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STAGE 6 Biology YEAR 12 (2018)

ASSESSMENT TASK 2 – BIOLOGY

Task Title: Multimodal Presentation

Module Addressed Module 7: Infectious Diseases


Weighting 25%
Date of Notification Week 2, Term 3
Due Date for
Week 8, Term 3
Submission

Secondary-sourced research investigation (in home) submitted as a multimodal


Nature presentation/video

Task Description

As a biosecurity officer you are required to do a research-based investigation on the outbreak of an


infectious disease that has recently posed a threat to Australia.
You will be required to thoroughly research a range of secondary sources to collect, analyse and evaluate
data the on various aspects of the chosen disease (see the detailed task description). You will develop an
evidence-based argument around the management strategies in practice and submit your research in the
form of a multimodal presentation/video to create awareness in the community.
Two selected presentations/videos will be played during the school’s science week for generating
awareness in the local community members.

Stage 6 Outcomes Assessed


BIO12-14 analyses infectious disease in terms of cause, transmission, management and the organism’s
response, including the human immune system
BIO11/12-3 conducts investigations to collect valid and reliable primary and secondary data and
information
BIO11/12-4 selects and processes appropriate qualitative and quantitative data and information using a
range of appropriate media
BIO11/12-5 analyses and evaluates primary and secondary data and information
BIO11/12-7 communicates scientific understanding using suitable language and terminology for a
specific audience or purpose

Student & Teacher to complete


Student Name: Date assessment Date assessment Student’s sign Teacher’s sign
notification received submitted

Marking Summary
Your mark out of 50 Your grade (A-E)

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STAGE 6 Biology YEAR 12 (2018)

Rationale

Infectious diseases in plants and animals continue to pose serious threat to national and global economies.
Persistent disruptions caused by infectious diseases contribute to food insecurity, loss of biodiversity and
result in mortality in millions of people throughout the world. In Australia, recent outbreak of two such
diseases namely, Panama disease in Banana crops and Buruli ulcer in human populations has caused a grave
concern within the government and research organisations, thus resulting in a huge demand for an extensive
research in the area.

This task provides you an opportunity to get into the shoes of a biosecurity officer and gain comprehensive
knowledge on the chosen infectious disease while working scientifically. It allows you to synthesise
existing research and examine the pattern and trends involved in the progression of the disease to develop a
deep understanding in the area. By encouraging you to critically evaluate the current disease management
strategies, this task provides you an opportunity to develop an awareness of emerging research trends in the
scientific world. Effective communication of your research through an audio-visual presentation allows you
to demonstrate your in-depth knowledge in the area and generate an awareness in your community.

Detailed Task Description

As a biosecurity officer you are required to conduct a research-based investigation using relevant and
reliable secondary-sources to collect, analyse and evaluate the data on only one of the following infectious
diseases of your choice. You will then create and submit a multimodal presentation/video based on your
investigation of the disease.

1. Panama disease in Bananas or


2. Buruli ulcer in humans

To demonstrate the ability to conduct a secondary-sourced research, the presentation/video should follow
the structure outlined below,

Section 1: Introduction
 Include a title of your research (be creative, refer to recent news articles, such as
https://ab.co/2HGNUtE or https://bit.ly/2HRJCNB)
 Briefly introduce what are infectious diseases
 Explain your reasons for researching the chosen disease and why is it important to study this disease,
especially in Australia (you can include statistical data from government websites like Australian
Bureau of Statistics http://www.abs.gov.au/ to support your argument)
 Describe what approach have you followed to conduct the research (provide evidence for choice of
secondary-sources peer-reviewed or not, news articles, government websites etc.)
 Describe how the information is sequenced and presented in the video (graphic organisers like data flow
diagrams can be used)

Section 2: Synthesis of research


Use a range of sources (2-3 newspaper articles, 2-3 government websites and at least 2 peer-reviewed
journal articles) and, compares and contrasts them to extract valid and reliable data to:
 Identify and describe the causal pathogen (the scientific name of the pathogen should be presented in
correct format. For example, Escherichia coli not as Escherichia coli)
 Address the cause and effect of the disease on host (can be represented using graphic organisers like
fishbone diagrams)
 Discuss the symptoms produced in the host

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STAGE 6 Biology YEAR 12 (2018)
 Discuss the response generated by the host (include both physical and chemical changes)
 Examine different modes of transmission of disease (soil-borne/ air-borne/ water-borne/ by contact)
 Examine the methods for management of the disease (include both prevention and treatment)

The extracted information from different sources should be critically evaluated with respect to its
authenticity and errors (if any). The sources must be connected using logical connections and transitions
rather than just a list of collected information.

