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2, MARCH 2015

Approach for Multiobjective Distribution

System Reconﬁguration

F. R. Alonso, D. Q. Oliveira, and A. C. Zambroni de Souza

Abstract—In order to optimize their assets, electrical power With the deregulation of electricity service worldwide, it has

distribution companies seek out various techniques to improve become mandatory, if a company is to reach high reliability in-

system operation and its different variables, like voltage levels, dicators, to carry out network planning according to quality and

active power losses and so on. A few of the tools applied to meet

these objectives include reactive power compensation, use of

continuity of service indices—system average interruption fre-

voltage regulators, and network reconﬁguration. One target most quency index (SAIFI) and system average interruption duration

companies aim at is power loss minimization; one available tool index (SAIDI). Regarding this, an effective alternative to im-

to do this is distribution system reconﬁguration. To reconﬁgure a proving the supply of electricity is network reconﬁguration.

network in radial power distribution systems means to alter the Reconﬁguring a distribution network is a multiobjective,

topology changing the state of a set of switches normally closed combinatorial, and complex problem; it entails many uncer-

(NC) and normally opened (NO). In restructured electrical power

business, a company must also consider obtaining a topology

tainties, making it harder for one to apply classical methods

as reliable as possible. In most cases, reducing the power losses [1]. The reconﬁguring cannot be optimally solved without

is no guarantee of improved reliability. This paper presents a considering important aspects like the proper modeling of the

multiobjective algorithm to reduce power losses while improving distribution networks, the algorithms to handle conﬁguration

the reliability index using the artiﬁcial immune systems technique changes in the network topology in a timely manner, load

applying graph theory considerations to improve computational ﬂow calculations, the objective function composition and its

performance and Pareto dominance rules. The proposed algo-

rithm is tested on a sample system, 14-bus test system, and on

constraints, and decision-making techniques used to deﬁne the

Administración Nacional de Electricidad (ANDE) real feeder ideal electrical conﬁguration [2].

(CBO-01 23-kV feeder). However, no relationship exists to indicate that improved

continuity indices lead to a reduction in power losses. In many

Index Terms—Artiﬁcial immune systems, distribution system re-

conﬁguration, system average interruption frequency index. cases, reducing losses may even harm continuity indices. This

is a typical scenario for a multi-objective problem analysis.

Many authors have proposed different approaches to recon-

I. INTRODUCTION ﬁguration problems, like fuzzy sets [2], [3], genetic algorithms

[1], [4], [5], a hybrid genetic algorithm-mixed integer linear pro-

weakly meshed networks. They generally consist of a set

of feeders with resources. That is, the feeder can be divided

gramming [6], a hybrid fuzzy-ant colony approach [7], simu-

lated annealing [8] and still others.

The framework of the multiobjective problem was intro-

into sections with connectivity to other sections, allowing, in duced in [9], and the framework took into account a balance

contingency cases, interoperability. between conﬂicting objectives such as losses and reliability.

Reducing system loss in these networks is a common goal of Multiobjective reconﬁguration has, in recent years, been the

electricity utilities. They go about achieving this goal by, most subject of several studies. In addition to reducing power losses,

commonly, installing voltage regulators, capacitors, and recon- researchers have considered such other objective functions as

ﬁguring networks. load balancing [7], voltage deviations [10]–[13], the number

of switching operations [10], [13], and continuity indices [4],

Manuscript received December 24, 2013; revised February 18, 2014 and [11], [14].

April 28, 2014; accepted June 08, 2014. Date of publication June 27, 2014; To solve this multiobjective problem, several methodologies

date of current version February 17, 2015. The work of A. C. Zambroni de are proposed. Reference [10], to ﬁnd the best conﬁguration of

Souza was supported in part by CNPq and INERGE. The work of D. Q Oliveira

was supported by CAPES. The work of F. R. Alonso was supported by Itaipu a system, considered seasonal loads through a methodology

Binational Scholarships Unit. Paper no. TPWRS-01625-2013. called multiobjective evolutionary algorithm for distribution

F. R. Alonso is with Administración Nacional de Electricidad—ANDE, Padre feeder reconﬁgurations. This methodology uses interval anal-

Cardozo 1268 casi España, Barrio Las Mercedes, Asunción, Paraguay (e-mail:

ing.ricardo.alonso@gmail.com). ysis to consider uncertainties in customer demand. In [11] the

D. Q. Oliveira and A. C. Zambroni de Souza are with the Federal Uni- multiobjective problem to reduce power losses, voltage devia-

versity of Itajubá, Pinheirinho, Itajubá, MG, 37500-903, Brazil (e-mail: tion and frequency rate of power outages is transformed into a

denissonqo@gmail.com; zambroni@unifei.edu.br).

Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online

mono-objective problem and solved using genetic algorithms.

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Reference [15] proposed a methodology where a set of original

Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TPWRS.2014.2330628 contributions are provided with reference to the construction

0885-8950 © 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

ALONSO et al.: ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS OPTIMIZATION APPROACH FOR MULTIOBJECTIVE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RECONFIGURATION 841

and updating of the best-known Pareto front using a genetic these antibodies (cell receptors), and with a second signal from

algorithm-based solver. In [16] the authors considered reconﬁg- accessory cells, such as the T-helper cell, the antigen stimulates

uring a distribution by inserting wind turbines. They employed the B-cell to proliferate (divide) and mature into terminal

a technique based on self adaptive modiﬁed learning teacher (non-dividing) antibody secreting cells, called plasma cells.

optimization (SAMTLO) to solve the probabilistic problem The process of cell division generates a clone, i.e., a cell or

of considering wind plants in the improvement of power loss, set of cells that are the progeny of a single cell. Lymphocytes,

continuity index, and so forth. in addition to proliferating and/or differentiating into plasma

This paper aims to solve the multiobjective problem of cells, can differentiate into long-lived B memory cells [19].

reconﬁguring a distribution system using the artiﬁcial immune Artiﬁcial immune systems (AISs) have many interesting fea-

systems (AIS) approach, the non-dominant Pareto front, and tures for solving optimization problems and have already been

the graph theory. The AIS optimization tool mimics the human applied to robotics, adaptive control, optimization, multi-agent

immune system with its recognition patterns, memory, and systems and neural network approaches, gradient-based sys-

adaptive learning features. The AIS is more robust than genetic tems, data mining, image classiﬁcation, optimal dispatch, and

algorithms and particle swarm, because its process searches electric vehicle recharge in distribution systems [17]–[20].

for solutions over an entire search space, avoiding premature AISs are used here because they present the following char-

convergence for local minima. Previous papers have applied acteristics: uniqueness, recognition of foreigners, anomaly de-

AIS for multiobjective optimization purposes with success tection (noise tolerance), reinforcement learning and memory,

[17], [18]. Differently from them, this paper takes advantage of and pattern recognition [19]. These features allow AISs to

graph theory, in particular Prim's algorithm, due to its capacity search for good quality solutions for problems, even if they

to generate minimum spanning trees during the evolutionary have never been faced before, to use the best available solution

process. The proposed approach is not only an improvement of while looking for a better one, and to store the best individuals

the AIS algorithm computational performance, but constitutes from the population on the memory.

a novel and robust method to assess feasible solutions for real

problems. III. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RECONFIGURATION

The authors in [2] argued that the computational time for the

reconﬁguration problem is not a primary concern because the Distribution system reconﬁguration has called for the devel-

main goals of distribution operation planning are to reduce both opment and application of some tools and methodologies; these

power losses and load balance. This is true for planning stages, are presented in the following sections.

but for real operation purposes, great computational times make

the algorithm application unfeasible. A. Load Flow in Distribution Systems

For a nontrivial multiobjective optimization problem, there Load ﬂow is a basic concept in electric power system

is no single solution that simultaneously optimizes all objec- studies. Load ﬂow problems are commonly solved using

tives. In such a case, the objective functions are said to be con- Newton-Raphson and its decoupled methods. In distribution

ﬂicting, and there exists a (possibly inﬁnite number of) Pareto systems, however, they have poor convergence features due to

optimal solutions. A solution is called non-dominated, if none a high R/X rate, unbalanced phase loads and radial topology.

