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Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2

102097 Researching Teaching and Learning 2: Assessment 2

Group Topic: How has Information and Communication Technology (ICT) shaped education?
Individual Topic: Is technology advantageous stages 4 and stage 5 of learning?

Section A: Literature Review

Introduction & Research Strategy

Promotion of student success is crucial as educators. Students demonstrating deeper

engagement are often capable of retaining greater knowledge and skills (Fredericks,
Blumenfeld & Paris, 2004). Disengagement of Australian students is a major issue, where
figures indicate up to 40% of students show unproductive behaviour at a regular basis (Goss
& Sonnemann, 2017). Addressing causational factors for such disengagement is a
complicated process on its own, involving analysis of how students succeed, why students
succeed, and methods of how to ensure students continue to succeed (Ravet, 2009; Skinner,
Kindermann & Furrer, 2011). Pieterien, Soini & Pyhältö (2014) posit that education focuses
predominately upon two types of engagement, being emotional and cognitive engagement.
The introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in recent years into
the classroom has seen both positive and negative outcomes of student participation and
success (Jimoyiannis & Komis, 2016; McCarthy, McCourt, Ikutegbe & Zhou, 2018). It is
crucial as researchers to examine the overarching standpoint of technology in education as
we must identify and evaluate means of future practise in ICT usage (Jimoyiannia & Komis,
2016; Lawless & Pellegrino, 2008). This literature review was conducted to analyse student
success in stages 4 and 5 of learning through utilisation of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT). Database searches were conducted to examine the benefits of such ICT
engagement, with resources analysed being published within the previous ten years.
Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2

Literature Analysis

In analysing current literature upon the topic of ‘Is technology advantageous in

stages 4 and 5 of learning?’ three key themes began to emerge. First and foremost,
incorporation of ICT in the classroom can lead to enhanced student engagement with both
content and peer relationships (Dawson, 2010; McCarthy, McCourt, Ikutegbe & Zhou, 2018;
Zepke & Leach, 2010). Secondly, allowance of ICT for research-task purposes has shown an
enhancement of understanding of learning outcomes (Becta, 2009; Dawson, 2010;
Livingstone, 2012). Finally, enhancement of ICT in the classroom allows for enhanced
organisation of content and delivery (Harrington et al., 2010; NIACE, 2009).

Theme 1: Enhancement of engagement in content & in relationships

The provision of ICT tasks, whether short in-class tasks or project-based tasks, allows
for enhanced engagement of content with emphasis upon social interaction (Bingimlas,
2009; Dawson, 2010; Perrotta, 2012). Reasons for such engagement, highlighted by Dawson
(2010) and Warmuth (2014) stem as intrinsic (value-driven) motivators. Emotional
engagement focuses upon the relationship between student and their learning
environment, and the positive or negative reactions experienced in context to their learning
space (Skinner, Kindermann & Furrer, 2011). Discussed further by Dawson (2010) as well as
Zepke & Leach (2010), intrinsic reasons for engagement include development of
responsibility and ownership of learning, opportunity for independence in learning, and
finally provides ownership of study skills for further application. Discussed by Bingimlas
(2009) and Zepke & Leach (2010), appropriate usage of ICT tasks including collaborative
research tasks, simulations, and visual media acts as tools for student motivation to

Engagement with ICT is positively associated with collaborative learning, greater

academic challenge, as well as deeper learning experiences (McCarthy, McCourt, Ikutegbe &
Zhou, 2018; Zepke & Leach, 2010). Particularly within stages 4 and 5 learning, students
omitted that allowance for technology in the classroom makes their understanding of
content more enjoyable and relatable, upon the provision that the educator providing the
lesson is competent in their understanding of ICT (Goss & Sonnemann, 2017). Interestingly,
Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2

