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 Thus, the pulse is a wave of dilation of systemic circulations, such as the head,

an artery originating from the aorta as neck, trunk, limbs, and the visceral
the blood flows into it from the heart. organs.
The rate of heart beat is usually  The aorta gives off to smaller branches
measured by determining the pulse of arteries which in turn give rise to
rate. The average pulse rate per minute several arterioles. An arterioles gives
in different classes of animals is as rise to a bed of capillaries which
follows: eventually join together to form a
Elephant 30-45 pulse rate/ min  A venule joins to a bigger vein which
Horses 38 pulse rate/ min eventually end up on the vena cava
Carabao and Cattle 54 pulse rate/ min which return unoxygenated blood from
Goat 78 pulse rate/ min several systemic circulations to the right
Chicken 200-400 pulse rate/ min atrium of the heart.
Mouse 600 pulse rate/ min Blood Circulation
 Venous blood coming from the
Pulse rate may be taken by feeling the artery on different parts of the body is returned
the following animals: back to the heart via the vena cava to
 Horse- external maxillary artery or the right atrium.
about the middle of the lower jaw.  From the right atrium it goes to the
 Cattle and Carabao- similar location as right ventricle through tricuspid valve.
in the horse but slightly on the outer Then it passes through the pulmonary
surface; coccygeal artery at the base of valve and goes to the pulmonary
the underneath of the tail artery. This carries the blood to the
 Sheep, Goat,Dog and Cat- femoral lungs (pulmonary circulation).
artery; saphenous artery  In the lungs the exchange of gases takes
 Pigs and others- auscultation method place; carbon dioxide is given off and
using stethoscope at the cardiac or oxygen is taken in by the circulation
chest region blood.
 The oxygenated blood is returned back
The Blood Vessels to the heart by the pulmonary veins
 In general the blood vessel that carries which enter the heart at the left atrium.
blood away from the heart is called From the left atrium, the blood goes to
artery; and that which carries blood the left ventricles through the mitral
back to the heart is called vein. and or bicuspid valve.
 Also the blood running through the  Then it goes through the aortic valve to
artery is oxygenated blood; and that the aorta which carries the blood to the
which runs through the vein is different systemic circulations. In
unoxygenated blood. systemic circulations, the oxygen is
 The only exception to this principle is taken in by the tissues to the circulating
the pulmonary artery which carries blood.
unoxygenated blood from the right  These cellular exchange of gases take
ventricles to the lungs, and pulmonary place from the different capillary beds.
veins which carry oxygenated blood Then all the venous blood from the
from the lungs to the left atrium of the systemic circulations are returned back
heart. to the heart via the vena cava.
 The aorta or aortic artery carries blood
from the left ventricle to the different
The systemic circulation includes the following blood cells (erythrocytes) and the
special system of blood circulation: platelets, which are all suspended in the
1. Coronary Circulation- systemic plasma. The number of each kind of cell
circulation; it supplies blood to the present in the blood is determined by
heart itself. means of hemocytometer.
2. Hepatic Circulation- part of the systemic - The white blood cells are of the three
circulation; it supplies arterial blood to types: Granulocytes, Lymphocytes, and
the liver. Monocytes. Of these the granulocytes
3. Cerebral Circulation- supplies arterial or polymorph nuclear leukocytes
blood to the brain. (PMN) are the most numerous. The
4. Renal Circulation- supplies arterial granulocytes are subdivided into
blood to the kidney. neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
5. Splanchnic Circulation- supplies blood based on their affinity to either neutral,
to the digestive tract. acidic, or basic dyes, respectively.
- They are formed from stem cells in the
The Blood bone marrow, mature rapidly and enter
- Is a thick suspension of cellular the circulation where they survive for
elements in aqueous solutions of no more than 2 weeks. Their main
electrolytes and some non- electrolytes. function is phagocytic in nature.
By centrifugation, the blood is - At least in the neutrophils and
separated in two categories of plasma eosinophils, the granules appear to be
and cells. lysosomes and function in the digestion
o Plasma of material (like bacteria) taken into the
- The fluid portion of the blood cells by phagocytosis. Old granulocytes
containing a number of ions, inorganic are normally destroyed in the spleen
molecules, and organic molecules which and other portions of the reticulo-
are in transit to various parts of the endothelial system.
body or which aid in the transport of o Lymphocytes- are mostly formed in the
other substances. lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus and
- Blood plasma is composed of the to some extent also in the bone
following constituents: water, gases marrow. They enter the blood
(oxygen, CO2, nitrogen), proteins circulation for the most part via the
(albumin, globulin, fibrinogen), glucose, lymphatics. They are believed to
lipids (fats, lecithin, cholesterol), non- produce antibodies and counteract
protein nitrogen substances (amino toxins.