of the objective functions can be improved in value without de- Having better convergence features are other methods like

grading some of the other objective values. Without additional backward-forward sweep and Z-bus matrix. This paper applies

subjective preference information, all Pareto optimal solutions the backward-forward sweep method presented in [21]. It

are considered equally good (as the vectors cannot be ordered consists of a three-phase approach applying phase components

completely). The goal may be to ﬁnd a representative set of and considering mutual impedances among them. The network

Pareto optimal solutions and/or quantify the trade-offs in sat- topology is represented by an incidence matrix.

isfying the different objectives and/or ﬁnd a single solution that In the backward step, the algorithm assesses the current in all

satisﬁes the subjective preferences of a human decision maker. branches, from the bottom nodes to the top one, by using the

nodal load and incidence matrix. In the forward step, the nodal

II. ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS voltages are updated according to the branches' voltage drop,

Several evolutionary computation techniques have been since top node to bottom ones. The process converges when all

employed to solve optimization problems. These techniques nodal voltages are within a given tolerance.

mimic, in a computational way, biological systems or processes,

B. Prim's Algorithm

such as the nervous system, meiosis and immune systems.

The immune system is a complex of cells, molecules and or- Prim's algorithm ﬁnds in an undirected and weighted con-

gans that represent an identiﬁcation mechanism capable of per- nected graph, a minimum spanning tree. Hence, it is capable

ceiving and combating dysfunction from humans' own cells and of ﬁnding a subset of the edges forming a tree that includes all

the action of exogenous infectious microorganisms. It recog- vertices of the initial graph, without any loops, where the total

nizes an almost limitless variety of infectious foreign cells and weight of the edges of the tree is the minimum possible.

substances, distinguishing them from those native noninfectious The algorithm continuously increases the size of a tree, one

cells [19]. edge at a time, starting with a tree consisting of a single vertex,

Being exposed to an antigen, B lymphocytes respond by until it spans all vertexes. Its steps are described below:

producing antibodies. Each cell secretes a single type of anti- • Input: A non-empty connected weighted graph with vertex

body, which is relatively speciﬁc for the antigen. By binding to V and edges E (the weights can be negative);

842 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 30, NO. 2, MARCH 2015

(starting point) from V, ;

• Repeat until :

• Choose an edge (u, v) with minimal weight such that u is

in and v is not (if there are multiple edges with the

same weight, any of them may be picked);

• Add v to , and (u, v) to ;

• Output: and describe a minimal spanning tree.

The electrical distribution network can be represented by con-

nected graphs. Any individual feeder, as in Fig. 1, can be con-

sidered a tree, which is an undirected graph where two vertices

are connected by only one path, without loops. For the tree de-

picted in Fig. 1, the areas or branches correspond to the nodes

and the switches are the edges of the graph, numbered from 1 to

6. This comparison enables presenting the distribution system

as a forest, a set of disconnected trees [22]. Fig. 3. Adjacency matrix for faults inspection.

Then, it is possible to create, through the Prim algorithm,

a random radial distribution network represented by a graph

without loops or islanding areas, if the weight of the nodes is

matrix lines. For instance: if the fault were happening in Sector

known. Since the Prim algorithm guarantees the construction of

(node) 4, this would affect nodes 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, and would

a connected tree, in a graph with weights on the edges, a process

not affect Nodes 1, 2, or 3. This happens because the recloser

that assigns weights to the edges can be used to obtain a viable

CH-3 would isolate the fault. Then the elements of the 4th row,

set of networks. This capacity is used in this paper and is pre-

the position (column) of which coincides with the numbers of

sented in Section IV.

affected nodes, will be 1 and the other elements unaffected will

This procedure is explained in the Methodology section.

be 0.

C. Power Interruption Equivalent Frequency Index The PIEFI can be calculated by (1):

has, during a given period of time, a typical number of inter-

ruptions within a distribution power system. Obviously, such a

value varies from system to system. Generally the time consid-

ered is one year and the power system can be a region, substa-

tion, or feeder system. This index is similar to SAIFI, and is

calculated through an analytical technique. This technique can

be described as follows. For example, consider Fig. 2.

