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Published in IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution

Received on 15th August 2012

Revised on 20th March 2013

Accepted on 18th April 2013

doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0042

ISSN 1751-8687

networks with optimal allocation of STATCOM

using heuristic algorithm

Hasan Mehrjerdi1, Esmaeil Ghahremani2, Serge Lefebvre1, Maarouf Saad3, Dalal Asber1

1

Research Institute of Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, J3X1S1, Canada

2

Opal-RT Technologies Inc, Montreal, H3K 1G6, Canada

3

Quebec University (ETS), Montreal, H3C 1K3, Canada

E-mail: hasan.mehrjerdi.1@ens.etsmtl.ca

Abstract: This study presents a secondary voltage control based on an optimisation algorithm to locate the control buses and

regulate the voltage. Control buses are the buses where compensators will be installed on these buses to regulate voltage and

avoid voltage violations. Firstly, partitioning algorithm using fuzzy C-means has been implemented on the power network.

Partitioning techniques split the power system into regions to avoid the propagation of disturbances between regions by using

local controllers. Then, a number of buses are labelled as control buses displaying the critical point for voltage control in

each region. The control algorithm is a decentralised controller which tries to eliminate voltage violations in power system

resulting from load variations and disturbances. The decentralised controllers are implemented using ﬂexible AC transmission

system (FACTS) devices such as static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The methodology is applied to the IEEE 118-

bus network. The results show the performance and ability of the partitioning algorithm and bus control selection to regulate

the voltage and avoid propagation of disturbances between regions.

implementation and low cost.

Today, power systems are improving from a traditional Several methods to design a SVC have been proposed

structure towards intelligent and aware systems. The [3–6]. Multi-agent systems (MASs) in large scale systems

progresses in power systems infrastructure challenge new play an important aspect in order to deal with complexity of

technologies and algorithms in different divisions of power large scale power systems [7–9]. Sheng et al. [10] present

systems. The new intelligent power systems need a variety a secondary voltage regulation algorithm based on MAS.

of upgrading in infrastructure such as monitoring, In system contingencies, this algorithm enhances the ability

communication, protection and control. Control methods of fast and coordinated voltage and reactive power control.

for a large-scale multiple-input–multiple-output non-linear They propose virtual control agency to adapt the emergency

system result in a heavy computational burden. Furthermore, dynamic control environment.

traditional optimisation techniques become computationally In some power network transmission systems such as

undesirable or improper. Control system architectures based Hydro-Quebec network lines are long with loads remote

on decentralised control have been considered to reduce the from production and it is difﬁcult to maintain constant

computational complexity and manage the vast amount of voltage when the demand varies in highly loaded networks.

distributed data and coupling problems among subsystems. Without control, the voltage will exceed its operating range.

Mehrjerdi et al. [1] present decentralised controllers in This is harmful to quality and security.

secondary voltage control (SVC) to avoid voltage violation This paper describes a particular SVC for power systems

and prevent disturbance propagation in power system. They based on partitioning and heuristic decentralised control

install the controllers on the buses which are considered algorithm. This method presents an efﬁcient and secure

as the most sensitive buses among all the buses in the voltage regulation for power systems by maintaining

same region. voltages within the ranges prescribed for all buses following

Aquino-Lugo et al. [2] present an optimisation algorithm to a change in the operating conditions. Optimisation control

control reactive resources in the distribution system by using is used to hold the bus voltages as close as possible to their

of intelligent agents. In this paper, heuristic-based regional reference value, especially useful when the power

technologies are used to implement decentralised control demand is heavy.

algorithms. Replacing centralised voltage-control systems Different methods have been developed for partition

with decentralised techniques has many advantages such as recognition and model reduction [11–16]. Kamwa et al.

IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2013, Vol. 7, Iss. 9, pp. 1037–1045 1037

doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0042 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013

www.ietdl.org

[12] introduce a partitioning method based on a fuzzy 2 Problem formulation

clustering algorithm where clusters are centred around the

representative buses called medoid-bus. This method results Fig. 1 shows the general block diagram of SVC of power

a phasor measurement unit conﬁguration with minimum system based on partitioning algorithm. As can be seen in

number of devices and fast data aggregation for a wide-area this ﬁgure, ﬁrstly power system is partitioned by an

measurement system. They developed the method to an intelligent algorithm. Then, a number of buses entitled as

actual network (Hydro-Québec) with realistic characteristics control buses are selected in each region (where

in terms of geography and system dynamics [13]. compensators will be installed in theses buses) to control

