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Improving Distribution System Reliability

Ahmed S. A. Awad, Student Member, IEEE, Tarek H. M. EL-Fouly, Member, IEEE, and

Magdy M. A. Salama, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—The recent deployment of distributed generation has network outages. Consequently, successful islanding operation

led to a revolution in the use of distribution systems and the emer- improves system reliability by preventing loss of load or by min-

gence of smart-grid concepts. Smart grids are intended primarily imizing the loss of energy supplied to non-affected customers

as a means of facilitating the integration of renewable energy

sources and of achieving greater system reliability and efficiency.

during network disturbances. Thus, when a disturbance occurs,

Energy storage systems offer a number of benefits that can help the formation of islands may help improve system reliability if

utilities move toward those goals. One of those benefits is the distributed energy resources are available and are able to op-

capacity to improve system reliability through successful islanding erate in islanded mode. However, because of the stochastic na-

operation. This paper proposes a methodology for the cost-ef- ture of the power generated from renewable-based customer-

fective improvement of system reliability through the allocation owned distributed generation (DG), e.g., wind turbines and pho-

of distributed storage units in distribution systems. The costs of

energy storage installation are optimized with respect to reliability tovoltaic (PV) arrays, distribution utilities cannot rely solely on

value expressed as customers’ willingness to pay in order to avoid such sources as a means of improving system reliability. They

power interruptions. The primary goal of this research was thus to might utilize distributed storage (DS) 1 units as a backup source

determine the optimal combination of storage units to be installed for addressing network disturbances. The primary challenge in

and the loads to be shed so that all possible contingencies can the introduction of this concept of non-volatile distribution sys-

be effectively addressed. A probabilistic approach is therefore

tems is the high installation cost associated with DS, which

adopted that includes consideration of the stochastic nature of

system components. means that, to minimize installation costs and maximize the as-

sociated improvement in reliability, distribution utilities must

Index Terms—Distributed generation, energy storage systems,

calculate the optimal size of the DS units to be installed.

islanding, load shedding, smart grid, willingness to pay.

Several research works have addressed the problem of op-

timal allocation of DERs to enhance the reliability of distribu-

I. INTRODUCTION tion systems as in [3], [4] . As well, DG units and circuit re-

closers are allocated in order to minimize a composite relia-

tional regulated system, with centralized generation con-

nected to the transmission networks, to a deregulated structure

bility index in [5]. The results proved that the more reclosers

and the higher DER sizes used, the less reliability index can

be obtained. However, the authors did not consider the cost ef-

that allows small generators to be connected directly to the dis- fectiveness of the solution since adding more reclosers and/or

tribution networks. Such networks thus become active and are DG units may be much expensive as compared to the higher

usually referred to as active distribution networks, in which new reliability achieved. The feasibility of battery storage plants to

technologies should facilitate adaptation to such active environ- enhance the power system reliability has been discussed in [6].

ments and enable the use of smart-grid concepts. Energy storage In [7], a technique was further proposed for evaluating the im-

systems (ESSs) are one promising technology that can support provement of power system reliability using ESS without in-

the incorporation of smart grids because of their capacity to en- cluding cost benefit analysis that could justify the installation

able successful islanding and to facilitate the integration of high of ESS for such application.

penetration levels of renewable energy sources (RESs). ESSs The evaluation of the reliability of ESSs in distribution sys-

can also provide additional benefits for distribution utilities, tems has been previously addressed in the literature [9], [8],

such as an efficient expansion alternative, demand side manage- [10]. In [9], a mathematical formulation was derived for the

ment, and methods of mitigating power quality issues [1]. sizing of backup energy storage in order to meet specific reli-

According to [2], distributed energy resources (DERs) can ability targets for critical customers, but since the formulas de-

provide power to the system loads during planned or un-planned veloped did not correspond to the network model, the impact of

the location of the storage was not considered, nor did the au-

Manuscript received April 11, 2013; revised July 02, 2013; accepted April thors optimize the economic benefit of achieving the reliability

05, 2014. This work was supported by the Government of Canada through the target relative to the storage cost.