Section 3: Evaluation of management strategies


 Evaluate the currently followed strategies used to prevent the spread, effectively manage and treat the
disease.
 Evaluation should be based on cost, effectiveness of the strategy and impact on economy.
 Develop an evidence-based argument to support/ disapprove the existing management strategies used in
Australia.

Section 4: Conclusion
 Make a short statement on the importance of your research and how this gathered data is going to
generate an awareness in the community

Section 5: References
 Include a reference list of all the sources used in the research investigation, such as newspaper articles,
government websites, peer-reviewed journal articles and videos)
 Follow the below mentioned format for your references

Reference format
Newspaper article:
Author’s name. (Year, Month & Date of publication). Article title. Newspaper name. Retrieved from weblink

Government website:
Government department. (Year of publication). Title. Retrieved from weblink. Date accessed.

Peer-reviewed journal article:


Author’s name. (Year of publication). Article title. Journal name, volume number (issue number), page from-page to.
Retrieved from weblink

Two selected presentations/videos will be played during the school’s science week for generating awareness in the
local community members.

GLOSSARY OF KEY VERBS

INTRODUCE EXPLAIN ADDRESS


bring a subject to the attention relate cause and effect; make give attention to a
for the first time the relationships between matter/problem
things evident

DISCUSS DESCRIBE DEVELOP


identify issues and provide provide characteristics and bring something into existence
points for and/or against features

EXAMINE EVALUATE
inquire new information to IDENTIFY make a judgement based on
prove/disapprove something to recognise and name information/criteria
inquire new information to
3 prove/disapprove something
STAGE 6 Biology YEAR 12 (2018)

Assessment Criteria: A student


 Provides a clear and coherent description of the chosen disease and its impact on Australian economy.

 Uses a range of reliable secondary sources to extract the relevant data and information.

 Uses a variety of relevant media to present the selected data and information.

 Analyses and evaluates the existing management strategies to develop a logical argument.

 Uses biological terminology effectively and correctly.

 Appropriately acknowledges and references all the secondary sources used in research using the given format.
 Creates an engaging multimodal presentation/video which clearly demonstrates understanding of the chosen
disease and includes all the requirements of the task.

Checklist for Success


(Tick the relevant boxes for the tasks completed in this assignment)
I have:

included a relevant title for the presentation/video and mentioned my name and class details also.

included an introduction covering infectious diseases in general.


identified the chosen infectious disease, its causal pathogen and provided reasoning for the choice and
relevance of studying the disease for Australia.
included the effects of the diseases on host, information on symptoms and responses produced in the
host, disease transmission and management strategies in use.
analysed and evaluated the disease management strategies to develop a logical argument.

included a conclusion and a list of references.


provided evidence for validity and accuracy of the information collected from selected secondary
sources (used peer-reviewed journal articles/ reliable newspapers and websites).
used range of media for presenting the information (pictures, videos, graphic organisers, texts).

used correct and precise biological terminology throughout the presentation/video.

kept into consideration the time limit for the presentation/video.

Submission Instructions
For this task, you must create a multimodal presentation/video to present your secondary-sourced research
investigation and submit it to the teacher for assessment.
 You are encouraged to use a range of audio-visual resources (e.g. photographs, video clips, sound clips,
text, voiceovers etc.) to address the assessment criteria and support your investigation.
 Must be submitted as a single file (MPEG/AVI/WMV format).
 The duration of the video can be 12-15 minutes (must not be less than 12 and more than 15 minutes).
 Must be handed over to the teacher in a USB drive/ uploaded on You tube and link emailed to teacher
(please ensure that the links are not made public) with your name and class details.
 This complete notification booklet (page number 1-9) must be handed back to the teacher along with USB
drive or You tube link.
 Late submissions will result in deduction of 2 marks per day.

