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Abbreviations

ACCU Australian Carbon Credit Units


ACU Australian Carbon Units
AEMC Australian Energy Market Commission
AGW Anthropogenic global warming
BC British Columbia
BDP Bill Discount Pledge
BFAR Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
CCA Community Choice Aggregation
CCS Carbon capture and storage
CDD Cooling degree days
CDFI Community development financial institutions
CDG Community Distributed Generation
CDO Cagayan de Oro
CDORB Cagayan de Oro River Basin
CDORBMC Cagayan de Oro River Basin Management Council
CER certified emission reduction
CET Clean Energy Target
CF Cohesion Fund
CFI Carbon Farming Initiative
CMO Carbon maintenance obligations
COWD Cagayan de Oro Water District
CP Carbon price
CPLC Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition
CPM Carbon Pricing Mechanism
CPRS Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme
CSA Community Service Administration
CVM Contingent valuation method
DER Distributed energy resources
DG Directorate General
DOT Department of Tourism (Philippines)
EAFRD European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development
EbA Ecosystem-based Adaptation
EC European Commission
ECA European Court of Auditors

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Abbreviations xvii

EEA European Environment Agency


E-GEN Electricity generation
EIB European Investment Bank
EITE Emissions-intensive trade-exposed
EMFF European Maritime and Fisheries Fund
END Environmental Noise Directive
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
ERDF European Regional Development Fund
ERF Emissions Reduction Fund
ESF European Social Fund
ESIF European Structural and Investment Funds
ETR Environmental tax reform
ETS Emissions trading system (EU)
EU European Union
EURACOAL European Association for Coal and Lignite
FEC Final energy consumption
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GDP Gross domestic product
GGEs greenhouse gas emissions
GHG greenhouse gas
HDD Heating degree days
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation
ICMS Imposto sobre a Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços
[Service and Merchandise Circulation Tax] (Brazil)
IEA International Energy Agency
INDC Intended Nationally Determined Contributions
IOU Investor-owned utility
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
LIHEAP Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program
LMI low- and moderate-income
LNG Liquefied natural gas
LP Liberal Party (Canada)
LPG Liquid petroleum gas
LULUCF Land-use, land-use change, and forestry
MBI Market-based instrument
MFF Multiannual Financial Framework
MILALITTRA Miarayon Lapok Lirongan Tinaytayan Tribal
Association
MoF Ministry of Finance (Canada)
MS Member States
Mtoe Million tonnes of oil equivalent
NAS National Academy of Sciences

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xviii Innovation addressing climate change challenges

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration


NDC Nationally determined contribution
NDP New Democratic Party (Canada)
NEMA National Emergency Management Agency (South
Korea)
NGO Non-governmental organisation
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NPI Non-productive investments
NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NYDPS New York Department of Public Service
NYISO New York Independent System Operator
OAR Oro Association of Rafters
ODI Overseas Development Institute
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development
OTDA Office of Temporary and Disability Assistances
PES Payment for environmental services
PPC Public Power Corporation
PPP Polluter pays principle
PV Photovoltaic
RDP Rural Development Programs
REV Reforming the Energy Vision
RGGI Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
RMU Removal unit
SDG Sustainable Development Goal
SM Safeguard Mechanism
SME Small and medium sized enterprise
SMI Standard median income
TEV Total economic value
TNSA Tax on Air Transport Noise Pollution (France)
TPES Total primary energy supply
UN United Nations
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change
VDER Value of Distributed Energy Resources
VSL Value of Statistical Life
WCI Western Climate Initiative
WHO World Health Organization
WTO World Trade Organization
WTP Willingness to pay
ZEC Zero emission credits

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