Você está na página 1de 52

www.aerodefensetech.

com September 2018

Welcome to
your Digital Edition of
Aerospace & Defense The Army’s New
Nano-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Technology Combating Infrared


Threats on the Battlefield
Advanced MIL-STD-1553B —
The Bus Too Tough to Die
Enhanced SATCOMs for
Unmanned Aerial Systems

September 2018
From the Publishers of

How to Navigate the Magazine:


At the bottom of each page, you will see a navigation bar with the following buttons:

Arrows: Click on the right or left facing arrow to turn the page forward or backward.

Introduction: Click on this icon to quickly turn to this page.

Cover: Click on this icon to quickly turn to the front cover.

Table of Contents: Click on this icon to quickly turn to the table of contents.

Zoom In: Click on this magnifying glass icon to zoom in on the page.

Zoom Out: Click on this magnifying glass icon to zoom out on the page.

Find: Click on this icon to search the document.

You can also use the standard Acrobat Reader tools to navigate through each magazine.

Cov ToC
Ray optics simulation
for inertial navigation.

Visualization of counterpropagating light rays in a


counterclockwise rotating Sagnac interferometer.

Aircraft and spacecraft require highly accurate tools for attitude


detection and control.
control Many modern inertial navigation systems
include ring laser gyroscopes. To better understand how ring
laser gyros work, you can study the fundamental operating
principle of these devices: the Sagnac effect. This effect can be
demonstrated using ray optics simulation.
The COMSOL Multiphysics® software is used for simulating
designs, devices, and processes in all fields of engineering,
manufacturing, and scientific research. See how you can apply it
to ray optics simulation.

comsol.blog/ring-laser-gyros

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-881

Cov ToC
www.aerodefensetech.com September 2018

The Army’s New


Nano-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Combating Infrared
Threats on the Battlefield
Advanced MIL-STD-1553B —
The Bus Too Tough to Die
Enhanced SATCOMs for
Unmanned Aerial Systems

From the Publishers of

Cov ToC
 

 

GORE-FLIGHT™ Microwave Assemblies, 6 Series are ruggedized,


lightweight and vapor-sealed airframe assemblies that withstand
the challenges of aerospace.

With GORE-FLIGHT™ Microwave Assemblies, 6 Series, a fit-and-forget


philosophy is now a reality – providing the most cost-effective
solution that ensures mission-critical system performance
for military and civil aircraft operators.

Find out why at:


www.gore.com/GORE-FLIGHT

precision lightweight durability


GORE, GORE-FLIGHT, the purple cable and designs are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates. Follow us on

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-850

Cov ToC
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-851

Cov ToC
Aerospace & Defense Technology

Contents
FEATURES ________________________________________ 29 Low Power Optical Phase Array Using Graphene on Silicon
Photonics
Space Technology 30 Spatial Resolution and Contrast of a Focused Diffractive
4 Enhanced SATCOMs for Unmanned Aerial Systems Plenoptic Camera
Hi-Rel Electronics 32 Ultracompact, High-Speed Field-Effect Optical Modulators

DEPARTMENTS ___________________________________
8 The Bus Too Tough to Die
Optoelectronics
34 Application Briefs
16 Combating Infrared Threats on the Battlefield
38 New Products
Spacecraft Power Systems 40 Advertisers Index
18 Optical Interconnect Design Challenges in Space
RF & Microwave Technology ON THE COVER ___________________________________
22 High-Performance Computing for the Next-Generation Combat FLIR's Black Hornet ® Personal Reconnaissance
Vehicle System is currently being evaluated by the U.S.
Army for full operational deployment within all
26 Merging Antenna and Electronics Boosts Energy and infantry units. Currently the world's smallest com-
Spectrum Efficiency bat-proven nano-unmanned aerial system, the next-
generation Black Hornet 3 will enable the warfighter
TECH BRIEFS _____________________________________ to maintain situational awareness, threat detection,
and surveillance in GPS-denied environments. To
28 Integrated Magneto-Optical Devices for On-Chip Photonic learn more, read the applications brief on page 34.
Systems (Photo by Pfc. Rhita Daniel)

C US T O MI ZA BLE FASTENERS WH EN
Now
SPEE D M AT T E R S AS9100D
When you need a quick solution %GTVKƂGF
to a fastener problem, Accurate AS9100D + ISO 9001:2015
Screw Machine delivers.
iÀ̈wi`+-

Specializing in custom fasteners


for the aerospace industry, we
design, manufacture prototypes
and ship at record speeds to MADE IN USA
meet your tight timelines. www.accuratescrew.com
(973) 244-9200

Visit our new website for free


CAD downloads and more:
www.accuratescrew.com

2 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-852 Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Thermostat
Th tatiicc Soluttiions for Yo
Your
Temperrature
Te tu Conttrrol
Appplicattiions
Airflow Control on Aircrafft
ft Hydraulic Fluid T
Te
emperaturre Control
Engine Coolant
Lines Heat
Exchanger
Air intake flap

Actuator
o Hyyd
draulic systems Thermostatic
and controls div
iveerter valve
with manual
ov veride

Freeze Protection for Naval


a Electroniccs Cooling
g for A
Av
vionics
Shipyards cooling system

Thermostatic
Thermostatic diverter
t valvvee
freeze
fr
protection
valve

Proven, precise, efffficient, compact


c and no external powe
er needed

Call us at (877) 379-8258 oro email solutions@ThermOmegaT Te


ech.com
to llearn about
b t other
th applicat
li ti
tions
t wher
h e our technolog
h l y has
h been
b used
d or
to disccuss a custom solution.

Aerospace, Defen
nse, and Government Facilities
Faci ti Divviision

Therm
mOmegaT
Te
ech-adg.com
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-853

Cov ToC
Enhanced SATCOMs for
Unmanned Aerial Systems

S
atellites launched with the pur- tions (SATCOMs) are essential to drone equation based on the maximum trans-
pose of relaying communica- operations — particularly for medium- mission speed of electromagnetic waves
tions have been enabling altitude, long-endurance (MALE) air- over a distance. The same reason it takes
around-the-globe transmis- craft, but also for smaller platforms. NASA 20 minutes to talk to a rover on
sions of information for half a century. Nevertheless, the legacy networks Mars is at play on a smaller scale when
And in this current era of hybrid war- these unmanned aircraft rely on have it comes to operating an UAS.
fare, that means this decades-old hard- their limitations. First is the nature of These limitations may make it seem
ware needs to be able to manage the the satellite hardware itself. Until space- like there is no way around improving
command and control of unmanned bound robots can go up and tinker with SATCOMs, but that couldn’t be further
aircraft. decades-old satellites — a real idea that’s from the truth. Instead, UAS operators
The information relay from an un- been floated by the Defense Advanced can leverage modernized networks that
manned aircraft system (UAS) is only as Research Projects Agency (DARPA) — not only improve the reliability of a
good as the connection, and there are satellites are not going to change. As a connection, but also help them by auto-
limited options for transmitting infor- result, the military needs software-based matically switching feeds, without the
mation, particularly in theater, where solutions to upgrade its legacy SATCOM need for manual intervention. Addi-
there is limited infrastructure. Histori- networks to keep up with the prolifera- tionally, UASs are increasingly targets of
cally, drones used radio waves to be able tion of unmanned aircraft. network jamming and potential cyber-
to fly within line of sight of the opera- Second is the nature of physics itself. attacks, and a modernized network is
tor. But now, with Reapers flying There is only so much the military can more capable of ensuring the fidelity of
halfway around the globe from the do to drive down latency — at the end a connection against the Department of
command center, satellite communica- of the day, information relay is a basic Defense’s (DOD) adversaries.

Army unit deploys an


inflatable satellite antenna.
(Photo: Jett Loe, Sun-News)

4 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
VXI to PXI Switching
w
Is yourr VXI-based
d Testt System becom
ming difficult to support?

Switch Modules
General Purpose/High Power
MUX/Matrix
RF/Microwave

Move ttoo a functionally


M f ti ll equivalent
i l t PXI system
s t and
d Pick
Pi kering
k i
has youur VXI switch modules covered

Modular open
n architecture Modular op
pen architecture
Increasing ob
bsolescence and compliance isssues Guaranteed
d long-term support, typically 15 to 20 years
pported by ~10 companies glob
Standard sup bally Standard su
upported by ~70 companies gllobally

Our detailed cross-reference


c of popular veendors’ VXI switch modules to the equivalent Pickering PX
XI modules
illustrates thee relative simplicity of the VX
XI to PXI migration process.

Learn More at pickeringttest.com/vxitopxi


781-897-1710 | ussales@pickeringtest.com

Switch
hing | Simulation | Programmable Resistors | Custom
o Design | Connectivity & Cables

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-854

Cov ToC
Space Technology

network must be automated to self-


heal, requiring as little manual inter-
vention as possible to get back online.
Encrypting networks is a difficult but
increasingly important task as cybersecu-
rity issues continue to proliferate. Tra-
ditionally, military-grade encryption
needed to come from a group within the
military. Because these networks are not
automated or self-healing,it could take up
to a half-hour to get a comms link back
after detecting an encryption issue. As an
alternative, the military should seek Type
1 cryptographic products, which are rig-
orously tested by the National Security
Agency (NSA) to prevent tampering. It’s
paramount that adversaries are not able
to intercept the data collected by UAS to
Sophisticated medium-altitude, long endurance (MALE) aircraft like this General Atomics MQ-1C Gray Eagle accomplish the DOD’s mission goals.
UAS increasingly depend on satellite communications for command and control. (Photo: U.S. Army) Without strong encryption, there are po-
tentially worse consequences, like the
Upgrading Networks have a modernized network that can ability of the enemy to take remote con-
There’s no such thing as ripping out ride on top of the legacy network — a trol of a UAS — an occurrence which has
and replacing a network — not just for software-redefined network. These precedent with Iran’s capture of the RQ-
the military, but in any commercial op- newer networks can control where traf- 170 in late 2011.
erating environment as well. That fic goes and what path it takes by using Faster, more secure networks could
means that networks that were built for this software-defined overlay. The boost drones when they are used as
different missions must transform into legacy network is like the original dirt more than the endpoint of a global
agile, flexible, automated and secure road, while the software overlay is like comms network. If the military opts to
networks. Doing so requires an empha- pavement that lets the cars on the road use drones as communications relays,
sis on software upgrades. go at much faster speeds. having this added network durability
Over the years, SATCOMs have been But to be truly effective, this network and security is a must. Particularly if the
able to provide significantly more band- upgrade must provide end-to-end visi- military is using more than one drone as
width through upgrades, enabling the bility from the application to the end a relay, it will need an automated system
transfer of megabytes instead of kilo- user, all the way back to the data center so different UAS can take over as the
bytes of data. By using optimization or the battalion commander in theatre. main point of contact in the network.
protocols, that bandwidth can become Without visibility, the military can’t op-
even better; however, that doesn’t nec- timize for latency issues, which are in- Optimizing Networks
essarily equate to more reliable data herent to operations but can be mini- Ultimately, SATCOMs are a tricky
transfer. Unlike TCP protocols, where mized. business in warfare. They are not per-
every single bit of information gets fect, but they are the best solution the
packeted and transferred from Point A Adding Autonomy, Encryption military has for around-the-world con-
to Point B, a lot of the information There is much more at play than la- nectivity. The key is ensuring these net-
drones relay instead follow UDP proto- tency issues for the modern warfighter works are able to handle the needs of
cols, which are used for video transfer. relying on UAS for information in the- both UAS command and control and
In these transfers, the packet doesn’t atre. A network must be much more the reality of petabytes of data coming
necessarily get transmitted in its en- than fast — it must also be automated off these systems every year is software
tirety, the same way it would if a televi- and secure. optimization. This will allow the mili-
sion or phone line cut out, the receiving Connecting to SATCOM links is an tary to tap into the added benefits of
end wouldn’t get the remaining bits of advanced technique that often requires self-healing, automated networks that
information relayed after a disruption. a more in-depth skill set than our cur- are as secure as possible to enable UAS’
Command and control would prefer rent warfighters possess — plus in the global mission to extend the reach of
that UAS have a more reliable connec- heat of combat, no one wants to be the warfighter.
tion for video, but reliability comes at a scrambling to fix or find a new comms This article was written by Marlin Mc-
price — typically reduced speed. link. The answer to this is automated, Fate, Federal CTO, Riverbed Technology
In order to upgrade these older soft- self-healing networks. Additionally, if (Reston, VA). For more information, visit
ware solutions, the military needs to there is an issue with the connection, a http://info.hotims.com/69510-500.

6 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Replaces 3 or more wet tantalum Superior capacitance Less weight and Rugged stainless steel case Glass-to-metal seal prevents
capacitors in parallel or series retention at -55ºC requires less space withstands up to 80g’s dry-out for exceptionally long life

Your Mission-critical applications


require SlimPack performance
MLSH Slimpack is designed to meet the most demanding military and aerospace applications.
It’s the world’s only hermetic aluminum electrolytic capacitor with a glass-to-metal seal. Slimpack delivers cde.com/MLSHSlimpack
extremely high capacitance at ultra-low temperatures. Energize your next idea with MLSH Slimpack.

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-855

Cov ToC
The Bus
TOO TOUGH
to Die

T
he venerable MIL-STD-1553B component used by MIL-STD-1553B lightning, which has become even more
bus has survived remarkably and many IC suppliers have been sup- important as many newer aircraft are
well even as other more ad- porting it for decades. There are even made from composite materials, reduc-
vanced solutions gained wide bridges between MIL-STD-1553B and ing and sometimes eliminating the ben-
acceptance in the last few years. How- Gigabit Ethernet that allow the existing efit of having a Faraday shield inher-
ever, the fact remains that its maximum standard to transfer data to the world’s ently created by an aluminum skin.
data rate of 1 Mb/s is orders of magni- most widely used networking standard. Finally, MIL-STD-1553 has refined its
tude too slow for today’s data-intensive Many of its key and often unique ben- criteria for validation testing over the
systems, so logic dictates that it will efits can be found in its architecture, years and has not encountered issues
soon fade away. That may be a logical which makes MIL-STD-1553B reliable with interoperability, even though mas-
assumption, but it’s likely to prove and fault-tolerant for connecting proces- sive numbers of designers have imple-
wrong, for several reasons. sors with real-time sensors and con- mented it in diverse systems.
The most obvious is that MIL-STD- trollers. It’s arguable that the most impor- Beyond these points there is the fact
1553B continues to fly on at least tant reason MIL-STD-1553B still retains that MIL-STD-1553B, or its protocol, is
30,000 aircraft, as well as on commer- its stature for mission-critical systems is used in a variety of other standards, and
cial and military ships, and is widely its command/response protocol that en- it’s a long list (Table 1). The world of
used in industrial and other applica- sures real-time determinism (Figure 1). communications bus standards – and
tions. The situation is analogous to the Avionics and other systems that oper- MIL-STD-1553B nomenclature – is deep,
International Space Station (where it’s ate in real time require determinism to wide, and often obscure, with countries
also present). The ISS was expected to ensure predictable behavior, every time, and defense agencies within them
“last” until 2015 but when it arrived, without fail. That is, a real-time system tweaking the bus and renaming it. For
ISS lifetime projections were extended must behave in a way that can be math- example, the upper-layer protocol of
to 2020 and then to 2024, and the latest ematically predicted, executing func- MIL-STD-1553B is also used in FC-AE-
consensus is 2028. tions with no concern that they will be 1553 and High-Speed 1760.
Basically, until its weaknesses bla- degraded in an unexpected way. For FC-AE-1553 uses the MIL-STD-1553B
tantly outweigh its strengths, the ISS real-time systems in which surprises are command and response protocol and
Chris Parypa Photography/Shutterstock.com

will still be up there, along with MIL- intolerable, MIL-STD-1553B is nearly supports all its core elements including
STD-1553B. Down here on Earth, it will perfect in its ability to predictably per- command and status, sub addresses,
take decades before all the platforms form functions in real-time with mi- mode codes, transfers between remote
MIL-STD-1553B controls are either ob- crosecond accuracy and very low jitter. terminal, error checking, and broadcast.
soleted or worn out, and combined with The standard was created to operate As a result, it allows the reuse of MIL-
the slow process of defense technology in hostile environments that include STD-1553 and MIL-STD-1760 com-
insertion and the high cost of retrofits, lightning, wide temperature ranges, mands and legacy software. In addition,
MIL-STD-1553B will be here longer high levels of vibration, and the poten- FC-AE-1553 includes extensions and
than many of the readers of this article. tial for significant interference. The lat- optimizations supporting RDMA to pro-
The standard is so valuable that there ter is the result of galvanic isolation that vide direct memory access of remote
are still many sources of every type of its transformers provide to fend off systems over Fibre Channel.

8 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
FAILURE IS NOT AN OPTION.
3
❏ FIPS 140-2
9
❏ NIAP
9
❏ Rugged

3
❏ NIST
3
❏ U.S. Supply Chain

RUGGED AND SECURE.


Crystal Group PASS – Platform Agnostic Security Solutions – includes the world’s first rugged
FIPS 140-2 compliant data-at-rest storage devices, ruggedized Ruckus ICX switches with NIAP
certified IP-security modules for network encryption, and exclusively conformal-coated Seagate
2.5-inch, dual-port SAS drives compatible with any Crystal Group server, workstation, and JBOD or
RAID storage system. Crystal Group manufactures its products in vertically integrated NIST com-
pliant, AS9100D certified, U.S.-based facilities, tracing every component – from the raw materials
through production processes to the delivery of the final warrantied product – to ensure an end-to-
end U.S. supply chain of custody and help prevent security vulnerabilities. To request more
information or receive a quote visit crystalrugged.com.