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STAGE 6 Biology YEAR 12 (2018)

Marking Criteria
Outcome Criteria Grade scale and Mark
assessed A B C D E
A student: (21-25) (16-20) (11-15) (6-10) (1-5)
Demonstrates a highly Demonstrates a clear Attempts to synthesise the Mostly summarises the Attempts to identify the
sustained and comprehensive understanding of the extracted information and key aspects relevant to the aspects of the disease but
understanding of the chosen chosen disease by summarises key points of the chosen disease but does does not attempt to connect
disease by synthesising the synthesising the chosen disease in terms of not attempt to connect the the information.
Provides a clear and information on cause and information on cause and cause and effect, symptoms information.
coherent description effect, symptoms and response effect, symptoms and and response produced in
of the chosen disease produced in host and its response produced in host host and its transmission.
BIO12-14 transmission. and its transmission.
and its impact on
Australian economy
(7 marks) Clearly examines the impact Clearly examines the Summarises the impact of Outlines the impact of Enlists the impact of
of the chosen disease on impact of the chosen chosen disease on Australian chosen disease on chosen disease in general.
Australian economy and backs disease on Australian economy. Australian economy.
the response with statistical economy.
data.

Extensively uses a wide range Good use of a range of Uses some valid and reliable Uses at least 6 reliable Uses less than 6 sources
of valid and reliable secondary valid and reliable secondary sources (at least sources. out of which some are
Uses a range of sources. secondary sources (more 6). unreliable.
reliable secondary than 6).
sources to extract the
relevant data and The sources used are highly The sources used are The sources used are mostly The sources used are The sources used are
information (3 marks) relevant to the area of research highly relevant to the area relevant to the area of somewhat relevant to the irrelevant to the area of
and provide a strong evidence of research and support research. area of research. research.
BIO11/12-3 of critical reading. critical reading.

Appropriately Appropriately and consistently Appropriately Acknowledges all the Acknowledges some Does not properly
acknowledges and acknowledges all the sources acknowledges all the sources and presents sources and presents acknowledge and lacks
references all the and presents references in an sources and presents references in mostly references in somewhat accuracy in referencing
secondary sources accurate format. references in an accurate accurate format. accurate format. format and includes over-
used in research format. reliance on paraphrasing
using the given and quotes.
format (2 marks)

Uses a variety of Uses a wide variety of Uses a variety of relevant Adequately uses relevant Occasionally uses only few Mostly uses texts or
BIO11/12-4 relevant media to relevant media (graphs, media (graphs, graphic media (graphs, graphic forms of relevant media paragraphs to narrate data
process the selected graphic organisers, tables) to organisers, tables) to organisers, tables) to process (graphs, graphic
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STAGE 6 Biology YEAR 12 (2018)
data and information process and interpret data and process and interpret data and interpret data and organisers, tables) to and information. Rarely
(3 marks) information and information information process and interpret data uses different media.
and information

Thorough analysis and critical Analysis and strong Analysis and sound Some analysis and Lacks attempts for analysis
evaluation of the existing evaluation of existing evaluation of existing evaluation of existing and evaluation of existing
management strategies with management strategies management strategies with management strategies is management strategies is
Analyses and respect to their cost, with respect to their cost, respect to their cost, apparent. apparent.
evaluates the existing effectiveness and impact on effectiveness and impact effectiveness and impact on
management national economy. on national economy. national economy.
BIO11/12-5 strategies to develop
a logical argument
Develops a coherent and an Develops an evidence- Develops a sound argument Develops a generic Summarises the methods
(5 marks) evidence-based argument in based argument in in support/against the argument around the used in Australia.
support/against the methods support/against the methods used in Australia. methods used in Australia.
used in Australia. methods used in Australia.

