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Year 12 Chemistry Assessment Task 2 Notification

Jurassic Titration Practical investigation and


High School Task Title:
scientific report
Content: Module 6: Acid/Base Reactions
Weighting: 20%
Titration practical investigation (in
Nature:
class)
Data Analysis (in class)
Scientific report writing (home)
Date Notification Issue: Week 5, Term 2
Week 8, Monday 19th June 2018
Science Faculty Date Assessment DRAFT due
Date Assessment FINAL Due Week 10, Tuesday 3rd July 2018

Context
Acids and bases, and their reactions, are used extensively in everyday life and in the human body. The
chemistry of acids and bases contributes to the industrial contexts and the environment. For this
assessment, you are required to write a scientific report based on the titration practical investigation of
oxalic acid with hydrogen peroxide. Your report must identify the aim of the experiment, provide
background information, demonstrate the results and compare data with reliable secondary sources data.

Stage 6 Chemistry Outcomes Assessed


Describes, explains and quantitatively analyses acids and bases using contemporary
CH12-13
models
Designs and evaluates investigations in order to obtain primary and secondary data
CH11/12-2
and information
Conducts investigations to collect valid and reliable primary and secondary data and
CH11/12-3
information

CH11/12-5 Analyses and evaluates primary and secondary data and information

Communicates scientific understanding using suitable language and terminology for a


CH11/12-7
specific audience or purpose

Student’s to complete:
Student’s Name:
Chemistry Teacher’s Name:

You MUST submit a draft of your report to your teacher by the draft
submission date.

Your assessment task MUST be submitted in a plastic display folder with the
marking criteria from this booklet.
Summary of Marks
Total Total
/45 %

Your Mark

1
Task Description & Requirements
National Geographic are looking for a young chemist to publish a report on titration in their magazine and
you are interested. To be considered as a candidate you must write a scientific report based on the
titration practical investigation conducted in class. The report must relate to the titration of Oxalic acid
with Sodium Hydroxide to determine the unknown concentration of the Sodium Hydroxide solution. In
your report, you should include:
Title page

 Include an appropriate title that outlines the practical investigation, similar to the aim of the
investigation.
 Include your name, teacher’s name and class.

Aim
 Identify the purpose of the practical investigation in one sentence.

Introduction

 Information about the general process of titration


 Why the titration method is commonly used
 Information on the various indicators that could be used and the importance of using indicators
 Identify two uses for both Oxalic acid and Sodium Hydroxide
 Briefly outline the practical investigation
 Identify hypothesis for the practical investigation (assumption of what might happen)

Materials and methods

 Identify the materials used to conduct the investigation, including apparatus, chemicals and
personal protective equipment
 Assess the hazards associated with the titration of Oxalic acid and Sodium Hydroxide
 List the procedure undertaken for the titration, including the preparation of the Sodium Hydroxide
standard solution

Results

 Results tabulated for the initial, final and used volume of Sodium Hydroxide
 Record mass of Oxalic acid used
 Graph the titration curve for this investigation
 Write a balanced equation for the neutralisation performed in this investigation
 Calculate the molarity of Sodium Hydroxide using appropriate formulas

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Discussion
Discuss your results, however, do not simply repeat your results here. Instead:
 Compare and analyse results with data from secondary sources
 Justify the use of selected procedures and indicators
 Assess the reliability and accuracy of collected data
 Suggest improvements for the investigation
 Use the correct scientific terminology to communicate findings

Conclusion
 Short statement related to the purpose of the experiment, either accepting or rejecting hypothesis

Bibliography
 At least 5 reliable secondary sources to be included
 A range of sources including peer-reviewed articles, books or websites
 References should be alphabetical and follow the Harvard referencing style

Setting out bibliography


Journal article:
Author/s, (Year of publication), ‘Title of article’, Journal Title, volume number, page numbers.
Book:
Author/s, (Year of publication), title, Publishing Company, Location.
Website:
Author or Organisation, (Date of page), Title of page, Date accessed, URL.
NOTE: if the page does not have a date, simply write n.d. in the space provided for date.
Student Confirmation
By submitting this assessment, I acknowledge the following:
1. The work submitted is my own work and appropriate references have been acknowledged
2. I am aware that the work may be submitted to detect potential plagiarism.
3. Where the work of others is used and not referenced, a mark of zero will be awarded and I will have to
resubmit the task.
4. I have a copy of this assessment if the original is lost or stolen.