SERVERS | DISPLAYS | STORAGE | NETWORKING | EMBEDDED | CARBON FIBER


sales@crystalrugged.com | 800.378.1636 | crystalrugged.com

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-856

Cov ToC
Hi-Rel Electronics

MIL-STD-1760 is typically used for in- coaxial cables. The Fibre Channel upper money has been invested in making
terfacing weapon stores to an aircraft’s layer protocols are based on FC-AE- MIL-STD-1553B viable in the future. In
control systems, but an enhanced ver- 1553, MIL-STD-1553B for command and fact, variants of the standards today are
sion called High-Speed 1760 (SAE stan- control messaging, and FC-AV for trans- actually delivering data rates of 100
dard AS6653) has a high-speed interface ferring images, video, and audio files. Mb/s – 100 times that of MIL-STD-
based on Fibre Channel that can deliver The final reason for the standard’s 1553B – and have demonstrated their
data rates up to 1 Gb/s over two 75-ohm longevity it that a lot of time and ability to reach 200 Mb/s.
So, why haven’t these variants trans-
formed the standard into something
like MIL-STD-1553C? Well, they have,
Advanced Capacitors for Demanding Applications but in a much more limited fashion
than might be expected. To better un-
derstand this, it helps to trace the long,
winding path that this standard has
traveled in the last 15 years or so.

Toward a Better Bus


In the 2000s, the Air Force recog-
nized that, as it would cost (at that
time) more than $1 million per aircraft
to replace MIL-STD-1553, the logical
step would be to enhance MIL-STD-
1553 to increase data rates, hopefully
to 200 Mb/s or even higher while al-
lowing simultaneous transfer on exist-
ing MIL-STD-1553B cable. To this end,
Data Device Corp. (DDC) and Edgewa-
ter Computer Systems expended con-
siderable effort to develop versions of
MIL-STD-1553B that would allow it to
remain viable. Both were successful,
achieving excellent results without
significantly modifying the standard’s
fundamentals. The first of DDC’s ef-
forts resulted in what the company
called Turbo 1553 that increased the
data rate of the bus to 5 Mb/s on stan-
dard MIL-STD-1553 terminals over 430
feet with 10 stub connections to three
EVANSCAPS enable many of today’s most advanced remotes.
The second, called “High Perform-
power-hungry pulsing applications. ance 1553” or “Hyper 1553” uses fre-
quency-division multiplexing and other
EVANSCAPS’ trusted & proven hybrid wet tantalumm techniques to allow higher speed data
technology provides more energy storage in to be simultaneously carried along with
standard 1-Mb/s data on the same cable.
a smaller space. They are suitable for many
It was envisioned to implement a multi-
applications in radar, laser, microwave, power drop bus and eliminate the need for ac-
hold-up, electronic warfare, and many more. tive hubs or switches. In Hyper 1553,
the 1-Mb/s signals are limited to lower
• The most power dense capacitor in the market frequencies while the higher speed sig-
• Significant SWaP savings www.evanscap.com
nals occupy higher ones, similar to DSL.

• High current handling & low ESR DDC determined that enough band-
width was available to allow the parallel
• Rugged, hermetically sealed, HI-REL design signals to be reliably transferred at
higher speeds, depending on the length
of the bus and number of stubs.

10 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-882 Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Zero Gravity.
Zero Oxygen.
Zero Margin of Error.

When you’re dangling 150 miles above the stratosphere, systems failure is not an option.
At Positronic, we build high reliability power and signal connectors. But our true call is to
provide certainty. Rock solid, mission-critical performance upon which you can bank life
and limb, family and fortune. We consider it an honor. We consider it an inviolable trust.

POSITRONIC. THE SCIENCE OF CERTAINTY. // www.connectpositronic.com/adt_sept2018


Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-857

Cov ToC
Hi-Rel Electronics

DDC demonstrated HyPer 1553 in a 2- in the forward avionics bay and a bomb Meanwhile, Edgewater was produc-
hr. flight on an Air Force F15-E1 Strike mounted on a pylon. The data was trans- ing similar results with the major ben-
Eagle fighter in 2005, where it was used ferred without errors at 40 Mb/s over ex- efit of being under contract to DoD to
to transfer imagery between a computer isting cabling along with 1 Mb/s traffic. develop Extended 1553 (E1553). Edge-
water, along with researchers from the
A Typical 1553 System Air Force and Navy, worked on the
project for several years, and the tech-
nology was flight tested in an Air Force
Mission F-16 and Navy F/A-18. The results were
Platform I/O NAV Computer Stores
RT BC RT very promising, but as the program
didn’t have the visibility and priority
of others, the Air Force cancelled it. It
did this even though the goal of a 200
A Mb/s data rate was achieved, again
MIL-STD-1553 BUS without the need for huge changes,
B
while also simultaneously transferring
Avionic Subsystem standard data at 1 Mb/s. The company
RT RT believed it had the potential to reach
RT - Remote Terminal RADAR 500 Mb/s.
HUD
However, all of this work had not
BC - Bus Controller
Intelligent Terminal gone unnoticed, and the Assistant Sec-
retary of Defense for Research and Engi-
Figure 1. A typical MIL-STD-1553B system including remote terminals and bus controllers serving various neering and a consortium from Canada,
portions of an aircraft. the U.K., Germany, and others success-

12 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-858 Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
POWER YOUR
CRITICAL
MISSION
TODAY

High Reliability
Solutions for High
Reliability Programs
VPT provides proven DC-DC converters
and EMI filters for leading global space,
military, industrial, and avionics programs.

www.vptpower.com

MIL-PRF-38534 CLASS H & CLASS K | EFFICIENT & RELIABLE | PRODUCTS SHIP FROM STOCK
25 YEARS OF PROVEN HERITAGE
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-859

Cov ToC
Hi-Rel Electronics

fully petitioned to complete E1553 de- Panel (AVSP), chaired by the U.S. Navy, The result was a NATO Standardiza-
velopment work. It was ultimately to sponsor standardization efforts tion Agreement (STANAG 7221) and in
tested on fixed-and rotary-wing aircraft, within NATO. The ratification process 2015 the “Broadband Real-Time Data
which led the NATO Avionics System began in 2010. Bus Standard” was unanimously rati-
fied. STANAG defines everything from
processes and procedures to terms and
conditions for design and manufacture
of military equipment among NATO
member countries. Its goal was to create
a NATO-specific set of standards so that
all members could work off the same
page, so to speak. It was a logical and,
perhaps, essential approach considering
the alternative.
So, E1553 is still alive and well in its
standard form as well as delivering 100
Mb/s performance using its infrastruc-
ture in avionics and other defense ap-
plications it could previously not
serve. However, E1553 (i.e., STANAG
7221) has an additional result: limit-
ing the use of a new and improved ver-
sion of MIL-STD-1553B only to those
with permission: NATO countries and
their representatives. So, while MIL-
Figure 2. MIL-STD-1553B still continues to function high above the Earth aboard the International Space STD-1553B has advanced over the
Station. (Image: 3Dsculptor/shutterstock) years, the odd result is that the hun-
dreds of other applications in which
ARINC 629 Derivation of MIL-1553 used by commercial aircraft. MIL-STD-1553B is used can’t benefit
from the one delivering the highest
Miniature Mission Stores 10 Mb/s MIL-STD 1553 protocol using RS-485 transceivers. performance.
Interface (MIMSI) Same as EBR-1553
SAE AS5652 10 Mb/s MIL-STD-1553B variant Summary
MIL-STD-1553B has nine lives, and
Enhanced Bit Rate-1553 Enhanced version of MIL-STD-1553, which enables 1553 data about eight have been used up. How-
(EBR-1553) rates of 10 Mb/s ever, the sheer breadth of the applica-
MIL-STD-1773 Uses optical fiber instead of copper tions in which this standard is deployed
makes it virtually certain that it will
MIL-STD-1760 Enhanced, 10-Mb/s version of MIL-STD-1553 optimized for
continue to be around for many years.
data transfer between aircraft and stores
Nevertheless, new systems all use some-
HyPer 1553 100 Mb/s coexisting with legacy MIL-STD-1553 thing more modern typically based on
Ethernet or one of its variants such as
E1553 (Extended 1553) 200-Mb/s version of MIL-STD-1553, developed and trade-
Time-Triggered Ethernet (SAE AS6802)
marked by Edgewater Computer Systems, in NATO called
or AFDX, as well as Fibre Channel, or
NATO-STANAG 7221
IEEE 1394 (FireWire).
NATO-STANAG 3838 AVS Originally the same as MIL-1553B; modified later Looking back, it’s unfortunate that
the evolution of MIL-STD-1553B ulti-
NATO-STANAG 3910 Derivation of MIL-1553 used in NATO and the UK operating
mately wound up as a rather closeted
at 20 Mb/s over fiber
standard, highly unlikely to find its way
NATO-STANAG 7155 Designed to improve maintenance and reduce life-cycle into commercial markets, even though
costs of avionics systems using SAE AS15531 it delivers data rates high enough to
serve many applications today and to-
NATO-STANAG 7221 NATO standard for E1553
morrow.
DEF STAN 00-18 Part 2 Modified UK defense version of MIL-STD-1553B. Has six This article was written by Mark Hearn,
parts, covering different variants Product Manager, MilesTek Corporation
(Lewisville, TX). For more information,
Table 1. Some MIL-STD-1553 Variants and NATO Standards visit http://info.hotims.com/69510-501.

14 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
M I C R O H Y D R AU L I C S.

MACRO
CAPABILITIES.
REDUCING THE SIZE AND WEIGHT
O F F L UI D C ON TRO L .
Designing hydraulic systems to perform flawlessly under less-than-ideal
conditions is hard enough. But factor in the need to keep components
as small and light as possible, and you’ve got a real challenge.
Fortunately, you’ve got a real solution. The Lee Company.

For more than 70 years, we’ve been engineering state-


of-the-art microhydraulic components with diameters
as small as 0.10 in. and weighing as little as 0.1g, but
able to withstand pressures up to 8,000 psi.

And because every one of our designs originates


out of an application need, and is scrutinized with
100% testing and inspection, we’re found in
just about every mission-critical fluid control
challenge you could imagine – from
miles above the earth in satellite
positioning systems, to miles below
in downhole drilling. Plus many
applications in between.

If you require precise fluid control, and


absolute reliability, go with the experts.
Contact The Lee Company.

Innovation in Miniature

2 Pettipaug Rd, Westbrook CT 06498-0424


860-399-6281 | Fax: 860-399-2270 | 1-800-LEE PLUG | www.TheLeeCo.com
The Lee Company WESTBROOK•LONDON•PARIS•FRANKFURT•MILAN•STOCKHOLM

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-860

Cov ToC
Combating Infrared Threats
on the Battlefield

T
here have been several news Protecting warfighters from laser eye New Approaches for Advanced Laser
headlines lately about offend- damage requires systems designers who Eye Protection
ers pointing commercial lasers have knowledge of the specific wave- Processes, materials and systems have
at helicopters or police person- lengths so they can design systems that advanced over the years and VIAVI is
nel, temporarily blinding and distract- block or reflect the specific wavelength now collaborating on new approaches
ing them. An increasing number of of the laser while maximizing the trans- for laser eye protection. A proprietary,
“laser assault” incidents have led to mission of light at the wavelength load-locked, magnetron sputtering
tougher penalties with fines and jail needed for operation of the system. coating chamber, known as UCP, pro-
time in various countries. The lasers duces notch filters and broadband IR
typically used in these attacks operate Laser Interference Filters blocking filters that are of the highest
in the visible light spectrum; therefore, The eighties saw development of the quality in the industry.
these lasers can be blocked by special first laser interference filters (LIF) for U.S. UCP relies upon a very precise and
absorbing optical dyes contained in spe- Army NVGs as a countermeasure to jam- stable deposition process, enabled by a
cial laser defense eyewear. ming and damage. The challenge was to unique internal geometry as well as a
On the battlefield, however, modern create a coating that could block harmful load lock feature. This combination of
military equipment and enemy threats laser wavelengths, while allowing trans- attributes, along with a low coating tem-
utilize lasers that operate in the infrared mission of visible and NIR light for perature in UCP, enables precision LEP
(IR) spectrum to harm pilots and warfighters to successfully perform their coatings on plastic polycarbonate lenses
ground forces. It’s difficult to detect missions. A unique dieletric coating was customarily used for ballistic eyewear.
these invisible lasers, and a more so- created that protected night vision de- UCP coatings may be several tens of
phisticated technology is required to vices from laser damaging IR aiming and microns thick and are very clear, in the
block lasers at the IR wavelengths. pointing lasers used by U.S. forces and visible range, and dense. Coating geom-
Many military operations occur at our allies. Today, LIFs are a standard pro- etry optimization within the UCP cham-
night, requiring warfighters to wear tective feature on U.S. military-grade ber produces low haze, high uniformity
night vision goggles (NVGs). Soldiers night vision systems. Over 1.2 million coatings over curved surfaces. Compa-
and pilots wearing NVG’s need protec- LIFs have been used extensively in mili- nies like Gentex Corporation, a global
tion from friendly forces’ IR aiming and tary operations around the world, in- leader in personal protection for defense
pointing lasers as well as threat IR lasers. cluding in Iraq and Afghanistan. forces, use these dielectric coatings to

Broad band IR blocking filters can be


coated on visors such as the one shown
in this image to protect pilots from
infrared laser threats.
(Courtesy: Gentex Corp.)

16 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
VXI & P
PX
XI Platforms in Switching Applications
How to Migrate and Cross-Reference

VXI:
VME eXtensions for Instrumentation (VXI) is an open standard platform
for automated test based on the modular VME computer bus. Introduced
in 1987, this modular chassis-based architecture reduced the size and
increased the performance of high-end test systems. VXI systems provided
higher data transfer rates and real-time performance not possible with
rack-and stack systems, and were principally successful in the military and
aerospace markets. However, VXI is now over 30 years old and many of the
leading T&M companies are now no longer supporting the standard.

PXI:
Today, more test systems designers are choosing the PCI eXtensions for
Instrumentation (PXI) platform when designing new modular test systems
or replacing or updating existing test systems such as VXI. Originally
introduced in 1997, PXI is an open T&M standard now supported by almost
70 companies working under the umbrella of the PXI Systems Alliance
(PXISA), which publishes the PXI specification and ensures instrumentation
interoperability. Pickering Interfaces is one of six current Board level
members of the PXISA.

The main advantages of PXI compared to VXI:


• Availability. PXI’s biggest advantage over VXI is product availability—Pickering alone hass a catalog of over 1000 PXI modules.
Practically all VXI instruments now have functionally equivalent options in PXI, and far feewer new VXI modules are being
developed. The Consortium that manages the VXI specification is now down to just ten members,
m and even we have dropped
our VXI line due to key part obsolescence and reduced market requirements.
• Lower cost. Hardware costs are lower for PXI than VXI. PXI is based on the PCI bus usedd in many personal computers and can
take advantage of the modern PC marketplace and its readily available components. PXII systems typically cost one-half to one-
third of an equivalent VXI system.
• Data throughput. The most common version of the PCI bus has a peak bandwidth of 1322 MB/s and is the implementation
employed in the majority of PXI systems—this data bandwidth performance easily exceed ds the performance of the older
VXI test standard. In addition, PXI Express, based on the multi-gigabytes per second dataa throughput of the PCI Express
serial bus architecture, was introduced as an extension to the PXI standard in 2005 to su
upport the latest bandwidth-hungry
instrumentation.
• Size. PXI modules are significantly smaller than functioonally equivalent VXI modules, which reduces test system footprintt and
allows developers to incorporate more functionality into their test systems.

Switching | Simulation | Programmable Ressistors | Custom Design | Connectivity & Cables

pickeringtest.com

Cov ToC
VXI & PXI Platforms in Switcching Applicationss

Making the right chooice


While the availability of
o PXI modules makes the choice relatively easy, there is the issue of migrating test prograams
from VXI to PXI, specififically in switching applicationss.
To help ease this transsition, we have developed PXI switching
s and simulation modu ules that closely match the
operation of VXI switchhing modules from Racal (EAD DS/Astronics), VTI Instruments, Keysight (Agilent, HP), Ascor,,
Cytec, Tek, and other manufacturers.
m And, our policy of supporting our PXI Switching products for 15 to 20 yearss, or
even longer, means that your next-generation test syystems will have as long a life as their predecessors.

Migration issues
While PXI is clearly thee modular platform of choice when
w designing new test and measurement
m systems or
upgrading existing sysstems, you may encounter som me issues when doing so:
Module real estatte. A C-size VXI module has a lot
l more space to mount comp ponents on than a PXI module,
meaning that som me VXI modules may have morre features or functionality than
n the PXI modules you choose to
replace them.
them Gen nerally,
nerally however
however, VXI module designs
d are not as dense as today
day’ss PXI modules,
modules and so thiss is
usually not an issue.
Cabling. VXI modu ules have a wider front panel (1.188 inches) than PXI modulees (0.8 inches)—meaning that
many of the conneectors used in VXI systems can nnot be used in a PXI system. So, plan on building or buying new
cables or buying aadaptors. Our standard range of Cables & Connectors includ des 1200+ Connection Solutionns,
and our free on-line Cable Design tool will help on custom connectivity requirrements.

NEW
W - Pickering’s Cable Desiign Tool

Go to pickeringtest.com/cdt to find out more.

Software. Unfortu
unately there is no easy way too migrate VXI test programs too PXI. But, given the number off
test
test-development
development software packages available for
f the PC platform,
platform this may nnot be as big an obstacle as it
might appear.

