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EE-847: Microwave Networks &

Passive Components
Course Code: EE-847
Semester: Fall 2018
Credit Hours: 3+0
Prerequisite Codes: EE-241 Electromagnetic Field Theory (3+0),
or Equivalent
Instructor: Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib
Office: B-205, 1st floor, RIMMS
E-mail: nosherwan.shoaib@seecs.edu.pk

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 1
Today’s Lecture
Faculty/Student Introduction

Course Introduction and Outline


 Course Description

 Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs)

 Assessment Methods

 Books

 Lecture Breakdown

 Grading Policy

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 2
Course Introduction

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 3
Course Introduction and Outline

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 4
Outcome Based Education (OBE)
• Outcome Based Education:
– Focusses on Learning rather than Teaching
• A pre-requisite system for Washington Accord
membership
• Advantage: Recognized degree in all member
states
• 18 countries already members
• Why YOU should know?

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 5
Hierarchy of Outcomes

Vision & Mission of the Institution/Dept.


Long Term
Outcomes
Program Educational Objectives (PEO)

Program Learning Outcomes (PLOs)


Short Term
Outcomes
Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs)

Ref: Dr. Zahid Halim, OBE presentation, GIKI


© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 6
An Analogy

Inputs Output
Provided Attributes
• Flour • Round
• Packaging • Soft
• Dough • Well
• Cook Cooked
• Heat

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 7
PEOs, PLOs, CLOs

PEO:
The PEOs help stakeholders select a program:
 Students to select the program in an Institution
 Industries to choose the graduates of a program

PLO:
Program outcomes are the narrower statements that describe
what students are expected to know and be able to do by the time of
graduation.

CLO:
CLO is a formal statement of what students are expected to learn in a course

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 8
PLOs, CLOs
CLOs 12 PLOs
1. Engineering Knowledge
Course 1 2. Problem Analysis
3. Design/Development of
Solutions
Course 2 4. Investigation
.
5. Modern Tool Usage
. 6. The Engineer and Society
. 7. Environment &
Course 44 Sustainability
8. Ethics
9. Individual and Teamwork
10. Communication
Course 45 11. Project Management
12. Life Long Learning
© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 9
Ethics
 Good Engineers come second

 …

 …

 …

 …

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 10
Ethics
 Good Engineers come second

 …

 …

 …

 …

 Good Human Beings come first

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 11
Ethics
 Good Engineers come second

 …

 …

 …

 …

 Good Human Beings come first

 Professional and Social Ethics

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 12
Introduction

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 13
Introduction
 Introduction to Microwave Engineering

 Maxwell Equations
 Revisions

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 14
Introduction
Microwave Engineering
 Microwave Electronics is Analog Science
 It requires knowledge of few simple
concepts to become Microwave Engineer
 S-Parameters
 Smith Charts
 Transmission Line
 Skin Depth
 Antennas (another complete field
of electromagnetics)
 Microwave Engineering is very much useful
in defense sector, other important fields are
 Heat Sensing
 Remote Sensing
 Communications

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 15
Introduction
 The Subject : deals with the circuits / devices in the
frequency range from about 30 MHz to about 300 GHz

 RF bands: from very high frequency (VHF) (30–300 MHz) to ultra


high frequency (UHF) (300–3000 MHz)
 Microwave bands: from 3 GHz to 30 GHz
 Millimeter-wave bands: from 30 GHz to 300 GHz

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 16
Electromagnetic Spectrum

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 17
Electromagnetic Spectrum

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 18
Applications
 Personal
 Cordless telephone
 Cellular phone and data services (2G, 3G, 4G)
 Satellite telephones
 Global navigation (GPS)
 Medical / Science / Military /
Infrastructure
 Sensing and Imaging
 Biomedical engineering
 Radars
 Wireless power transfer

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 19
Applications

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 20
Applications

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 21
Applications

Mobile Charger

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 22
Applications

The CE Mark
("Conformité Européenne"
"European Conformity")
existing in its present form
since 1993, is a mandatory
conformance mark on many
products placed on the
market in the European
Economic Area (EEA)

Mobile Charger

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 23
Applications

RF Choke

Image Courtesyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choke_(electronics)

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 24
Applications
 EMC/EMI - Fighter Jets

*Image Courtesy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SmamWpTCuW8

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 25
Applications
 EMC/EMI - Fighter Jets