acids, urea, uric acid, creatine, - Monocytes- are large non-nuclear
creatinine ammonia, salt, etc.), leukocytes. They are also called the
inorganic salts and minerals (chlorides, transitional cells and have well
bicarbonates, sulfates, phosphates of developed motility. They are believed
sodium, potassium, calcium, to come from the reticulo-endothelial
magnesium, iron, and traces of cells. Like neutrophilic leukocytes, they
manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, etc.), are actively phagocytic and are capable
enzymes, hormones, vitamins, immune of ingesting all sorts of foreign matters.
substances, etc. - The erythrocytes are biconcave disks
- The normal plasma volume is about 3 to manufactured in the bone marrow. In
5 % of the body weight. mammals, they lose their nuclei before
o Blood Cells- made up of the white entering the circulation. These non-
blood cells or WBC (leukocytes), the red
nucleated cells are soft and contain and extracellular fluid (ECF). The ICF is about
hemoglobin. 40-50% of the body weight and the ECF is
- Hemoglobin is a complex iron- about 20 % of the body weight.
containing conjugated protein with a  In animals with closed vascular system, the
molecular weight of about 68 000. It is ECF is divided into 2 compartments: the
globular molecule made up of 4 sub- interstitial fluid which consists of
units, and each unit contains a red cerebrospinal fluids, synovial fluid and the
pigment, iron- containing derivative lymph; and the blood plasma. The interstitial
porphyrin called heme moiety fluid is about 15 % of the body weight and
conjugated to a polypeptide globin. the blood plasma is about 5% of the body
- The oxygen- carrying property of weight.
hemoglobin is due to the iron content The lymphatic system is composed of lymph
in the pigment. Hemoglobin binds O2 to node, lymph vessels, and the lymph.
form oxyhemoglobin, O2 attaching to
the Fe++ in the heme. Since hemoglobin The lymph nodes and its function
contains 4 Hb units, the hemoglobin  The lymph nodes are small bodies of
molecule actually reacts with molecules lymphoid tissues which are ovoid or
of O2 to form Hb4O8……….. bean shaped and located in strategic
Hb4 + 4O2 -> Hb4O8 points of the body through which the
This reaction is oxygenated (not an oxidation) lymph passes on its ways to the blood
and requires less than 0.01 second. Oxygen is stream.
afterwards readily given off to the tissues as the  It is generally agreed that lymph nodes
blood goes to the systemic capillaries. In the have at least 2 functions.
muscles, oxygen is taken up by  One of these is the production of
myohemoglobin. lymphocytes of which the lymph nodes
contain large numbers.
Blood Coagulation  Another function is to stop foreign
 The essential process in coagulation is materials that come to them in the
the conversion of the soluble plasma lymph. This filtration is said to be
protein, fibrinogen, into the insoluble accomplished mechanically and by the
protein, fibrin, a reaction that is filtration is said to be accomplished
catylzed by the enzyme thrombin. mechanically and by the phagocytic
 The thrombin is formed from its activity of the reticulo- endothelial cells.
inactive circulating precursor,  They become swollen or inflamed
prothrombin, in the presence of during severe bacterial infections.
calcium ions by the action of activated The Lymph Vessels
thromboplastin.  The lymphatic drain from the lungs and
 Thrombin is synthesized in the liver and from the rest of the body tissues via
vitamin K is essential in the hepatic system of vessels that end in the
synthesis of prothrombin. This is various systems. The lymph vessels
precisely why vitamin K is essential in begin in the tissues as blind lymph
blood clotting mechanisms. capillaries, similar in structure to blood
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM  By the convergence of lymph capillaries,
 The circulatory and the lymphatic system are smaller lymph vessels are formed, and
related to the body fluid compartments. The these in turn to form larger lymph
animal body is made up of 60-70 % water. vessels. Like the veins, the lymph
This is distributed as intracellular fluid (ICF)
vessels contain valves which prevent composition of the lymph, for there is
the back flow of its content, but have free interchange between intracellular
thinner walls than the veins. fluid and the tissue fluid.
 Ultimately, all the lymph vessels drain  In this way the cells rid themselves of
into either the thoracic duct or the right the waste products of metabolisms and
lymphatic duct, which empty into the absorb foodstuff.
venous system anterior to the heart.  The composition of the lymph varies
Lymph from the right side of the head with the taste of activity of the
and neck, the right forelegs and the digestive organs; lymph derives from
right side of the thorax drain to the the intestine during fat absorption has a
right lymphatic duct: that from the rest milky appearance because of the fat
of the body, to the thoracic duct. that it contains and is known as chyle.