This system has 8 switch elements: 1 circuit breaker,

2 reclosers, 4 switches, and 1 fuse. With this information the i.e.,

adjacency matrix is built, as depicted in Fig. 3. This square

matrix gives topological information about the system, and

it's possible, in case of a fault with a speciﬁc node, to see the (1)

affected areas by inspection, looking for non-zero elements on

ALONSO et al.: ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS OPTIMIZATION APPROACH FOR MULTIOBJECTIVE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RECONFIGURATION 843

where Equation (6) means that the objective vector cannot be im-

proved in any dimension without degrading another. Now it is

fault rate;

possible to deﬁne the Pareto optimal set P, on (7), as the set of

node i installed power; all non-dominated Pareto solutions:

j-i element of the reached matrix.

(7)

D. Distribution System Reconfiguration It is also possible to deﬁne the Pareto front F, on (8), which

are the objective function points in the space corresponding to

Aiming to reduce power losses and improve the reliability

the Pareto optimal set points, i.e., . Pareto front solutions

index, the Distribution System Network is reconﬁgured. This

are qualitatively equivalent:

is done by closing NO and opening NC switches. In addition

to power loss minimization and reliability index optimization, (8)

some restrictions related to nodal voltage levels, branches'

ampacity, and systems' radiality are taken into account. The This paper proposes the use of the concept of antibody as ﬁt-

problem can be described as shown in (2) and (3): ness of multiobjective problem-based to the dominance index.

Although the non-dominated solutions could be used, the idea of

using the dominance index is to keep some antibodies to main-

(2)

tain their diversity.

IV. SIMULATIONS

(3)

This section presents the simulations that were carried out.

First, the methodology employed is described.

A. Methodology

1) Creating the Initial Population: One of the great prob-

lems of reconﬁguring radial distribution systems (especially

when using heuristics based on artiﬁcial intelligence, like AIS)

is deﬁning a methodology to generate the initial population. In

addition to this, there is the problem of how to code a particular

individual of this population. In AIS, each individual is called

an antibody.

The simplest way to deﬁne an initial population is through a

where combinatorial of N binary elements whose respective positions

n are associated with a speciﬁc switch, i.e., each individual is en-

branch number;

coded as in (9):

l maximum number of branches;

(9)

Vm nodal voltage at node m;

Amp where is the switch state. Its status is 0 if the switch is open;

ampacity, maximum current capacity;

otherwise it is 1. By applying this codiﬁcation, a set of individ-

Pi power outage “i”; uals is created (or in this case, AIS antibodies), without con-

Pt total system power; trol over the viability of these systems. As a consequence, is-

m total outage numbers. landed sections or loops may appear. The universe of conﬁgu-

rations is equal to , where N is the total number of switches

To solve this problem, one can apply AIS with considerations in the system, of which only a small fraction corresponds to ra-

of Pareto Dominance, as in [18]. According to the Pareto dom- dial conﬁgurations. Consequently, this situation leads to inefﬁ-

inance concept, a solution is said to dominate solution ciency in the performance of an algorithm searching for optimal

when the following two conditions are satisﬁed: conﬁguration.

• Solution is not worse than for any objective, i.e., Other methodologies have been explored in the literature,

e.g., in [23], Prufer numbers are used to encode distribution net-

(4) works, without checking the system's radial characteristics. In

[24] the authors represented the individuals by a string of inte-

• Solution is strictly better than for at least one objec-

gers (chromosome), whose dimension is the number of discon-

tive, i.e.,

nected lines in the network. Therefore, the length of the string

(5) depends on the number of loops in the system. Another proce-

dure, as in [25], uses the predecessor method for reducing the

This relation is denoted as . universe of feasible solutions.

Otherwise, a solution is said to be Pareto optimal or a This paper uses a methodology based on the Prim Algorithm.

non-dominated solution, according to (6), when This produces a set of N feasible forests, each forest corre-

sponding to a set of radial feeders (trees) obtained at random

(6) and with different weights.

844 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 30, NO. 2, MARCH 2015

TABLE I

EDGE WEIGHTS FOR 14-BUS FEEDER

number of switches in the system, where each element from

this vector is associated with one and only one edge, i.e., a

switch. The value of this element is generated randomly and

corresponds to the weight of this edge, which is used to obtain Fig. 5. AIS ﬂowchart.