Program on Energy Research and Development. Date of publication May 09,

2014; date of current version September 05, 2014. Paper no. TSG-00285-2013. The authors in [8] compared the reliability and economic

A. S. A. Awad and M. M. A. Salama are with Electrical and Computer En- benefits of two different control strategies for energy storage in

gineering Department, University of Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada (e-mail: distribution systems: standby and model predictive controllers

asamir@uwaterloo.ca; msalama@uwaterloo.ca).

T. H. M. EL-Fouly is with CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, (MPCs). With a standby strategy, during islanding, an ESS is

Varennes, QC J3X 1S6, Canada (e-mail: telfouly@nrcan.gc.ca). 1The terms ESS and DS are used interchangeably in this paper.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TSG.2014.2316197

1949-3053 © 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

2340 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2014

assumed to release its stored energy in order to supply iso- Based on the above survey, it can be concluded that sufficient

lated nodes, thus eliminating loss of load or minimizing loss work has been conducted with respect to evaluating the relia-

of energy for the isolated customers. Once the network is re- bility of ESSs in distribution systems and to assessing the ad-

stored following a disturbance, the ESS is immediately charged equacy of power systems with large penetration levels of wind

and put on standby in preparation for the next disturbance. The energy. However, the literature reveals that the problem of im-

drawback of that proposal is that the charging of the ESS was proving system reliability by ascertaining the most cost-effec-

not included in the analysis, which was also based on the as- tive siting and sizing of DS units in distribution networks has not

sumption that it can be fully charged between any two suc- yet been addressed. The objective of the work presented in this

cessive failures. However, the charging cycle of the ESS must paper was therefore to improve the reliability of a distribution

be considered in order to determine whether it can be fully system through the development of a reliability evaluation tech-

charged during acceptable operating states that do not violate nique combined with an optimization approach for allocating

system constraints. On the other hand, an MPC-based strategy DS units.

implies the forecasting of load demands and electricity prices, In this research, a value-based reliability approach was

followed by a determination of the optimal charging and dis- adopted as a means of improving distribution system relia-

charging power levels that enable the utility to benefit from bility from an economic perspective. In practice, distribution

the electricity price difference between off-peak and peak pe- utilities set arbitrary targets rather than obligatory standards as

riods. This latter strategy is implemented in normal operation; objectives of their reliability indices [17]. The targets usually

however, during islanding, the proposed strategy behaves in a depend on the utilities’ perception of customer tolerance levels

manner similar to that of the standby approach. The authors with respect to interruptions. However, the expensive invest-

therefore concluded that standby control provides greater re- ments that characterize the planning stage mean that planning

liability than the MPC-based approach, but at the expense of decisions should not rely on such rule of thumb criteria for

more costly energy drawn from the substation. reducing the costs associated with customer interruption. In

As reported in the literature, the reliability of ESSs with other words, achieving those arbitrary targets may cost the

wind energy systems has been extensively evaluated [11]–[13]. distribution utilities much more than the customers would

In [11], the authors presented an energy storage model for actually pay as interruption costs. In such a case, the reliability

assessing the adequacy of wind farm ESSs. A number of target would be overestimated and would result in unnecessary

operating strategies were discussed and compared based on an extra costs. As well, in most cases, no reward/penalty system

evaluation of the reliability benefit derived from the energy forces distribution utilities to target specific reliability levels

storage obtained with each strategy. despite the willingness of some customers to pay more for

From another perspective, the authors in [14] presented a sys- greater reliability. Willingness to pay (WTP) therefore repre-

tematic approach for clustering distribution systems into virtual sents the reliability value that utilities might lose if they fail

microgrids based on minimizing energy flows between them. to achieve the desired reliability level for those customers. It

The impact of allocating pre-specified amount of DS units and is consequently crucial to apply optimization approaches that

distributed reactive sources on maximizing the self-adequacy include economic considerations in order to determine the

of formed microgrids was further studied in that paper. More- optimal investment plan as well as the optimal reliability level.

over, the authors in [15] considered optimizing the operation The main contributions of this paper can be summarized as

stage through some control variables, including load shedding follows:

at each bus, but without representing the objective function as • The paper presents a methodology that considers the WTP

monetary value. of customers in determining the most cost-effective siting

The literature includes numerous accounts of the use of time and sizing of DS units in distribution networks.

