ele e l#"ava7 e D%l%res, +#e !6%
"!a a!)a a sere!)a)e )% *a:s )e %*36%, '%$ %s &ra!)es %l%s r"l%s )e l-&r$as, a2a s%rer % J%! '%$
as !9e'3<es7 e v!a '%rar *ara % '%rre)%r e +#ase !6% alava a R%la!). E % J%! s%ra "a!"% e e# !6% *%)a
$as v(l% s%rer. E ele +#e;ava(se )e +#e e# % es+#e'era e )e +#e 9- +#ase !6% a a% +#ar"% )ele. E #$ )a
vera$ %s r$6%s *e+#e!!%s *ara +#e % J%! %s vsse a!)a #$a ve2. E % $as *e+#e!!% )e "%)%s
*er&#$"%# *%r+#e es"ava al % J%! e !6% v%l"ava *ara 'asa, *ara 9#$"% )eles. E a $6e, a )sar3ar as
l-&r$as, )sse(le, 9- !% '%rre)%r, +#e % J%! !6% v%l"ava *ara 'asa, *%r+#e a *ara $#"% l%!&e, *ara % '/#...
E %s r$6%s )% J%! %ra$ *ara a 'a*ela *e)r *ara +#e ele 2esse 5%a va&e$. E '%$% "!a$ *e!a )e se
se*arar )% J%!, '%$e3ara$ a '%rar4.

+ee so2re o mar,*-&s. K1(K.

O "re'% '%$e3a *%r #$as rases )e !arra36% %59e'"va, sere!a7 $as % "e$a )%l%r%s% va
e$*%l&a!)% % a#"%r, +#e a'a5a *%r "ra)#2r *%r $e% )a+#ela '%*#la"va *a"/"'a a a!se)a)e +#e a
"%)%s )%$!ava e a a"$%sera )e $%v$e!"a)% )ra$a +#e e!v%lva as *ers%!a&e!s )a+#ele +#a)r%
)e %s*"al. ?#e a a'#$#la36% )a *ar":'#la e !%s )- #$a $*ress6% )e $%v$e!"% e )e e;al"a36%
*ass%!al, v(se *ere"a$e!"e a!)a *%r es"a rase 5e$ '%!e')a )% Amor

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 

!e Fer!'7o: 0E va e#, e!"r% e$ 'asa, %# > 'a5e'era )a 'a$a, e "ra&% #$a 'lav!a, e )ese'%(la
!a "-5#a )% *e"%4. É J%6% )a Cr#2 +#e ala, #$ %$e$ )% *%v%, "%)% !s"!"%s. N% !al )%
*er:%)%, a '%*#la"va '%s"#$a a)+#rr #$ s&!'a)% #$ *%#'% )ere!"e7 $as a!)a a+# se )e;a
ver #$ "%+#e )e se!s5l)a)e. Nas e!#$era3<es )% )es'r"v% *<e #$a !%"a )e re$a"e $as %#
$e!%s ae'"va= / '%$% +#e #$a s:!"ese, #$a '%!'l#s6% )% +#e % )"%=

A !%"e a2a #$ sl!'% al"%, )#$a $ela!'%la *l-')a7 % &-s )%s 'a!)eer%s *are'a $%r"3%7 a l#a *#$a
!as a'a)as 5ra!'as 'lar)a)es vvas7 #$a 'lara58a rel#2a, a )s"!'a, '%$% #$a vela l$!a )e *ra"a7
!a)a se $%va7 e !s"!"va$e!"e %s %l%s er&#a$(se *ara as al"#ras, *r%'#rava$ a l#a 5ra!'a, $#"% s/ra4.

É ev)e!"e a+# % 'ar-'"er l:r'% )a '%!9#$36%. Pr$er%, *ara se "%$are$ $as !:")as, as
re*rese!"a3<es s#'e)e$(se se*ara)as *%r *%!"%s(e(v:r&#las7 )e*%s, !% re$a"e, a *ar":'#la '!&e
"#)% !#$ '%$*le;% se!"$e!"al e $%s"ra(!%s a l#a '%$% a s:!"ese s#*er%r )% sl!'% e )a
l#$!%s)a)e )a !%"e.

P%r ve2es, *are'e aver '%!"ras"e e!"re a re*rese!"a36% !al e as +#e a!"e'e)e$7 / #$a %*%s36%
a*are!"e, ( !%"a!)% 5e$, ave$%s )e e!'%!"rar #$ el% se!"$e!"al, +#e l&a "%)as. O#"r% e;e$*l%
)e E3a=

A %la&e$ ver)e(es'#ra e *%l)a )%s ar5#s"%s )e 'a$/la a2a r#a2!as s%$5ras7 *e)a3%s )e s%l
as'ava$, "re$a$ !a -&#a )% "a!+#e7 )#as r%las, !#$a &a%la )e v$e, arr#lava$ )%'e$e!"e7
( e !% sl!'% al)e6% )a +#!"a, % r#:)% se'% )as 5%las )e 5lar "!a #$ "%$ ars"%'r-"'%4.

A% *r$er% rela!'e, a '%*#la"va *are'e l&ar re*rese!"a3<es )versas e a"/ )s'%r)a!"es, '%$% /
a+#ele r#:)% )as 5%las )e 5lar, !a ver)a)e es"ra!% a*8s a )es'r36% )a *asa&e$. F- '%!"#)%
#$a 5ase se!"$e!"al +#e *r%$%ve

1 (0 Es"l:s"'a


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

a #$)a)e )essas $*ress<es= L#:sa es"- a re$e$%rar % "e$*% )% se# *r$er% !a$%r% '%$ %
*r$% Bas:l%, !a +#!"a )% "%, e$ C%lares. J%&ava$(se &ra!)es *ar")as )e 5lar !#$a sala +#e
)ava *ara % 9ar)$. De $%)% +#e !% es*:r"% )a+#ela $#ler, se!s:vel e $al %r$a)a, se #$)e$
!#$a s8 $*ress6% a $a&e$ r%$a!es'a )a *asa&e$ e a )% a$5e!"e '%!%r"-vel e ars"%'r-"'%.
C%$% se v, - #$ el% )e se!"$e!"% a #$r a+#eles '%!"ras"es.
Es"a 'a*a')a)e ae'"va ;/ ve$ )e l%!&e, !a s"8ra )a l:!&#a. Os "r%va)%res )% s/'#l% ;$, +#e
e$*re&ava$ !as s#as 'a!3<es #$a l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e, a l!&#a&e$ )a s$*a"a e )% a$%r, #sava$
e a5#sava$ )essa *alavr!a !%s se#s 'a!"ares, e$ 'as%s '%$% es"es=

E *%r+#e $e )esa$a)es, a, $el%r )as +#e e# se @H

E, a$&a, )re(v%s +#e $ av/!= "a!"as ve2es % $a!)e a"e!)er, +#e l% !%! *%ss% $as ve2es )2er.