Angus & Max (2010) provided specific examples where incorporation of ICT simulation tasks
in stage 4 science has shown greater success in creating student engagement than a first-
hand practical experiment where resources required were unattainable or unreliable. Such
strategies include practical simulations, or usage of cam-capture images (Pullen & Cole,
2010) Angus & Max (2010) expressed the implication of this is that such a practice will
depend entirely upon teacher capability in utilising ICT tasks and strategies. A particular
notion posited by Liu & Chen (2013) which supports Angus & Max’s (2010) as well as
McCarthy, McCourt, Ikutegbe & Zhou’s (2018) research was that emotional engagement
from secondary students improved through a positive attitude towards teachers willing to
incorporate ICT into their classroom, despite potential successes or failures.

Theme 2: Enhancement of Learning Outcomes

In Livingstone’s (2012) critical analysis of ICT in education, she posits that

educational policy regarding ICT is not to teach students to use technologies, rather to
improve success of educational outcomes across all sectors of the Australian Curriculum.
Evidence from literature and studies has emphasised that appropriate incorporation of ICT
raises educational standards by up to 90% of students (Becta, 2009; Harrison et al., 2008).
Findings from Cheung & Slavin’s (2013) research determined a positive correlation between
availability of ICT devices at both home and school and overall student achievement.
Cheung & Slavin (2013) also noted that excessive availability of ICT devices in a home
environment may lead to lesser academic success stemming from potential distraction.

Agreement amongst literature was that appropriate incorporation of ICT provides a

greater sense of ownership in learning (Dawson, 2010; Livingstone, 2012; Perrotta, 2012;
Wang, 2008). This ownership stems from a greater sense of pride in work completion,
wherein students feel more connected to the task design, investing more personal
relatability and interest into the workload (Dawson, 2010; Livingstone, 2012; Wang, 2008).
Literature analysis has shown that successful implementation of ICT has led to improved
literacy standards in schooling (McCarthy, McCourt, Ikutegbe & Zhou, 2018; Rothwell, 2017;
Skryabin, Zhang, Liu & Zhang, 2015). Specifically referencing stage 4 and 5 learning, ICT
usage has enhanced student spelling and grammar, supported by statistical data of NAPLAN
assessment (McCarthy, McCourt, Ikutegbe & Zhou, 2018; Rothwell, 2017).
Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2

Theme 3: Enhanced organisation of content preparation and delivery

Incorporation of ICT, highlighted by several authors, plays a crucial role in enhancing

organisation of content and preparation (Becta, 2009; Harrington et al., 2016; NIACE, 2009).
A study by Becta (2009) and NIACE (2009) found that 67% of educators from a survey of 250
participants agreed that incorporation of ICT into their lesson structures saved them time in
lesson preparation and planning. From this same pool of participants, 32% of respondents
stated that they saved more than two hours per week in lesson planning (Becta, 2009;
NIACE, 2009). Becta (2009) particularly highlighted the importance of reduction in content
preparation time as a factor in improving student success, wherein the educator becomes
more focused upon delivering greater depth for student understanding, a key notion also
supported by Harrington et al. (2016). These findings support the arguments by Dawson
(2010) and Goss & Sonnemann (2017), who both argued that content delivery from a
focused-mind-frame teacher is often greater in depth of knowledge than a lesson that is
rushed in planning without assistance of ICT.

In allowing educators to utilise ICT in content planning, students are provided

opportunity to explore concepts in a greater variety of manners (Dawson, 2010). Opposing a
standard ‘by-the-book’ approach, students harnessing ICT-structured lessons are delivered
greater engagement-based tasks such as research tasks, classroom debates, and simulations
to demonstrate effects where resources may not be available (Becta, 2009; Dawson, 2010;
Harrington et al., 2016). Given the significant level of content in stages 4 and 5 learning,
particularly in science where multiple concepts inter-lap in practical manners, such
opportunity for visual learning is essential, a point highlighted by across research (Chai, Koh,
Tsai & Tan, 2011; Dawson, 2010).