series models for modeling the stochastic nature of a variety • The approach proposed includes determining the load

of components, such as RES-based DG and load demand, e.g., points to be shed, during contingencies, which minimizes

[11], [16] . Such work usually adopts one year-ahead forecasting the total interruption cost via increasing the probability of

for all loads and generation units. The forecasted profiles are successful islanding operation.

then used for determining the charging/discharging cycle of the • Unlike previous work that applied time series patterns for

ESS at each hour, based on which the size of the ESS is op- optimizing the size of DS units, a probabilistic approach is

timized or the adequacy of the power systems with the ESS proposed in this paper in order to consider the uncertainty

is assessed. Despite the difficulties associated with forecasting of system components.

highly stochastic components, such as wind speed and solar irra- The remainder of this paper is organized in five sections.

diance, the application of time series models in planning studies Section II describes the problem under study. The methodology

provides an optimal solution that is valid only for the time series and the mathematical formulation are explained in Section III.

pattern that is applied. Consequently, the solution obtained is not Section IV introduces a sample case study. The results and con-

guaranteed to be the global optimal for other possible patterns. clusions are then presented in Sections V and VI, respectively.

A preferable solution would therefore be to derive probabilistic

models that take into account all possible system states, as pro- II. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

posed in this paper. Instead of the usual time series models, any Based on the above discussions, the rationale behind the work

available historical data is used in order to generate probability presented in this paper is the optimization of the investment

distribution functions (PDFs), which are then applied in a prob- costs associated with DS installation relative to the reliability

abilistic approach, as discussed in Section III. value expressed as the customers’ WTP. In reliability based

AWAD et al.: OPTIMAL ESS ALLOCATION AND LOAD SHEDDING FOR IMPROVING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RELIABILITY 2341

planning studies as in [18], all load points in a given island are and time-intensive to be solved through deterministic methods.

usually shed during unsuccessful islanding operation, i.e., when The main step in the GA is chromosome encoding; each solu-

the total generation is insufficient to supply the isolated loads. tion (chromosome) consists of integer variables that represent

This practice has been proposed due to the difficulty of deter- the discrete size of DS units and discrete portion of load-shed-

mining the optimal load points to be shed, for each contingency ding decision variables at each bus.

and every state, in order to guarantee successful islanding oper- For every population generated by the GA, the first stage im-

ation. plies a contingency analysis of the distribution system in order

In this work, the goal was thus to determine the optimum to determine how much power is required from each allocated

combination of DS units to be installed and the loads to be shed DS unit in order to supply the demand power required for all

for the most cost-effective improvement in distribution system possible island formations. The next stage utilizes a sequential

reliability. The proposed problem then includes some planning Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for an evaluation of the relia-

decisions, such as determining the sizes and locations of DS bility of the distribution system through the estimation of the

units to be installed, as well as other contingency planning de- expected energy not supplied (EENS) and the interruption cost

cisions, such as the load points to be shed during contingen- (ECOST) indices [25]. It is worth mentioning that the ECOST

cies. The contingency planning decisions basically aim to in- index is used primarily so that, as discussed earlier, considera-

crease the overall probability of successful islanding operation, tion of the reliability value can be included in the evaluation of

and thus to minimize the total interruption cost. It is worth men- the objective function; the EENS is utilized as a measure of the

tioning that the exact (optimal) amount of load shedding and the improvement in the reliability. All solutions (chromosomes) of

corresponding load points to be shed would be determined in the each population are then evaluated by means of the fitness (ob-

operational stage, and thus they are out of scope of this paper. jective) function. Finally, a new population is generated, and the

Regarding the customers’ WTP, because of the difficulty of entire process is repeated until the stopping criterion is met. The

determining the price that customers would pay for reliability, mathematical formulation is explained in the following subsec-

in reliability assessment studies, the interruption costs usually tions.