A *ar":'#la !6% l&a a+# %ra3<es !e$ ele$e!"%s )e %ra36%7 es"- *%s"a > re!"e )% *er:%)%,
e;*r$!)% )re'"a$e!"e a l!&#a&e$ )a al$a, '%$% #$a es*/'e )e !"er9e36%. N%"e(se +#e, !%
*r$er% e;e$*l%, a *%esa / !'a)a *%r essa *alavra, +#e ass$ 'ra #$a a"$%sera )e $-&%a
'%!")a, )s*ersa *%r "%)% % 'a!"ar.

A l!&#a&e$ a$lar $%)er!a '%!serva a!)a '%$% se %sse !% "e$*% )%s "r%va)%res, % val%r
e;*ressv% )% e. Ve9a(se es"a rase= 0E leva!"e($e e# )e $a)r#&a)a *ara s"%H4 O $%re$a !6% "e$
#$36% l8&'a, / a*e!as #$ ele$e!"% )e !"e!s)a)e ae'"va. C%$% ve$%s )%s e;e$*l%s
a*rese!"a)%s, % se# )%$:!% *are'e ser a l!&#a&e$ e;'la$a"va e !"err%&a"va, *re'sa$e!"e
a+#ela e$ +#e %s val%res e$%"v%s $as se a2e$ se!"r.

Os es'r"%res s%#5era$ a*r%ve"ar es"e 'ar-'"er l:r'% )a


ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



'%!9#$36%, +#e "6% 5e$ +#a)ra '%$ % !%ss% "e$*era$e!"%. S6% )e r. L#:s )e S%#sa es"as )#as

rases, #$av8s
Peres se$ !"err%&a"va, %#"ra
@4 ( O, $"# e;'la$a"va=
De#s, P%s,$%r"e
e +#6% *e!%sa $e# *a)re
/ es"aH4 / )eeal%
r.EGl, +#e -)e
)eAl$e)a
ser )e Me$
es"%#"ra,
e$ +#e &#al$e!"e se ev)e!'a % 'ar-'"er !"er9e'"v%, )e alv%r%3% se!"$e!"al, +#e "ra2 e$ s %
$%re$a= 0E "%)a a !%"e ele 'a!"ava !%s *:!'ar%s )a -rv%re &&a!"es'aH4

Cas% )!"'% / a+#ele e$ +#e a *ar":'#la !'a #$a %ra36% )e !!"%, '%$% !es"a rase )e Ra#l
Bra!)6%= A r%sa )% )a a a5rr,e a a!)%r!a a e!"rarar(se !% a2#l4. A+# !6% - *%!"% )e
e;'la$a36%, *%r+#e a *alavr!a )ese$*e!a #$a #$36% a% $es$% "e$*% l8&'a e se!"$e!"al=
l8&'a, *%r+#e !s!#a #$a rela36% "e$*%ral )e s$#l"a!e)a)e= !% $es$% !s"a!"e e$ +#e a r%sa
)% )a se a5re...47 se!"$e!"al, *%r+#e "ra)#2 a *ressa, a ale&ra )a+#ele v%% )e ave a"ra!)%(se *ara
% '/# a2#l. F-, e$5%ra % es'r"%r !6% % "vesse re&s"a)% &ra'a$e!"e, #$ "%$ )e s#r*resa e )e
e;'la$a36%.

N6% a'a5a$ *%r a+# %s as*e'"%s, vara):ss$%s, +#e *%)e reves"r a )el'a)a '%!9#$36%. E$
$#"%s 'as%s "e$ #$ val%r $as %# $e!%s '%!'l#sv%= O l#ar, e!"re )%s arra*%s )e !#ve!s,
e!'e# % '%re )e a:s'as )e %r%. E o avare!"%, e$ ;"ase, e'%# %s %l%s '%$% e!'a!)ea)% *%r
"a!"a l#2H4 Se es'revsse$%s +#al+#er '%sa '%$% s"%= P%r ss% % avare!"%...4, !"r%)#2r:a$%s !%
)s'#rs% #$a )ea 5e$ )e!)a )e '%!'l#s6% %# 'a#sa, +#e !6% / *re'sa$e!"e % +#e *re"e!)e %
a#"%r. Para ele, % 'a#sal, % '%!'l#sv% e % "e$*%ral '%!#!)e$(se !#$ $es$% se!"$e!"%. Ele !6%
*re"e!)e es"a5ele'er rela3<es l8&'as e!"re as *ar"es )% )s'#rs%7 *r%'#ra e;*r$r $#"% $el%r
essas rela3<es, '%!)e!sa!)%(as !#$ %r"e $*#ls% ae'"v%, a+# 5e$ rsa)% *%r $e% )a e!"%a36%
e;'la$a"va.

O s&!'a)% 'a#sal / $as 'lar% !es"e *ass% +#!e!"s"a )a &'str'a tr/3'co"mart'ma: Os
$es$% 'ares !%s
#73

M. RODRIUE" LAPA

)ssera$ *%r a'e!%s !"el&:ves +#e a&#ar)-sse$%s al e !%s "rara$ $a!"$e!"%s4. O!)e
*are'e +#e a '%*#la"va se *%)era 5e$ s#5s""#r *ela '%!9#$36% 'a#sal po's e$5%ra se
*#)esse "a$5/$ a)$"r, '%$ $e!%s *r%5a5l)a)e )e a'er"ar, a el*se )e #$ >ue
!"e&ra!"e, )e*e!)e!"e )e !'sseram: e )ssera$ +#e !%s...4. Es"a '%!s"r#36% 9- "e$
KK a!%s, *%s a*are'e !#$a 'a!"&a )% "r%va)%r J%6% R%)r&#es )e Caler%s +)a%c. !a
5at'ca%o,, =
Dsse($e a $ $e# a$&%, +#a!)% s0%ra % s6 va, +#e !%! l0es"evess0e# "rs"e, e 'e)% se "%$ara.

O#"ras ve2es, a *ar":'#la, 9#$"a$e!"e '%$ %#"r%s ele$e!"%s )% )s'#rs%, !s!#a !a rase
#$ se!")% '%!)'%!al= Se$ela!"e &rala e$ lvr% $e#, e s#')ava($e4. O es'r"%r
*%)era )2er, $as l%&'a$e!"e= Se e!'%!"rasse se$ela!"e &rala e$ lvr% $e#,
s#')ava($e4. Era a e;*ress6% )e #$a *8"ese e!'ara)a a r%. Mas essa *8"ese 'a#sa
)e a!"e$6% #$ "al s%5ressal"%, +#e a rase s8 "ra)#2r- 5e$ % !$% )% a#"%r, se %r l%&% )e
*r!':*% '%!s"r#:)a )e ele$e!"%s ae'"v%s. Ass$ se e;*l'a a %$ss6% )% ver5% !a
*r$era %ra36%, +#e !%s )- a *8"ese "ra!s%r$a)a e$ s#r*resa, e;*e'"a"va, a!se)a)e7 e
!al$e!"e % e$*re&% )a *ar":'#la e, +#e !%s )- #$a !%"a '%!'l#sva e se!"$e!"al, '%$%
)e "r-&'a a"al)a)e. T#)%, '%$% ve$%s $as #$a ve2, *r%'ess% *ara re)#2r a se!"$e!"%
e!8$e!%s +#e s6% $as )% )%$:!% )a !"el&!'a.