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 26
Applications
 EMC/EMI - Fighter Jets

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 27
Applications
 EMC/EMI - Fighter Jets

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 28
Applications
 Internet of Things (IoT)

*Image Courtesy: https://www.iot-now.com/2017/09/04/65726-internet-things-needs-edge-cloud-computing

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 29
Applications
 Internet of Things (IoT) – RF Energy Harvesting

Antenna Ambient
RF Signals
Power
Management
Module

Impedance Rectifier
Load
Matching Network

Power
Storage

Rectenna System Block Diagram

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 30
RF Testing Instruments

Spectrum Analyzer Oscilloscope Signal Generator

Vector Network Analyzer Antenna

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 31
Why Microwave Engineering ?

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 32
Why Microwave Engineering ?

 RF, microwave and millimeter wave circuit design and


realization is far more complicated than low frequency work
 Component size at MW frequencies is comparable to
wavelength → circuit theory no longer applies
 Microwave components often act as distributed elements,
phase of voltage and current changes over physical extent of
the device
 Maxwell’s equations are needed

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 33
Microwave Engineering : Short History

 Mature field →
fundamental concepts
were developed more
than a century ago
 Foundation of modern EM
theory was formulated by
James Clerk Maxwell
(1873)
 Oliver Heaviside simplified
the Maxwell’s theory
(1886)
 Heinrich Hertz validated
Maxwell’s theory of
electromagnetic waves
(1891)

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 34
Maxwell’s Equations

where,

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 35
Maxwell’s Equations

Faraday’s Law

Ampere’s Law

Gauss’s Law

where,

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 36
Maxwell’s Equations
Faraday’s Law

 Induced emf, Vemf (in volts), in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of
change of the magnetic flux linkage by the circuit.

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 37
Maxwell’s Equations
Ampere’s Circuit Law

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 38
Maxwell’s Equations
Gauss’s Law

 It states that total electric flux through any closed surface is equal to the total
charge enclosed by that surface.

 It states that volume charge density is the same as the divergence of electric flux
density.
 Divergence of magnetic field is zero as magnetic monopoles doesn’t exist.

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 39
Maxwell’s Equations

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 40
Maxwell’s Equations

Maxwell’s Equations in Phasor Form:

The Fourier transform can be used to convert a solution to Maxwell’s equations for an
arbitrary frequency ω into a solution for arbitrary time dependence

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 41
The Wave Equation and Basic Plane Wave Solutions

 The Helmholtz Equation


In a source-free, linear, isotropic, homogeneous region:

A constant is defined and called the


propagation constant (also known as the
phase constant, or wave number), of the medium;
its units are 1/m.

 Plane Waves in a lossless Medium


In a lossless medium, ϵ and µ are real
numbers, and so k is real

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 42
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

 Waves are means of transporting energy or information


 All forms of EM energy share three fundamental characteristics
 They all travel at high velocity
 In travelling they assume the property of waves
 They radiate outward from a source

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 43
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 44
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
Waves in General
 The wave equation below is traveling with a velocity u in the +z
direction

 To do this, we consider a fixed point P on the wave and sketch


the above equation at times t = 0, T/4, and T/2
 The point P is a point of constant phase with respect to a
reference, therefore:

 By differentiating both sides, we get:

 Therefore, the wave travels with velocity u in the +z-direction

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 45
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
Waves in General

 It is evident that as the


wave advances with
time, point P moves
along +z-direction
 A negative sign in
(ωt−βz) shows that wave
is travelling in +ve z
direction
 Whereas, a positive sign
in (ωt+βz) shows that
wave is travelling other
way round

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 46
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
Waves in General

 The wave fronts are infinite parallel planes

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 47
The Wave Equation and Basic Plane Wave Solutions

Example: 1.1

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 48
The Wave Equation and Basic Plane Wave Solutions

 Plane Waves in a General lossy Medium

 Plane Waves in a Good Conductor

1.5. General Plane Wave Solutions

Home Assignment

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 49
Circularly Polarized Plane Waves

Linearly polarized

Right hand Circular polarized wave

Left hand Circular polarized wave

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 50
Circularly Polarized Plane Waves

Electric field polarization for (a) RHCP and (b) LHCP plane waves.

© Copyright Dr. Nosherwan Shoaib, 2018 Microwave Networks & Passive Components 51
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