The Cross-Referencee Tables


The Pickering PXI mod dules referred to in the followin
ng tables are
in many cases a close equivalent to the VXI models (because
( of the
large PCB real estate of
o C-Size VXI modules, channeel counts may
be different). Specificattions may not be exactly the saame, depending
on your application, a different
d Pickering PXI modulee may be closer
too your
y requirements
equ than
t what is shown here;
e; pleasse contact our
Support team for moree assistance in finding the corrrect module for
your requirements.

Cov ToC
RACAL (EADS/Astronics) - VXI to PXI Switching Cross-Reference
RACAL (EADS/Astronics) Legacy VXI Module Equivalent Pickering PXI Module
Switch Type Part No. Configuration Specification Part No. Configuration Specification
@?>?=< 8 Bank / 8 Channel Versatile 2-Pole
Multiplexer 2Amp 40-613-002 2Amp
1260-x138 / 2 Pole ;:9
1260-40A 24x4, 2-Pole 0*(00, 32x4 2-Pole Max Voltage: 300VDC/250AC, Max Current: 2A,
1260-40B 12x8, 2-Pole Max Voltage: 250VDC/AC, Max Current: 1A, 40-518A-002 16x8 2-Pole ;?8<765432<-0/.-,+*)('<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<0;!
;?8<765432<10/.-,+*)('<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<,0;! Max Voltage: 150VDC/100AC, Max Current: 1A,
1260-40C Dual 12x4, 2-Pole 40-511-022 Dual 12x4 2-Pole
;?8<765432<,0/'<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<,*;!
Matrix
Max Voltage: 220VDC/250AC, Max Current: 2A, Max Voltage: 300VDC/250AC, Max Current: 2A,
1260-43 Triple 24x8, 2-Pole 40-586A-001 Dual 32x8 2-Pole
;?8<765432<-0/.-,+*)('<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<0;! ;?8<765432<-0/.-,+*)('<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<*;!
Max Voltage: 250VDC/AC, Max Current: 1A, Max Voltage: 150VDC/100AC, Max Current: 0.5A,
1260-45 Quad 16x4, 2-Pole 40-534A-022 Dual 32x4 2-Pole
;?8<765432<10/.-,+*)('<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<,*;! Max Power: 10W
Max Voltage: 110VDC/250AC, Max Current: 6A, Max Voltage: 400VDC/250AC, Max Current: 5A,
16-Channel
1260-16A 64-Channel SPDT Max Power: 180W/1500VA, 40-156-001 Max Power: 175W/1250VA,
SPDT
;?8<&34%$4#>"2<0;! ;?8<&34%$4#>"2<,0;!
Max Voltage: 250VDC/380AC, Max Current: 8A, Max Voltage: 125VDC/250AC, Max Current: 8A,
10-Channel
1260-20 20-Channel DPST Max Power: 150W/12000VA, 40-160-002 Max Power: 240W/2000VA,
DPST
;?8<&34%$4#>"2<10;! ;?8<&34%$4#>"2<0;!
Power
Max Voltage: 300VDC/250AC, Max Current: 16A,
1260-22 40-Channel SPST 40-161-001 16-Channel SPST Max Power: 448W/4000VA,
Max Voltage: 250VDC/AC, Max Current: 20A, ;?8<&34%$4#>"2<,0;!
Max Power: 600W/4800VA,
;?8<&34%$4#>"2<100! Max Voltage: 300VDC/250AC, Max Current: 16A,
Multiplexer, Multiplexer, 4
1260-22A 40-662-001 Max Power: 448W/4000VA,
&4<8<?#<4#<,8 Bank 4:1
;?8<&34%$4#>"2<0;!
Max Voltage: 200VDC/AC, Max Current: 0.5A, Max Voltage: 200VDC/AC, Max Current: 1A,
1260-50D Sixteen 1x4 40-755-010 Ten 1x4
Max Power: 10W, B/W: 350MHz Max Power: 10W, B/W: 500MHz
Six 2x6, Three 2x2 or Max Voltage: 110VDC/125VAC, Max Current: 0.5A,
1260-51 6<%$?=4#  
One 2x36 Max Power: 30W/62.5VA, B/W: 400MHz
RF
Max Voltage: 30VDC/100VAC, Max Current: 1.5A, Max Voltage: 200VDC/AC, Max Current: 1A,
1260-54 Six 1x4s 40-755-110 Ten 1x4
Max Power: 40W, B/W: 1.3GHz Max Power: 10W, B/W: 1.8GHz
Max Voltage: 24VDC/24VAC, Max Current: 10mA, Max Voltage: 30VDC/AC, Max Current: 0.5A,
1260-58 &6$3<7 40-784A-002 Two SP6T
Max Power: 10W, B/W: >1GHz Max Power: 10W, B/W: 6GHz
Microwave SPDT, SP4T, SP6T, ;?8<&34%$4#>"2<,-+*! Max Voltage: 100V, Max Current: 1A,
1260-67M 40-784A-033 3xSP6T
50Ω 3?#43 ;?8<765432<1/ ,-+*! ;?8<765432<0/'<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<,-+*!
,-01( 1 '<
<8 Max Voltage: 100V AC/DC, Max Current: 0.5A 6<%$?=4#  
Special RF ,-01(<<(< ,-01'<;?8<765432<00/'<
,-01 1 '<844#<8 ;?8<&34%$4#>"2<00;! 6<%$?=4#  
Max Voltage: 5.25V, Max Current: 15mA Max Voltage: 7V,
32 Discrete I/O,
1260-14 -<>344<.'< source/48mA sink, Max Power: 252mW, Max 40-410-001 Max Current: 0.4mA source/8mA sink,
TTL
&34%$4#>"2<! <5.<0<63<,00<! <5.<0 ;?8<765432<*-/'<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<00!
Max Voltage: 5V, Max Current: 6mA source or sink,
1260-14 -<>344<.'<
Digital Test ;?8<765432<10/'<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<! < 6<%$?=4#  
(CMOS) CMOS
w/Opt 01 or 200 kHz w/Opt 01T
Max Voltage: 32V, Max Current: 200mA sink, 32 TTL Inputs, 32 Max Voltage: 50V Open Collector,
-<>344<.'<
1260-14C ;?8<765432<-+/'<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<! <5.<0< 40-410-002 Open Collector Max Current: 20mA sink,
open-collector
or 200 kHz w/Opt 01T Outputs ;?8<765432<,*/'<;?8<&34%$4#>"2<00!

VTI Instruments VXI to PXI Switching Cross-Reference


VTI Instruments SMP family comprises various switching modules and VXI Carrier cards. Depending on the model, the carrier cards can
hold up to six SMP Modules. As there are a very large number of configurations possible, the chart focuses only on the SMP modules.

VTI Instruments Legacy VXI Module Equivalent Pickering PXI Module


Switch Type Part No. Config. Specification Part No. Config. Specification
Max Switching Voltage: 300VAC/VDC,
SMP5001 80 SPST Max Switching Current: 2A, 010 80 SPST
Max Switching Power: 60W/125VA, B/W: 100MHz
Max Switching Voltage: 300VAC/VDC, Max Switching Voltage: 300VAC/250VDC
SMP5002 50 SPDT Max Switching Current: 2A, 01,0 52 SPDT Max Switching Current: 2A
Max Switching Power: 60W/125VA, B/W: 100MHz Max Switching Power: 60W/62.5VA
52 SPDT(3 B/W: 70MHz
Max Switching Voltage: 300VAC/VDC,
General SPDT switches
SMP5003 26 SP4T Max Switching Current: 2A, 01,0
Purpose wired to make
Max Switching Power: 60W/125VA, B/W: 100MHz
SP4T switch)
Max Switching Voltage: 250VAC/30VDC,
SMP5004 30 SPDT Max Switching Current: 5A, Max Switching Voltage: 250VAC/400VDC
Max Switching Power: 150W/1250VA, B/W: 50MHz Max Switching Current: 5A
40-156-001 18 SPDT
Max Switching Voltage: 250VAC/30VDC, Max Switching Power: 175W/1250VA
SMP5005 48 SPST Max Switching Current: 5A, B/W: 20MHz
Max Switching Power: 150W/1250VA, B/W: 50MHz

Cov ToC
VTI Instruments VXI to PXI Switching Cross-Reference (continued)
VTI Instruments Legacy VXI Module Equivalent Pickering PXI Module
Switch Type Part No. Config. Specification Part No. Config. Specification
Max Voltage: 400VAC/125VDC, Max Current: 16A, Max Voltage: 400VAC/250VDC
SMP2001A 20 SPST 40-161-001 16 SPST
=A:>987654>32210!222+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#" Max Current: 16A
Max Voltage: 250VAC/125VDC, Max Current: 16A, Max Power: 448W/4000VA
SMP2002A 12 SPDT 40-161-101 12 SPDT =A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#"
=A:>987654>32210.222+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#"
Max Voltage: 270VAC/220VDC, Max Current: 20A, No
SMP2003 8 SPDT  
=A:>987654>/2210,!22+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#" '&A?6%
Max Voltage: 270VAC/220VDC, Max Current: 20A, No
SMP2004 12 SPDT  
=A:>987654>/2210,!22+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#" '&A?6%
Max Voltage: 270VAC/220VDC, Max Current: 20A, No
SMP2005 3 SPDT, SP4T  
=A:>987654>/2210,!22+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#" '&A?6%
=A:>+8?A 64>,22+)>=A:>&556%4>*> 8)>.*>@A55$)>
SMP2007 48:1 Mux Max Voltage: 110VDC/250VAC hot,
=A:>987654>.,1)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#"
40-331-001 24:1 Mux 750VDC/750VAC cold, Max Current: 5A hot/cold,
=A:>+8?A 64>222+)>=A:>&556%4>*> 8)>.*>@A55$)> =A:>987654>,210.,2+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>,=#"
SMP2007A 48:1 Mux
=A:>987654>.,1)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#"
Power Max Voltage: 125VDC/250VAC hot,
=A:>+8?A 64>,22+)>=A:>&556%4>*> 8)>.*>@A55$)>
SMP2008 16 DPST 40-151-002 12 DPST 400VDC/250VAC cold, Max Current: 5A hot/cold,
=A:>987654>.,1)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>3,=#"
=A:>987654>,10.,2+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#"
Max Voltage: 35VDC/250VAC hot,
=A:>+8?A 64>,22+)>=A:>&556%4>*> 8)>.*>@A55$)>
=9.22 16 SPDT 40-156-001 16 SPDT 400VDC/250VAC cold, Max Current: 5A hot/cold,
=A:>987654>.,1)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>3,=#"
=A:>987654>,10.,2+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#"
Max Voltage: 300VDC/250VAC hot,
Max Voltage: 277VDC/220VAC, Max Current: 30A,
SMP2012 10 SPST 40-170-001 2 SPST 400VDC/250VAC cold, Max Current: 16A hot/cold, Max
=A:>987654>2210222+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#"
987654>2210222+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>2=#"
Max Voltage: 300VDC/250VAC hot,
Max Voltage: 60VDC, Max Current: 20A,
SMP2104 10 SPST 40-161-002 12 SPST 400VDC/250VAC cold, Max Current: 16A hot/cold,
Max Power: 1200W
=A:>987654>!!10!222+*)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#"
Max Voltage: 28VDC/ 115VAC 400 Hz, Max Current: 25A, No
SMP2113 3 SP4T, 1 SPDT  
=A:>987654>221)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#" '&A?6%
2 SP4T, 2 Dual Max Voltage: 28VDC/ 115VAC 400 Hz, Max Current: 25A, No
SMP2122  
Ganged SPDT =A:>987654>221)>=A:>(56'&6%@$4>.2=#" '&A?6%
6A%@64>,2)>=A:>+8?A 64>,2+0,2+*>6A)>
SMP2300 24 SPST =A:>&556%4>*> 8)>.*>@A55$)> 6A%@64>,2)>
Max Power: 25W, B/W: >25MHz Max Voltage: 750VDC/750VAC peak,
High 40-330-001 24 SPST Max Current: 5A hot/cold,
Voltage 6A%@64>3)>=A:>+8?A 64>,2+0,2+*>6A)> Max Power: 750W/750VA,
=9.322 3 24 SPST =A:>&556%4>*> 8)>.*>@A55$)> B/W: 5MHz
Max Power: 25W, B/W: >25MHz
Max Voltage: 300VDC/250VAC, Max Current: 2A hot/cold,
SMP4001  !:!
>. 156 40-518A-002 16x8 2-Wire
Max Power: 60W/62.5VA, B/W: 10MHz
Max Voltage: 150VDC/100VAC, Max Current: 2A hot/cold,
SMP4002 4x36 2-Wire Max Switching Voltage: 300VAC/DC 40-566A-001 55x4 2-Wire
Max Power: 60W/62.5VA, B/W: 10MHz
Max Switching Current: 2A
2(4x16), 1(4x4) Max Switching Power: 60W/125VA
SMP4003 !2 ,* 22. 32x4 2-Wire
2-Wire B/W: 45MHz
1(8x16), 1(4x4)
SMP4004 Max Voltage: 300VDC/250VAC
2-Wire 40-518A-002 16x8 2-Wire Max Current: 2A hot/cold
SMP4005 12x12 2-Wire Max Power: 60W/62.5VA
SMP4006 3(4x12) 2-Wire 40-517-002 4x16 2-Wire B/W: 10MHz
Max Switching Voltage: 300VAC/DC,
Matrix Max Switching Current: 2A,
2(8x8), 1(4x4)
SMP4007 Max Switching Power: 60W/125VA, B/W: 30MHz 40-516-002 8x8 2-Wire
2-Wire
Max Switching Voltage: 110VAC/125DC,
No
SMP4024 . .!:.
>3 Max Switching Current: 1A,  
'&A?6%
Max Switching Power: 30W/37.5VA, B/W: 50MHz
Max Switching Voltage: 300VAC/DC, Max Voltage: 300VDC/250VAC,
SMP4028 8(2x8) 1-Wire Max Switching Current: 2A, 40-527-001 64x2 1-Wire Max Current: 2A hot/cold,
Max Switching Power: 60W/125VA, B/W: 25MHz Max Power: 60W/62.5VA, B/W: 15MHz
Max Switching Voltage: 110VAC/125DC,
8x20 Coaxial 12x8 Coxial Max Voltage: 100VDC, Max Current: 0.5A,
SMP4044 Max Switching Current: 1A, 40-726A-511
,2 ,2 Max Power: 10W, B/W: 300MHz
Max Switching Power: 30W/37.5VA, B/W: 50MHz
Max Voltage: 300VDC/250VAC,
40-635-001 64x1 1-Wire Max Current: 2A hot/cold,
SMP3001 64x1 1-Wire Max Power: 60W/62.5VA, B/W: 15MHz
Max Switching Voltage: 300VAC/DC
Max Switching Current: 2A 40-614-010 64x1 1-Wire
Multiplexer
Max Switching Power: 60W/125VA Max Voltage: 200VDC/140VAC,
SMP3001DS 64x1 2-Wire B/W: >100MHz 40-614-016 64x1 2-Wire
Max Current: 2A hot/cold,
40-614-004 8(1x8) Max Power: 60W/62.5VA, B/W: 15MHz
SMP3002 16(1x8) 2-Wire
.>56'&56
2-Wire