Student’s signature: ______________________________________ Date: ______________

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Marking Criteria

Title page and Aim


Outcomes Assessed Criteria Allocated Marks Student Mark

 Includes an accurate title page AND aim with required information 2


CH12-13  Includes an accurate title page OR aim with required information 1
 No title page or no aim included, or they are inaccurate 0

Introduction
Outcomes Assessed Criteria Allocated Marks Student Mark

 Provides extensive information about the general process of titration


 Evaluates the use of the titration method
 Provides insightful information on the various indicators that could be used AND the
7-8
importance of using indicators
 Identifies two uses for Oxalic acid AND Sodium Hydroxide
 Provides a logical hypothesis for the practical investigation
 Includes thorough information about the general process of titration
CH12-13
 Effectively explains why the titration method is commonly used
CH11/12-2
 Provides detailed information on the various indicators that could be used OR the
CH11/12-7 5-6
importance of using indicators
 Identifies two uses for Oxalic acid OR Sodium Hydroxide
 Provides a detailed hypothesis for the practical investigation
 Describes information about the general process of titration
 Adequately explains why the titration method is commonly used
3-4
 Describes the various indicators that could be used for the titration OR the importance
of using indicators
4
 Identifies one use for Oxalic acid AND Sodium Hydroxide
 Describes the hypothesis for the practical investigation
 Provides basic information about the general process of titration
 Provides basic reasoning why the titration method is commonly used
 Recounts the various indicators that could be used for the titration OR the importance
1-2
of using indicators
 Identifies one use for Oxalic acid OR Sodium Hydroxide
 Provides a limited hypothesis for the practical investigation
 No introduction provided 0

Materials and Method


Outcomes Assessed Criteria Allocated Marks Student Mark

 Identifies all the materials used to conduct the investigation


 Includes a risk assessment and evaluates all the hazards associated with the titration of
Oxalic acid AND Sodium Hydroxide 7-8
 Provides a logical procedure that was undertaken for the titration, including the
preparation of the Sodium Hydroxide standard solution
CH12-13  Identifies most of the materials used to conduct the investigation
CH11/12-2  Analyses most the hazards associated with the titration of Oxalic acid AND Sodium
CH11/12-3 Hydroxide 5-6
 Provides a detailed procedure that was undertaken for the titration, including the
preparation of the Sodium Hydroxide standard solution
 Identifies some of the materials used to conduct the investigation
 Describes some of the hazards associated with the titration of Oxalic acid AND Sodium 3-4
Hydroxide

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 Provides a detailed procedure that was undertaken for the titration, including the
preparation of the Sodium Hydroxide standard solution
 Limited list of materials used to conduct the investigation
 Identifies limited hazards associated with the titration of Oxalic acid OR Sodium
Hydroxide 1-2
 Provides a basic procedure that was undertaken for the titration, does NOT include the
preparation of the Sodium Hydroxide standard solution
 Does not provide an accurate list of materials or methods 0

Results
Outcomes Assessed Criteria Allocated Marks Student Mark

 Results correctly tabulated with all components


 Titration curve correctly graphed with all components
7-10
 Equation is balanced AND accurate
 Calculation of molarity is correct with working shown
CH12-13  Results tabulated with some components missing or inaccurate
CH11/12-3  Titration curve graphed with some components missing or inaccurate
4-6
CH11/12-5  Equation is either balanced OR accurate
CH11/12-7  Calculation of molarity is correct without working shown
 Poorly constructed table OR graph
 Equation is missing OR incorrect 1-3
 Calculation is incorrect OR missing
 No correct results provided 0

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Discussion
Outcomes Assessed Criteria Allocated Marks Student Mark

