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based Three Phase Grid-connected Inverter

Soumik Sen Kalyan Yenduri Parthasarathi Sensarma

Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Kanpur, India 208016 Kanpur, India 208016 Kanpur, India 208016

Email: soumiksen87@gmail.com Email: ykalyan@iitk.ac.in Email: sensarma@iitk.ac.in

Telephone: (+91) 512-2597076

procedure and control of an LCL ﬁlter for grid connected three iga Rdc

phase sine PWM voltage source inverter. The goal of the design

is to ensure high quality of grid current as well as to minimize ega Lga Cfa La i a S1 S3 S5 Vdc

igb ib

the size of ﬁlter magnetics. In order to ensure unity power C

factor injection into grid a current controller is designed with a egb Lgb Cfb Lb ic

constraint that only the inverter side inductor current is sensed. igc S4 S6 S2

Good agreement between simulation and experimental results

verify the effectiveness of the designed controller and the LCL egc Lgc Cfc Lc

ﬁlter.

newable energy sources like solar and wind contribute sig- i is fed back to the control system while the reference input

niﬁcantly to the total electrical energy produced worldwide. is the reference grid current. For successful current control,

These DPGs are generally connected to grid by energy efﬁcient a controller is designed such that the fundamental component

power electronic converters[1]. This grid connected inverter is of i tracks the reference. So inherent assumption while de-

interfaced with grid by a ﬁlter which ensures high quality of signing the controller is that only fundamental component of

grid current. Compared with the traditional L ﬁlter, LCL ﬁlter i ﬂows into the grid. The ﬁlter is designed such way that this

provides more attenuation to high frequency harmonics[2] and assumption is a valid one. For successful control only ﬁve

exhibits better dynamic performance[3]. [2] discusses a step- sensors are used in the entire setup. Two current sensors are

by-step design procedure of LCL ﬁlter for three phase active used for sensing the converter side inductor currents of two

rectiﬁer, but minimization of the total size of the inductors phases. Three voltage sensors are used among which two are

is not one of the design criterion there. [2] presents a broad used for sensing grid voltages of two phases and remaining

range for selection of resonant frequency of the ﬁlter and does one is used to sense dc link voltage Vdc .

not give an exact guideline about how to select that frequency. Section II describes the step-by-step procedure of ﬁlter

[4] starts the design procedure from the maximum converter design. Section III includes the system model used to design

side current ripple calculation and then goes on to ﬁnd the the current controller and the control scheme. Simulation and

minimum grid inductance. But it does not state how the grid experimental results validating the effectiveness of designed

current is controlled. In [5] the maximum value of inductance ﬁlter and controller are shown in Section IV.

is found out from power condition and minimum value from

the ripple current consideration. But the present work focuses II. F ILTER D ESIGN

on the minimization of the total inductor size for achieving

required attenuation at high frequencies. The design criteria for designing the LCL ﬁlter are as

This paper presents a step-by-step procedure to design a follows.

compact LCL ﬁlter for a grid connected three phase PWM • Fundamental component of current through ﬁlter capac-

voltage source inverter that adequately attenuates the switching itance should be less than 1% of the fundamental com-

frequency harmonics in the injected grid current. A current ponent of grid current for proper control performance.

control topology is also presented that ensures unity power • Sufﬁcient attenuation must be provided to the switching

factor current injection into grid. The power circuit of the frequency component of grid current so as to ensure high

grid connected converter is shown in Fig.1. For over-current quality grid current.

protection of a three phase inverter, ac output current of the in- • Filter inductance values should be chosen such that the

verter (i) needs to be sensed. In the proposed control topology, combined size of the inductors is minimum.

A. Capacitance Selection

rlg ig i rl

For satisfying the ﬁrst criterion, let the rms capacitor

fundamental current (Icf ) be equal to 1% of the rated rms Lg L

grid fundamental current (Igrated ). Fig.2 shows the single Eg Cf Vac

phase equivalent of the circuit containing the ﬁlter capacitance,

the grid side inductance and the grid. Neglecting drop across

Fig. 4. Single phase equivalent circuit of LCL ﬁlter

rlg Ig Lg

Eg Vcf where,

a = LCf rlg + Lg Cf rl (6)

Fig. 2. Single Phase equivalent of Grid side Circuit b = (Cf rl rlg + L + Lg ) (7)