The scheme proposed in this paper separates the power voltages in different regions. Control bus selection can be

system into smaller regions using fuzzy C-means (FCM) implemented using different algorithms. In this paper, an

method to avoid cascading events. The algorithm is tested optimisation algorithm is considered to choose the desired

on the IEEE 118-bus network. This network is divided into buses for installing the control elements on them. Buses

regions that are designed to have minimum interaction and voltages are measured to check if they are in their desired

therefore any disturbances in a particular region will not limits. If there is a violation in voltage of buses in a region,

strongly propagate to the other regions. Selection of the controller installed in the control buses will act and insert

control buses is the most central point for an appropriate the required reactive power to the region.

controller design to obtain efﬁcient voltage regulation. The

selection of control buses in each region is based on the 3 Allocation of STATCOM controllers:

FACTS placement procedure (here STATCOM) to optimal locations and optimal values

maximise the power system loadability by allocating the

STATCOM device at the identiﬁed regions of IEEE The process of optimal placement of STATCOM controllers

118-bus system using the optimisation method presented in in different regions of power network is developed using an

[17]. optimisation process based on GA. The goal of this process

FACTS devices can ameliorate the efﬁciency of existing is to maximise the power system loadability at selected

networks by re-dispatching line ﬂow patterns in such a way regions. Here in this section, we present the optimal

that the thermal limits are not exceeded, whereas fulﬁlling placement procedure brieﬂy. The readers can refer to [17]

contractual requirements between grid stakeholders and for more details. At ﬁrst a short description about GA is

increasing system loadability. From the steady-state point of presented.

view, FACTS devices operate by supplying or absorbing

reactive power, increasing or reducing voltage and

3.1 Genetic algorithm

controlling the series impedance of transmission lines or

phase angle. The GA is a kind of stochastic method for solving both

However, the beneﬁts of these devices are strictly constrained and unconstrained optimisation problems based

dependent on their type, size, number and location in the on the mechanism of natural selection. The GA repeatedly

power network system. In the optimisation method which modiﬁes a population of individual solutions. At each step,

uses the genetic algorithm (GA), the placement procedure some individuals are randomly selected from the current

for different number of STATCOM’s is developed to population to be parents for the next generation. Over

maximise the loadability of the network. The optimisation successive generations, the population evolves towards an

process will ﬁnd the optimal locations and values of the optimal solution [18, 19].

given number of STATCOM’s in the selected regions of The GA begins by creating a random initial population.

IEEE 118-bus system. To take an example, assume the two individuals in Fig. 2a

Controllers are individually designed for each region which as an initial population.

injects required reactive power into the region in case of The algorithm then creates a sequence of new populations.

disturbances and regional voltage variations. The method is This is done by ranking the members of the current

applied to IEEE 118-bus system with three regions and population according to their ﬁtness values. Some of the

controllers installed on control buses in order to eliminate individuals in the current population that have the best

voltage violations in the system. ﬁtness value are chosen as elite children. These elite

The paper is organised as follows: Section 2 presents the individuals are passed on to the next population. In addition

problem formulation, and Section 3 describes the design of to elite children, there are two other methods for generating

controllers by optimisation algorithm and allocation of a new child population: mutation and crossover.

compensator controllers. Section 4 explains the partitioning Mutation children are generated by randomly changing the

algorithm. Section 6 presents the simulation results and genes of a single individual parent (see Fig. 2b) and the

ﬁnally we conclude the paper in Section 7. crossover children created by combining pairs of parents in

1038 IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2013, Vol. 7, Iss. 9, pp. 1037–1045

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013 doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0042

www.ietdl.org

is no longer possible to satisfy the constraints, it is

concluded that the maximum loadability has been reached.

This is in fact a multi-stage greedy algorithm that follows

the solving heuristic of making the locally optimal choice at

each stage in the hope of ﬁnding a global optimum. On

some problems, a greedy sequential strategy need not

produce an optimal solution, but nonetheless a greedy

heuristic may yield locally optimal solutions that

approximate a global optimal solution.