A s#r*resa / $#"as ve2es, a $a%r *ar"e )as ve2es, $ar'a)a *%r #$ $%v$e!"% )e
'%!"rare)a)e. N6% / *%s )e es"ra!ar +#e a '%!9#$36% e srva "a$5/$ *ara e;*r$r a
s#r*resa )esa&ra)-vel e % '%!"ras"e, a %*%s36% '%$ % +#e se )sse a!"er%r$e!"e. U$a
'ra)a, s#r*ree!))a, a5re a *%r"a e e;'la$a= ( O *a"r6% a es"a %raH... E a se!%ra +#e
sa#H4 Pr$er%, e;*r$e % es*a!"% )e ver % *a"r6% e$
ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA 

'asa, a #$a %ra )esa'%s"#$a)a7 )e*%s, se$*re !#$ &ra# al"a$e!"e e$%"v%, a
'%!"rare)a)e )e !6% es"ar a se!%ra. Es"e $a"2 a)versa"v% / re+#e!"e "a$5/$ e$
"re'%s
a)%3aval"er-r%s= Pela Era$ara
% ar l#$!%s%. a!)ava
R%s"a5al, #$ $elr%
%la!)% % s%l, a5%'e9ava
ass%5ar.'%$
U$%$e4.
'er% Pr$era$e!"e,
erra!"e )e v%le"as
a
*%esa e a s#av)a)e )a !a"#re2a7 )e*%s, e$ '%!"ras"e v%le!"%, a %$e )a+#ele %$e$.
?#ase es"ar:a$%s "e!"a)%s a *r e$ ve2 )% e #$ mas.

Sera )e 'as%s '%$% es"e +#e se "era *assa)% *ara % se!")% a5er"a$e!"e a)versa"v% )a
'%!9#$36% e, +#e 9- ve$ )es)e %s *r!':*%s )a s"8ra )a l:!&#a. O "*% )e rase )a
l:!&#a '%rre!"e +#e a5%!a esse e$*re&% *%)e ser es"e= Pr%essar #$a )%#"r!a e *ra"'ar
%#"ra / #$a !)&!)a)e4. O val%r a)versa"v% )a '%!9#$36% !as'e )% '%!"ras"e '%'a!"e
)as )#as a""#)es *%s"as a *ar. É *%r ss% +#e, "e!)% a+# % e % s&!'a)% )e mas, % ver5%
se *<e !% s!&#lar +é- e !6% !% *l#ral +s7o-, '%$% !%s )e$as 'as%s e$ +#e !6% -
'%!"ras"e= Dar a%s *%5res e s%rer res&!a)a$e!"e s7o vr"#)es 'rs"6s4. Es"e 'as%
es"l:s"'% a'a(se 5e$ )%'#$e!"a)% !es"es vers%s )e Ber!ar)$ R5er%, e$ +#e a
'%*#la"va se "%$a a)versa"va, vale!)% *%r $as a!al47
Trs"e, +#e $e *are'a +#e, % $e# &a)% re$e)a)%, '%$&% 5e$ $0avera7 e es"ava($e %r)e!a)% es"%#"r%
$al +#e a!)a avaH

U$ e;e$*l% +#e l#s"ra a a*r%;$a36% )e s&!'a)% e!"re as )#as '%!9#$3<es es"- !es"e
"re'% )e E3a, +#e ele re#$)# e$ se&#$)a re)a'36%= A ra*ar&a l%ra re*ar%#
!a"#ral$e!"e e$ Ma'-r%, mas !a"#ral$e!"e )es'e# a v)ra3a, '%rre!)% *%r "r-s #$a
'%r"!a )e 'assa 5%r)a)a4. Na vers6% )e!"va s#5s""## % mas *el% e. O se!")% )e
%*%s36% es5a"e#(se #$ *%#'%, e '%rre a&%ra *ela rase #$ r/$"%
#7

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

)e alv%r%3%, +#e / % +#e $as +#a)ra '%$ a !a"#re2a )a *ers%!a&e$.

*. A o%@8mção mas. ( Ta$5/$ a *ar":'#lamas s#5s""# *%r ve2es a '%*#la"va e, +#a!)% se


+#er $e!'%!ar #$a )ea )e %*%s36%, !#$a a"$%sera )e e;al"a36% se!"$e!"al. S6% '%!e')%s
%s se&#!"es vers%s )e Crs"8v6% al'6%, es"a!)% *res%=
Me#s %l%s, )e es'#r)a)e, 9- !6% ve$, 9- es"6% $%r"as7 mas *ra +#e era ver $as, )s +#e v%s eles !6%
vr%$, )s +#e )e v8s se es*e):r%$@

Cer"%s 'r:"'%s &ra$a"'as a'ara$ a+#ele mas $al e$*re&a)% e s#5s""#:ra$(!% *%r e. Ora a
ver)a)e / +#e, s%5re se v'ar )es!e'essara$e!"e % "e;"%, a '%!9#$36% mas "e$ #$a %r3a )e
%*%s36% e #$ "ra!s*%r"e *ass%!al s#*er%r a% )a *ar":'#la e, !es"e 'as%.

?#e % mas *%s"% > re!"e )% *er:%)% "e$ #$ 'ar-'"er !e&a"v%, )e r$e %*%s36%, v(se !% se&#!"e
e*s8)%. A!"er% )e ?#e!"al *#5l'%# e$ 1, !as O!es Mo!er%as, #$ *%e$a +#e v!a > re!"e
)% lvr%, A &'str'a, e +#e '%$e3ava *%r essa a)versa"va= 0Mas % %$e$, se / 'er"% +#e %
'%!)#2...4 Na *%l/$'a +#e se es"a5ele'e# e$ v%l"a )a 'a$a)a es'%la '%$5r64, #$ )%s
)ee!s%res )a es"/"'a "ra)'%!al, Ma!#el R%#ssa)%, !6% )e;%# )e !%"ar % "%$ *r%v%'a!"e,
*r%"es"a"-r%, )a *r$era
*r!':*% a a"$%sera *alavrae )%
)a *%esa )% lvr%
"e;"%,+#e
e +#e
esse% *%e$a
e$*re&%!'ava=
)essa '%!9#$36% )ava l%&%
#$ ra'%!als$% )e +#e se
%#sa)%,
%*#$a *%r ss"e$a >s ver)a)es "ra)'%!as )a $%!ar+#a, )a s%'e)a)e e )a &re9a. Clar% +#e
+#e$ se '%l%'ar !% 'a$*% %*%s"% "a$5/$ '%!se&#e % $es$% ee"%7 / % 'as% )% ":"#l% )% lvr% )e
J%s/ R/&%, Mas Deus é 3ra%!e.