The denominator is factorised into two factors as [6],

rlg the phasor diagram is shown in Fig.3. From the phasor

Ig (s) k

= , (8)

IgXg Vac (s) (1 + sT )(1 + b1 s + a1 s2 )

Vcf where,

1

k= , (9)

Eg rl + rlg

Ig

Cf rl rlg + L + Lg

T = , (10)

Fig. 3. Phasor diagram rl + rlg

LCf rlg + Lg Cf rl

diagram, b1 = , (11)

Cf rl rlg + L + Lg

|Eg | ≤ |Vcf | LLg Cf

≤ |Icf Xcf | a1 = . (12)

Cf rl rlg + L + Lg

≤ |0.01Igrated Xcf | (1) From the second order term the resonant frequency of the

where,Icf (1) is the rms value of grid frequency (fgrid ) com- circuit is obtained as,

ponent of current through the capacitor, Xcf is the capacitive Cf rl rlg + L + Lg

impedance at fgrid and Eg is the per phase rms grid voltage.If ω0 = (13)

LLg Cf

the rated power of the converter is P, then the rated grid current

Igrated is, Neglecting internal resistances of inductances the resonant

P frequency is expressed as,

Igrated = . (2)

3Eg

L + Lg

Replacing Igrated in (1), ω0 = (14)

LLg Cf

P

Eg ≤ 0.01 Xcf . (3) The Bode plot of the transfer function is as shown in Fig.5

3Eg

for rl =0.1Ω, rlg =0.1Ω, L=3mH, Lg =3mH and Cf =680nF.

From this an upper limit of capacitance value is obtained,

After resonant frequency the gain plot falls at −60

P dB/decade. So depending on the attenuation required for the

Cf ≤ 0.01 . (4)

3Eg2 ω switching frequency component in the grid current, a suitable

resonant frequency is calculated[7]. If the switching frequency

To ensure small size of ﬁlter inductors, capacitor value must

is ωs rad/s and the required attenuation A dB, then the resonant

be chosen as close to the maximum value as possible.

frequency (ωres ) is approximately calculated as,

B. Inductance Selection ωs

ωres = A/60 (15)

Once the ﬁlter capacitance value is decided next step is to 10

design the inductors. Fig.4 shows the single phase equivalent With ﬁxed ωres and Cf , using (15) Lg is expressed in terms

circuit of the LCL ﬁlter. of L, Cf and ωres in the following way.

Vac is the single phase equivalent of the ac output voltage

of the three phase inverter. The ﬁlter transfer function is as L

Lg = 2 C /1000)L − 1

(16)

follows. (ωres f

= 3 2

(5)

Vac (s) (LLg Cf )s + as + bs + (rl + rlg ) in rad/s.

504

III. C URRENT C ONTROLLER D ESIGN

Fig.4 shows the single phase equivalent circuit of the LCL

ﬁlter connected to grid. Control objective is to ensure unity

power factor current injection into grid. It is assumed that

the system is a three phase balanced system. Two current

sensors are used for sensing converter side inductor currents

and the third phase current is computed by the controller by

negating the sum of the ﬁrst two currents. These currents

need to be sensed to provide overcurrent protection to the

converter. Controlling is carried out in α-β domain. To im-

prove the dynamic performance, feed-forward compensation

is provided by adding sensed grid voltage to the output of

the controller. The control system is shown in Fig.7. It has

Fig. 5. Bode diagram of Ig (s)/Vac (s)

Igref Vacref I Ig

H(s) G1(s) G2(s)

Size of an inductor is directly proportional to its inductance eg

value. The total size (S) of two inductors is,

S ∝ (L + Lg ) (17)

Fig. 7. Control System Diagram

So in order to reduce the ﬁlter size, the objective is to minimise

the sum of L and Lg . Recalling (16) the optimisation problem been shown already that LCL ﬁlter has a resonant frequency.

is mathematically expressed as, Neglecting internal resistances of ﬁlter elements the expression

of resonant frequency is given as,

Minimisef = L + Lg (18)

L + Lg

subject to, ωres = (20)

L LLg Cf

Lg = 2 C /1000)L − 1

. (19)

(ωres f To damp out resonance, passive damping is implemented by

A 3D plot of L vs Lg vs (L + Lg ) is shown in Fig. II-B. As placing a resistance in series with ﬁlter capacitance. With

the damping resistance included, the equivalent single phase

circuit is shown in Fig.8. Modiﬁed system transfer functions

L=3 mH

8 L =2.96 mH

g

Lg L

Cfg

7.5

Eg Vac

7

Rd

L+Lg (mH)