The corresponding objective function which maximises the

power system loadability (λ) could be formalised as follows

J = Max{l} (3)

DV ≤ 0.05 :for all busses of the network (5)

bi

min

Pgi ≤ Pgi ≤ Pgi

max

:for all generation buses (6)

the line l, Sl is the current apparent power of the line l and ΔVbi

is the difference between the nominal voltage at bus i and the

current voltage, Pgi is the generation at bus i, Pmin gi and Pgi

max

Fig. 2 GA begins by creating a random initial population are minimum and maximum bounds on Pgi, respectively.

a Original individuals In summary, the optimisation process which ﬁnds the

b Mutation on each single individual maximum loading factor λmax (maximum system

c Crossover between two original individuals

loadability) could be presented as follows. At ﬁrst step we

should initialise λ0 = 1 and select the number of STATCOM

the current population as the third type of children (see device. Then in step two we will increase λ = λ + 0.1 and

Fig. 2c). create an initial population of GAs. Then we should verify

Finally, the current population will be replaced with the constraint satisfaction in (4)–(6) for each individual.

selected children to form the next generation. The algorithm If there is any individual in whom the constraints are met, it

stops when one of the stopping criteria such as the number means that at current load factor (λ) we have a

of generations, time limit and ﬁtness limit is met [19]. conﬁguration that satisﬁes the loadability constraints and as

a result we should increase the load factor. Finally on step

three we continue this loop continues until we reach to a

3.2 Objective function of optimisation process load factor for which there is no individual with a ﬁtness

The goal of our optimisation process is to maximise the function equal to zero. This means that at this load factor,

system loadability on the network without any bus voltage there is no conﬁguration of STATCOM device which can

violation or branch loading. In order to achieve this bring the network voltage level and loading constraints into

objective, the load factor (λ) of the network will be acceptable ranges.

increased in an iterative optimisation process as follows. At this point, we should report the previous load factor

At initial condition λ is equal to 1 (λ0 = 1). corresponding to maximum load factor (λmax) and previous

First of all, the generating powers in generation buses (PG individual which includes optimal locations and values of

buses) are modiﬁed as in (1) STATCOM controllers.

The overall view of the allocated STATCOM controllers in

PGi = l PG0i (1) the network could be explained as some decentralised

controllers that their values are calculated based on the

where PG0i is the initial power generation at bus i and PGi is loadability constraints of the network such as voltage

the modiﬁed power generation. variations buses and load ﬂow of lines. In other words, the

Then, for the load buses (PQ buses) the active and reactive loadability constraints of the network such as bus voltage

demands (PL and QL) are modiﬁed as (2) variations are the input signal of STATCOM controllers in

each region and outputs of the controllers are reactive

power injected in control buses. If a region is affected by

PLi = l PL0i

(2) disturbances and the bus voltages approach their operating

QLi = l QL0i limits (especially on the control buses), the controller will

check the ability of the generators in the same region to

where PL0i and QL0i are the initial active and reactive load provide the required reactive power and will insert reactive

power at bus i and PLi and QLi are the modiﬁed values. power in the region. If generators operate close to their

At each iteration, according to (1) and (2), the load factor is limits, then controller adjoin control elements (STATCOM)

increased and the optimisation constraints, which are bus to the system to provide the needed reactive power to the

voltage violation and branch loading, are veriﬁed. When it region to prevent voltage limit violations.

IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2013, Vol. 7, Iss. 9, pp. 1037–1045 1039

doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0042 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013

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measured data, Cj is the d-dimension centre of the cluster and

|| || is any norm expressing the similarity between any

measured data and the centre.

The fuzziﬁer m determines the level of cluster fuzziness.

A large m results in smaller memberships, uij, and hence fuzzier

clusters. In the limit m = 1, the memberships uij converge to 0

or 1, which implies a crisp partitioning. The FCM algorithm,

given n data points (x1, …, xn) to be clustered with (C1, …,

Cn) the centre of the clusters. FCM function in MATLAB

has been used for classiﬁcation. The number of partitions

has been given (this example 3) and FCM ﬁnd the three

cluster centres and three regions. FCM starts with an initial

guess for the cluster centres, which are intended to mark the

mean location of each cluster. Additionally, it assigns every

data point a membership grade for each cluster. By

iteratively updating the cluster centres and the membership

grades for each data point, it iteratively moves the cluster

centres to the right location within a data set. This iteration

is based on minimising an objective function that represents

the distance from any given data point to a cluster centre

Fig. 3 Overall schematic of implemented decentralised control weighted by that data point’s membership grade.

plan Fuzzy partitioning is carried out through an iterative

optimisation of the objective function shown above, with the

update of membership uij and the cluster centers Cj [21] by

The allocation procedure in this paper is done to ﬁnd the

maximum load factor and in the procedure at each speciﬁc

1

load factor different conﬁgurations for location and size of uij = 2/(m−1) (8)

the STATCOM are tested. Based on this explanation, it is C

||x − C ||/||x − C ||

k=1 i j i k

shown that the STATCOM placement has a two layers

optimisation process. At top layer, ﬁnding the maximum N

load factor of the network is considered and at the lower i=1 um

ij xi

Cj = N (9)

layer in each speciﬁc load factor conﬁgurations are looked i=1 um

ij

which satisfy our loadability constrains. If there is a

zero-ﬁtness function with respect to the optimisation

This iteration will stop when maxij {|u(k+1)ij − u(k)

ij |} ,[,

constraints (bus voltage violation and branch loading in that

where ∈ is a termination criterion between 0 and 1, whereas

speciﬁc load factor) the load factor is increased to restart

k are the iteration steps. This procedure converges to a local

the searching again in new higher load factor.

minimum or a saddle point of Fm. The algorithm is

Based on these explanations, the overall schematic of

composed of the following steps:

implemented decentralised control is presented in Fig. 3.