pickeringtest.com

Cov ToC
Programming Support
VTI Instruments VXI to PXI Switching Cross-Reference (continued)
VTI Instruments Legacy VXI Module Equivalent Pickering PXI Module
Switch Type Part No. Config. Specification Part No. Config. Specification
?>=<;?:>987>65> Max Voltage: 100VAC/30VDC, Max Current: 0.5A, ?>=<;?:>987>65> Max Voltage: 200VAC/DC, Max Current: 1A,
SMP6301 40-755-104
Switches Max Power: 10W, B/W: >1.8GHz Switches Max Power: 10W, B/W: DC to 1.8GHz
<4>3210>65> Max Voltage: 100VAC, Max Current: 0.5A, </>3210>65> Max Voltage: 200VAC/DC, Max Current: 1A,
SMP6204 40-754-017
Switches Max Power: 10W, B/W: >500MHz Switches Max Power: 10W, B/W: DC to 500MHz
.><-?>65> Max Voltage: 100VAC, Max Current: 0.5A, <8><-?>65> Max Voltage: 200VAC/DC, Max Current: 1A,
SMP6203 40-755-010
Multiplexers Max Power: 10W, B/W: >500MHz Switches Max Power: 10W, B/W: DC to 500MHz
</>3210>65> Max Voltage: 100VAC, Max Current: 0.5A, </>3210>65> Max Voltage: 200VAC/DC, Max Current: 1A,
SMP6202 40-754-017
Switches Max Power: 10W, B/W: >500MHz Switches Max Power: 10W, B/W: DC to 500MHz
<8><-?>65> Max Voltage: 100VAC, Max Current: 0.5A, <8><-?>65> Max Voltage: 200VAC/DC, Max Current: 1A,
SMP6201 40-755-010
Multiplexers Max Power: 10W, B/W: >500MHz Multiplexers Max Power: 10W, B/W: DC to 500MHz
RF
Max Voltage: 100VAC, Max Current: 0.5A, Max Voltage: 60VDC, Max Current: 0.1A,
SMP6144 ?;?>65>,+*)(; 40-750-521 ';4>65>,+*)(;
Max Power: 10W, B/W: >1GHz Max Power: 10W, B/W: DC to 1.5GHz
.>4;4>65> Max Voltage: 100VAC, Max Current: 0.5A, 1&+%>4;4>65> Max Voltage: 30VAC/DC, Max Current: 1A,
SMP6122 40-784A-033
Matrices Max Power: 10W, B/W: >1GHz Matrices Max Power: 10W, B/W: DC to 2.5GHz
<-$<>65> Max Voltage: 100VAC, Max Current: 0.5A, <-$4>65> Max Voltage: 30VAC/DC, Max Current: 1A,
SMP6103 40-766-001
Multiplexer Max Power: 10W, B/W: >750MHz Multiplexer Max Power: 1W, B/W: DC to 600MHz
</>3210>65> Max Voltage: 100VAC, Max Current: 0.5A, </>3210>65> Max Voltage: 200VAC/DC, Max Current: 1A,
SMP6102 40-754-117
Switch Max Power: 10W, B/W: >1.3GHz Switches Max Power: 10W, B/W: DC to 1.2GHz
<8>32?0>65> Max Voltage: 100VAC, Max Current: 0.5A, <8><-?>65> Max Voltage: 200VAC/DC, Max Current: 1A,
SMP6101 40-755-010
Multiplexer Max Power: 10W, B/W: >1.3GHz Multiplexers Max Power: 10W, B/W: DC to 500MHz
,+;>2#"!)->48 >,+;>5)!&!-><'>
Single 6:1 Single 6:1
SMP7274 3 6-><9-<><'> 40-784A-021 Max Voltage: 100V
Multiplexer Multiplexer
!)*(#>#->89><'>#%+*(#->.8><' Max Current: 1A
,+;>2#"!)->48 >,+;>5)!&!-><'> ,+;>2#"!)-><88 ><'
Single 4:1 Single 4:1
SMP7272 3 6-><9-<><'> 40-784A-121 ,+;>5)!&!-><'
Multiplexer Multiplexer
!)*(#>#->89><'>#%+*(#->.8><' 3 6-><-<9><'
,+;>2#"!)->$ >,+;>5)!&!-><'> !)*(#>#->89><'
Single 6:1 Single 6:1 #%+*(#->.8><'
Microwave SMP7374 3 6-><9-<><'> 40-784A-021
Multiplexer Multiplexer
!)*(#>#->89><'>#%+*(#->.8><'
,+;>2#"!)->$ >,+;>5)!&!->?8> Max Voltage: 100V, Max Current: 1A,
Single 4:1 Single 4:1
SMP7002-2 3 6-><4-<>?8>!)*(#>#->8>98 40-784A-141 ,+;>2#"!)->? >?8>
Multiplexer Multiplexer
>#%+*(#->.8>?8 ,+;>5)!&!->?8>
,+;>2#"!)->$ >,+;>5)!&!-><'> 3 6-><-<44>?8>
Single 6:1 Single 6:1 !)*(#>#-><<>?8>
SMP7374 3 6-><9-<><'>!)*(#>#->89><'> 40-784A-041
Multiplexer Multiplexer #%+*(#->?9>?8
#%+*(#->.8><'
1-Channel 6-Channel Max Voltage: 100V, Max Current: 0.5A,
Programmable Max Voltage: 200VAC, Max Current: 0.5A, Max Power: 5W,
SMP7600 Programmable ?8 49 <4< Programmable ,+;>2#"!)->89 >6+!->8 <.,7>
Resistor >6+!->897 <9,7> &)+->8<97>*#>.87>849 >*#><9,7
6!(*#) 6!(*#) &)+->898

Keysight/Agilent/HP VXI to PXI Switching Cross-Reference


Keysight/Agilent/HP Legacy VXI Module Equivalent Pickering PXI Module
Switch Type Part No. Config. Specification Part No. Config. Specification
,+;>#%*+!->4981

>6,3 Max Voltage: 150VDC/100VAC,
40-110-021 16 SPDT
Max Current: 1A Max Current: 0.25A hot, 1A cold, Max Power: 3W
E1364A 16 SPDT
Max Power: 40W/40VA Max Voltage: 150VDC/100VAC,
B/W: 10MHz 40-148-001 32 SPDT
Max Current: 1A hot/ cold, Max Power: 60W/62.5VA
General
Max Voltage: 150VDC/AC Peak , Max Current: 1A, 40-145-101 75 SPST Max Voltage: 150VDC/100VAC,
Purpose E1442A 64 SPST or SPDT
Max Power: 40W/40VA, B/W: 10MHz 40-148-201 64 SPDT Max Current: 1A hot/ cold, Max Power: 60W/62.5VA
Max Voltage: 125VDC/AC Peak (Hot) 250V (Cold), Max Voltage: 400VDC/AC Peak Cold, 35VDC/250VAC
40-156-001
E1463A 32 SPDT ,+;>
&))!*->9 >1
9 >
>6,3> 16 SPDT Peak Hot , Max Current: 5A hot/ cold,
=4>6!&()!:
Max Power: 150W/ 1250VA, B/W: 10MHz Max Power: 175W/1250VA, B/W: 20MHz
Max Voltage: 150VDC/100VAC,
E1465A 16x16 2-Wire 40-582-001 16x16 2-Wire Max Current: 2A hot/ cold,
,+;>#%*+!->4881
</8
>6,3>> Max Power: 60W/62.5VA, B/W: 10MHz
Matrix 4x64 2-Wire Max Current: 1A DC/ 1A AC Peak,
E1466A #>&(+%!*  
Latching Max Power: 30W/ 62.5VA
8x32 2-Wire
E1467A #>&(+%!*  
Latching
$4-<>50>,> Max Voltage: 16VDC/16VAC Peak ,
#&)!>+>4> Max Voltage: 100V,
Multiplexer E1352A 40-683-001
1 Wire Max Current: 1mA, B/W: 500kHz 64:1 1Wire Max Current: 125mA , B/W: 10MHz
1&+%><;?>987>65> Max Voltage: 42V , Max Current: 1A, 1&+%><;?>987>65>
E1366A 40-872-002
Multiplexer Max Power: 24W/ 24VA, B/W: 1.3GHz Multiplexer
.><;?>65>987> &+><;?>987> Max Voltage: 30V
Max Voltage: 42V,
,>;*!!)> 65>,&%*(%!;!)> Max Current: 1A
E1473A ,+;>
&))!*->< >1
>< >
>6,3> 40-872-004
RF (Works with =#*>+>,> Max Power: 10W
Max Power: 24W/ 24VA, B/W: 1.3GHz
E1472A or E1474A) extender) B/W: 3GHz
Max Voltage: 42V ,
.><;?>/97>65> &+><;?>/97>
E1474A Max Current: 1A DC/ 1A AC Peak, 40-832-004
Multiplexer 65>,&%*(%!;!)
Max Power: 24W/ 24VA

Cov ToC
Built-In Relay Self-Test
Keysight/Agilent/HP VXI to PXI Switching Cross-Reference (continued)
Keysight/Agilent/HP Legacy VXI Module Equivalent Pickering PXI Module
Switch Type Part No. Config. Specification Part No. Config. Specification
Max Voltage: 30V
Max Voltage: 42V , 6548HGFEHDCBHA@H
Max Current: 1A
RF E1475A JIHGFEIHDCBHA@H?>=H<F;:98:7 Max Current: 1A DC/ 1A AC Peak, 40-832-004 Multiplexer
Max Power: 10W
Max Power: 24W/ 24VA 392;H4H?>=H:F;:98:71
B/W: 3GHz
?,+72*4):H(*,;+'H&7,):7H3+49H
87,):H0H,9;:794%H498H0H:F;:794%H 40-785B-xxx-E GIHH27H0HA:$2;:HJGH
Microwave <G0/.- Various Various
$,+72*4):H#*,;+':#H2"H8,"":7:9;H Multiplexers
#!:+, +4;,29#1

Pickering VXI to PXI Switching Cross-Reference


Pickering Legacy VXI Module Equivalent Pickering PXI Module
Switch Type Part No. Config. Specification Part No. Config. Specification
88x8, 1-Pole, Max Voltage: 100VDC 40-562A-021-88x8 88x8, 1-Pole Max Voltage: 150VDC/100VAC
Matrix 30-510A 2-Pole or 1-Pole Max Current: 1A hot, 1.2A cold Max Current: 1A hot, 1.2 cold
Screened Max Power: 10W 40-562A-022-88x8 88x8, 2-Pole Max Power: 20W
30-725 /F.H?4;7,F B/W: 100MHz (30-725) 40-725 HC?IH$!:849+:HCH27HDCBIH
E?H30D/1IH$!:849+:HCH27HDCBIH
40-725 /F.H?4;7,F Max Voltage: 100VDC, Max Power: 10W,
30-728 &54%H/F.H?4;7,F Max Voltage: 100VDC, Max Current: 0.5A hot,
3H7:5,7:81 Max Current: 0.5A hot/cold
1.2A cold, Max Power: 10W (30-725)
Quad 8-Channel,
B/W: 2GHz HJ?IH$!:849+:HCBIH
Dual 16-Channel or
$!:849+:HCB 40-766-001 Max Power: 1W, Insertion Loss: <3dB
Single 32-Channel
Quad 8-Channel, Max Voltage: 100VDC #2%4;,29HD8IH72##;4%HEC8IH(AHGJG
Multiplexer
Dual 16-Channel Max Power: 10W
30-745 or Single Max Current: 0.1A hot/cold H0IH$!:849+:HCBIH?4FH2%;4 :H0&I
Single 16-Channel
32-Channel Insertion Loss: <2dB 40-875-001 Max Current: 1A hot/cold, Insertion Loss: <1.3dB,
Multiplexer
Multiplexer Isolation: >40dB #2%4;,29H0/8IH72##;4%HE8IH(AHGEG
RF Crosstalk: >50dB H0IH$!:849+:HCBIH?4FH2%;4 :H0&IH
(AHGGJ Dual 8-Channel
40-874-002 Max Current: 1A hot/cold, Insertion Loss: <1.2dB,
Multiplexer
#2%4;,29H0/8IH72##;4%H0D8IH(AHGG
HCIH$!:849+:HCBIH?4FH2%;4 :H0&IH
B/W: 1.5GHz 40-877-002
Dual 2x2 Matrix Max Current: 1A hot/cold, Insertion Loss: <1.4dB,
$!:849+:HCB 3EH$285%:#H7:5,7:81
#2%4;,29H08IH72##;4%H08IH(AHGCG
Max Voltage: 100VDC
Max Power: 10W H0?IH$!:849+:HCBIH?4FH2%;4 :HG&IH
30-750 8x4 Matrix Max Current: 0.1A hot/cold ED.G 8x4 Matrix Max Current: 0.5A hot/cold, Insertion Loss: <3dB,
Insertion Loss: <4.5dB #2%4;,29HD8IH72##;4%HEC8IH(AHG
Isolation: >65dB HGCIH$!:849+:HCBIH?4FH2%;4 :HJ&IH
Crosstalk: >55dB 40-750-511
8x2 Matrix Max Current: 0.1A hot/cold, Insertion Loss: <3dB,
(AHGG/ 3H$285%:#H7:5,7:81
H#2%4;,29HC8IH72##;4%H0C8IH(AHG/G
HGIH$!:849+:HCBIH
Microwave 30-787 4x4 Matrix 2H<5,)4%:9;  
Max Voltage: 100VDC, Max Power: 100W
Telecoms 0D.D.G 8 to 16-Channel, Max Voltage: 10VDC/AC, Max Power: 10W 2H<5,)4%:9;  
Daisy Chain 0D. DCB Max Current: 0.5A hot/cold ED.0DG GJ'499:%IHDCB Max Voltage: 100VDC/AC
Tributary 3 2;:H0D.GH'4#H49H:F;74H$5%;,!%:F:7H+,7+5,;H ED.JG 8-Channel, Max Power: 30W
Switch 0D.J 0'499:%IHDCB ;'4;H,#H92;H4)4,%4 %:H,9H
=1 Max Current: 1.0A hot/cold
3H$285%:#H7:5,7:81 Balanced

Direct Sales & Support Offices


Pickering Interfaces Inc., USA
:%HHGHD/G/.DGDG | :$4,%H5##4%:#!,+:7,9 ;:#;+2$
Pickering Interfaces Ltd., UK
:%HHEEH31GCCJ/D. | :$4,%H#4%:#!,+:7,9 ;:#;+2$
Pickering Interfaces Sarl, France
Tel: +33 . 72 58 77 00 | :$4,%H"7#4%:#!,+:7,9 ;:#;+2$
Pickering Interfaces GmbH, Germany
:%HHE.H/.HGCH.C0HGJ | :$4,%H8:#4%:#!,+:7,9 ;:#;+2$
Pickering Interfaces AB, Sweden
:%HHEJH0EJ.HJHJ. | :$4,%H98#4%:#!,+:7,9 ;:#;+2$
Pickering Interfaces s.r.o., Czech Republic
:%HHEHCC/H./DHJG0 | :$4,%H8:#4%:#!,+:7,9 ;:#;+2$
Pickering Interfaces, China
Tel: /JHE/D..DJC | :$4,%H+',94#4%:#!,+:7,9 ;:#;+2$

Local Sales Agents in Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, India, Indonesia, Israel,
Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South
Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam and throughout the USA.

,+:7,9 H9;:7"4+:#IH;':H
,+:7,9 H9;:7"4+:#H%2 2IHAIHA( H498H:A( H47:H;748:$47#H2"H
,+:7,9 H9;:7"4+:#H
-%%H2;':7H 7498H498H!7285+;H94$:#H47:H;748:$47#H27H7: ,#;:7:8H;748:$47#H2"H;':,7H7:#!:+;,):H2*9:7#H9"27$4;,29H+29;4,9:8H
,9H;',#H82+5$:9;H,#H#5$$47H,9H94;57:H498H#5 :+;H;2H+'49 :H*,;'25;H92;,+:H

H
,+:7,9 H9;:7"4+:#HG/HH-%%H7, ';#H7:#:7):8HHHHH-!7HG/HH .
pickeringtest.com

Cov ToC
Optoelectronics

Prototype Laser Eye Protection spectacles for mil-


itary pilots (Courtesy: Gentex Corp.)

produce specialized spectacles and visors


for use by U.S. military aviators, provid-
ing them with the highest levels of pro-
tection against IR lasers. Gentex was re-
cently awarded a U.S. Navy contract for
laser eye protection spectacles for pilots.
“Superior dielectric coating capability
provides a crystal-clear filter, which is
instrumental in helping Gentex provide
a fully compliant, multiple wavelength
protection spectacle design for the
Navy,” says John Cueva, Technical Di-
rector of Optics for Gentex Corporation.
With newer laser eye protection solu- Notch filters can be designed into satellite systems to help protect satellite sensors from laser damage.
tions and normalized costs, every
solider on the field could eventually complex and comprised of numerous the UCP coating chamber. Notch filters
have advanced laser eye protection to optical elements. ISR designers can pre- reflect a narrow band in the center of a
protect their vision while maintaining vent or mitigate laser damage to expen- defined wavelength zone while trans-
maximum situational awareness and ef- sive detectors by carefully designing laser mitting adjacent bands at both longer
fectiveness to complete their missions. protection coatings for multiple optical and shorter wavelengths. As laser notch
elements in the complex optical systems. filters advance for defense systems, the
Sensor Protection for Defense Systems The level of protection that an optical ability to control the thickness of the
Sensor protection is another emerging filter provides at each element of the sys- deposited coating layers has led to nar-
area where laser notch filters are making tem is known as the Optical Density rower and steeper notch filters, result-
a significant impact. With the prolifera- (OD). The OD for the overall system – the ing in increased laser protection and
tion of laser weapons and advanced sen- level of protection against the laser found improved transmission of in-band light.
sor technology in weapons platforms, it at the sensor – is the sum of the respective Multi-notch IR coatings: There are
is important for the military to find so- ODs at each optical element found in a se- many types of lasers operating at different
lutions to combat enemy lasers. Enemy ries. A high optical density is achieved by wavelengths and military sensor systems
lasers can render satellites, airplanes, filtering a small amount of laser energy at often require optical coatings with multi-
drones and ground vehicles ineffective each optical element with manufac- ple laser notches. Technologists, defense
by damaging sensors. It is essential for turable, reasonably thin optical coatings. systems integrators and the Department of
coatings to block or redirect damaging Defense (DOD) are exploring material sets
laser light away from sensitive compo- Emerging Trends and filter designs that could simultane-
nents within these systems, while maxi- Lasers and coating systems have ad- ously protect against multiple enemy
mizing transmission of non-threat, i.e. vanced significantly in recent years. New lasers, ranging from the visible to the long-
in-band wavelengths of light needed for advances promise less harm to both per- wavelength infrared spectrum (LWIR).
human (visible) or sensor (typically IR) sonnel and valuable equipment. They are working on manufacturable de-
detection, thus facilitating improved sig- Narrower and steeper notch filters: signs that protect against laser threats
nal to noise ratio at the critical sensors. Laser rejection filters are designed to without impeding the transmission of the
Intelligence Surveillance and Recon- block one or more designated wave- optics at the key sensor wavelengths.
naissance (ISR) system designers need lengths while providing the highest This article was written by Shawn Cul-
coatings that protect sensors from threat possible transmittance at the unblocked lens, Product Line Manager, Defense &
lasers while maximizing the in-band wavelengths. It is possible to produce Aerospace, VIAVI Solutions Optical Secu-
transmission to the sensors. Military very narrow band rejection filters, rity and Performance Products (OSP) (San
grade sensor systems, particularly those known as notch filters, using state of Jose, CA). For more information, visit
found in satellite or aircraft payloads, are the art manufacturing capabilities in http://info.hotims.com/69510-502.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com 17