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

Q

Se$*re +#e ve$%s % %$e$ rev%l"ar(se '%!"ra % se# )es"!%, e!'%!"ra$%s a '%!9#$36% mas, +#e
e!"6% 9- % !6% /, $as #$a es*/'e )e a)v/r5%, '%$% % % !a s#a %r&e$ MAGIS  ma's-.
E;e$*l% ":*'% )es"a a""#)e / a rase '%rre!"e= 0Mas e# / +#e 9- !6% *%ss% '%$ s"%H4 Bas"a "rar a
*ar":'#la a)versa"va *ara se ver % +#e a rase *er)e e$ e!er&a %*%s"va, e$ rev%l"a )e'lara)a.
Ee'"va$e!"e, % e$*re&%
'%$% es"a. U$ *a )a *ar":'#la
"e!"a '%!ve!'er #$ e$ a'"%s
l%, )e re5el)a
"e$%s% *%)e "er res#l"a)%
e )es%5e)e!"e= )e J%s/H4
( Ve$ '-, 'r'#$s"!'as
E ele
res*%!)e )esa5r)a$e!"e= ( 0Mas !6% %#H4 O mas, re%r3a)% *ela e!"%a36%, "ra)#2 5e$ % es*:r"%
)e !"ra!s&e!"e %*%s36% )% ra*a2!%.

E '%$% !a esera )% se!"$e!"% se va a'l$e!"e )e *8l% a *8l%, !6% / "alve2 )e es"ra!ar +#e
e!'%!"re$%s a a)versa"va !#$a s&!'a36% )e s#r*resa a&ra)-vel, '%$% !es"a rase e;'la$a"va=
0Mas +#e 5el% +#a)r%H4 Talve2 +#e es"as e;*ress<es !as'esse$ *%r a!al%&a )a+#elas e$ +#e %
mas es"- !a s#a ver)a)era #$36% a)versa"va= 0Mas +#e "*% !s#*%r"-velH4 O# e!"6%
*%)ere$%s a)$"r +#e "%)% % $%v$e!"% )e s#r*resa *ress#*<e #$ mas: #$ !)v:)#% es*era
e!'%!"rar #$a '%sa, mas sa(le %#"ra, %# a&ra)-vel %# )esa&ra)-vel. A *ar":'#la "ra)#2, '%$% se
v, es"es 9%&%s '%$*l'a)%s )% es*:r"%, es"es '%!"ras"es ):'es )e a!alsar *%r+#e re*%#sa$ !as
*r%#$))a)es )% s#5'%!s'e!"e. É % +#e se )- '%$ % mas e$ se!")% 'a#sal. J- Cal)as A#le"e
!%"ara esse s&!'a)% !a a)versa"va, e$ rases '%$% es"a= Mal"ra"e(%, / ver)a)e, mas
"ve *ara ss% ra2<es4. O $a"2 'a#sal *r%v/$ )e +#e se s#5e!"e!)e es"e *e!sa$e!"% %'#l"%=
A)$ra$(se )e +#e e# % "vesse $al"ra"a)%, mas, se % 2, / *%r+#e "ve *ara ss% %r"es ra2<es4. A
*ar":'#la a+# "ra)#2 #$ $%v$e!"% )e %*%s36% a% es*a!"% $a!es"a)% a!"er%r$e!"e. E essa
a""#)e )e ress"!'a *r%'#ra )ar a e;*l'a36%, % $%"v% )a+#ele *r%'e)$e!"%. Da:,
!e'essara$e!"e, % !s!#ar(se !a '%!9#$36%
#-

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

1

(
#$ val%r a'ess8r% )e 'a#sa, +#e *%)era "a$5/$ ser e;*ress% *ela *ar":'#la po's, al-s
'%$ #$a %# %#"ra )ere!3a )e se!")%= esse $%re$a a'e!"#ara $as e!er&'a$e!"e a
rela36% 'a#sal.

A 'a#sal)a)e )% mas es"-, al-s, e;e$*l'a)a !#$ "re'% 'l-ss'%, +#e "e$ )a)% +#e
a2er a%s '%$e!"ars"as. Reer$%(!%s > es"r%e  )a /'l%&a )r's$al:
De#s a ) a% se# Crsal, *%r a$5%s '%!"e!"es "er, e $as !6% le +#er% ver, mas 9- se, *el% $e# $al, % 5e$
)%#"re$ es'%ler.

Is"% /= !6% les )ese9% $as !a)a )% +#e s"%= / +#e 9- se, *ela e;*er!'a )% $e#
!%r"!%, '%!e'er +#al / % 5e$ )%s %#"r%s4. E*!% )a Slva Das )e'larava +#e % mas
!6% "!a a+# l#&ar, $as s$ #$a *ar":'#la 'a#sal, "alve2 po's. S%#sa )a Slvera, '%$ 5ase
!% 'ar-'"er se!"$e!"al )a l!&#a&e$ )a /'l%&a, '%!s)era #$a *a#sa )e *%!"% !al )e*%s
)e er. O mas sera )ev)% a #$a el*se= se s#*rr$%s '%$ *alavras % +#e ela !6% )sse,
$as se!"#, vere$%s +#e "e$ l#&ar a '%!9#$36% mas: s%# !el2, $as e$ '%$*e!sa36%, 9-
se, e"'.4 N6% )eve ser ass$= se al&#$a '%sa se s#5e!"e!)e, / )e*%s )% vers% =
es"ra!ar6% "alve2 +#e !6% les )ese9e $a%r 5e$7 mas 9- se +#e, *ara eles, / es"e % $a%r
5e$ )e "%)%s= *er"e!'ere$ #$ a% %#"r%4. Dev)% a #$a es*/'e )e 'r#2a$e!"%, % mas "e$
s$#l"a!ea$e!"e se!")% a)versa"v% e 'a#sal, a'"% al-s 9- re&s"a)% !% D'c'o%/r'o )e
Cal)as A#le"e.

Os es'r"%res reals"as s%#5era$ a*r%ve"ar !as s#as !arra3<es % ele$e!"% )e s#r*resa e


'%!"ras"e !ere!"e > *ar":'#la, e$*re&a!)%(a, "al '%$% 2era$ '%$ % e, !% '%$e3% )%
*er:%)%. U$ e;e$*l% )e E3a )e ?#er%2=
Ne!#$ )%s 9#)e#s e!"r%# ( *%r+#e *sar e$ )a *as'al #$ s%l% *a&6% era '%sa $*#ra )a!"e )% Se!%r.
Sareas a!#$'%#

al"va$e!"e a% "r5#$% +#e al&#$s )a !a36% )0Israel, > *%r"a )% Pal-'% )e se#s *as, es"ava$ es*era!)% %
Pre"%r4. De*%s *es%# #$ sl!'% 'e% )e a!se)a)e...