adopted are a reflection of customers’ WTP in order to receive

the reliability level required [19]. Interruption costs generally A. First Stage

depend on the customer classification, e.g., residential, indus- In the first stage, a probabilistic approach takes into account

trial, or commercial, and on the characteristics of the interrup- the stochastic nature of all DG sources and load demands. Avail-

tion, e.g., duration and frequency. Since the mid-1980s, nu- able historical data are utilized so that each component is repre-

merous surveys have been conducted by US and Canadian util- sented by a specific PDF. Continuous PDFs are further divided

ities as a means of estimating the price at which the load would into several states with associated probabilities, thus creating a

be curtailed in an effort to address a contingency state (i.e., in- probabilistic model for every component. The number of states

terruption cost). In the case of commercial/industrial customers, for each component should be carefully selected so that the sim-

this cost basically depends on the revenue/production lost; for plicity and accuracy of the analysis are not compromised: a large

residential customers, it is their WTP to avoid service interrup- number of states increases accuracy but at the expense of also

tion. One of those surveys is the Canadian survey conducted in adding to the complexity, and a small number of states has the

order to estimate customer damage functions (CDFNs), which opposite effect. A combined load-DG model can then be gener-

represent the interruption cost as a function of the duration of ated by convolving all of the individual probabilistic models as-

the interruption [20]. In 2008, the US department of energy suming that these individual models of the load and DG sources

funded several studies targeted at estimating interruption costs, are independent (uncorrelated) as in [14], [26] . Such a model

or CDFNs, for a variety of customer categories, as shown in combines all possible operating states for the available DG units

Fig. 1 [21]. In this figure, the CDFN is represented as interrup- and the different load levels. The total number of states is there-

tion cost per unserved kWh. fore equal to the product of the number of states for each com-

ponent.

As mentioned, the first stage performs an contingency

III. METHODOLOGY

analysis that considers the failure of every single line in the dis-

This section presents the general methodology adopted for tribution system. When such a disturbance occurs, the protec-

the work presented in this paper. A two-stage model is pro- tion system isolates the faulty section so as to ensure the healthy

posed, which is then combined with a genetic algorithm (GA) operation of the rest of the system. This practice results in the

for minimizing the objective function under study. Evolutionary formation of islands if DG and/or DS units are available and ca-

optimization algorithms, e.g., GA, particle swarm optimization, pable of supplying the load demand in those islands. The contin-

Tabu search, etc., are emerging as efficient optimization tech- gency analysis implies the solving of the load flow (1) to (7) for

niques to solve complicated problems such as DG planning [22] all possible islands in order to determine the power requirements

and unit commitment [23]. GA has been extensively used in from every DS unit for all combined load-DG states, taking into

the literature as in [5], [22] , and it has showed superior per- account the load-shedding decision variables at each bus. It is

formance compared to other meta-heuristic techniques in terms worth mentioning that the power values calculated in (6)–(7)

of the solution error and the execution time [24]. Therefore, GA may be less or more the DS power size, thus leading to suc-

has been utilized to solve the proposed problem that is classi- cessful or unsuccessful islanding operation, respectively, as will

fied as mixed integer non-linear programming, which is hard be explained later on in the second stage.

2342 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2014

given in (8) to (16). Constraints (8) to (10) are added to the ob-

jective function (24) using penalty functions (terms), according

to which every term equals zero if the corresponding constraint

is satisfied or equals a large positive value otherwise.

This study is based on a number of islanded operating strate-

gies:

• Only dispatchable DGs are allowed to supply reactive

power so that their terminal voltages can thus be regu-

lated. Other types of DG should be provided with VAR

compensators, e.g., capacitor banks, in order to support

their operation in islanded mode. Dispatchable DGs are

therefore modeled as P-V nodes, while other DGs are

treated as P-Q buses.

• Charging DS units in islanded mode is not permitted, and

all DGs are hence assumed to be controllable in order to

avoid any excess generation.