The local STATCOM controller in each region is required

1. Initialise U = [uij ] matrix, U (0)

to improve voltage values when a disturbance occurs. The

2. At k-step: calculate the centres vectors C (k) = [cj] with U (k)

locations of these STATCOM controllers are determined

3. Update U (k), U (k + 1)

previously to maximise the power system loadability using

4. If if ||U (k + 1)–U (k)|| < ∈ then stop, otherwise return to

a GA-based optimisation method as presented in previous

step 2.

section.

A number of tests have been performed using this

4 Partitioning algorithm algorithm with different number of regions. The number of

regions for IEEE 118-bus is considered as three. In IEEE

In this section, partitioning based on FCM is explained and 118-bus, there are 54 generators, 99 loads, 118 buses and

the method is applied to IEEE 118-bus. The results of this 186 branches. The power ﬂow has been obtained with the

partitioning algorithm are compared by K-means and graph Matpower software [22]. Fig. 4 shows the result of

partitioning algorithms. partitioning with FCM algorithm.

In FCM partitioning, ﬁrstly a power ﬂow is performed in

4.1 FCM partitioning algorithm regular situation where there is no any disturbances on the

loads. This extracts the voltage, phase angle, real power and

FCM is a method of clustering which permits a given data set reactive power values at all PV and PQ buses. Secondly,

to belong to two or more clusters [20, 21]. FCM is regularly contingency which is disturbances on the loads are applied

used in engineering clustering applications and is based on and another power ﬂow is performed to obtain new values

minimisation of the following objective function for all buses. Consequently, the differences between the

values after the disturbances and under regular conditions

N

C are calculated using as input data for FCM algorithm. The

Fm = ij ||xi − Cj ||

um 2

1≤m,1 (7) contingencies used in that paper are a 20% disturbances on

i=1 j=1 buses 2, 12, 22, 32, 42, 52, 62, 72, 82, 92, 102 and 112 for

the ﬁrst data inputs and then for the second date inputs,

where m is any real number greater than 1, uij is the degree of 20% disturbances on buses 3, 13, 23, 33, 43, 53, 63, 73,

membership of xi in the cluster j, xi is the ith of d-dimensional 83, 93, 103 and 113.

1040 IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2013, Vol. 7, Iss. 9, pp. 1037–1045

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013 doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0042

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IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2013, Vol. 7, Iss. 9, pp. 1037–1045 1041

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Initially, voltages of buses were considered as input data, 4.4 Partitioning algorithms comparison (IEEE

the result of partitioning was not satisfactory and some 118-bus)

obtained regions even were not connected physically. The

result of partitioning was not good because the voltage on To check the performance of the partitioning algorithm based on

PV buses always remains constant and they can not be a FCM, the results of this partitioning algorithm are compared by

good set of input data. Afterwards, phase angle were the graph partitioning algorithm [1] and k-means [11]. The

considered as inputs date because of their value changes for results show the effectiveness of these algorithms and

all buses in regular and contingency conditions. The input similarity of the obtained regions in Table 1. This table shows,

data are given to the FCM and the output of FCM is a buses are common in each region using different partitioning

number of clusters that contain buses with similar reaction

to disturbances. Table 1 Comparison between partition algorithms (IEEE

To check the robustness and performance of the 118-bus)

partitioning algorithm based on FCM for different operating

conditions, different tests have been performed. Firstly, IEEE 118-Bus Graph theory FCM clustering K-means

algorithm algorithm clustering

some of branches in regions have been opened to change algorithm

the network structure and see the result of partitioning. Region 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 ,14,15, 16,

Secondly, disturbances are applied (ramp up all system (common 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,

loads simultaneously). The disturbances have been initiated buses) 30, 31, 32, 33, 113, 114, 115 and 117

at 5% and increased to 20%. The results of both tests show Region 1 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42

that the partitions stay approximately the same with some (uncommon and 43

minor changes near the boundaries of the regions. buses)