 Ordinarily, the lymph is colorless, clear,
Flow of Lymph watery liquid having a specific gravity of
 The tissue fluid is in communication about 1.015. It contains a few red cells
with the blood in the capillaries, the normally, and lymphocytes are present.
intercellular fluid, and the lymph The latter cells are more abundant in
capillaries. The latter remove from the lymph that has passed through
tissues spaces materials that do not or lymphoid tissue.
cannot enter the blood capillaries.  Whether or not monocytes are present
Water and crystalloids can move either in uncertain. Neutrophilic leukocytes
way. are ordinarily absent; however, they
 Particulate matter and large molecules may be present in greater number in
such as proteins and lipids cannot enter infections.
the blood capillaries but can penetrate  Platelets are said to be absent;
the much more permeable wall of the nevertheless, lymph will clot, though
lymph capillaries. feebly. Lymph contains water, glucose,
 The flow of lymph in the lymph vessels gases, proteins, non-protein
is sluggish and in one directions only, nitrogenous substances, inorganic
from the tissues towards the heart. substances, hormones, coenzymes,
 The factor concerned in lymph flow are: vitamins and immune substances.
(1) the difference in pressure (2) the  The proteins are the same kind as in
massaging effect of muscular blood plasma but the amount is less.
movement; and (3) the presence in the This is especially true of lymph from the
lymph vessels of valves, which permit limbs, for the capillary walls in these
flow in only one direction, that is, regions are less permeable to the blood
towards the heart. proteins than in other regions.
Composition of Lymph Inter- relationship between the circulatory
 Tissue fluid and lymph proper, that is, system and the lymphatic system
the fluid in the lymph vessels are  All body tissues are supplied with blood
different. Lymph derived largely from capillaries as well as lymph capillaries.
the blood is similar in composition to The blood capillaries absorb substances
blood plasma. produced by the cells and other
 The plasma of the blood passes through nutrients and metabolites presents in
the thin wall of the blood capillaries, the interstitial fluid which require the
enters the tissues themselves also circulatory system for their distributions
contribute somewhat to the to other parts of the body.
 However, there are substances which blood flows through gills vessels
cannot readily enter the walls of the and extracts O2 from the water
blood capillaries because of the size of flowing around hem. In man and
their molecules, such as protein other farm animals, the respiratory
molecules of certain hormones and surfaces are folded within the body
enzymes. to prevent drying of the delicate
 These protein molecules can still join membranes; air saturated with
the circulatory system by way of the
water vapor is drawn into intimate
lymphatic system. Since the lymph
contact with the blood flowing
capillaries have more permeable walls
than the blood capillaries, all through the pulmonary capillaries
metabolites of big molecular size which and gases are exchanged.
cannot be absorbed by the blood  These two systems cooperate to supply
capillaries will be absorbed by the the needs of the tissues. One system
lymph capillaries. supplies are; the other supplies blood.
 Eventually, the lymph fluid will enter The ultimate purpose is the transfer of
the circulatory system through the right gases between air and cells.
lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct.  The respiratory system is an air pump
which draws fresh air through the air
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM tube to small air sacs (alveoli) that have
very thin membranes. The circulatory
 The main function of respiration is to
system is a blood pump which drives
provide oxygen to the cells of the body
the whole output of the heart the fine
and to remove excess carbon dioxide
thin -walled blood tubes (capillaries)
from them. Different species achieve
surrounding the alveoli.
this in different ways.
 Unicellular organisms get their O2 by The Respiratory Apparatus
diffusion from the fluid surrounding
them and eliminate CO2 in the same  The nasal cavity has two nasal tubes
way; larger organisms cannot. Some (sometimes a third tube, the mouth is
larger organism that live in air ( certain also used), and then becomes one, the
insects) do get enough O2 by diffusion trachea. The trachea is always kept
alone, but they have a special system of open by the presence of rings of
air tubes (trachea or spiracles) that pipe cartilage in its wall. It subdivides into
air directly to many regions of the body, two main branches, the right and left
so that the distances O2 must diffuse to bronchi, which are similar in structure
reach tissue cells are short. Large and function as trachea.
animals, including man, make use of  Each of the two bronchi divides into
two systems: two more, ad each of these into two
1. The blood circulatory system to more, and so on until there have been
carry to and from the tissue cells 20-30 subdivisions in all. A simple
large quantities of O2 and CO2 with calculation shows that 20 subdivisions
the help of hemoglobin of this type produce almost a million
2. A respiratory system, a gas terminal tubes.
exchange, to load the blood with  At the end of each are numerous blind
O2 and remove excess CO2. In fish, pouches, the alveoli or alveolar sacs;
here gas exchange occurs. There are  The movement of the diaphragm
about 300 million of these in the two accounts for 75% of the change in
lungs of their diameter varies from 75 intrathoracic volume during quite
to 300 microns. inspiration.