1) Load Flow Equations:

Fig. 1. Customer damage function (CDFN) for a variety of customers. — For no DS installed at bus during contingency and state

:

(1)

(2)

— For DS installed at bus during contingency and state :

(3)

(4)

(5)

All system buses are modeled as either P-Q or P-V nodes (6)

except the nodes that are connected to DS units. In every is-

land, only one DS unit should act as a slack (reference) bus for

all other nodes in that island, and any other available DS units

should be treated as voltage-frequency controlled buses, as de-

scribed in [27]. The latter bus type implies that two additional

equations that represent the droop characteristics be added to (7)

the basic load flow equations. For the sake of simplicity, it is

2) Voltage Limits:

assumed that all droop controller parameters are identical and

that the terminal voltage of each DS unit is set at one per unit. (8)

Applying these assumptions results in equal net active power

(9)

generated from every DS node, as calculated in (5). Fig. 2 sum-

marizes the flowchart of the first stage. 3) Line Flow Limits:

System constraints, i.e., nodal voltages and the power flow

limits of the lines, along with DS size constraints, are further (10)

AWAD et al.: OPTIMAL ESS ALLOCATION AND LOAD SHEDDING FOR IMPROVING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RELIABILITY 2343

or in islanded mode. During the latter mode, every DS unit in

(11) the island supplies the demand power only if the energy stored

(12) is sufficient and the power required is less than the rated DS

power. The power required from every DS unit at each hour is

(13)

recalled from the contingency analysis that corresponds to the

(14) combined load-DG state at that hour. If the energy stored is in-

sufficient or the power required is larger than the rated DS power

5) Load Shedding Constraints:

at a specific hour, islanding operation fails, and all loads must

be disconnected during that hour. In addition, if no DS units are

(15)

allocated in a given island, the load-shedding variables are ad-

(16) justed at each hour, based on the total generation, total demand,

and power losses ( ) in that island. The assumption is there-

where and are the system bus indices; is the faulty line (con-

fore that the islanding operation may fail if the total generation is

tingency) index; is the combined load-DG state index; is the

insufficient to satisfy the load demand plus losses for a particular

total number of system buses; and are the DS output

scenario, and hence all loads must be disconnected [18]. When

active and reactive power variables, respectively; and

the system is restored, DS units are permitted to be charged up

are the demand active and reactive powers, respectively; and

to their maximum power rates as long as system constraints are

are the generated active and reactive powers, respectively;

not violated. Each study period starts with all DS units fully

is the set of system buses equipped with DS units for con-

charged; however, the characteristic equations that govern the

tingency ; is the portion of load to be shed that is equal

energy stored in each DS unit at a given hour ( ) are as follows:

to 1 if the load is totally shed; and are the voltage mag-

nitude and the phase angle, respectively; and are the bus

admittance matrix element magnitude and angle, respectively; (19)

is the line flow current; is the DS power size; is the (20)

DS energy size; , , and are the integer decision variables (21)

controlling the size of DS to be installed and portion of load to

be shed at bus , respectively; CB is the set of candidate buses where the superscripts refer to charging and dis-

for DS installation. charging, respectively; and is the round-trip efficiency of

the DS.

B. Second Stage The process is then repeated for several periods (samples)

until the ratio of the standard deviation of the sample mean of the

After the power requirements of each DS unit are determined,

reliability index of interest to the sample mean of the same index

a sequential MCS is performed for the system. The basic idea

becomes less than a predetermined tolerance. This process is

of the MCS is to generate an artificial operating history for the

summarized in Fig. 3. The energy not supplied (ENS) per year is

system under study. To that end, the probabilistic model for

calculated by summing the energy interrupted at all nodes over

every component (i.e., DG and load demand) is utilized to de-

the entire study period, as calculated in (22). The interruption

rive the corresponding cumulative distribution function (CDF).

costs (COST) per year are also computed as in (23) by utilizing

The components’ states can be then generated through the gen-

the CDFN shown in Fig. 1, which is basically a function of the

eration of a uniformly distributed random number between 0

duration of the interruption ( ). The ENS and COST are then

and 1, and rounding it to the nearest cumulative probability in

averaged over the total number of periods in order to estimate

the corresponding CDF.

the expected values for each index: the EENS and the ECOST.

As well, system feeders (lines) are represented using a

In the final step, the ECOST is utilized in order to evaluate the

two-state model (up state and down state), in which up and

objective function in (24).

repair times are calculated based on the generation of a random

number that follows an exponential distribution, as in (17) and

(18) [28].