Cov ToC
Optical Interconnect Design
Challenges in Space

M
ore and more aerospace applications are incorpo- tions over fiber cable, so many lower speed UTPs can be com-
rating fiber optics technology into their designs bined to achieve, for example, 100/120 Gigabits.
due to its many advantages over copper. The thin-
ner fiber solutions provide higher speed over a Challenges of Fiber Interconnect Design in Space
longer distance, are more reliable, offer higher noise immu- Designing for aeronautics is very different than designing
nity and, in many cases, lower the cost of ownership. Addi- for the earth environment. Aeronautical applications, such as
tionally, for the same diameter, fiber can pack more data than spacecraft, satellites, and military aircraft are much more chal-
copper. Fiber is faster than the category 5 and 6 copper cables, lenging. Designers of fiber interconnect solutions have to con-
approaching the speed of light (31% lower). For copper, push- sider specific requirements to deal with those challenges. The
ing the speed beyond 1G is a challenge, but for fiber 10G is three major challenges are:
quite common. Copper is limited by distance. Usually, signal
degradation with copper will occur after about 90 meters (2.7 • Space radiation attacks
km maximum for custom systems), while fiber can achieve • Operation in harsh environment
more than 1.5 km without a problem and can deliver over 80 • Achieving space, weight and power requirements (SWaP)
km depending on transmission signal quality. and reliability
Perhaps the most significant advantage of fiber is that it is
not affected by electrical noise because the transmission uses According to NASA, space radiation is made up of three kinds
light instead of electrical signals. The typical electromagnetic of radiation: particles trapped in the Earth’s magnetic field; par-
interference (EMI) that affects copper cables will not be en- ticles shot into space during solar flares (solar particle events);
countered with fiber optics. Over time, the copper will also and galactic cosmic rays, which are high-energy protons and
degrade and have worse signal-to-noise ratio heavy ions from outside our solar system (Figure 1). This adds up
Compared with copper, a fiber system can be very efficient. to ionizing radiation, proton and gamma ray attacks. These at-
In the case of a fiber-based Ethernet connection, more than tacks have a major impact on electronic circuits, described as the
99.5% of the signal can be delivered to the Ethernet hub. Dif- total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects, which is measured in rad (ra-
ferent types of convertors can be used to diation absorbed dose). Note that 1 rad =
convert signals from the popu- an absorbed energy of 0.01
lar unshielded twisted J/kg of material, and
pair (UTP) Eth- 1 gray = 100
ernet con- rads. The
nec- i m -

FlashMovie/shutterstock

18 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Figure 1. Spacecrafts experience constant attacks of space radiation from mag-
netic fields, solar flares and galactic cosmic rays.

pact of exposure to space radiation ranges from degradation of


performance to total malfunction. In space, one would imag-
ine that the results can be quite serious.
The environment in space is harsh and demanding. Com-
mercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices have to be able to endure
the extreme temperature swings and the constant vibration.
Failure is not an option in a space mission. Adding to this is
the challenge to deliver maximum performance with mini-
mum space, weight and power (SWaP), high mean-time-be-
tween-failure (MTBF), and reliability.

Best Practices for Optical Interconnect Design


Defend Against Radiation with Radiation-Resistant Design
What are the design considerations to meet the require-
ments as described above? It is important to defend against
the radiation from ionizing, gamma, and other attacks. There
are several methods to protect the device from radiation, in-
cluding shielding, error correction, and using radiation-resis-
tant components, which some refer to as radiation hardening.
Shielding works for low-level radiation. Error correction works
if the amount of radiation only temporarily impacts the de-
vice. However, heavy error correction will slow down the per-
formance of the device.
Increasingly, more designs are incorporating radiation-resis-
tant components to protect the device. Radiation-resistant sili-
con uses a different approach from the typical semiconductor
wafers. The common approach is silicon on insulator (SOI)
and silicon on sapphire (SOS), which enable radiation-re-
sistant components to withstand an attack of ioniz-
ing radiation. While commercial-grade silicon can
withstand between 50 and 100 gray (5 and 10
krad), radiation-resistant solutions can with-
stand 5 to 1000 times more depending on
the types of components involved (Fig-
ure 2).

Design to Work in Harsh Environ-


ments and Follow Standardization
For the interconnect devices
to survive in harsh environ-
ments, in addition to radia-

Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-861 19

Cov ToC
Spacecraft Power Systems

Figure 2. SpaceABLE is a radiation-resis- Achieving SWaP and Reliability


tant optical transceiver created by Reflex Weight becomes increasingly signifi-
Photonics. The modules measure less than
3 cm2 and weigh less than 15g.
cant in space transportation and applica-
tions. The cost of sending 1 kg is esti-
mated to be $50,000. Designing products
to achieve optimal SWaP and high relia-
bility with high MTBF is always the ulti-
mate goal.
In space and military missions, fail-
ure cannot be tolerated. Satellites will
be in orbit for many years, and repair-
ing failed parts is not only difficult but
also very costly. Therefore, designing
tion resistance, they must for compact-size, ruggedness and high
include other parameters reliability will help developers stay
that may not be required for competitive in the race to space. For
commercial-grade components. example, the SpaceABLE interconnect
This includes meeting requirements for solution with multiple lanes can yield
shock and vibration as specified in • MIL-STD-883, Method 2007.3 (vibra- as much as 150 Gbps. For reliability, a
MIL-STD 883. It is strongly recom- tion tests) combination of sealing, ruggedness
mended that the devices be sealed • MIL-STD-883, Method 2002.4 (me- and radiation-resistant design plays
from moisture and thermal shock chanical shock tests) into the longevity of the device. Its
within a wide range of operating tem- • MIL-STD-883, Method 1011.9 (ther- lifespan can range from a few years to
perature (typical -40ºC to +100ºC). mal shock tests) over 20 years. The total cost of owner-
Keep in mind that some devices may • MIL-STD-202, Method 103B (damp ship including maintenance can be
slow down when the temperature goes heat tests) kept to a minimum with high-reliabil-
to the extreme, so it is important to • MIL-STD-810, Method 502.5 (cold ity devices.
measure sustained performance at storage tests)
those temperatures. • MIL-STD-883, Method 1010.8 (ther- Conclusions
Designing or selecting open standard- mal cycling tests) Aeronautical applications face many
based (VITA 66) interconnect devices • MIL-STD 883 (shock and vibration) design challenges that are unique to
ensures that the solutions will follow • MIL-STD-883G, Method 1019.7 (total their intended environment. The best
the lifespan of the standards and will Ionizing Dose and Cobalt 60 gamma practices for optical interconnect de-
not be easily obsoleted, as is often the rays tests) sign for space applications include the
case in proprietary or custom designs. • Total Non-Ionizing Dose (TNID) tests use of radiation-resistant technology to
To ensure that the devices meet mini- • Open VITA 66 standards defend against space radiation, the use
mum standards, they should meet – but • ECSS-Q-ST-60-15 Space Assurance of components and devices that are de-
are not limited to – the following indus- signed to operate in harsh environ-
try standards: ments, and meeting SWaP and long-
term reliability requirements. Finally,
it is recommended to follow open stan-
dards like VPX and to look for solu-
tions that comply with MIL and qual-
ity standards.
This article was written by Guillaume
Blanchette, Space Industry Manager, and
David Rolston, Ph.D., Chief Technology
Officer, Reflex Photonics (Kirkland, QC,
Canada). For more information, visit
http://info.hotims.com/69510-503.

Figure 3. A different view of the SpaceABLE fiber-optic


transceiver shows the connector for fiber-optic cable con-
nection. At the bottom is the view of the ball grid array
(BGA) for surface mount soldering.

20 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
MILITA
ARY & AER
ROSPACE
E
INTERCON
N NNECTS AT
A THE RE
EADY

Frrom high volume productio


on, to low-volume
cu
ustomized products, MilesT
Tek is your source
fo
or Military, aerospace, comm munications and
in
ndustrial interconnect soluttions. With quick
tu
urnaround and same-day sh hipping from our
sttock of over 10,000 high reliability products,
MilesTek is at the ready to help meet your
M
prroject deadlines.

T
The MilesTek Advantage:
• Large In-Stock Inve
entories
• Same-Day Shippin
ng
• Prototype Develop
pment
• CAD Design Capab
bilities
• Multiple Testing So
olutions
• Expert Technical Support
S
 

• SO 9001:2008 Reg
gistered

866-524-1553 • MilesTek.com
M

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-862

Cov ToC
RF & Microwave Technology

High-Performance Computing for the


Next-Generation Combat Vehicle

T
he development of the Next- available onboard the autonomous sys-
Generation Combat Vehicle tems or reachable within a contested
(NGCV) will require technolog- and congested environment. The com-
ical advancements in many puting resources will support the fusing
areas, including lethality, protection, au- of sensor data, damage detection and
tonomy, human–agent teaming, and failure prediction/inference, and even-
electromagnetic capabilities. What ties all tual modifying of operating variables
of these future capabilities together is the (speed, direction, etc.) to reduce the use
need for vast computational resources to of damaged/failing parts.
support the artificial intelligence (AI) im- Training within the vehicle through
plicit in bringing these advancements to the use of mobile HPC capabilities will
the battlefield. The operating environ- provide an embedded training environ-
ment of the NGCV will be such that com- ment wherever the vehicle is deployed.
munications will be severely limited, if These training capabilities require the
available at all; systems will be under con- ability to generate synthetic sensor data
stant cyber-attack; and adversarial AI may and drive displays in real time (i.e., emu-
be actively attempting to deceive all sen- lation with hardware and human-in-the-
sors — all occurring under severe size, loop). An example of the screens avail-
weight, power, and time-available con- able in future combat vehicles is seen in
straints. These factors, and more, are the Figure 1, alongside computer-generated
motivation for developing a strategy of optical and lidar data.
mobile High-Performance Computing
(HPC) for the NGCV. Computational Technology
Future military vehicles will require ca- The automotive industry is moving
Figure 1. Mobile HPC will provide synthetic sensor
pabilities beyond autonomous maneu- data for embedded training, help to drive displays, ahead rapidly with increasing the num-
verability, including intelligence analyt- and generate a synthetic environment. ber and capabilities of integrated cir-
ics and situational understanding, to cuits (ICs) on vehicles. The automotive
achieve autonomous operation. Military the NGCV will likely see a proliferation growth is driven by systems that pro-
vehicles must maneuver over and of onboard sensors that generate data vide partial or high automation and
around obstructions, predict and react to that must be processed at the point of that may eventually lead to fully au-
various soil conditions, and operate with need. Examples of these include ultra- tonomous vehicles; it is boosting total
and adapt to damage well beyond the de- wideband radar that can scan below the IC content per automobile.
mands of commercial vehicles. With surface of the soil for buried objects, While commercial communications
ever-increasing computational and com- spectrum analyzers searching for adver- benefit from robust infrastructure with
munications resources placed on vehi- sarial activity, multimodal communica- highly engineered cellular network
cles, there is attendant heat generation/ tions that must be intelligently man- providers interconnected with very-
rejection and radio frequency (RF) emis- aged, and acoustic sensors that can high-bandwidth backhaul links, military
sion. Signature management, at least for detect movement at great distances. operations typically must bring their
infrared and RF, needs to be a considera- Autonomous vehicles that adapt to own communications capability. The
Background Image: Ornithopter/Shutterstock.com

tion from the outset, rather than an issue and function with damage are critical to military’s mobile devices have very lim-
to be resolved after the fact. robust manned–unmanned teaming ited access to cloud-based computational
Maneuverability on the battlefield has (MUM-T) and autonomous vehicles. capability on the battlefield. Therefore,
many distinct challenges not seen in the The U.S. Army Research Laboratory tactical units must deploy localized edge
commercial vehicle space, including the (ARL) recognizes the importance of im- processing that does not rely heavily
potential for malicious concealment and buing teams of heterogeneous robots upon communications infrastructure.
deception by adversaries. Military vehi- and sensors with the intelligence to HPC at the tactical edge provides the
cles’ onboard computing will require ac- learn and adapt to different settings and computational capability at the source of
curate perception and real-time under- perform new tasks along with humans. tactical data, the sensors, and users on
standing in a contested and deceptive To achieve the goal of adaptive and re- the battlefield. This array of networked
environment, enabled by robust ma- silient teams of robots and humans, sig- entities constitutes a tactical Internet of
chine learning algorithms. The path to nificant computing resources must be Things, termed the Internet of Battlefield

22 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
RF & Microwave Technology

Things. Power-efficient edge computing lifecycle, including vulnerabilities cre- as part of an LVC (Live/Virtual/Con-
enables the use of machine learning al- ated from integrating multiple disparate structive) strategy. HPC on the vehicle
gorithms locally that are integrated with systems. In-lab testing of cyber and elec- will support in-situ emulation, ad-
programmable network controllers to in- tronic warfare vulnerabilities through vanced intrusion detection systems,
telligently push data over disconnected, emulation with hardware-in-the-loop anomaly detection, and machine learn-
intermittent, low-bandwidth networks (HWIL) is a proven method for evalua- ing methods to rapidly identify unex-
while minimizing the RF emissions. tion and analysis of integrated systems pected behaviors.
Edge computing is enabled through
cloudlets, also referred to as micro-clouds,
and are localized, trusted, resource-rich
computers or a cluster of computers, well-
connected to the tactical Internet within
one wireless hop — proximity is the key.
Cloudlets, just as clouds, are enabled by
virtualization. Clouds virtualize an entire
computer system using virtual machines,
requiring substantial resources. Cloudlets
demand a lighter-weight solution, and
one option is containers. Instead of virtu-
alizing an entire computer, containers
virtualize only the operating system and
take advantage of the host computer,
such as the Linux kernel, network, and
various services. Containers can be tai-
lored to single solutions, such as a ma-
chine learning container and a video pro-
cessing container.
Our misssion crit
itic
i al resistorss know
Communications
Current tactical radios and electronic no bound
no und
da
a
aries!
warfare systems are packaged as separate
point-solutions requiring their own pack- Our resistors have traveled near and far. They are
aging, cooling, processing elements, and orbiting the Ear th aboard many satellites, driving
antennas. Emerging initiatives seek to es-
on the surface of Mars aboard NASA’s rovers,
tablish a common communication infra-
structure and processing architecture to delivering spectacular photographs of the Pluto
consolidate and develop these functions. system aboard New Horizons spacecraf t, and
A significant tactical overmatch may be
helping NASA’s Voyager 1 travel beyond our solar
achieved by fully analyzing electromag-
netic (EM) spectral information and com- system where no Ear th craf t has gone before.
bining it with coordinated software-de-
fined radio communications; however, More than 35 years and 20 billion kilometers...
these applications require tremendous
amounts of computational power to
Now tth
hat’s reliability.
process the EM signals and execute the
associated algorithms. Capabilities such
as jamming, direction-finding, spoofing,
State of the Art, Inc.
and stealth communications can all be RESISTIVE PRODUC TS
enhanced and made more efficient with
HPC technologies; these may prove to be
crucial advantages in future conflicts.
Increased reliance upon software-in-
tensive designs and networked commu-
nications increases cyber vulnerabilities
in addition to electromagnetic warfare
threats. Designing in cyber protection
requires cyber testing over the systems’ Made in th
the US
SA
A.
Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-863 23

Cov ToC
RF & Microwave Technology

Conclusion tions of technologies and


CANBUS
Integrating all of the fu- High Speed capabilities for transition
Interconnect Embedded
ture capabilities and intelli- Soil Modeling
and Planning
Training Cyber Security from basic and applied re-
gence for the NGCV will re- search to prototypes and
Computing @
quire a strategy for mobile Sensor (non-
navigation)
live demonstrations. Evalu-
Mobile
Damage
HPC. Additionally, the chal- Autonomous
Heterogeneous
HPC Adaptation ation of algorithms, soft-
Maneuver
lenges and solution look Computing ware, and hardware capabil-
different than the solution ities will require hardware
for commercial vehicles. and human-in-the-loop
The computer architectures Computing @ APS Dedicated
Engine
testbed capabilities to cre-
Computing @ Sensor (non-
mm-Wave
will need to support au- Sensor (non-
navigation) Radar navigation)
Computing
ate a synthetic environ-
tonomous or assisted mo- Brake ment for sensor data, vehi-
bility, much like commer- Brake
Brake
cle physics, and so on.
cial vehicles. Additional This article was written by
Figure 2. Networking diagram for mobile HPC on NGCV including autonomy sensors,
functionality — such as un- situational awareness sensing, CANBUS (Controller Area Network bus), and high- Brian J. Henz and Dale Shires
restricted mobility, cyber speed interconnect. of the Army Research Labora-
analysis, and course-of-ac- tory Computational and Infor-
tion analysis — will require a recipe of for mobile HPC that is general-purpose mation Sciences Directorate, Aberdeen Prov-
heterogeneous open-source and com- and able to interact and integrate with ing Ground, MD; Leonard Elliot of the Army
mercial off-the-shelf devices. More func- dedicated computing resources from Tank Automotive Research, Development
tionality must be included in the vehicle multiple sources and vendors. and Engineering Center (TARDEC), Detroit
to support fully autonomous maneuver- Achieving this vision of advanced AI Arsenal, MI; and Michael Barton of Parsons
ing in a multidomain battlespace. Figure on the NGCV will require a risk reduc- Corporation, Columbia, MD. For more infor-
2 illustrates this vision and connectivity tion effort that rapidly provides evalua- mation, visit www.arl.army.mil.