 The lungs may be regarded as two  The diaphragm is attached around the
elastic membranous sac whose interior bottom of the thoracic cage and arches
(in free communication with the over the liver and moves downward like
outside air through the respiratory a piston it contacts. The distance of
passages) is highly modified and movements is about 1.5 to 7.0 cm.
enlarged by the presence of numerous  The external intercostal muscles run
alveoli. obliquely downward and forward from
 The wall of the alveolus is composed of rib to rib. The rib pivot as if hinged at
a single layer of respiratory epithelium. the back, so that when the external
Across this layer of cells and the intercostal muscles contract, they
endothelium of the blood capillaries, elevate the lower ribs. This pushes the
gaseous exchange between the air in sternum outward and increases the
the blood in the numerous adjacent antero-posterior diameter of the chest.
capillaries takes place.  The expiratory muscles consist of
 The total area of the alveolar walls in internal intercostal muscles and the
contract with the capillaries in both muscles of the anterior abdominal wall.
lungs is estimated to be 70 square The internal intercostal muscles pass
meters in human, which is about 40 obliquely downward and posteriorly
times the surface area of the body. from rib to rib, and therefore, pull the
 The thoracic cavity contains the lungs rib cage downward when they contract.
and the mediastinal organs. This activity  The muscles of the anterior abdominal
is completely separated from the wall also aid expiration by pulling the
abdominal cavity by the diaphragm. rib cage downward and inward; and by
 The pleura, a serious membrane line increasing the extrabdominal pressure
the thoracic cavity, forming the lateral which pushes the diaphragm upward.
walls of mediastinum and are reflected
from there on the lungs, thus forming a
pleural cavity. The Respiratory Center
 The pleural cavity is merely a capillary
space, occupied by a thin film of fluid, 1. Medullary Cavity- capable of initiating
which serves to moisten and lubricate and maintaining sequences of the
the two pleural layers. respiratory cycle. This contains the
 The pressure of the pleural cavity is minimal number of neurons necessary
negative. Therefore when the pleural for the basic coordinated sequence of
cavity is opened, air rushes in and the inspiration and expiration. The center is
lungs will collapse. often divided into an inspirational
 The inspiratory muscles consist of the center and expiratory center; because
diaphragm and the external intercostal maximal sustained inspiration follows
muscles. electrical stimulation of some region
and maximal expiration follows
stimulation of adjacent regions. As the the brain system. It is believed to
lateral sides of this region, there are monitor the H- concentration of the
special receptors which are believed to cerebrospinal fluid or, possibly the
respond to H concentrations. A rise in H brain interstitial fluid. An increase in H
results in hyperventilation. concentration stimulates respiration.
2. Pneumonotaxic Center- located in the 2. Carotid bodies- are small, pinkish
upper pons above the medullary center. nodules located just beyond the
Stimulation of this center accelerates bifurcation of the common carotid
respiration, especially expiration. It is artery into the external and internal
postulated that inspiration sets up carotids. The carotid bodies are
impulses that ascend from the completely different from the carotid
medullary inspiratory center to the sinuses in structure and function. The
pneumotaxic center, where they carotid sinuses contain
generate impulses that descend to the mechanoreceptors that respond to
expiratory center and inhibit changes in stretch or deformation of
inspiration, a negative feedback the carotid artery wall; the carotid
mechanisms. bodies contain chemoreceptors that
3. Apneustic Center- located in the lower respond to certain changes in their
pons, between the pneumotaxic center chemical environment.
and the medullary center. The role of 3. Aortic bodies- contain
the center is revealed when both the chemoreceptors that function
pneumotaxic center and the vagi are separately from aortic pressoreceptors
inactivated; prolonged apneusis then , which are in the wall of the ascending
results. (Apneusis is the cessation of arch of the aorta. Most of the aortic
respiration in the inspiratory position). chemoreceptors lie between the arch
of the aorta and the pulmonary artery
Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity
or on the dorsal aspect of the
- Respiration would increase whenever cells of pulmonary artery.