 Extensively compares and analyses all the results with data from secondary sources
 Evaluates the use of selected procedures AND indicators
 Logically assesses the reliability AND accuracy of collected data 10-12
 Suggests insightful improvements for the investigation
 Outstanding use of correct scientific terminology to communicate findings
 Thoroughly compares and analyses most of the results with data from secondary
sources
 Effectively justifies most of the selected procedures AND indicators used
7-9
 Provides detailed assessment of the reliability AND accuracy of collected data
CH12-13  Suggest effective improvements for the investigation
CH11/12-2  Thorough use of the correct scientific terminology to communicate findings
CH11/12-5  Thoroughly compares and analyses results with data from secondary sources
CH11/12-7  Describes the use of selected procedures OR indicators
 Provides clear assessment of the reliability OR accuracy of collected data 4-6
 Describes some improvements for the investigation
 Some use of the correct scientific terminology to communicate findings
 Thoroughly compares and analyses results with data from secondary sources
 Recounts the selected procedures OR indicators used
 Provides limited assessment of the reliability OR accuracy of collected data 1-3
 Identifies basic improvements for the investigation
 Limited use of the correct scientific terminology to communicate findings
 No discussion provided 0

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Conclusion
Outcomes Assessed Criteria Allocated Marks Student Mark

 Provides a valid and concise conclusion that relates to the aim and hypothesis 2
CH12-13
 Provides a conclusion that may not be valid OR is not concise 1
CH11/12-5
 No conclusion provided 0

Bibliography
Outcomes Assessed Criteria Allocated Marks Student Mark

 Provides at least 5 reliable secondary sources


3
 Lists sources using Harvard style referencing
 Provides more than 5 sources, formatting incorrect
CH11/12-3 OR 2
 Provides less than 5 sources, formatting is correct
 Basic attempt at a bibliography, at least one reference used 1
 No bibliography provided 0

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Teacher comments:

Aspects of this assessment you did well in: ___________________________________________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Aspects of this assessment task that you can improve on: _______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Suggestions on how you can improve your assessment results in the future: _________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Student reflection

What sections of this assessment do you


think you went well in?

Why do you think you performed well in


these sections?

Where do you think you performed poorly in


this assessment?

Why do you think you performed poorly in


these sections?

How can you improve on these assessment


marks in the future?

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Critical Reflection

Assessment is an important aspect of learning and according to the National Education

Standards Authority (2018a), assessment can be defined as a means to evaluate the student’s

depth of knowledge and understanding in relation to the NSW syllabus outcomes, to determine

academic achievement. There are various forms of assessment and ways to demonstrate

student’s progression throughout a unit of work, such as formative and summative assessment

(NESA, 2018a). The assessment design is a major factor that can determine the success of the

student, as poor design leads to negative results (Race, 2014; Rundle, 2016). Another important

aspect of assessment is providing feedback. Feedback can be formal or informal and assist

student’s progression with learning and facilitate self-regulation amongst students (NESA 2018c;

Rundle, 2016). This critical reflection focusses on the importance of assessment within schools,

the implementation of effective feedback and the effective assessment design process, in relation

to Stage 6 and the assessment task attached above. The assessment task above was designed

for a Year 12 Chemistry class, focussing on Module 6: Acid and Base Reactions as a formative

task. The assessment task required students to write a scientific report based on the titration

practical investigation they conducted in class, where they titrated Oxalic acid with Sodium

Hydroxide to determine the unknown concentration of the Sodium Hydroxide solution.