Uses biological Extensively uses precise Frequently uses precise Frequently uses general Uses some general Limited use of general
terminology biological terminology biological terminology biological terminology and biological terminology biological terminology
effectively and effectively and accurately effectively and accurately accurately in a range of accurately in limited
accurately throughout in a wide range of in a range of contexts. contexts. contexts.
(2 marks) contexts.

Creates an engaging The multimodal The multimodal The multimodal The multimodal The multimodal
multimodal presentation/video: presentation/video: presentation/video: presentation/video: presentation/video:
presentation/video
- Is highly imaginative, - Is quite imaginative and - Is imaginative and mostly - Is somewhat - Lacks imagination, is
which clearly
BIO11/12-7 engaging and uses flair engaging engaging imaginative and unengaging and vague
demonstrates
- Presents the information in - Presents the information - Presents the information engaging - Presented information
understanding of the
a clear, consistent and in a clear, and coherent in a clear, and mostly - Presents the lacks clarity
chosen disease
coherent manner manner coherent manner information adequately - Uses very few audio-
(3 marks)
- Uses a wide variety of - Uses a good variety of - Uses adequate variety of and clearly conveys the visual techniques,
relevant audio-visual relevant audio-visual audio-visual techniques key aspects mostly inadequate
techniques techniques - Meets the requirements - Uses some variety of - Does not meet the
- Meets the requirements of - Meets the requirements of time limit and most of audio-visual techniques requirements of time
time limit and structure of time limit and the structure - Meets the requirements and structure
structure of time limit and most
of the structure

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STAGE 6 Biology YEAR 12 (2018)

Teacher Feedback

Outcome What can be done to


Criteria Positive areas Areas that need improvement
assessed improve?
Provides a clear and coherent
description of the chosen disease
BIO12-14
and its impact on Australian
economy
Uses a range of reliable
BIO11/12-3 secondary sources to extract the
relevant data and information
Uses a variety of relevant media
BIO11/12-4 to process the selected data and
information
Critically evaluates the existing
BIO11/12-5 management strategies to
develop a logical argument
Uses scientific language and
grammar effectively and
correctly

Appropriately acknowledges
and references all the secondary
BIO11/12-7 sources used in research using
the given format

Creates an engaging multimodal


presentation/video which clearly
demonstrates understanding of
the chosen disease

7
STAGE 6 Biology YEAR 12 (2018)

Student Reflection

1. I liked/disliked this assessment task because ……

2. The most challenging part of this assessment for me was/were ……

3. I believe my strengths in this task was/were ……

4. I need help to improve with ……

5. I can improve my work by …….

6. Studying infectious diseases is valuable as ……

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STAGE 6 Biology YEAR 12 (2018)

Student Declaration of Originality


(Must be read and signed by student for submission of their work)

This is to confirm that the work contained in this assessment task is all my own work. I have appropriately
referenced all the secondary sources used in this research task and have not plagiarized the work of others.
I understand that, if this declaration is found to be misleading, then marks can be deducted, and disciplinary
action can take place against me in accordance with the school’s policies.

I have kept a copy of the completed assessment task for my own records.

Student signature: .....................................................................................

Assessment Task Submission Receipt


(To be filled by student and cut along the dotted line by the teacher only and handed over to the student on
submission of their work)

Course Name:

Student Name:

Assessment Task Number & Title:

Teacher’s Name:

Teacher’s Signature:

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DISCUSSION

Assessment is a vital component of the education system that defines the intricacies of the teaching

and learning process. It is a multipurpose tool that allows identification of students’ diverse learning needs,

understanding of their prior knowledge base and evaluation of their current learning outcomes (LOs), to

inform teaching practice and educational policies (William, 2013). By evaluating student LOs, assessment

highlights the areas of improvement in student learning and thereby informs students’ learning process

(Timperley, 2009). In consideration to the powerful role played by assessment, the following paragraphs

evaluate the importance of assessment in a range of educational contexts, approach to effective assessment

design and effective feedback in practice to inform a pre-service teacher’s teaching practice.