(22)

(17)

(18)

where and are the up and repair times, in hours, re- (23)

spectively; MTTF: mean time to failure, in hours; MTTR: mean

time to repair, in hours; and : two uniformly distributed

random numbers between 0 and 1.

After a synthetic study period ( years) is generated for all (24)

system components, the study period is divided into segments

(hours). The system is then simulated hour by hour for the en- where is the interruption event index; is the time in hours of

tire study period. For each hour, the system state is checked to the interruption event ; , , and are, respectively, the

2344 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2014

annualized capital power and energy costs, and annual mainte- and system losses during those scenarios. It is also obvious that

nance cost of the DS. the DS installation costs are paid independently based on how

The above objective function minimizes the total cost com- many times faults occur per year. On the other hand, interrup-

prised of the annual installation and maintenance costs of the tion costs are paid annually according to fault incidence rates.

DS units in addition to the annual interruption costs. In this for- Therefore, for systems with low reliability that are characterized

mula, the fixed capital costs are annualized by dividing them by by numerous fault occurrences per year, DS integration is eco-

the present value function (PVF), which is expressed in terms nomically desirable as a means of minimizing the total annual

of the interest rate ( ), inflation rate ( ), and lifetime of the costs.

equipment ( ), as calculated in (25) and (26) [29].

IV. CASE STUDY

(25) The system used for the case study is a 33-bus radial distri-

bution system, as shown in Fig. 4. The rated active and reactive

(26) power levels of the load points as well as the feeder data are

taken from [30]. The reliability parameters of the substation and

It should also be mentioned that the above objective func- the system feeders are further summarized in Table I [31].

tion inherently minimizes energy losses for all contingency sce- Two different DG types are assumed in the system under

narios because the DS units are sized to supply load demands study: dispatchable DG ( ) based on natural gas and inter-

AWAD et al.: OPTIMAL ESS ALLOCATION AND LOAD SHEDDING FOR IMPROVING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RELIABILITY 2345

TABLE III

ANNUAL CAPITAL AND MAINTENANCE COSTS OF DS TECHNOLOGIES [33],[34]

TABLE I

COMPONENT RELIABILITY DATA

TABLE IV

GA PARAMETERS

TABLE II

WIND TURBINE PARAMETERS

mittent DG ( ) based on wind. and are placed at discrete sizes in steps of 100 kVA/kWh. Table III lists the an-

buses 33 and 18, respectively. is a 500 kVA synchronous nual capital and maintenance costs for the four candidate tech-

generator that operates at 500 kW (unity power factor) during nologies, based on an assumed 30-year life cycle. Depending on

grid connected mode and supplies the active and reactive land availability and/or utility regulations, the candidate buses

powers required during islanded mode. is a 1 MW wind for DS installation are assumed to be included in set CB: (16,

turbine with power curve parameters as shown in Table II. The 17, 21, 22, 25, and 32). The setting parameters of GA are fur-

sum of the rated DG power levels is confirmed as meeting ther given in Table IV.

the Hydro One capacity requirement that limits installed DG

V. RESULTS

ratings to 60% of the substation capacity plus the minimum

station load [32]. The wind speed data for the site under study This section summarizes the findings of this research, in

are assumed to reveal a mean wind speed of 6 m/s. Both wind which DS units are optimally allocated, with consideration

speed and wind turbine data are utilized in the development of all possible island formations, in order to improve system

of the probabilistic wind-based DG model, which is based on reliability. Two cases are compared in this section regarding the

the adoption of a Rayleigh PDF for modeling wind speeds, as load shedding scheme applied, namely binary and discrete load

presented in [26]. Load demands are also assumed to follow the shedding. It is worthwhile to mention that GA performs well

IEEE-reliability test system (RTS) discrete load probabilistic when the decisions variables are binary. Therefore, the binary

model explained in [26]. case has been firstly solved, and the results obtained have

For this case study, the following financial parameters are as- been used as initial population for the discrete case in order to

sumed: 5% interest rate and 1% inflation rate. The distribution accelerate the convergence of GA. Moreover, the impact of DG

system is assumed to contain a mix of 70% residential and 30% locations on the results obtained has been further investigated

small commercial and industrial customers. These percentages in the third case. Finally, the last case provides a sensitivity

are used for the estimation of the customers’ WTP through the analysis for the impact of the value of interruption cost on the

weighting of the corresponding CDFNs shown in Fig. 1. As optimal solutions.