Mas )%s l"%res ava!3ara$= e l%&% a"r-s, 'a$!a!)% a *ass%s lar&%s, '%$ a vas"a "%&a a*a!a)a '%!"ra %
*e"%, Pla"%s a*are'e#.4

A+# a!)a / se!s:vel % val%r a)versa"v% )% $%re$a, *ela 5r#s+#)6% )% a*are'$e!"%


)%s l"%res, e$ '%!"ras"e '%$ a a""#)e reserva)a )%s 9#)e#s7 $as 9- !% se&#!"e "re'%,
"a$5/$ )e E3a, a *ar":'#la *er)e "%)% % 'ar-'"er )e '%!9#$36% e !6% *assa )e #$
a)v/r5%, '%$ s&!'a)% $as %# $e!%s "e$*%ral=
Os 9ar)!s )e A!"*as es"rava$(se *%r #$ l"$% %#"er%, a"/ 9#$"% a% "$#l% )e Fele!a, ass%ala)%s,
res'%s, re&a)%s *elas -&#as )%'es )e E!r%&el.

( A, T%*s#s, +#e ')a)eH ( $#r$#re $aravla)%.

( Ra5 El/2er )2 +#e !6% v# 9a$as ')a)e 5ela +#e$ !6% v# Jer#sal/$H

Mas a% !%ss% la)% *assava &e!"e ale&re, '%rre!)% *ara %s la)%s )a ver)e es"ra)a +#e s%5e )e Be"!a...4

Nes"e e;e$*l%, a *ar":'#la *er)e# "%)a a l&a36% '%$ % +#e a!"e'e)e. N6% se *r%'#ra
es"a5ele'er a "ra!s36%7 *el% '%!"r-r%, % $%re$a / '%$% +#e #$ s!al, #$ "%+#e !%
%$5r% *ara $#)ar )e ass#$"% e %lar *ara % %#"r% la)%. É #$ ele$e!"% )e s#r*resa e )e
vare)a)e, +#e !6% )e;a ar%#;ar a a"e!36%, *resa a% $es$% ass#$"%, a!"es a s%l'"a
'%!s"a!"e$e!"e e$ !%vas )re'3<es.

Ne!#$a %#"ra '%!9#$36%, )as 'a$a)as a)versa"vas, *%)e *re"e!)er )ese$*e!ar %


$es$% *a*el +#e mas, s#5s""#:(la !%s 'as%s a'$a reer)%s. Al-s, % &ra# )e e$*re&%
)essas *ar":'#las é 5as"a!"e )ere!"e= % mas / )e #s% &eral, "a!"% !a l!&#a&e$ a$lar
'%$% !a l"er-ra, e, a*esar )% se# #s%, 9- v$%s +#e !6% *er)e# a s#a 'a*a')a)e

'%!9#$3<esco%tu!o
e;*ressva7 l$"a)as/ $e!%s l"er-r%. !a l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e7 porém e to!a'a s6%
a% es"l%e$*re&a)%


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

?#a!)% se #sa$ e$ l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e, )e!%"a$ e$ +#e$ as *r%ere s!%5s$% e ae'"a)a


va'#)a)e. S6% as '%!9#$3<es !%5res, e$*re&a)as *el% '%!seler% A'-'%, +#e )es)e!a
!a"#ral$e!"e )% "rval mas e a"/ )% co%tu!o.

+.
"%$Oa*ressa)%
es&i(o assi%'&io e a s82or'i%ação.
e )!$'%, 0 N%"e(seesses
)s*e!sa *ere"a$e!"e
+#e a l:!&#a #s#al, +#e se 'ara'"er2a *el% se#
!e;%s l8&'%s +#e s6% as '%!9#$3<es %#
s#5s""#(%s *%r %#"r%s a se# $%)%. Na 'a$a)a '%!s"r#36% ass!)/"'a, )esa*are'e a l&a36%
&ra$a"'al e, e$ ve2 )ela, "e$%s % 9e"% e;*ressv% )% alar, a e!"%a36%, +#e a s#5s""# '%$
va!"a&e$. Ve9a$%s es"a rase '%!s"r#:)a l%&'a$e!"e= Es"- #$ *%#'% r%, mas !6% a2 $al4. O
es"l% %ral e;*r$e *ere"a$e!"e essa rela36% a)versa"va, )2e!)% ass$= Es"- #$ *%#'% r%7 !6%
a2 $al4. O $%)% )e )2er, a e!"%a36%, +#e a+# se !6% *%)e re*rese!"ar, var%# '%!s)eravel$e!"e
e a)+#r# !% se&#$)% ele$e!"% )a rase #$ "%$ leve$e!"e e;'la$a"v%, +#e / #$a !)'a36%
se&#ra *ara % %#v!"e.

'%$ as '%!9#$3<es s#5%r)!a"vas s#'e)e % $es$%. Es"a %ra36% 'a#sal N6% *%ss% e!"rar, por>ue a
*%r"a es"- e'a)a4, *r%ere(se !a l!&#a&e$ '%rre!"e, )s*e!sa!)% a+#ela )#ra *ar":'#la, a5s"ra'"a
e '%rr+#era= ( N6% *%ss% e!"rar= a *%r"a es"- e'a)a4. S$*les$e!"e, *ass%#(se )a l!&#a&e$
l8&'a *ara a l!&#a&e$ ae'"va, *%r+#e > !%36% )e 'a#sa se )e# a&%ra #$ "%$ se!"$e!"al +#e !6%
"!a !% *r$er% *er:%)%. A e!"%a36% e;*r$e "#)% ss%, se$ re'e% )e e+#:v%'%.
O re'#rs% %, / 'lar%, a*r%ve"a)% *el%s es'r"%res, +#e vra$ !essa se*ara36% )e re*rese!"a3<es #$
ele$e!"% )e *"%res'%, #$ a'r/s'$% )e vs#al)a)e= Vera$ as -&#as )% !ver!%, "vera$ )e se
aas"ar4. Se '%!s"r#:sse$%s &ra$a"'al$e!"e4 % *er:%)%, es'rever:a$%s= Tvera$ )e se aas"ar,
por>ue vera$ as -&#as )% !ver!%4. Era #$ $%)el% )e 5%$ ra'%':!%= *r$er% re&s"ava(se %
e!8$e!%, e$

ESTILÍSTICA DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA



se&#)a e;*l'ava(se a 'a#sa. Mas % es'r"%r sa'r'a a l8&'a e$ 5e!e:'% )a ar"e e *reere
re*rese!"ar vva$e!"e %s )%s +#a)r%s !a s#a se+#!'a 'r%!%l8&'a, *r$er% a 'a#sa, )e*%s %
ee"%. T#)%*ass%#(se
!"ele'"#al se a!$a *ara
a&%ra% '%$ #$a v)a
'%!'re"% !%va, +#e Éa e!"%a36%
e se!"$e!"al. )e al%a9#)a a val%r2ar=
)e Al$e)a es"a )% a5s"ra'"%
rase= e
V%l"%#
)e*%s !a *r$avera se&#!"e, 9- %s llases l%ra$ !as $%#"as )%s 9ar)!s4. O es'r"%r %$"# a
'%!9#$36% >ua%!o, *%r+#e a ele !6% !"eressa e;*r$r #$a s#5%r)!a36% )e "e$*% )e!"r% )#$
+#a)r% l8&'%, $as, se*ara!)% as re*rese!"a3<es, a#$e!"ar(les a %59e'"v)a)e e % relev%. E "#)%
ss% '%!se&## % ar"s"a *%r $e% )a '%!s"r#36% ass!)/"'a, a#;la)% *el% s-5% e$*re&% )a+#ele
a)v/r5% ;/.