In an educational process, the importance of assessment can be understood by examining its level,

purpose and nature, which are often interlinked (Muskin, 2015). Assessments can be conducted at classroom

and school-level, for fostering student learning, informing teaching practice, measuring student LOs and

evaluating student achievement, or at system-level, to evaluate and inform educational policies at national

and international level (Cresswell, 2016). Formative assessments (assessment for/as learning) are conducted

at classroom level and focus on formation of learning in students. They occur throughout the instructional

period in the form of planned pauses to remediate/reinforce learning (Gupta, 2016). School and system-level

assessments are mostly summative assessments (assessment of learning) (NSW Education Standards

Authority (NESA), 2017). They occur at pre-determined time in the school year to judge how well the

learning has formed, evaluate students’ achievement and present it as a score/grade to provide an evidence of

their learning and understanding (Surgenor, 2010).

Often considered as high stakes, due to their visibility and role in informing educational policies,

summative assessments are done in the form of standardised tests like HSC examination, NAPLAN and

PISA. These tests monitor and evaluate students’ educational outcomes and literacy against national and

international standards respectively, to inform future curriculum, teaching strategies, learning and

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achievement standards and assessment policies (Klenowski & Wyatt-Smith, 2011; Looney, 2011). Research

however, points out that such high-stake standardised tests raise the anxiety levels in students, encourage

teaching to test practice, have a little impact on teacher’s instructional strategies and therefore, do not allow

students to achieve their full learning potential (The Department of Education and Training (DET), 2018;

Surgenor, 2010). To overcome this, studies recommend continuous, on demand, individualised formative

assessments and tailored teaching to bring about holistic learning in individual students (DET, 2018).

Studies also recommend the inclusion of data literacy and data interpretation in pre-service teacher education

to allow teachers how to effectively utilise the generated data to redesign their pedagogies (Piro, Dunlap &

Shutt, 2014).

Formative assessments build “learning to learn” skills in students and are therefore recognised as the

most powerful tool to support and shape student learning (William, 2013; The Organisation for Economic

Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2008). Teachers collect informal/formal formative assessment data

to benchmark students’ existing knowledge and skills, see how students are learning new concepts and

applying scientific skills and determine the required changes to improve their learning (Hume & Cole,

2009). In science, this is done by monitoring student performance during classroom discussions, activities,

practical investigations, individual/group tasks, quizzes, surveys, planned diagnostic tests, research

investigations and report writing (Decristan et al., 2015). Formative assessment also empowers students to

use self-evaluation and feedback provided in teacher assessed or peer assessed tasks to realise their learning

needs and goals. (Muskin, 2015). By ensuring students’ involvement in their learning progress, it motivates

them to evaluate their achievements and thus drive their own learning (Marsh, 2007).

However, a formative assessment is only said to be effective if the data generated from the

assessment is used by the teachers to reflect on their practice, provide a timely feedback, redesign their

lessons and restructure their pedagogies around student needs to enhance student learning (William, 2013;

OECD, 2008). Despite the importance in raising the overall standards of student achievements, formative

assessments are not being used effectively and frequently in Australian classrooms (Renshaw, Baroutsis, van

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Kraayenoord, Goos & Dole, 2013; OECD, 2008). Studies suggest that the prominence of high-stakes

summative assessments/examinations in getting funding, pressure exerted by school authorities on teachers

for higher scores (especially in science and mathematics), restrictive nature of teachers, use of traditional

teacher-centred learning activities and lack of reflection time for both teachers and students, act as barriers

for wider use of formative assessment to enhance learning (Frunza, 2014; Renshaw et al., 2013; Marsh,

2007).