well, the DS installation costs are subdivided into three main

parts: the capital power cost of the rotating machine/converter A. Binary Load Shedding

interface (in $/kVA), the capital energy cost of the storage ca- In this case, the load shedding decision variables ( ) are bi-

pacity (in $/kWh), and the annual fixed operation and mainte- nary (i.e., either 0 or 1). For each storage technology, the optimal

nance (O&M) costs (in $/kVA). A lead-acid (LA) battery, com- DS locations and sizes as well as the load points to be shed are

pressed air in vessels (CAS), a sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery, presented in Table V. As can be seen, all technologies result in

and a vanadium redox (VR) battery were selected as candidate the same allocation of DS units and loads to be shed. Conse-

storage technologies because their power and discharge time quently, interruption costs are found to be the same, while the

capacities are suitable for the application under study. It is as- total cost varies based on the cost of each technology. How-

sumed that the candidate storage technologies are available in ever, these results are system dependent, which means that dif-

2346 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2014

TABLE V

OPTIMAL DS ALLOCATION AND LOAD SHEDDING (BINARY LOAD SHEDDING)

Fig. 5. Total annual costs for the base case and different storage technologies Fig. 7. Graphical representation of DS allocation and load shedding during a

(binary load shedding). contingency at the line between buses 1 and 2.

contingency at the line between buses 7 and 8.

Fig. 6. EENS for the base case and the different storage technologies (binary

load shedding). buses 7 and 8. As can be seen, the allocated DS unit at bus 16

and only supply the formed island, while no load points

ferent results might be obtained if system parameters and costs have to be shed in this island.

are changed. Fig. 5 provides a comparison of the total annual After studying the impact of each technology on the total an-

costs for the different technologies relative to the base case (i.e., nual costs, another case study is conducted that investigates the

without DS integration). In the base case, the annual cost is com- allocation of combination of the four candidate DS technolo-

prised of only the costs associated with the interruptions during gies. This case study is implemented via adding an integer deci-

the contingencies. Fig. 5 reveals that LA batteries provide the sion variable that represents the type of DS unit to be installed.

least expensive solution: interruption costs were decreased from The results obtained are confirmed with those of LA batteries

$ 0.78 million (base case) to $ 0.275 million. Fig. 6 depicts the allocation given in Table V. Again, this conclusion depends on

reliability level measured in EENS for each storage technology the system parameters and different costs of DS units.

compared to the base case. Again, since the loads to be shed are

the same for each technology, the same EENS values are de- B. Discrete Load Shedding

picted in each case. In this case, the load shedding decision variables ( ) are dis-

As an example, Fig. 7 shows a graphical representation of LA crete values between 0 and 1 with step size of 0.1. Table VI

battery allocation during a failure at the line between buses 1 and shows the optimal type, location, and size of DS units, and por-

2. The two DS units allocated at buses 16 and 32 are utilized in tions of load points to be shed. The total annual cost is further

order to supply the island formed. Further, load points 22 and given in Table VI. Through comparing these results to the bi-

29 should be disconnected by the utility operator in a timely nary case, it can be concluded that discrete load shedding only

manner in order to avoid overloading the allocated DS units and reduces the interruption costs by almost $ 30 000. This reduction

to guarantee the continuity of the supply in the isolated system. is due to the advantage of discrete load shedding, i.e., flexible

Another example is shown in Fig. 8 for a disturbance between portion of load to be shed at each bus. This flexibility can be

AWAD et al.: OPTIMAL ESS ALLOCATION AND LOAD SHEDDING FOR IMPROVING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RELIABILITY 2347

OPTIMAL DS ALLOCATION AND LOAD SHEDDING (DISCRETE LOAD SHEDDING) OPTIMAL DS ALLOCATION AND LOAD SHEDDING (NEW DG LOCATIONS)

compared to total load shedding in the binary case. However,

these results depend on the system data and rated power levels

of the load points.