Region 2 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56,

(common 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69,

4.2 K-means partitioning algorithm buses) 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 116

and 118

Here, the result of the partitioning based on K-means Region2 34, 35, 36, 37, 82, 96, 97 and 82, 83, 96, 97

algorithm is shown in Fig. 5 for the IEEE 118-bus [11]. (uncommon 38, 39, 40, 41, 98 and 98

buses) 42 and 43

Region 3 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 99,

4.3 Graph partitioning algorithm (common 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105,106, 107, 108, 109,

buses) 110, 111 and 112

Here, the result of the graph partitioning algorithm is shown Region 3 82, 83, 96, 97 83

in Fig. 6 for the IEEE 118-bus based on graph theory (uncommon and 98

mentioned in [1]. buses)

1042 IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2013, Vol. 7, Iss. 9, pp. 1037–1045

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Table 2 Results of optimal placement of STATCOM controllers in different region of IEEE 118-bus test system

Region number Number of STATCOM Allocation process results λmax Loadability improvement, %

Locations Values, MVar

1 1 bus 23 − 95 1.02 2% (87 MW)

1 2 bus 30 − 90 1.05 5% (212 MW)

bus 38 − 97

2 1 bus 51 − 79 1.02 2% (87 MW)

2 2 bus 45 − 70 1.05 5% (212 MW)

bus 63 − 85

3 1 bus 94 − 95 1.02 2% (127 MW)

3 2 bus 93 − 95 1.04 4% (169 MW)

bus 97 − 78

algorithm and buses which belong to one region and does not implemented in different regions of IEEE 118-bus system to

belong to other regions (uncommon buses). maximise the power system loadability. During the

optimisation process, the optimisation algorithm (GA)

randomly selects the locations and values for all given

5 Simulation results STATCOM devices after setting them into the power

system at each generation. Then the loadability constraints

Based on the algorithm presented in Section 3, the allocation are veriﬁed for each individual to continue the algorithm

process for different number of STATCOM has been based on the step presented in previous section. Then in a

Fig. 7 Comparing the voltage level of buses in region 1 in presence of a 40% load demand for the network with and without STATCOM

controller

Fig. 8 Comparing the voltage level of buses in region 1 in presence of a 40% load demand for the network with and without two STATCOM

controller

IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2013, Vol. 7, Iss. 9, pp. 1037–1045 1043

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Fig. 9 Comparing the voltage level of buses in region 2 in presence of a 40% load demand for the network with and without STATCOM

controller

Fig. 10 Comparing the voltage level of buses in region 1 in presence of a 40% load demand for the network with and without STATCOM

controller

speciﬁc generation, the maximum system loadability (λmax) buses 30 and 38 as presented in Table 2. The results are

will be determined. Here, the optimal placement results for presented in Fig. 8.

different number of STATCOM are presented in Table 2. Fig. 9 shows the comparison of bus voltages of region 2 in

To verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the the network without controller with the network with one

decentralised control algorithm presented in Fig. 3, the STATCOM controller allocated in bus 51 with the rate of

disturbances are applied separately to each region of IEEE − 79 MVar. The rate of disturbance is 40% as it was used

118-bus test system to verify the robustness and for region 1. Similar to the results of region 1, this ﬁgure

performance of the purposed algorithm. shows the capability of optimal allocated STATCOM in

For the ﬁrst simulations the load increasing disturbances keeping the voltage level of buses in acceptable ranges in

are applied into the load buses (PQ-buses) in region 1 load stress condition.

obtained by FCM algorithm presented in Table 1. Fig. 7 Finally, the 40% disturbance (load demand) is applied to

shows the voltage of buses in presence of 40% disturbance the loads in region 3. For this region, the STATCOM

applied to the load buses in region 1. This ﬁgure shows a controller is located in the bus 94 with the rate of − 95

comparison between the network without STATCOM MVar. The results are presented in Fig. 10. Similar to the

controller and the network with one STATCOM allocated previous results in this section, in the network without

in bus 23 with the rate of − 95 MVar as presented in STATCOM controller, there is more voltage drop in buses

Table 2. of region 3.

As it is clear from this ﬁgure, in the presence of disturbance

the voltage level of buses in region 1 have less voltage drop 6 Conclusion

with respect to the network without STATCOM controller.

Next, the 40% load demand is applied to the network with Voltage control of power systems is essential as they are

two STATCOM controllers allocated in region 1 in the operating closer to their limits. In this paper, ﬁrstly

1044 IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2013, Vol. 7, Iss. 9, pp. 1037–1045

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013 doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0042

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electrical network partitioning techniques were introduced to 8 Heo, J.S., Lee, K.Y.: ‘A multi-agent system-based intelligent

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