When discussing assessment in Stage 6, people often automatically refer to exams or topic

tests, however, this is only a small fraction of assessments. Assessment occurs when teachers

collect evidence to support the progress and evaluate the achievement of knowledge and

understanding within a unit of work which is vital in Stage 6 to ensure students are progressing

properly (Butt, 2010; NESA, 2018a). There are three main types of assessment, formative,

summative and diagnostic. According to Butt (2010), formative assessment promotes learning and

can increase standards and achievement of students. Formative assessment occurs throughout

the unit while it is being taught to assess the progress of learning and is considered a ‘low-stake’

assessment as it is usually not graded (Butt, 2010). This can be performed through quizzes,
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observations of students working in the classroom or completion of homework. Summative

assessment refers to the evaluation of the depth of knowledge and understanding that the student

has obtained at the conclusion of a unit and is considered a ‘high-stakes’ assessment as it is

graded, like the HSC at the completion of year 12 (Butt, 2010). ‘High-stake’ assessments cause

severe anxiety, which leads to student’s performing poorly (Butt, 2010). Therefore, in Stage 6,

there is a combination of school-based assessments, which are generally ‘low-stake’ assessments

to enable all students to succeed within Stage 6 (NESA, 2018a). Diagnostic assessments are a

form of formative pre-assessments that examine the prior knowledge of the students, to inform the

teacher how to proceed with the learning (Butt, 2010). All three types of assessment are as

equally important ensuring all students benefit from the learning process.

Within formative and summative assessment there are three sub-sections of assessment,

these are assessment for, assessment as and assessment of learning. Assessment for and

assessment as learning are both a form of formative assessment, however, assessment for

learning informs the teacher of the student’s progress at that point in the unit, while, assessment

as learning is focussing on the students and their peers marking their own or each other’s work as

a means of reflection (NESA, 2018b; George Lucas Educational Foundation, 2008). Assessment

of learning is a summative assessment that is conducted at the conclusion of a unit of work to

evaluate the depth of understanding of the topic and to assess whether the student has achieved

the selected outcomes for the unit (NESA, 2018b). As previously mentioned, the assessment task

above is a formative task which focusses on assessment for and as learning; students are

demonstrating their knowledge and skills of scientific report writing thus far and will submit a draft

of their report for feedback and student’s will also receive feedback after the completion of the

assessment and complete a self-reflection. Every form of assessment is as equally important as it

informs the teachers of student understanding and how to assist students in the future (George

Lucas Educational Foundation, 2008), however, Butt (2010) found that formative assessment has

been deemed more important than summative assessment as there is a greater opportunity for

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students to improve their learning, as formative assessments are the “real foundations for

educational success” (Butt, 2010, p.121). Teachers should be vigilant when distributing

assessment grades as they can impact on the student’s “learning career, motivation to engage

with educational processes and on their opportunities with life” (Butt, 2010).

This brings us into an important component of assessment, which is feedback. Feedback

refers to comments or advice made by teachers, peers or parents, in relation to the student’s

performance and understanding and can be formal or informal, depending on the context (NESA,

2018c; Hattie and Timperley, 2007). According to Rundle (2016), “feedback has a significant

impact on student learning and achievement” (Rundle, 2016, p.29) as feedback can either

motivate or demotivate students to progress further in their education. Feedback should be

integrated into various learning activities, especially after the completion of an assessment, to

clarify any misinformed information about a related topic and to ensure students are provided with

substantial opportunities to improve their academic success (Rundle, 2016; AITSL, 2018). As

previously mentioned, feedback can have positive or negative consequences on student learning,

which is why teachers should implement effective and constructive feedback practices. Effective

feedback not only focusses on identifying the positive and negative aspects within a task but also

provides useful and specific suggestions on how the student can improve for future reference, is

individualised for that student’s growth and is presented at a time that is beneficial to the student

(NESA, 2018c; Rundle, 2016).

While providing effective feedback can be timely, there are various forms of feedback that

can be implemented; these include written, oral and peer and self-reflections, which should be

incorporated throughout the teaching and learning process (NESA, 2018c). Feedback was

incorporated in the assessment above through written feedback in both the formal and informal

context. Informal feedback was provided to students when they submitted their draft scientific

report to assist with further development of their skills and formal feedback was provided after the

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final submission of the report, which identified their strengths and weaknesses in a constructive

manner. Self-reflection was a form of feedback incorporated within the assessment above to

“develop their capability to monitor, evaluate and regulate their own learning” (Nicol, 2010, p.504).