C. Impact of DG Locations

22, respectively, in order to investigate the impact of DG loca-

tions. The optimal DS locations and sizes as well as the load

points to be shed are given in Table VII. As can be seen, no load

points have to be shed compared to the previous cases, which

implies that the probability of successful islanding operation is

not affected by disconnecting some load points. Moreover, nei-

ther the sizes nor the locations of the allocated DS units are af-

fected with the new DG locations. However, these results are Fig. 9. Graphical representation of DS allocation and load shedding during a

system dependent, thus they might be changed using different contingency at the line between buses 1 and 2 (new DG locations).

rated power levels of DGs and/or load points.

TABLE VIII

Moreover, Table VII compares the total annual cost of the op- OPTIMAL DS ALLOCATION AND LOAD SHEDDING (SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS)

timal solution with respect to the new base case, which corre-

sponds to the new DG locations. It is revealed that interruption

costs are increased in this case since the DG units are now closer

to the substation, and thus more load points are deprived from

their output power during contingencies beyond bus 3. Simi-

larly, EENS values are increased with the new DG locations, as

shown in Table VII.

A graphical representation of the new DG locations and LA

battery allocation is further illustrated in Fig. 9 during a failure

at the line between buses 1 and 2, as an example. As can be seen,

no load points have to be shed in this case compared to Fig. 7.

cost on the optimal size and location of DS units to be installed,

as well as the load points to be shed. Table VIII presents several

scenarios with different percentages of residential customers,

and small commercial and industrial customers. The optimal

solutions for each case are summarized in Table VIII. As ob-

served, the optimal DS allocation and load points to be shed are

duly dependent on the value of the interruption cost. The higher

percentage of commercial and industrial customers, which im-

plies higher interruption cost, the larger sizes of DS units are

required.

Moreover, Figs. 10 and 11 compare the total annual costs and

the reliability level measured in EENS for the various cases. Fig. 10. Total annual costs for the various scenarios of different customers.

2348 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2014

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[30] B. Venkatesh, R. Ranjan, and H. B. Gooi, “Optimal reconfiguration Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, in 1996 and 2002,

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[31] Y. M. Atwa and E. F. El-Saadany, “Reliability evaluation for distri- ON, Canada, in 2008. He joined CanmetENERGY,

bution system with renewable distributed generation during islanded Natural Resources Canada, in 2008, as a Transmis-

mode of operation,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. sion and Distribution Research Engineer, where he is

572–581, May 2009. conducting and managing research activities related

[32] HydroOne. Distributed Generation Technical Interconnection Re- to active distribution networks, microgrids and re-

quirements [Online]. Available: http://www.hydroone.com/Genera- mote communities. In 2010, he was appointed as Ad-

tors/Pages/TechnicalRequirements.aspx junct Assistant Professor at the Electrical and Computer Engineering Depart-

[33] S. Schoenung and C. Burns, “Utility energy storage applications ment, University of Waterloo.

studies,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 658–665, His research interests include protection and coordination studies, integration

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529–534, Jun. 2008.

Ahmed S. A. Awad (S’11) received the B.Sc. and Magdy M. A. Salama (F’02) received the B.Sc.

M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from Ain and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from

Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, in 2007 and 2010, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, in 1971 and 1973,

respectively. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engi-

degree in the Department of Electrical and Computer neering from the University of Waterloo, Waterloo,

Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, ON, Canada, in 1977. Currently, he is a Professor

Canada. In between September 2007 and 2009, in the Department of Electrical and Computer En-

he worked as an electrical design engineer with gineering, University of Waterloo. He has consulted

Dar El-Handasah (Shair and partners) and Allied widely with government agencies and the electrical

Consultants Co. in Egypt. Since 2008, he has been industry. His research interests include the operation

working with the Department of Electrical Power and control of distribution systems, power-quality

and Machines Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, where he is monitoring and mitigation, asset management, and electromagnetics.

currently on a study leave until he receives the Ph.D. degree. Dr. Salama is a Registered Professional Engineer in the Province of Ontario.

His research interests include application of energy storage in smart grids,

integration of renewable energy resources, electricity market equilibrium, as

well as operation and control of distribution systems.

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