the body need more O2 or for more CO2 and The carotid and aortic chemoreceptors are
would decrease whenever they need less O2 sensitive to changes in PO2, PCO2 AND H-
or form less CO2. There are many sensory concentration in arterial blood. When the
receptors, in many locations which can PCO2 or H- in arterial blood is increased, or
influence respiration rate: appropriate when arterial PO2 is decreased, the carotid
electrical stimulation of almost any sensory and aortic chemoreceptors are stimulated
nerve and of many parts of the brain can and the respiratory center activity increases.
affect respiration. However, some receptors
appear to be highly specialized for the task  Application of the acetylcholine or
of respiratory regulation. These receptors nicotine to the chemoreceptors
are sensitive to chemical changes in their areas stimulates respiration;
environment, therefore called generally as whereas applicatopm of cyanide or
chemoreceptors. The well-known of the procaine reduces or abolishes
chemoreceptors are: respiration.
1. Medullary chemoreceptors- believed  The non- chemical influence of
to be located on the ventral surface of respiration can be shown by the fact
that breathing can be controlled. position. The pressure in the airway
Irritation on the walls of trachea or become slightly negative and air flows
bronchi produces coughing which into the lungs.
begins with a deep inspiration
Mechanisms of Expiration
followed by forced expiration against
a closed glottis.  Following an inspiration, the
 The glottis is then suddenly opened, enlarged thorax may return to its
thus producing an explosive outflow resting position by purely passive
of air at velocities up to 600 miles forces, that is, without muscular
per hour. Sneezing is a similar effort. At the end of inspiration, the
expiratory effort with a continuously lung recoil pulls the chest back to
open glottis. the expiratory position where the
 This illustrates that non- chemical recoil pressure of the lungs and
factor can influence the activity of chest wall balance. The pressure in
the respiratory center in response to the airways becomes slightly
some mechanical stimuli. positive, and air flows out of the
 The respiratory adjustments during lungs.
vomiting, swallowing, and gagging  Although in quite breathing
are other examples of non-chemical expiration is passive, labored
control of respiratory. breathing is accompanied by active
 Inhibition of respiration and closure of expiration, that is, the return of the
the glottis during these activities not thorax to the resting position being
only prevents the aspiration of food hastened. This is accompanied by
or vomitus into the trachea but in the contraction of the expiratory
the case of vomiting, fixes the chest muscles (internal intercostal
so that contraction of the abdominal muscles and the muscles of the
muscles increases the intra- anterior abdominal wall). Very
abdominal pressure. active expiration is seen also in
coughing, talking, laughing, barking,
Mechanism of Inspiration
 Inspiration is an active process.
Regulation of Expiration- the muscle of
Contraction of the diaphragm increases
respiration possesses no inherent rhythm.
the longitudinal diameter of the chest.
Spontaneous respiration is completely
Also, the contraction of the external
dependent upon the discharge of the
intercostal muscles elevates the ribs,
respiratory center in the medulla oblongata. It
resulting in an increased transverse
is the efferent connections from the center to
diameter of the thorax.
the respiratory muscles are interrupted, or if
 At the start of inspiration, the
the center is destroyed, breathing stops.
intrapleural pressure is about -2.5
mmHg (relative atmosphere pressure).
When the chest volume is increased,
Lung Volume
the interpleural pressure is further
decreased to about -6 mmHg, and the  The amount of air that moves into the
lungs are pulled into a more expanded lungs with each inspiration (or the
amount that moves out with each
expiration) is called the tidal volume or
 The air inspired with a maximal
inspiratory effort in excess of the tidal
volume is the inspiratory reserve
volume (IRV). The volume expelled by
the active expiratory effort aster
passive expiration is the expiratory
reserved volume (ERV), and the air left
in the lungs after maximal expiratory
effort is the residual volume (RV).
 The space in the conducting zone of the
airways occupied by gas that does not
exchange with blood in the pulmonary
vessels is the respiratory dead space.
 The vital capacity, the greatest amount
of air that can be expired after a
maximum inspiratory effort is
frequently measured clinically as an
index of pulmonary function.
 It gives useful information about the
strength of the respiratory muscles and
other aspects of pulmonary functions.
The fraction of the vital capacity expired
in 1 second (time vital capacity; also
called forced expired volume is 1
second, or FEV 1) gives additional
information; the vital capacity may be
normal but the timed vital capacity is
greatly reduced is diseases such as
asthma, in which the resistance of the
airways is increased owing the
bronchial constriction.
 The amount of air inspired per minutes
(pulmonary ventilation, respiratory
minute volume) is normally about 6L
(500 ml/breadth x 12 breaths/ min).

Gas Exchange