O#"ras ve2es, *ara sar )a es"re"a 'la#s#ra &ra$a"'al, %s es'r"%res #sa$ %s $as vara)%s
*r%'ess%s )e '%%r)e!a36% e s#5%r)!a36%, #&!)%, '%$% ras&% )e es"l%, a%s 'a!sa)%s e *%r ve2es
)#r%s $%re$as +#e a Gra$-"'a *re'%!2a. A*e!as al&#$s e;e$*l%s, '%l)%s )a l:!&#a %ral e )e
es'r"%res a!"&%s e $%)er!%s, *%r"#&#eses e 5rasler%s=

1. A 'arrera !6% se v se % 5%a, +#a!)% '%$e3a, se%7o  $as +#a!)% a'a5a.  O "ra5al% *assa)% )eva
a!"es a5rr %s %l%s, >ue  e !6% )ar '%!a!3a. . C%!e3% !6% ser !#ve$, s'm  $as % '#$e )e al"%
$%!"e. . Lo3o >ue  se !6% vas, es'#sas )e es"ar "6% *re%'#*a)%. . =ua%!o +" se !6% a a$asse, a% $e!%s
res*e"asse(a. . A  se sa:res a% $e%()a, leva % &#ar)a(s%l. . A9#)%#(% el(re, como $a&!!$% >ue +
*%r+#e era e !%5re )e '%!)36%. . Esse lvr% es+#e'e# )e*ressa= é >ue + *%r+#e !6% era 5%$. Q. ?#sera$
#&r, 'sta a 'mposs'2'l'!a!e !e  *%s era $*%ss:vel 9#$"ar res&a"e. 1K. S#5a$ )a 9#ve!"#)e a"/ %s "r!"a
e '!'%, ;/ >ue  *%s +#e !%s ser!&as !6% "!a$ l#&ar %s ra'%s %# %s !"es. 11, E e%ta%to  e!+#a!"%
% %#"r% a9#$"ava *%r$e!%res )la'era!"es, 5#s'ava e# a""#)es +#e $e 'asse$ 5e$. 1. E >uere%!o"me ;/
oltar  +#a!)% es"ava *ara v%l"ar *ara es"e re!%, $e % )e$a!)ar #$ %$e$ *%r"#&#s.
1. Acomo!a!os >ue $omos  +#a!)% !%s a'%$%)-$%s e$ v%l"a )a $esa, e2(se #$ sl!'% se*#l'ral. 1.
O re!% )e P%r"#&al, se


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

2em + a!)a +#e es"eve s#9e"% a% )e Cas"ela, !#$'a es"eve #$)%.


1. % De#s serv)% +#e !6% %sse *%r essa ')a)e, se%!o >ue + a*esar )e +#e a $!a "e!36% era re'%ler(
$e )% Al&arve *%r ela. 1. Ja$e;a!o $ora + e$5%ra %sse e# )e e;'els%s )%!s, >ue !6% $e a5ala!3ara a%
)es'r"v% )esses s:"%s. 1. A sa)e va a!)a!)%, s >ue  $as % 'l$a !6% av%re'e % re#$a"s$%.
1. I!&/!#% ser-, a3ora  *%r/$ es"*)%, "alve2 !6%. 1Q. A '%!"r5#36% / e;a&era)a, uma e( >ue + *%s
+#e se "ra"a )e *%5res se$ re'#rs%s. K. Par%# % !av% &ra!)e *ara "%$ar $e))a e a"rare$ !s"r#$e!"%s
)e!"r% )0-&#a, atr/s + a $ )e )es'%5rr % *ara)er% )% !av% *er))%. 1. Era  $al +#e )es'#)ar(se #$
*%#'%, e l- es"ava$ %s )%s 'a$!a!)% 9#$"%s la)% a la)%. . ala 5e$, o po%to + '%!"a!"% +#e / ele
+#erer. . 5amos >ue  a!)a +#e "e!a 'e$ '%!"%s7 $as !6% )ever- "er. . Metesse e# $6% !esse
!e&8'%, >ue % res%lvera $e)a"a$e!"e Se $e"esse... res%lv(l%(a. . Rel '%$%v)a$e!"e esse lvr%,
am'3o >ue $u' + *%r "er s)% a$&% )e se# a#"%r. . N6% le $%s"re a 'ar"a, %7o / ele ;ul3ar  *ara +#e
ele !6% 9#l&#e $al )e $$.

N%"e(se +#e as e+#val!'as )a)as *%r !8s e!"re *ar!"eses "$ #$ val%r )e a*r%;$a36%, vs"%
)%s *r%'ess%s )e es"l% !6% sere$ e;a'"a$e!"e &#as, '%$% "a!"as e(es "e$%s $%s"ra)%. E /,
a!al, a s#*re$a ra26% )e ser )es"e lvr%= % *r%var +#e, *ara al/$ )a r&)e2 '%!ve!'%!al )a
Gra$-"'a, % *%v% e %s ar"s"as, e$ '%$#$6% )e es%r3%s, !#$ a!se% )e l5er)a)e 'ra)%ra,
)es'%5re$ '%!s"a!"e$e!"e !%v%s $%)%s )e e;*ress6%, !6% s8 *ela !ve!36% )e !%vas *alavras, $as
$as a!)a *%r #$a s-5a e &e!al a)a*"a36% )% $a"eral e;s"e!"e. É !essa $a!*#la36% s#5"l )e
!&re)e!"es 9- '%!e')%s +#e res)e % se&re)% )% es"l%.
ÍNDICE ANALÍTICO= AUTORES, MATÉRIAS E PALAVRAS
a, *re*. ( (Q

a *r%s"/"'% ( 1K

a >ua%!o ( 

a2a;ur ( 

a2a%!o%ar ( K(1, 7 a2a%!o%o

( 
a2!me% (  a2ol'r ( 1 a2orrec'!o ( 1 a2r'3o (  a2uso (  aca2ar ( 

A'a)e$a ra!'esa (  acar'c'ar ( K1 acautelar ( 1Q ace!er ( 

ace%!er: ace%!'!o, aceso ( 1 ac*a>ue ( ,  acl'mar (  acl'matar (  aco%tecer ( 1Q aor!a ( 

actuar ( 1Q7 actua7o (  a!e%tro !e (  a!'ar ( , Q a!'r " 1Q a!m'r/el (  a!re!e (  ae'"v)a)e (
K( a$'ca!ame%te (  a$l'7o ( 1