M random conﬁgurations. M is the initial population size. For

the 14-bus sample system, the set of random weights is shown

in Table I and the forest generated (distribution network) is de- • These elements (antibodies) are sorted according to their

picted in Fig. 4. The dashed line indicates that the switch is open. afﬁnity, which is determined after the evaluation of the

This step ensures that all ﬁrst generation antibodies constitute Fitness (Pareto Rules) for each Antibody. To antibodies

a feasible set, by reducing the search space and eliminating non- with voltage violations are assigned values of afﬁnity suf-

viable antibodies from the beginning of the searching process, ﬁciently small;

e.g., loops and single and multiple islands. • A set of M higher afﬁnity antibodies is created;

2) Codification: In [1], this codiﬁcation and a recombina- • In the next step, each antibody selected is cloned propor-

tion methodology are presented with the aim of preserving the tionally to their afﬁnity;

radial structure. The AISs do not use recombination, as in [1], • The population of clones is submitted to a hypermutation

but a hypermutation operator instead. Basically this involves scheme, where the hypermutation is proportional to their

random changes of status of any switches. The “mutation” oper- afﬁnity;

ator picks any switch randomly and changes its status. For this • Power ﬂow and loss calculations are evaluated for every

sake, the inverse probability associated with the afﬁnity of its clone, and these results are sorted (by afﬁnity);

antibody is considered. Later, the topology obtained is analyzed • If the clone is better than the original antibody, it is replaced

and eventually corrected to keep the radial mode and avoid the by that clone, otherwise the antibody is maintained;

isolated nodes. If a loop then appears, one switch is opened at • The number of iterations constitutes the stopping criterion.

random to keep its radial mode. In case of islanding, the closest The Fitness is calculated by (10):

switch to the islanded section is closed, provided that doing so

does not result in a loop. (10)

3) Clonal Selection Principle: The next step is the applica-

tion of the Clonal Selection principle, as seen in the ﬂowchart where ID is obtained after applying the Pareto dominance rules

of Fig. 5 and described below. and it is the amount of better solutions than individual “i” solu-

• First, the initial population is generated using the Prim Al- tion. N is the number of solutions (antibodies). If the Fitness is

gorithm; equal to 1, this solution is called a non-dominated solution. This

ALONSO et al.: ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS OPTIMIZATION APPROACH FOR MULTIOBJECTIVE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RECONFIGURATION 845

TABLE II

FEEDER CONFIGURATION

means no solution exists that is better than this one. This solu-

tion forms part of the Pareto Front. In the next chart the steps of

the Solution Algorithm with AIS are described.

B. Results

1) 14-Bus System: The 14-bus system data can be found in

[24] and used in the test was a value of pu. Fig. 9. Pareto Front of solutions for the 14-bus test system.

According to the proposed methodology, the initial topology

is shown in Fig. 6. Each antibody is encoded similarly to the

method proposed in [1]. That is, the initial antibody, according Pareto Front Solutions obtained by the AIS methodology. Re-

to the proposed methodology, would be as seen in Fig. 6. In this member that N1 is the set of normal closed switches and N2 is

antibody codiﬁcation, N1 is the normally closed switch set and the normal opened switches. Observing the previous solutions

N2 is the normally open switch set. from Table II depicted in Fig. 9, it is possible to see the opti-

For the initial 14-bus system conﬁguration depicted on Fig. 6, mization of the multiobjective problem, minimizing both vari-

N1 and N2 elements are depicted in Fig. 7. The system base ables for all cases.

adopted was 100 MVA and 23 kV. 2) ANDE System, CBO-01 Feeder: The Paraguayan elec-

This methodology gives a set of viable antibodies with high tric distribution system is composed of 23-kV feeders. These

afﬁnity. After applying the optimization routine, a set of solu- feeders may have a combination of overhead lines with con-

tions (conﬁgurations) was obtained, shown in Table II, i.e., each ventional or covered conductors, and also underground lines.

column of this table shows the set of Normal Closed Switches Its topology may have three phase and single phase lines. In