(1*,1((5,1*62/87,21672*(7+(5
b]_r;u=oul-m1;l-]m;|vķ-vv;l0Ѵb;vķ-m7|_bml;|-Ѵv=ou7;l-m7bm]l-uh;|v

4BNBSJVN$PCBMU.BHOFUT3&$0."¥&XPSMET )JHI4QFFE3PUPSTBOE4UBUPSTDPNQMFUFTZTUFN
NPTUQPXFSEFOTF4N$P JOUFHSBUJPOGSPNQSPUPUZQFUPQSPEVDUJPO
-5ZQF-BNJOBUFE.BHOFUTUIJOOFTUJOTVMBUJOHMBZFST $PNQPTJUF&ODBQTVMBUJPOIJHIFSTUSFOHUI MJHIUFS
BOEMPXFTUFEEZDVSSFOUMPTTFTGPSPQUJNBMFGýDJFODZ XFJHIU BOEMPXFSFMFDUSJDBMMPTTFT
1MBTUJGPSN¥'MFYJCMF.BHOFUTJODSFBTFENBHOFUJDýFME 1SFDJTJPO5IJO.FUBMT5JUBOJVN "SOPO™
GPSDPSSPTJWFPSXJEFUFNQFSBUVSFSBOHF /(0&4 BOEPUIFSGPJMTSPMMFEUPNJDSPOTUIJDL
FOWJSPONFOUT

& $ / / 2 5 0 ( 6 6 $ * ( < 2 8 5 $ 5 1 2 / ' 5 ( 3 5 ( 6 ( 1 7 $7 , 9 ( 7 2 '$<


1 R U W K $ P H U L F D Q 6 D O H V 8 . D Q G ( X U R S H D Q 6 D O H V
ƐŊѶƏƏŊƔƖƒŊƖƐƑƕ ŐƳƓƓőŐƏőƐƖƏƖƕƕƑƏƑƐ
ZZZ$UQROG0DJQHWLFVFRP

24 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-864 Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Your partner for
innovative manufacturing

ASSESS
OUTCOMES

CONTROL
PROCESSES

SET UP
EQUIPMENT
Layers of control build
d upon
p one
another—driving out utt variation
from the machining
ing
ng process.
CHECK
PERFORMANCE

As manufacturers ourselves, we understand the challenges you face. For


45 years, Renishaw has been creating breakthrough innovations that solve
manufacturing problems and move productivity to new heights. Our suite of
advanced solutions allows aerospace manufacturers to work to ever-tighter
tolerances and significantly improve throughput. From additive manufacturing
to post-process control, our proven technologies are found at the forefront of
intelligent production systems.

Revo 5-axis Allow us to show you how the integration of innovative manufacturing
measurement system techniques improve overall productivity and how we can be your partner for
All-in-one,
high-performance innovative manufacturing.
measurement flexibility
on a single CMM www.renishaw.com/aerospace

Renishaw Inc 1001 Wesemann Drive West Dundee, IL, 60118


T 847-286-9953 F 847-286-9974 E usa@renishaw.com
www.renishaw.com
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-865

Cov ToC
RF & Microwave Technology

Merging Antenna and Electronics Boosts Energy and Spectrum Efficiency

B y integrating the design of antennas


and electronics, researchers from
the Georgia Institute of Technology
grated circuit (IC) technology, meaning
no changes would be required to manu-
facture and package them. The co-de-
gether to achieve a unique on-antenna
outphasing active load modulation ca-
pability that significantly enhances the
have boosted the energy and spectrum sign scheme allows fabrication of multi- efficiency of the entire transmitter,”
efficiency for a new class of millimeter- ple transmitters and receivers on the said Hua Wang, assistant professor in
wave transmitters, allowing improved same IC chip or the same package, po- Georgia Tech’s School of Electrical and
modulation and reduced generation of tentially enabling multiple-input-multi- Computer Engineering.
waste heat. ple-output (MIMO) systems as well as
The new co-design technique — boosting data rates and link diversity. Energy Efficiency
achieved through research sponsored by The system could replace many types Key to the new design is maintaining
the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and of transmitters in wireless mobile de- a high energy efficiency regardless of
Intel Corp. — allows simultaneous opti- vices, base stations, and infrastructure whether the device is operating at its
mization of the millimeter-wave anten- links in data centers. “In this proof-of- peak or average output power. The effi-
nas and electronics. The hybrid devices example, our electronics and antenna ciency of most conventional transmit-
use conventional materials and inte- were designed so that they can work to- ters is high only at the peak power, but
drops substantially at low power levels,
resulting in low efficiency when ampli-
fying complex spectrally efficient mod-
ulations. Moreover, conventional trans-
mitters often add the outputs from
multiple electronics using lossy power
combiner circuits, exacerbating the effi-
ciency degradation.
“We are combining the output power
through a dual-feed loop antenna, and by
doing so with our innovation in the an-
tenna and electronics, we can substan-
tially improve the energy efficiency,” said
Wang. “The innovation in this particular
design is to merge the antenna and elec-
tronics to achieve the so-called outphas-
ing operation that dynamically modu-
One of the packaged millimeter-wave transmitters with antenna electronics. The ultra-miniaturized IC chip
contains on-chip antenna and all the required electronics for millimeter-wave signal generation and trans- lates and optimizes the output voltages
mitting. Multiple IC chips can be tiled together to form a large array. (Allison Carter, Georgia Tech) and currents of power transistors so that
the millimeter-wave transmitter main-
tains a high energy efficiency both at the
peak and average power.”
Beyond energy efficiency, the co-de-
sign also facilitates spectrum efficiency
by allowing more complex modulation
protocols. That will enable transmission
of a higher data rate within the fixed
spectrum allocation that poses a signifi-
cant challenge for 5G systems.
“Within the same channel band-
width, the proposed transmitter can
transmit six to ten times higher data
rate,” Wang said. “Integrating the an-
tenna gives us more degrees of freedom
to explore design innovation — some-
thing that could not be done before.”
Sensen Li, a Georgia Tech graduate re-
search assistant, said the innovation re-
Georgia Tech researchers with the electronics equipment and antenna setup used to measure the far-field sulted from bringing together two disci-
radiated output signal from millimeter-wave transmitters. (Allison Carter, Georgia Tech) plines that have traditionally worked

26 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
RF & Microwave Technology

separately. “We are merging the tech- ventional single-feed antennas, multi- at millimeter-wave frequencies because
nologies of electronics and antennas, feed antennas can serve not only as radi- the wavelength reduction means ele-
bringing these two disciplines together ating elements, but they can also func- ments can be placed closer together to
to break through limits,” he said. tion as signal processing units that achieve compact systems. These factors
“These improvements could not be interface among multiple electronic cir- could pave the way for new types of
achieved by working on them inde- cuits,” Wang explained. “This opens a beamforming that are essential in future
pendently. By taking advantage of this completely new design paradigm to have millimeter-wave 5G systems.
new co-design concept, we can further different electronic circuits driving the Power demands could drive adoption
improve the performance of future antenna collectively with different but of the technology for battery-powered
wireless transmitters.” optimized signal conditions, achieving devices, but Wang said the technology
The new designs have been imple- unprecedented energy efficiency, spec- could also be useful for grid-powered
mented in 45-nanometer CMOS SOI IC tral efficiency, and reconfigurability.” systems such as base stations or wireless
devices, and flip-chip packaged on The cross-disciplinary co-design may connections to replace cables in large
high-frequency laminate boards where also facilitate fabrication and operation data centers. In those applications, ex-
testing has confirmed a minimum two- of multiple transmitters and receivers panding data rates and reducing cool-
fold increase in energy efficiency. on the same chip, allowing hundreds or ing needs could make the new devices
even thousands of elements to work to- attractive. “Higher energy efficiency
Antenna Structure gether as a whole system. “In massive also means less energy will be converted
The antenna electronics co-design is MIMO systems, we need to have a lot of to heat that must be removed to satisfy
enabled by exploring the unique nature transmitters and receivers, so energy ef- the thermal management,” he said.
of multi-feed antennas. “An antenna ficiency will become even more impor- This article was written by John Toon of
structure with multiple feeds allows us to tant,” Wang noted. the Georgia Institute of Technology. For
use multiple electronics to drive the an- Having large numbers of elements more information, contact Toon at
tenna concurrently. Different from con- working together becomes more practical jtoon@gatech.edu; 404-894-6986.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-866 27

Cov ToC
Tech Briefs

Integrated Magneto-Optical Devices for On-Chip Photonic


Systems
Development of magneto-optical (MO) materials could lead to a range of nonreciprocal optical devices
for emerging standardized photonic integrated circuit (PIC) fabrication processes.
Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

T he magneto-optical (MO) oxide layer


consists of (Bi,Y)3Fe5O12 or BiYIG, bis-
muth garnet. This material was selected
107

106
BiYIG, Film thickness — 100-120nm

BiYIG + Fe203 (shot ratio 25:8 (Fe203)), Film Thickness , 40nm


200

150 OP
because it has a better figure of merit than 105
100
IP

the CeYIG previously used, especially at


Intensity/counts

104 50

lower wavelengths (1310 nm vs. 1550 0

emu/cm3
103
nm). A top-down deposition process was -50

-100
developed in which BiYIG/YIG stacks are 102
-150
grown on the Si waveguide with YIG on 101
-200
top. The stack is annealed at 800°C/5 min 100
-250
27 27.5 28 28.5 29 29.5 30
to crystallize both layers, with the YIG 2θ (degrees)
-3000 -2000 -1000 0
H (Oe)
1000 2000 3000

templating the BiYIG leading to garnet 25 BiYiG1

phases rather than other oxides, and the -0.10 BiYiG2


BiYiG3
BiYiG4

BiYIG is directly on the Si waveguide. Ini- 0.2 -0.15


FR, deg/μm

tial attempts led to a film with Bi oxide -0.20


Faraday Rotation (Deg)

0.1
phases, because the Bi was in excess and 10 -0.25

1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45

could not escape during the anneal as oc- 0.0

curs in Si/YIG/BiYIG stacks. Hence the -0.1


0
composition was adjusted to include
slightly more Fe, which yielded films with -0.2
-10
only garnet peaks. -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 1.5 2.5 3.5
Applied Field (Oe) Energy, eV
Conditions were also developed for
growth of Bi-substituted iron garnet Figure 1. Single Crystal BiYIG/GGG. Top left: XRD of two recent films on (111) GGG showing the effect of
adding Fe. Right: Magnetometry data showing in plane (IP) and out of plane (OP) hysteresis loops for 100
(BiYIG) on GGG garnet and Si substrates nm thick Bi.97Y2.47Fe5O12 grown at 560oC, 20mTorr, 400mJ, on GGG (111). Lower left: OP Faraday loop of
by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition. same film. Right: FR vs wavelength, in agreement with measurements on bulk BiYIG
For single crystal films on GGG (Figure
1), the conditions for growth that pro-
duced films with the best saturation 3500 BiYIG/YIG/Si
magnetization (Ms) and surface topogra-
3000
YIG/BiYIG
Intensity (a.u.)

phy were found to be at higher temper- (400)


(420)
2500
atures of 520-560°C and at oxygen pres-
(422) SiNx
sures of 10 to 20 mTorr. Structural 2000

characterization revealed the growth of 1500


SiO2
epitaxial BiYIG film on GGG without cladding 1 μm
25 30 35 40
any secondary phases. This result was 2θ (degree)

further confirmed by compositional


analysis that showed the ratio of
LL MPW fabrication process Angle deposition of
MO garnet
Bi+Y/Fe, as expected, was approximately Gap
0.6 (in the range 0.62-0.65) suggesting 1200 nm
no formation of secondary ferrous
200 nm nitride nitride nitride nitride
phases. The FR was 1.5 °/μm, which is
Oxide Oxide Oxide
comparable to other work considering Oxide
the Bi content. The saturation field for
out of plane hysteresis or Faraday loops MIT-LL SiNx Waveguide Process Pulsed Laser Deposition
is ~2 kOe which is close to that expected
just from shape anisotropy, i.e. magne- Figure 2. Polycrystalline Films on Si. Left: XRD of polycrystalline BiYIG film on Si grown with YIG bottom
seed layer, showing the characteristic garnet peaks. Right: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of BiYIG
tocrystalline or magnetoelastic contribu- grown on the sidewall of a SiN waveguide in a TE-mode isolator. The fabrication of the TE mode isolator is
tions to anisotropy are probably small. shown in the schematic.

28 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Tech Briefs

For polycrystalline films on Si (Figure 2) top-down crystalliza-


tion of BiYIG using a YIG seed layer on topographical substrates
was carried out to promote the crystallization of BiYIG on pho-
tonic substrates. A bilayer was grown (YIG/BiYIG/substrate) at
650°C, then annealed at 800°C. With the top seed layer, Bi escape
during annealing was suppressed and the composition had to be
adjusted (less Fe was added) to avoid secondary phases.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed crystallization to the garnet
structure and the saturation magnetization was consistent
with the film thickness and the bulk magnetization of YIG and
BiYIG (which are similar). However, films on Si had much
weaker FR than expected.
During this work, the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) system
was reconfigured leading to a higher intensity of light incident
on the target and higher growth rates, which led to a change in
composition of most materials deposited by PLD. Composi-
tional analysis showed that more recent BiYIG films contained
less Bi than before, and this may account for the lower FR. The
target, which contained Bi:Y:Fe = 0.8:2.2:5, yielded films of
0.5:2.5:3.8, or 0.5:1.9:4.2 when additional Fe oxide was code-
posited. (In the latter case, Bi+Y/Fe = 0.57 which matches the
stoichiometric ratio of 3/5 = 0.6.)
The results of growth experiments indicate that films grow
with garnet crystal structure on GGG, even if the Bi+Y/Fe stoi-
chiometry is not exactly correct. However, growth on Si is less
forgiving, and making good quality garnet requires a closer con-
trol of stoichiometry. The Bi:Y ratio is controlled mainly by tem-
perature, and the Bi+Y/Fe ratio is sensitive to laser power.
This work was done by Caroline Ross and Juejun Hu, Massachu-
setts Institute of Technology for the Air Force Research Laboratory.
For more information, download the Technical Support Pack-
age (free white paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under
the Photonics category. AFRL-0264

Low Power Optical Phase


Array Using Graphene on
Silicon Photonics
Electrostatic doping of 2D materials embedded in
waveguides could enable ultrafast devices with
unprecedented power.
Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air
Force Base, Ohio

D espite enormous advances in integrated photonics over the


last decade, an efficient integrated phase delay remains to
be demonstrated. This problem is fundamental – most mono-
lithic thin film deposition relies on centro symmetric materials
(such as silicon, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride), which by defi-
nition do not have an electro-optic effect. Such materials have
been shown to be excellent transparent materials, however
they are either optically passive, or rely on very small plasma

Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-867 29

Cov ToC
Tech Briefs

dispersion effect or power-hungry


thermo-optic effect for tunability. These (a)
phase change materials have losses asso- REGION II REGION I REGION II (b)
6 0.15
ciated due to heating or carrier injection Electro- Mainly Electro-
in the waveguides. This research shows Refractive Electro-absorptive Refractive

Absorption in graphene (db/μm)


only only

Refractive index of graphene


that graphene can be used to provide
electro-optic properties to traditionally 4 0.4
passive optical materials.
Graphene is a versatile 2D material 100um

with wavelength-insensitive electrical V


(c)
tunability of its optical absorption and 2 0.05 Ti-Pd-
refractive index (Figure 1). As seen in Ti-Pd-
Au
Au
Hf02
graphene
Figure 1, theory predicts a strong ten- x x SiN
ability of the graphene’s optical proper-
ties with tuning of the Fermi level. This 0 0 SiO2
tuning is achieved here via electrostatic -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
Fermi Level of graphene (EF(eV))
doping by embedding the graphene in a
capacitor (as shown in Figure 1c). As the
Fermi level is tuned, it is predicted that Figure 1. Graphene’s Electro-Optic Properties. (a) Theoretical absorption and refractive index as a function
of Fermi level for intrinsic graphene (region I – high absorption, region II – low absorption). (b) Optical
the absorption decreases (region I). As micrograph of the fabricated device (interferometer arms false colored). (c) Device cross section showing
the tuning is further increased, the ab- graphene-HfO2-graphene capacitor on Si3N4 waveguide.
sorption becomes negligible, while the
index of refraction changes drastically has been recently demonstrated. In (region I of Figure 1a), where loss and
(region II and III). The ease of integra- these devices, however, the phase mod- phase change proceed simultaneously.
tion with silicon photonics and the ca- ulation is accompanied by loss modula- Recently, the devices demonstrated have
pacitive nature of graphene electro-optic tion at low voltages of operation, where limited speed of operation since they use
devices renders graphene an attractive absorption and refractive index gets electrolyte, whereas the silicon–insula-
choice for photonics. The electrostatic tuned simultaneously. tor-graphene configuration are limited
tunability of the optical properties of The regime of low loss and high refrac- to the high loss and phase change regime
graphene lends graphene the novel ca- tive index of graphene has also been (region I of Figure 1a).
pability of transcending any passive electrostatically tuned using electrolytic This work was done by Ipshita Datta,
platform to an active device. ion gels, which render these devices low Brian Lee, and Michael Lipson, Columbia
To date, the state-of-the-art graphene speed. Using the current silicon-insula- University, for the Air Force Research labora-
electro-optic modulators level has been tor- graphene configuration, the regime tory. For more information, download the
mostly designed using the voltage tun- where the absorption of graphene is low Technical Support Package (free white
able absorption of graphene. The poten- and the phase change is high has not yet paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp
tial of utilizing the voltage dependent been achieved. Those devices are limited under the Photonics category.
refractive index tunability of graphene within the fermi energy level of 0.5 eV AFRL-0265

Spatial Resolution and Contrast of a Focused Diffractive


Plenoptic Camera
New technology captures spectral and spatial information of a scene in one snapshot while raising
pixel counts and improving image quality.
Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