A%!s% X, % S-5% ( 1, 1 a3asal*ar ( 

a3'r ( 1Q
a3oms ( 7 a&%!!a(11

a3raa!o ( 

a3u'sa!ame%te ( 

a3ul*as ( 

ala3oa ( 1K
alam2'>ue ( 

alar!e, alar!ear, alar!o( Q

al2er3ar ( 7 al2er3ue ( 

Al'al- Xaver (11

alca%ce ( 

/lcool ( 

alecr'm ( 
ale3r'as ( 1K

ale%te;a%o ( 1KK

alea%tar ( 1K

al$a'ate ( 

al3ar'smo ( 

al3um ( 1

a*mpar ( 1K
al'"pote%te ( Q

Al$e)a Garre"" ( , , ,

1KQ, 1, 1, 1, , Q,

1, ,  alo%3a!ame%te (  al>ue're (  alum'ar ( KK Alves Re)%l ( 111 A$a)% J%r&e (11Q, 1,
1,

1Q, 

ama%*ecer ( 1 amarar (  a$5e!"e s%'al ( (




M. RODRIGUES LAPA

(7 a$%r(%r&#l%( Q(

amor "

(QQ
a!al%&a( 1(1K, 1Q(1Q, 1K a%c'7o ( ( A!)ra)e M-r% )e ( 1, 1Q,

1(1Q, 1, , Q,  a!sar( 1Q a%temuro ( 1K a%tepassa!o ( 1KK, 1K a%t'p/t'co ((1K a%t'"
t#eoluc'o%/r'o ( 1K a!"8!$%s ( (Q A!"#$es Dav) (  apa%*ame%'o ( 1 aparal*a!o ( 
aperce2er"se (  ap'a!ar, ap'e!ar ( 1Q aprec'ar ( 1Q apr'sco (  apropr'ar ( 1QQ -ra5e !vas6% ( (
ar'a:s$%s ( (Q, (K, 1K,

1

ar!e%te ( 1 ar!'!ame%te ( 1 are'a"are%a (  ar'stocrac'a ( Q arma(ém (  arra%;os ( 1Q arre'ear(1K7
( arre)%!)a$e!"% (Y 1 arre'o (  arro2a (  arro2e (  arro'!o ( 1K arte$actos (  asce%so ( K
aspe'to (  assa!o ( 1 ass$la36% ( 1(1 ate%es ( 1Q ate%t'ame%te ( (Q

ate%uar ( (

aterra!o (Y 

aterra3em ( 

atrapal*ame%to ( 1

atraessame%to ( 1

a#)36% '%l%r)a ( 1

a#$e!"a"v%s ( 1

automel ( Q
aare%to ( 

ae'a"ae%a (Y 

a'7o ( 11, 

a(o'%a!o " 

a(ul " , 1

2a!a%a' " K(1


2al!osame%te ( K

2aluarte ( 

2a%'r "4, 1Q

2ar7o ( 

5-r5ar%s &er$!'%s ( 
2arca"2arco ( 1

2arraca"2arraco ( 1, 

Barre"% M-r% ( 1Q

2arr'3a ( , 

Barr%s J%6% )e ( 11, 1Q, K,

1, 1, , ,  2eato ((  2e2e!?mmo ( 1 2e'o (  2e'ra"mar ( 1 5ele2a(17 2ele(a"espa%to,
2e"

le(a"%o'!a!e ( Q7 2ele(as

( 1Q

Bel$r%  C#rv% Se$e)% ( 1KQ 2elo " 1(, (Q, K7 2ela (

1Q Ber!ar)es P.e Ma!#el(1,

(, Q Bessa Al5er"% ( 1 2e'3oso ( K(1 2'2elH ( (,  2'co"!e"o2ra " 7 2'cos (  2'oco (
1

ÍNDICE ANALÍTICO



Bla!'%(A$%r E. ( 1K

2oca ( (

B%'a&e ( 1KQ

2lusa ( 

2ola"2ula ( 

2o%eca ( 1 ]

2o%'to ( 1(, Q
B%"el% )% A$aral Vas'% ( 

B%#r5%! e Me!eses ( 

2rao ( 1

2ra!ar ( 

Bra&a Al5er"% ( 1QQ

Bra!)6% D%&% ( K

Bra!)6% Ra#l ( 1(1, 

2ra%!'r ( 

2ra%(a ( 

Br-s B#r" ( 1Q

2re;e'ro ( , K

2r'%cos ( 7 2r'%>ue!os " 

2r'tar ( (

Br#$%" er)!a!) ( , 1Q

2u3'3a%3as ( 

2ulear ( 

5#r&#esa( 1K7 2ur3uesame%te (



c/ ( K

Ca5a!llas Ra$8! ( K 'a5e3a(1, 1Q, (7 ca2eorra

( 1

ca2elo, ca2elo !e $o3o ( K(1 cac*oe'ra ( 1 ca!e'ra"c/te!ra ( 7 ca!e'ras (

K(1

ca'r ( 1QQ 'alae"a36% ( 1 cal7o (  Cal)as A#le"e ( , , 1, ,

, Q
cal!o"c/l'!o ( ,  Calla)% A!"8!% ( 1Q,  calor (  calote'ro ( 

calo ( K(1

C$ara D. J%6% )a ( 1 Ca$l%, V. Cas"el% Bra!'% cam'o%eta"$a%tasma ( QQ Ca$<es L#:s )e ( , 1,
1,
11, 11, 1, K, 1, 1(

(, , Q, (,  C!))% )e &#ere)% ( , ,




ca%*estro ( K Car)%s% J%a+#$ (  careca ( K ca'!a!es ( 1K carraspa%a ( 

carr'l*oe'ro, carr'l*o%e'ro ( 11 caruma (  casa "@, ( casacr'o ( 1 case2re ( 

Cas"a!e)a er!6% )e (  Cas"ela% A. R. (  Cas"el% Bra!'% Ca$l% ( (Q,

1, , , (Q, 1K1, 1Q, 1,

K, 1, ,  catar"captar (  catre (  caal*e'resco ( 1K caalo ( ( ce!er ( (Q cessar ( (
Q cesta"cesto ( 1Q c*a$ra"%a$ra (  Ca&as r. A!"8!% )as ( (

(, 1, 1K, 1, ,  c*alé (  c*atérr'mo ( 1 c*ae ( 1K c*e$'a (  c*e'o"ple%o (  c*or7o"
$lor7o "  c*oupa%a (  c*our'a"c*our'o ( 1Q


M. RODRIGUES LAPA

c*oer ( 1

c*ua ( 1K

c'smar ( 
Class's$% ( , 1, 11, 1,
1Q1, 1Q, K, 1K, 1, 1(1, 1Q, , (, Q
, , Q, 1(

'l'/s ( 1(1, 1

!'sterme%te ( 

clu2e " 