N1 and the set of Normal Opened Switches N2 for each conﬁgu- this study, the feeder features are typical of a region with urban

ration of the Pareto Front (antibody). It is also possible to see the and a rural portion. Rural areas have single-phase transformers

set of non-dominated solutions (values of objective functions) and even single-phase distribution lines. In general, due to this,

of the Pareto Front. Fig. 8 depicts the non-dominated solution there is load imbalance in these feeders. This feeder has 74 load

from Column 1. buses, 18 switches, 15 branches and many possibilities of loops

From Fig. 9, one can see the evolution of the solutions. The (therefore, the same load may have more than one possibility

“ ” indicates the initial Pareto Front and with “o” the ﬁnal of supply). The feeder under study is one of three feeders of

846 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 30, NO. 2, MARCH 2015

Fig. 10. CBO-01 Initial Feeder graph. Fig. 11. Non-Dominate solution CBO-01 Feeder graph.

TABLE III

CBO-01 23 KV FEEDER CONFIGURATION

Fig. 12. Pareto Front of solutions for the CBO-01 23-kV System.

system. Therefore, this system is the reference value, the bench-

mark against which the real distribution system is compared

with. Considering the 14-bus case convergence time as 1 pu,

the ANDE CBO-01 real system convergence time is 1.74 pu.

This means that the ANDE system has a convergence time

74% bigger than the former. This difference is rather slight

Coronel Bogado Substation. The supply voltage level is 23-kV considering that the real system has 74 load buses, 14 branches,

phase-phase, the demand estimated is 98 Amperes by phase with and 18 switches, and the test system has only 14 load bus and

average power factor of 0.92. This feeder supplies power to a 16 switches, i.e., ANDE system is ﬁve times bigger and much

small population of approximately 22 000 people. more complex.

According to the methodology, the network graph tree con-

sidering the switches' place is as shown in Fig. 10. Table III de-

V. CONCLUSION

picts the set of solutions of the Pareto Front and the set of vi-

able conﬁgurations. This case was performed considering an ini- This paper deals with the problem of distribution systems re-

tial population of 100 antibodies obtained by the methodology conﬁguration. Depending on the operation policy of the elec-

outlined above, 10 clones for each antibody, elitism of 20 anti- tricity utility of a certain area, this can prioritize loss reduction or

bodies, mutation probability inversely proportional to its afﬁnity improvement in the continuity of service indicator. The creation

(0.05 pu minimum), and a stopping criteria of 30 generations. of a viable set of antibodies through the methodology based on

One of the optimal conﬁgurations is shown in Fig. 11. In this the Prim algorithm improves the performance of the heuristic.

case the loss reduction and the values of PIEFI are 5 kW and The AIS characteristics make it particularly interesting for

38.58 t/y, respectively. applications in this type of integer programming problems. Mat-

Fig. 12 depicts the Pareto Front. This shows the potentiality uration operator provides a local minimum search tool, pre-

of the proposed methodology. The computational times are senting an opportunity to solve the problem of reconﬁguring

ALONSO et al.: ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS OPTIMIZATION APPROACH FOR MULTIOBJECTIVE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RECONFIGURATION 847

radial distribution systems. Another characteristic of the algo- [15] A. Mazza, G. Chicco, and A. Russo, “Optimal multi-objective distribu-

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plants,” Elect. Power Energy Syst., vol. 55, pp. 680–691, 2014.

strates the robustness of the methodology. Many other objec- [17] N. H. Ahmad, T. K. A. Rahman, and N. Aminuddin, “Multi-objective

tive functions can be included, such as load balancing, switching quantum-inspired artiﬁcial immune system approach for optimal re-

costs and system average interruption duration. These objective conﬁguration in distribution system,” in Proc. 2012 IEEE Int. Engi-

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[18] L. Chun-Hua, Z. Xin-Jan, H. Wan-Qi, and C. Guan-Yi, “A novel multi

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tribution feeder reconﬁguration,” Expert Syst. Applicat., vol. 38, pp. engineering from the Pontiﬁcal Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro in 1990,

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vol. 64, pp. 342–354, 2014. Itajuba, Brazil.

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