Another important aspect of assessment that influences the success of the students is the

assessment design (NESA, 2018d; Butt, 2010). To design an effective assessment in Stage 6,

teachers need to first distinguish the outcomes and learning goals they want the students to

achieve to effectively monitor student understanding, growth and progression and then design the

task itself (Race, 2014). Components of an effective assessment include validity, authenticity,

flexibility, unbiased and inclusion of all students (Rundle, 2016) Effective assessments clearly

identify the tasks weighting, submission date, task description, marking criteria, feedback and

most importantly the outcomes being assessed (NESA, 2018d). Effective assessment design

should improve student engagement and motivation in conjunction with assessing their depth of

understanding and skills of the Stage 6 outcomes (NESA, 2018d). An effective assessment should

reflect the learning process and incorporate feedback to promote growth and learning (Rundle,

2016; NESA, 2018d). Poor assessment design can potentially lead to negative marks and may not

effectively represent the student’s knowledge or ability (Race, 2014).

Another way to achieve an effective assessment is to include differentiation in the planning

process. Differentiation enables students to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding

through their strengths and interests (Bartlett, 2015; Morgan, 2014). Assessments should be

flexible enough to accommodate the learning needs, strengths and interests of the student to

maximise learning achievements (NESA, 2018a; Morgan, 2014). Effective assessment design was

achieved in the assessment above as the assessment clearly identified the Stage 6 syllabus

outcomes being assessed at the beginning of the assessment notification and in the detailed

marking criteria provided. Flexibility was implemented to enable students to present their scientific

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report in a form of their choice and providing scaffolding of the required information also

demonstrates differentiation in this assessment task.

In conclusion, assessment is an important aspect of learning to evaluate the depth of

knowledge and understanding of the student in relation to the syllabus outcomes and standards.

Assessment should be implemented throughout the learning process and not simply as a

summative task at the conclusion of a unit. Feedback should be constructive and focus on

student’s strengths along with weaknesses and should outline specific suggestions on how the

student can improve on that skill in the future. The assessment design process should reflect the

outcomes being assessed, be unbiased, inclusive, valid and authentic and encourage

engagement and motivation. The combination of assessment, assessment design and feedback

are the key to student’s academic achievement.

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Reference List

AITSL (2018). Spotlight: Reframing feedback to improve teaching and learning. Retrieved
https://www.aitsl.edu.au/docs/default-source/research-evidence/spotlight/spotlight-
feedback.pdf?sfvrsn=cb2eec3c_12

Bartlett, J. (2015). Outstanding Differentiation for Learning in the Classroom. Florence: Taylor and
Francis

Butt, G. (2010). Making assessment matter. London; New York, NY: Continuum International Pub.
Group.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research,
77(1), 81-112.

George Lucas Educational Foundation (July 15, 2008). Why is Assessment Important? Edutopia.
Retrieved https://www.edutopia.org/assessment-guide-importance

Morgan, H. (2014). Maximizing Student Success with Differentiated Learning. The Clearing
House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 87(1), 34-38.

NESA (2018a). Stage 6 Assessment. Retrieved


http://educationstandards.nsw.edu.au/wps/portal/nesa/11-12/Understanding-the-
curriculum/curriculum-development/st6-assessment

NESA, (2018b). Assessment for, as and of learning. Retrieved from


https://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/support-materials/assessment-for-as-and-of-learning/

NESA (2018c). Effective Feedback. Retrieved https://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/support-


materials/effective-feedback/

NESA (2018d). Principles of effective assessment. Retrieved from


http://educationstandards.nsw.edu.au/wps/portal/nesa/11-12/Understanding-the-
curriculum/assessment/principles-of-assessment

Nicol, D. (2010). From monologue to dialogue: improving written feedback processes in mass
higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(5), 501-517.

Race, P. (2014). The lecturer's toolkit: a practical guide to assessment, learning and teaching.
Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Rundle, N. (2016). Guidelines for good assessment practice (3rd ed.). Hobart, Tasmania,
Australia: Tasmanian Institute of Learning and Teaching, University of Tasmania.

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