'%&!a"%s ( 1, 1

coeo ( 1K

co'ta!o, co'ta!ame%te ( K, 

'%la5%rar(Y 1K

'%le'"v%s ( 1

color'r ( 1Q

com ( 11

comerc'ar ( K1

com'3o ( 1K 

como'!o ( 1

'%$*a)e'er( 1KK(1K1

compr'!ame%e ( 

'%!'%r)!'a a"ra'"va ( 1

'%!'%r)!'a $e!"al ( 1

co%e7o ( 1K

co%$us7o ( 
co%*ec'!a'%e%te ( 

co%sc'e%c'al'(ar ( 

co%se%t'r Y( 

co%tactar ( 

co%trar'ar " KK(K1

co%tra!'ta, ( 1KK

co%tu!o " , 

co%e%cer ( 

cop'ar ( KK ""

co>uete Y( , 

'%r l%'al ( 

'%res (K, , 

C%rrea Ra$#$)% ( 

corre%te " 1, 1

correspo%!?%c'a ( 1K

C%r"es6% Ja$e ( 1K

C%s"a r$!% ( K

C%#"% D%&% )% ( 1, 

coue"$lor " Q(QQ

co('!o ( 1

co('%*a !e 2o%eca (( 1K

cre2ro ( 

cr'a%c'%*a, ( 1K

cr'meme%te ( 

crosta"crusta ( 
cumpr'r ( 1

C#rv% Se$e)%. V. Bel$r%( 1KQ

!a%tesco ( 1K

!ar"se !e ( 

!ar!o ( 
!e " 11, 1

!ec'!'r ( 

!e$umto " 1K(11

!e'ar ( (Q, K(1

!ele'te ( 

!el3a!o"!el'ca!o ( 

!el'%>u'r ( 1Q
!el'r" 1Q(1Q

!emocrac'a ( Q

!emo3ra$'a ( Q

!emol'r ( 1Q

!emops'colo3'a ( Q

!ere'tame%te ( 

!esa3uar ( KK
!esa're ( K

!escer"se ( 1Q1

!escome!'r"se ( 1Q

!es$asame%to ( 

!es3raa ( 1KK

!es'st'r " (Q

!esme!'!a +B- ( 
!esor!em ( 

!esterrame%to ( 1

!est'%o ( QQ, 1

!estru'r ( 1QQ

!es'o !e $um!os ( 

!ea3ar " (

!eer ( 1

ÍNDICE ANALÍTICO

Q

D:a2 Cas"r% ( 1K Des"e Raael ( 

!'l'3e%c'ar ( KK

Ds Jl% ( 

D!s Re D. (( 

!'sacompa%*a!o ( 1K

!'scer%'r ( 1Q

)s'#l*ar( 1K

)s'#rs% )re'"%(1Q

4 !)re'"% ( 1Q, K(K 4 se$()re'"% ( 1Q, KQ,


K

!'se%ol'me%to ( 1K

!'s$aor Y((1K

!'sparar ( 1K

!'spe%sar ( 1K

!'speps'a ( 1K

!'sperta!or ( 1K

7'spertar ( 1K
!'sp%e'a ( 1K

!'ssa2ot'!o ( 1K

!'ssemel*a%te ( 1K

!'sta%c'ar ( K1

!'selo ( 1K

!c'l ( , 

!oe%a ( , 1

!oloroso ( 1

!omést'co ( 

!outo ( 

Dr#$$%!) )e A!)ra)e C. (


, , 
D#ar"e A%!s% ( Q

e2r'"$esta%te ( Q

E3a )e ?#er%2 ( , , , Q(1, , , , 1K, 11K, 111,
11, 11, 1, 1, 1(1,
1(1, 1Q, 1, 1, 1,
1QK, K(KQ, 1, 1Q, 1,
, K(1, , , ,
1, , (, , ,
(Q, , , K(1 eco%m'co ( 

1Q ( Es"l:s"'a

ee"% *%r ev%'a36% ( 

eclo!'r ( 

e3oce%tr'smo ( 1

e3osmo ( 1

ele3C%c'a"$'o !e prumo ( 1

ele'to" W1<

el*se(1Q(1Q
els6% ( 

elmo ( 

em ( 1(

em2araa!o ( K

em2e2e!ar"se ( 

em2ora ( 

em2r'a3ar"se ( (K

emer3'r ( 1Q

emot'al ( 

e$*e)er!r( 1Q

empol3ame%to ( 1

e%cam'%*ame%to ( 1

e%cerrame%to ( 1

e%c'%erar ( 1K

e%corpar ar ( 1K

e%$a!o%*o (  e%$re%tar (  e%3e%*os'!a!e ( 1 e%orme ( 1 e%s'mesmar"se (  e%sosso"'%sulso ( 


e!"%a36% ( 1, 1K, 1Q, 1Q,
(, , K(, , K,
, Q ,  e%tre3ar a alma a Deus (  e%*'cro ( 1K e%a3uar ( KK e%er3a ( 7 e%er3ar ( 
e>uestre (  "érr'mo ( 1(1Q escu!e'ras ( 1 escapatr'o (  escaramua (  escarra%c*a!o (  escola"
mo!elo ( QQ
QK

M. RODRIGUES LAPA

escr'to ( 1

escu!e'ro " (

es3r'm'r ( 

espa%ta!o ( 

es>uecer ( 1

es>u's't'ce ( K

estar ( 1(17 estar"se ( 1Q1

est'car o per%'l ( 

es"l% )e !%"as ( 1Q

estrear ( 1QQ

e"$%l%&a ( 1, 1Q(1

e#e$s$% ( (

e'!e%c'ar ( KK

e;'la$a36% ( 1

el'o ( 

ep'rar ( , 

e;*le"v% ( 

eplo!'r ( 1Q
epro2ra7o ( Q7 e;*r%5rar((

etor>u'r ( 1Q

etrem'sta (  $alame%to ( 1

al'6% Crs"8v6%(1, , K $alecer ( ,  $al'r" 1Q $at'a ( 

$a(er um passe'o ( Q $ec*ame%to ( 1 $ec*ar os ol*os (  $e'o " (K $e't'o ( K $el'c'!a!es" 1K(11 $erame%te ( 
$ér'a "  $errar o c7o ( ( errera )e Cas"r% J. ( , 1K1,
11Q, 1, 1, K, , Q,
K, , Q errera )e Vas'%!'el%s J%r&e

( 1 $esta ( 17 $estas ( 1K


;et'c*'(a!o ( K

al% )e Al$e)a ( Q(1, ,


, 1, 1, 1Q, 1Q, K,
, , , , 

$'car 3rosso ( (

$'car"se ( 1Q1

&#ere)% A!"er% )e ( Q

l!"% El:s% (Q, 1K1, 1

$'loso$'a ( Q

$'%ar"se ( 

$'%o ( 

$'ta " Q(1

$'(a ( 
$'e ( Q(1

$lam'omo ( Q

$loresta ( K

$lor'r " 1Q

$lu'al" 1

$ocar ( 

%le q!;'l ( 1Q

$ or%e"$ or%e s ( 1K

$o%a ( K

$ora!ame%te ( 