6.5

Fig. 8. Single phase equivalent of LCL ﬁlter with damping resistance

6

in presence of damping resistor is given as,

5.5 I(s) (Lg Cf )s2 + (rlg Cf + Rd Cf )s + 1

6 G1 (s) = =

Vac (s) (LLg Cf )s3 + a2 s2 + b2 s + (rlg + rl )

5 3.5 (21)

4 3 where,

3 2.5

a2 = Lg Cf rl + Lrlg Cf + LRd Cf + Lg Rd Cf (22)

2 2

b2 = rl rlg Cf + L + rl Rd Cf + Lg + Rd Cf rlg (23)

Fig. 6. 3D plot of L vs Lg vs (L + Lg ).

Ig (s) 1 + sCf Rd

G2 (s) = = (24)

shown in the ﬁgure the minimum of (L + Lg ) is found out I(s) Lg Cf s2 + (Cf rlg + Rd Cf )s + 1

from the plot. Corresponding L and Lg values conclude the Since the ﬁlter design ensures that the fundamental component

process of ﬁlter design. of I i.e. the grid frequency (fgrid ) component of I is the grid

505

current Ig , so the controller H(s) is designed such that the

fundamental component of I tracks the reference grid current

Igref . Igref is generated by dividing the sensed grid phase

voltage by a constant.Bode plot of the transfer function G1 (s)

in presence of passive damping is given in Fig. 9. From Fig.

Fig. 11. Bode diagram of Ig (s)/Igref (s) for L = 3 mH, Lg = 2.96 mH,

Cf = 680 nF and Kp = 12.5

TABLE I

C IRCUIT & C ONTROLLER PARAMETERS .

Grid phase voltage (Eg ) 100 V (peak)

9 it is seen that at the frequency of interest i.e. at fgrid which DC link voltage (Vdc ) 350 V

is 50 Hz in this case, gain is -5 dB. It is also observed that Grid current reference (Igref ) 4 A (peak)

due to introduction of passive damping the gain at resonant Current controller (kp ) 12.5

frequency has reduced considerably in comparison to that of Damping resistance (Rd ) 10 Ω

the undamped plant. In order to achieve satisfactory control Converter side ﬁlter inductance (L) 3 mH

performance, the open loop transfer function of G1 H must Internal resistance of L (rl ) 0.1 Ω

have high gain at 50 Hz. So a proportional controller with gain Filter capacitance (Cf ) 680 nF

Kp is used. The Bode plot of open loop transfer function is

Grid side ﬁlter inductance (Lg ) 2.96 mH

shown in Fig 10. From Fig.10 it can be seen that the open loop

Internal resistance of Lg (rlg ) 0.1 Ω

Switching frequency (fs ) 15 kHz

the steady state simulation result and experimental result

respectively of the grid current along with the reference value.

The actual grid current satisfactorily tracks the reference

grid current of 4 A peak. In the experimental result 5th

harmonic component in grid current is 4.5% which is the chief

contributor in the total harmonic distortion (THD) of 5%. The

Fig. 10. Bode plot of G1 (s)H(s) for Kp =12.5 presence of 5th harmonic in the grid current is due to the

presence of 5th harmonic in the grid phase voltage from which

transfer function has the desired high gain at grid frequency. the grid current reference is derived.

The closed loop transfer function is given by,

Fig. 14 a and b show that grid current and grid phase

Kp G1 G2 voltage are in same phase for both the experimental and sim-

T (s) = (25)

1 + Kp G1 ulation results. It is clearly noticed that ensuring unity power

The Bode plot of the closed loop transfer function is shown factor operation has been ensured. To observe the transient

in Fig.11. From Fig. 11 it is observed that at fgrid the gain of performance step changes are given to current reference and

the system is 0 dB and the phase is very small. The diagram the response of the actual grid current is observed. Figure

of the complete system is shown in Fig.12. 15 corresponds to a positive step of 2 A to 4 A and Fig.

16 depicts the performance during negative step of 4 A to

IV. R ESULTS 2 A in the current reference. In both cases, the simulation

A three phase sine PWM grid-connected inverter along with and experimental results are shown. It is observed that the

the proposed controller and the ﬁlter have been simulated current settles to the commanded value within 5 ms with

in Matlab Simulink and experimentally veriﬁed using DSP the positive and negative reference steps. Close agreement

TMS320F2812 as the digital controller. The system parameters between simulation and experimental results again validate the

are as mentioned in Table 1. The system is assumed to be controller design.