Discussion and Recommendations

This literature review highlighted the benefits of implementing ICT within stage 4 and 5
classrooms. Although several of the key literature articles examined did not specifically state
their purpose as stage 4 or 5 learners, it is conceivable that their findings apply for this
particular context. Despite key findings of beneficial standpoints in implementing ICT, it
must be noted that advantageous usage of ICT requires a strong understanding,
Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2

commitment, and engagement from the teacher, elsewise student achievement will not rise
in success (Becta, 2009; Cheung & Slavin, 2013). Research findings must be considered at a
classroom and cultural standpoint, wherein students of different backgrounds and areas of
learning may find different rates of success from ICT engagement (Law, Pelgrum & Plomp,
2010). Overall, these articles provide evidence that ICT incorporation is beneficial to stage 4
and 5 learners, despite potential need for further evidence at a more recent year-threshold.

*Please note*: Final word count for Section A withholding in-text citations is 1147 words.
Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2

PART B: Data Collection Protocol

Dear Potential Participant:

I am working on a project titled ‘How has Information and Communication Technology (ICT) shaped
education?’ for the class, ‘Researching Teaching and Learning 2,’ at Western Sydney University. As
part of the project, I am collecting information to help inform the design of a teacher research

My individual sub-topic focuses upon the benefits of using ICT in stages 4-5 (years 7-10) of learning.
From interviews, I am hoping to receive a first-hand understanding of whether technology has been
successfully implemented in the classroom, and whether it was advantageous in regards to the
effort required to do so.

By signing this form, I acknowledge that:

 I have read the project information and have been given the opportunity to discuss the
information and my involvement in the project with the researcher/s.
 The procedures required for the project and the time involved have been explained to me,
and any questions I have about the project have been answered to my satisfaction.
 I consent to participation in a personal interview regarding implementation of technology
within my classroom/school.
 I consent to the interview being recorded and transcribed for further analysis of data.
 I understand that my involvement is confidential and that the information gained during this
data collection experience will only be reported within the confines of the ‘Researching
Teaching and Learning 2’ unit, and that all personal details will be de-identified from the
 I understand that I can withdraw from the project at any time, without affecting my
relationship with the researcher/s, now or in the future.

By signing below, I acknowledge that I am 18 years of age or older, or I am a full-time university

student who is 17 years old.

Signed: __________________________________

Name: __________________________________

Date: __________________________________

By signing below, I acknowledge that I am the legal guardian of a person who is 16 or 17 years old,
and provide my consent for the person’s participation.

Signed: __________________________________

Name: __________________________________

Date: __________________________________
Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2

Interview Script:

 Type of interview: Semi-structured with opportunity to expand upon open-ended

 Length of interview: 10-15 minutes per person.
 Data collection method: Audio recording for future transcribing.


 Participants are provided with a written consent form to sign.

 Participants are explicitly advised that they are not required to answer any question
they feel uncomfortable with and may stop the interview at any given time. Data
collection attained thus far cannot be used for research purposes unless permission
is given.
 Participants are advised that their identity will remain anonymous at all time.
 Participants are explicitly instructed that their interview will be audio-recorded for
later transcription for data analysis.
 Participants are provided the following information regarding the project:
o The aim of the research project is to examine the question ‘How has
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) shaped education?’ This
project will gather data to determine on first-hand accounts whether
technology has been beneficial within stages 4 and 5 of education.