T he concept of an imaging system


that captures both spatial and spec-
tral information has existed for a while.
The FTS works by capturing a 2D
image that contains both spatial di-
mensions while sweeping along a
dimension introduces an operational
time lag. For example, when imaging
a scene that is constantly changing,
An example of one such imaging system Michelson Interferometer to capture such as a forest fire, this might intro-
that encodes both location and wave- the spectral dimension, leading to a duce noise that might make it diffi-
length into an image is a Fourier Trans- 3D image cube. But the fact that the cult to process the resulting images.
form Spectrometer (FTS). FTS needs to sweep along the spectral Or there could be mechanical vibra-

30 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Tech Briefs

tions of the instrument, referred to as stead of a depth of field. The rendering pixel array, but the final rendered im-
pointing jitter, which adds noise. If algorithm used in both cases led to a ages were 300 ¥ 300 pixels. This is a re-
there were a system that could encode final picture that had a drastically duction from 16.7 MP to 0.09 MP. The
two spatial dimensions and one spec- lower number of pixels compared to reduction in the conventional DPC
tral dimension in a single snapshot, it the original raw image. The plenoptic was even more drastic. The DPC’s orig-
would remove the operational time camera’s detector had a 4,096 ¥ 4,096 inal detector had a pixel array of 5,120
lag noise and the pointing jitter that
the FTS introduces. The Fresnel Zone
Light Field Spectral Imager (FZLFSI),
from here on referred to as the Dif-
fractive Plenoptic Camera (DPC), is
such a system, capturing these three
Power your
dimensions in one snapshot.
The DPC is able to capture both spa-
tial and spectral information in one
Next Gen.
single exposure, as opposed to the
FTS. The DPC is able to do this by ex-
ploiting chromatic aberrations in
order to create a camera that can refo-
cus images over a broad range of A Complete State-of-the-art Range of
wavelengths. The DPC uses a diffract- DC/DC Converters and Front End
ing optic — known as a Fresnel Zone
Plate (FZP) — as its main imaging
optic. The FZP has the resolving Hi-Rel COTS Features
power of a regular refractive lens of
the same diameter, but its focal length Ultra Wide Input
depends on wavelength, which cre- 9 - 60 Vdc
ates axial chromatic aberration (ACA). 4 W to 200 W
While the ACA introduced by a dif-
fractive optic makes it difficult to pro- Single
duce an in-focus picture using a FZP, Dual
the DPC uses this effect to its advan- Triple outputs
tage and creates an imaging system
that can refocus at different wave- - 55 °C to 105 °C
lengths. The ACA of diffractive optics A complete range of
has been used for high resolution EMI Filter
spectral imaging by translating the Hold-up
Power factor
sensor array along the optical axis to
Transient protection
capture an image at different focal
planes. The DPC is able to exploit the
ACA by combining an FZP with a
plenoptic camera. The plenoptic cam-
era is a concept that was introduced in
1992. It was initially introduced as a
method of capturing 3D data to solve
computer-vision problems and de-
signed as a device that recorded the
distribution of the light rays in space,
i.e., the simplified 4D plenoptic func-
tion or radiance.
The concept of the plenoptic camera
kept evolving until the first handheld
plenoptic camera was built in 2005. It www.gaia-converter.com
was the concept of the handheld
plenoptic camera that was used in
building the conventional DPC, which USA & Canada
1-888-601-3169
refocuses across a spectral range in-

Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-868 31

Cov ToC
Tech Briefs

This method, developed in 2008, was


successfully used to produce images that
were refocused through an extended
depth of field, but with a higher final
pixel count. It was this method that was
used in conjunction with the DPC to
ACA of a diffractive optic, a Photon Sieve with a focal length of 50 cm illuminated by a white LED. (Credit: make the focused DPC.
Will Dickinson) This work was done by Carlos D. Diaz,
Captain, USAF for the Air Force Institute of
¥ 5,120 and the final image had a pixel ble using a standard camera, but the final Technology. For more information, down-
count of 48 x 46 pixels. This is a reduc- images had very low pixel counts. This load the Technical Support Package (free
tion from 26.2 MP to 0.002 MP. led to an alternative method known as white paper) at www.aerodefensetech.
The DPC image could be refocused to “full resolution light rendering”, also com/tsp under the Photonics category.
different wavelengths, which isn’t possi- known as the focused plenoptic camera. AFRL-0263

Ultracompact, High-Speed Field-Effect Optical Modulators


Conductive oxides-based modulator devices could provide promising candidates for ultra-compact and
ultra-fast optical interconnects in future integrated photonic circuits.
Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

T he major goals of this research


project included two parts. First,
an ultracompact plasmonic electro-
ward integration with existing CMOS
technology. Both modulators were
targeted to facilitate next-generation
(ITO). This research was one of the
first experimental attempts to demon-
strate optical modulators at nanoscale,
optical (EO) modulator was to be de- interconnects for integrated photonic and one of the first systematic explo-
veloped and investigated for efficient circuits. rations of conductive oxide-based
intensity modulation. Second, an ul- This work performed on this project modulation at GHz level. The research
tracompact and high-speed EO modu- explored novel conductive oxide- results contribute towards the ad-
lator based on a dielectric platform based slot waveguides based on the vancement of nanophotonic technol-
was to be developed for straightfor- unique properties of indium-tin-oxide ogy and on-chip optical interconnects,
and will support fundamental theory
and techniques for field-effect electro-
absorption modulators.
w
Au Au Au
Ultra-Compact Field Effect
HfO2 x HfO2 x HfO2 x Plasmonic Modulator
Ne Ne Ne
ITO Vb ITO Vb ITO A metal-insulator-conductive oxide-
— + + —
HfO2 HfO2 HfO2 insulator-metal (MICIM) waveguide
Au Au Au was proposed and investigated. It was
showed that light absorption in the
(a) (b) 1.0
(c) 1.0 gap between two gold films is con-
1.0

0.8 0.8 0.8 trolled by the electric-field-induced


0.6 0.6 0.6 charge in an intermediate ITO layer.
0.4 0.4 0.4
The MICIM structure may be biased
0.2 0.2 0.2
such that the ITO layer is either in
(d) (e) (f) electron depletion or accumulation,
thus changing the absorption of the
waveguide. Thus, the structure can
switch between high and low absorp-
Illustration of the working modes of the metal-insulator-CO-insulator-metal structure: (a) Without bias. (b) tive states.
Depletion mode, where the ITO is less absorptive and the waveguide has lower attenuation. (c) MICIM modulators were designed
Accumulation mode, where the ITO is more absorptive and the waveguide has higher attenuation. (d) The
mode profile for the no bias case. (e) The mode profile for the depletion case. (f) The mode profile for the and fabricated, consisting of a series of
accumulation case. layer-by-layer processes. Photolithog-

32 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Tech Briefs

raphy, thin film deposition, and lift-


off processes were used for precise pat-
tern definitions. Modulators of differ-
ent waveguide lengths as small as 800
nm were characterized. The modula-
tion performance of the 800 nm
(length) modulator was measured with
a DC-coupled photodetector using an
applied 14 Vpp RF sine wave at 10
MHz, with a resulting extension ratio
of 3.04 dB/μm. An AC-coupled pho-
todetector was used to demonstrate
modulator operation at frequencies up
to 500 MHz.

Ultra-Compact High-Speed
Dielectric Modulator
This project also investigated a
doped Si-ITO-HfO2 dielectric modula-
tor, which can provide straightforward
photonic integration. In this device,
TiO 2 serves as a dielectric slot wave-
guide for guiding light to interact with
ITO. External electric signals are ap-
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-869
plied on n+ doped Si and ITO elec-
trodes, which stimulates the field ef-

NANO-D CONNECTORS
fects in the active ITO layer at the
ITO-HfO 2 interface. The device was
fabricated on SOI substrates. Gratings
on the U-shaped waveguide ends were
used for light coupling from angled
Rugged, durable, and light weight
fiber arrays. Gold was used for electri- connectors for high reliability applications
cal contact pads. The coupling effi-
ciency was measured to be relatively
low, with a peak value of 2% at 1510
nm. For comparison, the FDTD simu-
lation results based on the measured
film parameters of the fabricated de-
vice resulted in a peak 5.5% output
transmission at the wavelength of
1510 nm. An AC modulation depth of
2.5 dB/μm was realized on an 8 μm
long modulator waveguide at 100
MHz. The modulation depth decays
with increasing frequency, showing
that the device has a RC circuit-limited
operation speed. Nevertheless, success-
ful modulation at frequencies as high
as 2 GHz was demonstrated.
This work was done by Karl Hirschman,
Rochester Institute of Technology, for the
Army Research Office. For more infor-
mation, download the Technical Sup-
port package (free white paper) at
www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under
the Photonics category. WWW.OMNETICS.COM | SALES@OMNETICS.COM
ARL-0214

Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-870 33

Cov ToC
Application Briefs

Armored Vehicle Mission Situational Awareness


SATCOM, RADAR, EOP
s
Management System es
en P
ar , EO
Aw R
al DA
ion RA
Bird Aerosystems u at M,
t
Si TCO
Herzliya, Israel SA
+972 9 9725700 MISSION
DATA
www.birdaero.com

Plasan Sasa MISSION


MISSION
DATA
EOP
Kibbutz Sasa, Israel TARGET
DATA
EOP RADAR
IDENTIFIED
+972-4-680-9000
www.plasan.com

P lasan Sasa and BIRD Aerosystems


have teamed up to offer a SandCat
armored intervention vehicle equipped
with BIRD's advanced mission manage-
ment system (MSIS).
SandCat, Plasan’s family of 4X4 ar-
mored vehicles, provides high-end protection while maintain- erating teams share a unified, real-time situational awareness.
ing its agility and maneuverability, even when equipped with The MSIS is an integral part of BIRD Aerosystems' Airborne
surveillance and communications systems. The SandCat fam- Surveillance, Intelligence and Observation (ASIO) solution.
ily has been designed to support a wide range of challenges The system is designed to provide a complete Task Force solu-
and missions including: law enforcement, Special Forces, tion, providing the capability to collect and process large
homeland security, border patrol and armed conflicts. Sand- amounts of information gathered from the airborne plat-
Cats are also used to transport troops, as command and con- forms. This information is automatically classified, efficiently
trol centers, and to transport VIPs though conflict zones. displayed, and then shared in real–time with the ground seg-
The SandCat features unique Kitted-Hull armor technology ments of the Task-Force such as the C&C center and ground
that uses a bolt-on armor system instead of welded panels, intervention vehicles. This enables all operating teams to
meaning users can customize the vehicle to suit their needs share a unified situational awareness picture. Equipped with
and repairs are much simpler. The Kitted-Hull design provides BIRD's MSIS, the SandCat armored vehicle can receive real-
protection up to STANAG 3. A Ford 6.7L V8 Turbo-Diesel en- time information and data from the airborne sensors, allow-
gine gives the vehicle 300hp at 2,800 rpm. ing commanders to more effectively oversee and manage the
BIRD's advanced Multi-Sensor Integration System (MSIS) ground missions.
manages the complete mission profile and ensures that all op- For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69510-550

Nano-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle


FLIR Systems
Wilsonville, OR
503-498-3547
www.flir.com/blackhornet.com

F LIR Systems, Inc. was recently awarded a $2.6 million


contract from the United States Army to deliver FLIR
Black Hornet® Personal Reconnaissance Systems (PRS). The
units delivered under this contract will support squad-
level surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities in the
Army’s first batch order for the Soldier Borne Sensor (SBS)
program.
The United States Army purchased the Black Hornet PRS
from FLIR for test and evaluation purposes in both 2016 and
2017. The Army will continue its evaluation and consider
broader scale roll out of the Black Hornet for full operational
deployment within all infantry units.

34 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Application Briefs

Following the receipt of contract, FLIR Systems an-


Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-871
nounced the latest generation Black Hornet ® 3 nano-un-
manned aerial vehicle (UAV) for use by global militaries,
government agencies, and first responders. The Black Hornet
Personal Reconnaissance System (PRS) is currently the
world’s smallest combat-proven nano-Unmanned Aerial Sys-
tem (UAS), and the next generation Black Hornet 3 nano-
UAV will add the ability to navigate in GPS-denied environ-
ments, enabling the warfighter to maintain situational
awareness, threat detection, and surveillance no matter
where the mission takes them.
At 32 grams, the Black Hornet 3 offers the lowest SWAP
(size, weight, and performance) for UAS currently available.
Offering improved speed and distance compared to previ-
ous versions, the Black Hornet 3 flies 2 kilometers at speeds
of over 21 kilometers an hour. The Black Hornet 3 also in-
corporates sharper image processing featuring the FLIR Lep-
ton® thermal microcamera core and a visible sensor to
allow greater image fidelity. The design also features an im-
proved encrypted military-approved digital datalink, en-
abling seamless communications and imagery significantly
beyond line-of-sight and in closed areas. The Black Hornet
3 also seamlessly integrates into the Android Tactical As-
sault Kit (ATAK) utilized by the military to provide battle-
field networks and distribution of information to anyone
on the network.
The Black Hornet 3, which includes two UAV sensors, a
controller, and display, has already been deployed by the Aus-
tralian Army and French Armed Forces. Over the past seven
years, the Black Hornet PRS has been fielded by over 30 na-
tions, providing small combat units, SWAT teams, and first re-
sponders with immediately available intelligence, target-ac-
quisition, and reconnaissance capability.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69510-551

Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-872 35

Cov ToC
Rod Ends and Application Briefs
Spherical
Bearings designed
and manufactured to
Aurora’s exacting
standards for quality
and durability. Remote Weapon Station
General Robotics
Beit Nehemia, Israel
+972 (0) 77 512 1020
www.glrobotics.com
Registered and Certified
to ISO_9001 and AS9100.
From economy commercial
G eneral Robotics, a company that specializes in developing,
manufacturing and marketing advanced robotic systems
for defense and Homeland Security, manufactures an ultra-
to aerospace approved, light remote weapon station with anti-drone capabilities
we’ve got it all! called the Pitbull. The Pitbull provides a solution for detecting
and tracking all types of drones during flight, enabling their
neutralization and downing.
Pitbull AD, which weighs only 70 kg., is easily installed on
all manned and unmanned ground, air, and maritime plat-

forms including ultralight vehicles such as ATVs, as well as on
fixed stations. The system, which can integrate with any exist-
Aurora Bearing Company ing sensors, detects and tracks all types of drones in flight and
901 Aucutt Road can neutralize them via RF, intercept them, and if needed,
Montgomery IL. 60538
bring them down by either soft- or hard-kill. Despite weighing
complete library of CAD drawings and 3D models available at: only 70 kg., the Pitbull AD supports MAG 7.62 mm or NEGEV
w w w. a u r o r a b e a r i n g . c o m 5.56 mm machine guns.
The Pitbull AD's optics module includes both a color HD
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-873
day camera (optical zoom X30 human target detection range
<1200m) and a thermal camera (human target detection range
<800m), backed up by an image processing suite that includes
“point & shoot” technology, an embedded anti-drone track
LED-Solutions and shoot algorithm, day and night multiple target tracking,
a digital image stabilizer, and video motion detection (VMD).
Robust and sealed to IP67 The laser range finder operates up to 3.3 km.
In addition to Pitbull, the company also manufactures the
DOGO – Anti-Terror Robot. Weighing only 10 kilos, DOGO is
Customized to your application
currently being used by Special Forces, SWAT teams, and in-
fantry around the world. Standard pistols can be quickly at-
Front and rear mounting
connector options tached to DOGO and easily operated via point & shoot tech-
nology, but DOGO can also integrate with non-lethal
Wide array of LED for indoor modules. The robot includes eight video cameras that provide
and outdoor, includes daylight 360° live video and boresight views and can communicate in
readable, bicolor, tricolor, IR hostage situations. The DOGO is being sent into Fatal Funnels
and NVIS to provide situational awareness and remote engagement ca-
pabilities to increase the survivability of the fighting forces.
Threaded housing in various For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69510-553
sizes

Robust metal housing fully


potted for outdoor applications

New : large M14 format

Wilbrecht LEDCO, Inc.

Toll free (888) 323-8751


info@wilbrechtledco.com
Made in America www.wilbrechtledco.com

36 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-874 Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Upcoming...

Webinars
Light-Cure Solutions for the
Aerospace/Defense Industry: Improve
Your Bottom Line with the Speed of Light
Wednesday, September 19, 2018 at 2:00 pm U.S. EDT

This webinar will discuss the advantages and benefits of light-curable materials (LCMs) for the Aerospace and Defense industry
including conformal coatings, encapsulants, ruggedizing materials, shallow potting compounds, camera module adhesives, wire
tacking adhesives, gap fill/form-in-place gaskets, and maskants.

Speaker:
Virginia Hogan This 60-minute Webinar includes:
Senior Manager, Global • Live Q&A session
Business Development,
• Application Demo
Aerospace & Defense,
• Access to archived event on demand
Dymax Corporation

Please visit www.techbriefs.com/webinar562

GaN Reliability: What Gives?


Wednesday, September 26, 2018 at 2:00 pm U.S. EDT

Gallium Nitride (GaN) compound semiconductors are taking center stage in many electronic and electrical circuits and systems
being developed today. This presentation will address some of the philosophical and technical complications that challenge consen-
sus on industry guidelines for qualification and reliability assurance.

Speakers:
Roland Shaw David Sanderlin This 30-minute Webinar includes:
President and CEO Executive VP/CTO, • Live Q&A session
Accel-RF Accel-RF • Application Demo
• Access to archived event on demand

Please visit www.techbriefs.com/webinar565

From Launchpad to Landing: Next-


Generation Materials for Mars and Beyond
Wednesday, October 3, 2018 at 2:00 pm U.S. EDT

This webinar will compare and contrast different materials and applications for extreme temperature fluctuations. It will also discuss
how delivery systems and assembly methods can save resources and time. An overview of silicones, epoxies, and polyurethanes
used for thermal protection will also be discussed.