506

iggrefα

ref

efα

÷ Kp ÷

abc

k iggestα

estα eα Vddcc//2

2

iggrefβ

ref

efβ

Kp ÷ αβ

÷

estβ Vddcc//2

2

SOGI at fgrid

eα eβ CONTROL iα iβ

αβ SYSTEM αβ

abc abc SINE

S

SI

INE PWM

W

0 0

Vddcc

Voltage

V

Vo ltage Voltage

V

Vo ltage Current

C

Cu rrent Current

C

Cu rrent Voltage

V

Vo ltage

S nsor 2

Se

Sensor S nsor 1

Se

Sensor Se

S nsor 2

Sensor S nsor 1

Se

Sensor SENSORS S nsor 3

Se

Sensor

d

Rda

d ia S1 S3 S5

iggbb ib C Vddcc

eb Lgb Cffbb Lb

ic

Rdb

d

S4 S6 S2

POWER iggcc

CIRCUIT

ec Lgc Cffcc Lc

Rdc

d

(b) Experimental Result.

Fig. 13. Steady State Performance of Current Controller igaref (yellow)=2

A/div, iga (green)=2 A/div, X-axis= 10 ms/div Fig. 14. Unity Power Factor Operation ega (green) = 50 V/div, iga (yellow)

= 5 A/div, X-axis=10ms/div

V. C ONCLUSION

A novel, step-by-step design procedure of LCL ﬁlter for

inverter has been discussed. The design procedure discussed

grid connected application of a three phase voltage source

507

isfactory dynamic and steady state performances are achieved

as validated by both numerical simulation and experimental

results.

R EFERENCES

[1] Blaabjerg, F.; Teodorescu, R.; Liserre, M.; Timbus, A.V., ”Overview

of Control and Grid Synchronization for Distributed Power Generation

Systems,” Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.53, no.5,

pp.1398,1409, Oct. 2006

[2] Liserre, M.; Blaabjerg, F.; Hansen, S., ”Design and control of an LCL-

ﬁlter-based three-phase active rectiﬁer,” Industry Applications, IEEE

(a) Simulation Result.

Transactions on , vol.41, no.5, pp.1281,1291, Sept.-Oct. 2005

[3] Yi Tang; Poh Chiang Loh; Peng Wang; Fook Hoong Choo; Feng Gao,

”Exploring Inherent Damping Characteristic of LCL-Filters for Three-

Phase Grid-Connected Voltage Source Inverters,” Power Electronics,

IEEE Transactions on , vol.27, no.3, pp.1433,1443, March 2012

[4] Fang Liu; Xing Zhang; Changzhou Yu; Zhangping Shao; Wei Zhao; Hua

Ni, ”LCL-ﬁlter design for grid-connected three-phase PWM converter

based on maximum current ripple,” ECCE Asia Downunder (ECCE Asia),

2013 IEEE , vol., no., pp.631,635, 3-6 June 2013

[5] Yongqiang Lang; Dianguo Xu; Hadianamrei, S.R.; Hongfei Ma, ”A Novel

Design Method of LCL Type Utility Interface for Three-Phase Voltage

Source Rectiﬁer,” Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2005. PESC

’05. IEEE 36th , vol., no., pp.313,317, 16-16 June 2005

[6] R. W. Erickson and D. Maksimovic, ”Fundamentals of Power Electron-

ics,” (2nd ed) Springer International edition, 2000, Chap. 8

[7] Byung-Geuk Cho; Seung-Ki Sul; Yoo, H.; Seung-Min Lee, ”LCL ﬁlter

design and control for grid-connected PWM converter,” Power Electronics

(b) Experimental Result. and ECCE Asia, 2011 IEEE 8th International Conference on , vol., no.,

pp.756,763, May 30 2011-June 3 2011

Fig. 15. Step up response igaref (yellow)=2 A/div, iga (pink)=2 A/div,

X-axis= 20 ms/div

Fig. 16. Step down response igaref (yellow)=2 A/div, iga (pink)=2 A/div,

X-axis= 20 ms/div

current controller has also been designed with a constraint

that minimum number of sensors are used in the inverter. Sat-

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