Interview Questions:

1. Can you tell me about yourself as an educator?

 Inquire about subjects taught, university background.
2. Within your classes, can you describe your students and their abilities?
 Inquire about student backgrounds if low socioeconomic school, typical
classroom engagement to tasks.
3. Could you describe your understanding of using technology?
Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2

4. How often, in a typical fortnightly cycle, do you feel that you incorporate ICT into
your lessons for a stage 4 or 5 class?
 Inquire about specific examples with such sub-questions as ‘Can you discuss
an example from some of your previous lessons?’
5. What is the typical response from your students when incorporating ICT into a
lesson? Do you feel they responded positively or negatively?
6. Do you feel that these instances of ICT incorporation have been successful in
creating better engagement in your classroom?
 Inquire about specific responses. Why do you think it was successful?
7. Could you please provide your understanding of the term ‘student ownership of
8. Based upon your understanding, would you say that ICT incorporation provides
greater student ownership of learning? Why?
9. In your opinion, do you feel that using ICT in the classroom has enhanced student
knowledge? For example, providing simulations in a science classroom when
materials may not be available.
10. How long would you spend on average per day planning and designing your lessons?
 ‘How do you think that incorporating ICT activities in your lesson structure
may influence your time spent planning?’
11. In your opinion, do you feel that student-focused ICT tasks have created more
knowledge in your students than a more traditional ‘by-the-book’ approach we have
seen in the past?
12. Where do you see the future of Australian education leading in terms of ICT usage?
13. In your honest opinion, do you feel that ICT in secondary education, particularly
stages 4 and 5, is beneficial to student success?
 Allow extra time if necessary to get maximal responses for this question as
the given response may prove the focus point of the interview.
Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2

Part C: Data Collection & Protocol Explanation

This project features a semi-structured interview as the primary means of data collection.
This is done so as a semi-structured interview can allow for more comfortable responses as
participants are not restricted to one field in their responses (Powney & Watts, 2018).
Additional prompts throughout the interview process can allow participants to elaborate on
personal experiences, a crucial factor in this study (Castillo-Montoya, 2016). As this project
focuses upon ICT in education, and its potential benefits, it is crucial to gather information
from relevant stakeholders, in this instance being educators (Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney
& Nieveen, 2008). In this project, participants will be pooled from a range of teaching
subjects and roles within schools with a focus upon stages 4 and 5 classes. These
participants will vary in experience from graduate teacher to head teacher, and if possible
principal roles. Although pre-service teachers may offer a greater insight into technological
understanding due to age brackets, they have been removed from this project due to
limited exposure to teaching practise.

The chosen interview protocol harnesses Jacob and Furgerson’s (2012) and Castillo-
Montoya’s (2016) research regarding the interview process and creation of unbiased data
collection. The overarching topic of technology in education was chosen as means of
assessing the potential for student academic and socioemotional success in their learning,
with this project focusing upon benefits of ICT incorporation. This interview protocol begins
with the construction of 13 research-guided questions focusing upon technology as a whole
before delving toward specific focus questions. Here, a script is composed outlining the
interview process and crucial information to be provided to the participant, including formal
consent (Jacob & Furgerson, 2012). The Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) at the
Western Sydney University must approve this project before further action can be taken.

With approval given by the HREC, participants can be contacted via phone/email or
in person where possible. The interview is to take place in a semi-private location where
participants are to be repeated their rights and given further information on how audio
devices for further analysis will record the interview. Face-to-face interviews are essential in
catering for personalised responses from participants (Irvine, Drew & Sainsbury, 2013). The
nature of this semi-structured interview requires open-ended questions to cater for
elaboration where required. It is crucial throughout this interview process for the
Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2

interviewer to allow for dynamic changes to allow further insight into particular concepts
the participant may share, providing them with additional sub-questions or rephrasing
questions if uncertain (Castillo-Montoya, 2016; Jacob & Furgerson, 2012). It is additionally
important that participants are provided adequate time to answer questions, allowing
pauses for thought and choice of words. This may lead to an elaboration in response that
may not be provided elsewise (George Mason University, 2010). This project is set with a
target of 8 minimum interviews but can extend to up to 15 responses dependant on
availability. After the interview process occurs, audio recordings will be formed into scripts
and stored for further analysis (Jacob & Furgerson, 2012).
Researching Teaching and Learning 2 – Assessment 2


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