Speakers:
Clarissa Miller Matthew Lindberg This 60-minute Webinar includes:
Senior Global Program Manager, Technical Account Manager, • Live Q&A session
Industrial and Aerospace RTVs, Aerospace RTVs, • Application Demo
Momentive Performance Momentive Performance
• Access to archived event on demand
Materials Materials

Please visit www.techbriefs.com/webinar571

Cov ToC
New Products

Pin Fin Heat Sinks Unmanned Aircraft Systems Upgrades


Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. AeroVironment Inc. (Mon-
(ATS) (Norwood, MA) has a family of rovia, CA) announced that its
Pin Fin heat sinks designed as cost- Puma™ AE and Raven® small
effective solutions for systems with unmanned aircraft systems
adequate airflow. The high aspect are being enhanced with new
ratio design enables ATS Pin Fin heat upgrades that include dura-
sinks to provide low thermal resistance from base to fins in sys- bility enhancements to the
tems where the airflow measures 200-plus LFM (linear feet per aircraft to operate in more
minute). The cross-cut design also allows the Pin Fin heat sinks rugged environments, im-
to be effective in systems where airflow is ambiguous. proved ability to support advanced third-party payloads and
These high-efficiency platform products, made from ex- software applications and enhanced performance in challeng-
truded aluminum, are available in component sizes from 10 ing radio electronic warfare/cyber environments where inter-
mm ¥ 10 mm to 60 mm ¥ 60 mm. Heat sink heights range ference is prevalent.
from 2 mm to 25 mm. At higher airflows, ATS Pin Fin Heat Puma 3 features enhanced composite structures to support
Sinks can provide thermal resistance as low as 2.5°C/W with- landing with heavier configurations and at higher altitudes.
out adding significant cost or weight to the design. PUMA 3 will incorporate a new, more efficient smart battery
Pin Fin heat sinks can be attached with standard thermal as well as enhancements to battery safety. Raven 3 will feature
tape or with ATS clipKIT™, featuring either maxiGRIP™ or su- a new smart battery with an integrated state-of-the-charge in-
perGRIP™ two-component mechanical attachment systems dicator and improved safety and reliability during charging
that securely mount a heat sink to a component without and flight operations. Raven 3 will also include an optional
needing to drill holes and with minimal additional footprint. AVTracker capability, which improves Raven’s ability to main-
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69510-510 tain “eyes on target.”
Both models will be equipped with Digital Data Link (DDL)
security upgrades to support operation in more challenging
RF environments and will include M1/M2/M5 radio frequen-
cies to conform seamlessly and securely to the Department of
Defense’s new frequency spectrum allocation.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69510-513

Removable Storage Module


Aitech Defense Systems Inc.
(Chatsworth, CA) now offers
its A172, a low-power, high-
performance rugged compact
PC (RCP) with a removable
storage module that meets
DoD 5220.22-M for quick/se-
cure erase. The 1 TB, secure
SSD offers MLC and SLC NAND Flash, as well as a sustainable
read/write speed of up to 400 MB/sec. The low-profile A172 is
a compact 10.24" ¥ 7.09" ¥ 1.8" (260 mm x 180 mm x 46 mm),
featuring a powerful Intel Core i7 or Xeon processor and mul-
tiple standardized modules.
In addition, the RCP offers added design flexibility with
DVI and RS-170A RGBHV video output options, optional
WiFi and frame grabber video inputs as well as TPM (trusted
platform management) and a 50 ms holdup option for in-
creased system reliability. The rugged unit offers two stan-
dard I/O variants, with user-specific configurations avail-
able. Options include up to four independent Gigabit
Ethernet interfaces, four USB 2.0 interfaces and eight serial
ports with multiple RS232, RS422 or RS485 configurations as
well as two CANbus and eight single-ended, buffered LVTTL
discrete digital I/O ports.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69510-521

38 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-875 Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
Product Spotlight
New Products MULTIPHYSICS
MODELING,
SIMULATION,
APP DESIGN AND
DEPLOYMENT
SOFTWARE
COMSOL Multiphysics® is an integrated software envi-
ronment for creating physics-based models and simula-
Software Radio Receiver tion apps. Add-on products allow the simulation of elec-
Pentek, Inc. (Upper Saddle River, NJ) announced the newest trical, mechanical, acoustic, fluid flow, thermal, and
member of its Jade® family of high-speed data converter XMC chemical applications. Interfacing tools enable its inte-
gration with all major technical computing and CAD
FPGA modules: the 2-channel Jade Model 71865, a 200 MHz tools. Simulation experts rely on COMSOL Server™
16-bit A/D channelizer with 762 narrowband digital down product to deploy apps to their colleagues and cus-
converters (DDCs) and 4 wideband DDCs, based on the Xilinx tomers worldwide. https://www.comsol.com/products
Kintex UltraScale FPGA. The Model 71865 functions include COMSOL, Inc.
two A/D acquisition IP modules for simplifying data capture and transfer.. From each of Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-876
the two acquisition modules, A/D sample data flows into identical IP modules consisting
of banks of wideband and narrowband DDCs. Finally, data is delivered to four DMA con- BI-DIRECTIONAL
trollers linked to the PCIe Gen.3 x8 interface for transfer to a signal processor. FIBER OPTIC
The four wideband DDCs can be set for decimation values between 8 and 128 in steps SWITCHES
of 4, providing usable output bandwidths from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz. Each of the six nar- Liteway, Inc. offers a
line of full bi-directional fiber optic switches in the
rowband DDC banks can be configured to operate in three different modes, where each following styles: 1¥N, 2¥N, 1¥3, 1¥4, Latching or
mode provides a different quantity of DDC channels and range of decimations. Output Non-Latching, Signal Sensing, Manual or Remote
bandwidths range from 20 kHz to 1.25 MHz. All DDCs can be independently tuned controlled. Since there is no light to/from electrical
data conversion, there is no data to intercept.
from 0 Hz to 200 MHz with 32 bits of resolution.
Switches can be used Stand-alone, DIN rail or Rack
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69510-527 mounted, are available with all standard optical con-
nectors and are ready for immediate use. All switches
are manufactured in the USA. Visit www.
S-Band Radar Rotating Joint Assembly foswitch.com or call Liteway, Inc. at 1-516-931-2800.
Link Microtek (Hampshire, UK) has successfully created and
shipped a complex, one-meter-long microwave rotating joint as- Liteway, Inc.
sembly for an S-band ground-based radar. Allowing microwave
signals to be fed to and from a radar antenna, such large rotating Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-877
joint assemblies are an essential component of the S-band radar
systems that are used around the world in air-traffic control, NASA LOW
weather forecasting and shipborne applications. OUTGASSING
The rotating joint assembly incorporates one WR284 wave- APPROVED
guide channel for 2.7-3.1 GHz (S-band) transmissions up to a peak EPOXY
power of 200 kW, four N-type coaxial channels for 2.7-3.1 GHz transmissions up to a
Master Bond EP30-2 is a
peak power of 1 kW, two N-type coaxial channels for 1.0-1.1 GHz (L-band) transmissions two component epoxy adhesive, sealant and lami-
with a peak power of 10 kW, and a 35-way slip ring and brush block for feeding DC nating compound. It cures at room temperatures
power to the antenna. and has a low mixed viscosity. Its durable and
tough bonds are resistant to exposure up to 300°F.
As is usual for radar applications, the assembly had been specified for continuous ro- EP30-2 is optically clear and meets NASA low out-
tation at up to 60 rpm, so the finished unit was subjected to a prolonged run-in program gassing requirements while maintaining outstand-
and comprehensive electrical testing on a custom-built test rig at Link Microtek’s Bas- ing resistance to thermal cycling and chemicals.
http://www.masterbond.com/tds/ep30-2
ingstoke facility.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69510-524
Master Bond Inc.
Inspection Software
EyeVision software from EVT (Karlsruhe, Ger- Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-878
many) offers new thermal imaging commands with
release 3.7, allowing both active and passive thermal
A WORLD OF FIBER OPTIC
imaging. The nondestructive detection of hidden
SOLUTIONS
materials in plastics or openings in foam is now pos-
sible. Even surface shapes of transparent materials
can be perceived and errors detected, such as those in adhesive beads, etc.
EyeVision supports various IR cameras, for example by Optris and Flir. In addition Eye-
Vision supports nearly every platform: GigE, USB 2.0 and 3.0, RS232, Camera Link, • T1/E1 & T3/E3 Modems, WAN
• RS-232/422/485 Modems and Multiplexers
FireWire, CoaXPress, etc. EyeVision runs on various embedded boards such as Raspberry • Profibus-DP, Modbus
Pi, Odroid, Pine, as well as EVT’s own SPS-IO-Module and IoCap (Capture-and-IO-Board). • Ethernet LANs
Besides the thermal and hyperspectral imaging commands, EyeVision also has many • Video/Audio/Hubs/Repeaters
• USB Modem and Hub
commands for metrology, 3D point cloud measurements, surface inspection, object • Highly shielded Ethernet, USB (Tempest Case)
counting, code reading (bar code, QR, DMC), OCR/OCV, pattern matching, color recog- • ISO-9001
nition and many special solutions. http://www.sitech-bitdriver.com
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/69510-516 S.I. Tech
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-879

Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018 www.aerodefensetech.com 39

Cov ToC
Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Joseph T. Pramberger
Ad Index
Editorial Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Linda L. Bell Advertiser Page Web Link
Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bruce A. Bennett
Accurate Screw Machine ..........................................2..........................................................www.accuratescrew.com
Digital Editorial Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Billy Hurley
Associate Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Edward Brown
American Welding Society ......................................COV III ................................................................................aws.org
Managing Editor, Tech Briefs TV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kendra Smith
Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Adam Santiago Arnold Magnetic Technologies ..............................24 ..................................................www.ArnoldMagnetics.com
Manufacturing Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kevin Coltrinari
Creative Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lois Erlacher Aurora Bearing Co. ....................................................36........................................................www.aurorabearing.com
Graphic Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Annette Murphy
Marketing Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Debora Rothwell Click Bond, Inc. ............................................................19 ........................................................www.clickbond.com/ad6
Digital Marketing Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kaitlyn Sommer
Marketing Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dylan Legarda COMSOL, Inc. ................................................................39, COV IV ......................................................www.comsol.com
Audience Development Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Christine Oldenbrook
Audience Development Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stacey Nelson Concept Group, Inc. ..................................................27 ............................................................conceptgroupinc.com
Subscription Changes/Cancellations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ntb@kmpsgroup.com
Cornell Dubilier ..........................................................7 ..........................................................cde.com/MLSHSlimpack
TECH BRIEFS MEDIA GROUP, AN SAE INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901, New York, NY 10016 Crystal Group, Inc ......................................................9 ....................................................................crystalrugged.com
(212) 490-3999 FAX (646) 829-0800
Chief Executive Officer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Domenic A. Mucchetti
Del-Tron Precision ......................................................38......................................................................www.deltron.com
Executive Vice-President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Luke Schnirring
Technology Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oliver Rockwell
Electronic Concepts Inc. ..........................................1 ........................................................................www.ecicaps.com
Systems Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vlad Gladoun
Digital Development Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peter Bonavita Evans Capacitor ..........................................................10 ..................................................................www.evanscap.com
Digital Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Howard Ng
Digital Media Associate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Md Jaliluzzaman Fluid Line Products, Inc. ..........................................33 ....................................................................www.fluidline.com
Digital Production Associate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jerry Aultz
Digital Production Associate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Andrew Greenberg Gaia Converter US Inc. ..............................................31 ........................................................www.gaia-converter.com
Digital Production Associate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Symba Wong
Digital Media Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peter Weiland Infinite Electronics/Milestek....................................21 ..............................................................................MilesTek.com
Credit/Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Felecia Lahey
Accounting/Human Resources Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sylvia Bonilla John Evans’ Sons, Inc. ..............................................29................................................................springcompany.com
Accounts Receivable Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nicholas Rivera
Office Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Alfredo Vasquez Liteway Inc. ..................................................................39 ..................................................................www.foswitch.com

ADVERTISING ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES Master Bond Inc. ........................................................35, 39 ....................................................www.masterbond.com


MA, NH, ME, VT, RI, Eastern Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ed Marecki
(401) 351-0274 MPL ..................................................................................35 ................................................................................www.mpl.ch
CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stan Greenfield
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(203) 938-2418
Omnetics Connector Corporation ........................33..................................................................www.omnetics.com
NJ, PA, DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John Murray
Pickering Interfaces ..................................................5, Following Page 16 ................pickeringtest.com/vxitopxi
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4685
Southeast, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ray Tompkins
Positronic Industries, Inc. ......................................11 ......................www.connectpositronic.com/adt_sept2018
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(281) 313-1004
NY, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ryan Beckman Renishaw Inc. ..............................................................25 ..................................................................www.renishaw.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(973) 409-4687
MI, IN, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris Kennedy S.I. Tech ..........................................................................39......................................................www.sitech-bitdriver.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(847) 498-4520 ext. 3008
MN, ND, SD, IL, KY, MO, KS, IA, NE, Central Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bob Casey Sealevel Systems, Inc. ..............................................12 ..............................................................................Sealevel.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(847) 223-5225
Northwest, N. Calif., Western Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Craig Pitcher State of the Art, Inc. ..................................................23 ....................................................................www.resistor.com
(408) 778-0300
S. Calif., AZ, NM, Rocky Mountain States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tim Powers The Lee Company........................................................15 ..................................................................www.TheLeeCo.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(424) 247-9207
Europe — Central & Eastern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sven Anacker ThermOmegaTech, Inc. ............................................3 ..........................................www.ThermOmegaTech-adg.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-202-27169-11
Joseph Heeg VPT, Inc. ........................................................................13 ..................................................................www.vptpower.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-621-841-5702
Europe — Western . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris Shaw W. L. Gore & Associates..............................................COV II..........................................www.gore.com/GORE-FLIGHT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44-1270-522130
Wilbrecht LEDCO, Inc . ................................................36 ......................................................www.wilbrechtledco.com
Integrated Media Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Patrick Harvey
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4686
Aerospace & Defense Technology, ISSN 2472-2081, USPS 018-120. Periodicals postage paid at
Angelo Danza New York, NY and at additional mailing offices. Copyright © 2018 in U.S. is published in
(973) 874-0271 February, April, May, June, August, September, October, and December (8 issues) by Tech
Scott Williams Briefs Media Group, an SAE International Company, 261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901, New
(973) 545-2464 York, NY 10016. The copyright information does not include the (U.S. rights to) individual
Rick Rosenberg tech briefs that are supplied by NASA. Editorial, sales, production, and circulation offices at
261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901, New York, NY 10016. Subscription is free to qualified sub-
(973) 545-2565
scribers and subscriptions for non-qualified subscribers in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, $75.00
Todd Holtz for 1 year. Digital Edition: $24.00 for 1 year. Single copies: $6.25. Foreign subscriptions, one-
(973) 545-2566 year U.S. Funds: $195.00. Remit by check, draft, postal, express orders or VISA, MasterCard,
Christian DeLalla and American Express. Other remittances at sender’s risk. Address all communications for
(973) 841-6035 subscriptions or circulation to NASA Tech Briefs, 261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901, New York,
NY 10016. Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY and at additional mailing offices.
Casey Hanson
(973) 841-6040 POSTMASTER: Send address changes and cancellations to NASA Tech Briefs, P.O. Box
Reprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jill Kaletha
47857, Plymouth, MN 55447.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(219) 878-6068 September 2018, Volume 3, Number 6

40 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, September 2018

Cov ToC
American Welding Society®
aws.org

Prepare for Your CWI Exam with the


Organization that Set the Standard
American Welding Society’s Instructor-Led and
Online CWI Study Options Are Yours for the Taking.
For close to a century, AWS has been the worldwide authority in welding standards
development and compliance. So, when you prepare for your CWI exam, it just
makes sense to use AWS study options.
zOnline and instructor-led seminars available
z Information presented is the most current and accurate
z
Instructor-led seminar is the shortest, most comprehensive in the industry:
 ‹ Requires only 40 hours of intensive classroom instruction (not 80!)

 ‹ Includes a week-long seminar right before your exam

‹ Comes with all AWS study materials, including codebook

z 10-course online CWI Pre-Seminar covers fundamental concepts and principles

frequently used by CWIs:


‹ Self-paced* program with short, easy-to-understand interactive modules

‹ Easy online access anytime, anywhere

‹ User-friendly interface and live technical support

‹ Benchmarking quizzes and practice problems included

* Students have 90 days to successfully complete all 10 courses.

$750 Online Pre-Seminar


Save Up to $400 on the 10-Course Online Pre-Seminar
when you register before September 30, 2018.
To get this special offer or to learn about our other Seminar options, go to aws.org/AERO750. .
1808-EDU-4-PRI-00276 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-880

Cov ToC
Ray optics simulation
for inertial navigation.

Visualization of counterpropagating light rays in a


counterclockwise rotating Sagnac interferometer.

Aircraft and spacecraft require highly accurate tools for attitude


detection and control.
control Many modern inertial navigation systems
include ring laser gyroscopes. To better understand how ring
laser gyros work, you can study the fundamental operating
principle of these devices: the Sagnac effect. This effect can be
demonstrated using ray optics simulation.
The COMSOL Multiphysics® software is used for simulating
designs, devices, and processes in all fields of engineering,
manufacturing, and scientific research. See how you can apply it
to ray optics simulation.

comsol.blog/ring-laser-gyros

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/69510-881

Cov ToC