Educational assessment measures the learning outcomes and knowledge that is valued. Although,

research asserts that all the assessments have same fundamental function of evaluating student learning at a

given point of time but, getting the assessment right determines the effect it is going to have on student

learning (Masters, 2013). Equity, validity, reliability, consistency, engagement, timeliness, feedback and

alignment are all elements of an effective assessment (Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation

(CESE), 2015). Equitable access to assessment ensures that every student gets equitable opportunity to

demonstrate learning. This is made possible through use of differentiated instructions, scaffolded structures,

provision of alternate forms of expression/response, allocation of sufficient timeframe for task submission

and incorporation of reasonable adjustments to assessment tasks depending upon students’ learning needs

(NESA, 2017; CESE, 2015). For instance, HSC and NAPLAN both support differentiation by including

questions that vary across student abilities and cognitive levels and provision of reader/writer to assist

students with disabilities (only HSC) (NESA, 2017). However, creating standard criteria for consistency in

marking across the variable forms of expression and retrospective adjustments like scaffolding is time-

consuming and therefore, act as barriers for bringing equity in assessment (Graham, Tancredi, Willis &

McGraw, 2018). Literature suggests the incorporation of universal design of learning across the curriculum

to overcome these barriers and promote equity in education (Burgstahler, 2015).

To ensure effectiveness, NESA promotes a criterion-referenced approach to assessments. It

encourages teachers to align the assessment criteria with the provided intended learning outcomes (ILOs) for

12
measuring progress and achievement (NESA, 2018; Donnelly, 2007). In contrast to the norm-referenced

approach that evaluates students’ work by comparing their performance with that of their peers, criterion-

referenced approach evaluates performance of all students against selected criteria and thereby adds to the

equity and consistency in assessment design (CESE, 2015). In the new syllabus for stage 6 science, the ILOs

emphasise on the development of working scientific skills over the knowledge and understanding outcomes

to enable life-long learning in students (NESA, 2017). Designing the assessment task by selecting criteria

that directly align with these ILOs ensures the validity of an assessment (Donnelly, 2007). It not only

restricts the rote memorisation of content but, instead encourages students to apply their knowledge for

development of deeper-understanding and problem-solving skills (Biggs & Tang, 2007).

To ensure consistency of the assessment, teachers can use marking/analytic rubrics along with the

suggested performance descriptors from NESA. In combination, they can be used to evaluate the student

performance against the assessment criteria (NESA, 2017). By clearly outlining the assessment criteria,

defining the performance descriptors and specifying the weightage for each criterion, teachers can not only

promote an evidence-centred, assessment design but, also promote consistency and objectivity in their

marking and provide effective feedback (National Research Council (NRC), 2014). An effectively designed

rubric allows students to understand the expectations, reflect on their performance and motivates them to

perform better (Allan & Tanner, 2006).

Last but not the least an effective assessment provides a constructive, comprehensive, and timely

feedback to assist students with their learning (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). An effective feedback provides

meaningful information, appreciates student strengths and targets their weaknesses to suggest improvement

strategies. A balance between positive and negative feedback motivates students and enables them to

“reinforce positive reactions and moderate the effect of negative comments” to foster learning (Zimbardi et

al., 2017, p.500). Provision of appropriate time to reflect on the feedback also forms an integral part of the

assessment design as, it allows students to close the gap between attempted and expected performance

(Nicol & Macfarlane‐Dick, 2006). Despite the large influence of feedback on student learning, reports

13
suggest that a huge number of students experience lack of clarity and dissatisfaction with the provided

feedback (Zimbardi et al., 2017). Growing number of students, unmanageable workloads and constant

pressure on teachers are the suggested reasons that hinder the provision of extensive and meaningful

feedback (Wiggins, 2012).

An effective feedback is specific to the ILOs and the assessment criteria (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).

This clarifies student learning in relation to the selected outcomes being assessed to benefit the student.

Depending upon the assessment activity, the form of feedback may vary between written or oral and formal

or informal but, its intention to generate a student-teacher dialogue on improving learning remains the same

(NESA, n.d.). Studies suggest that most of the teachers rely on written feedback following an assessment,

which is not only time-consuming but, also effects the quality of the provided feedback, especially for a

large cohort (Wiggins, 2012). Alternative forms of feedback like class discussions, digital tools to support

audio or digital annotations, checklists, exit slips, blogs, wikis and forums can be used to provide continuous

formative feedback to improve student learning and also inform teaching practice (NESA, n.d.). Peer

feedback and self-reflection are also the forms of feedback that are being increasingly employed to enhance

high-order thinking skills and promote student-centred learning (Collins, 2014).

By assessing the students’ LOs, assessments judge the efficacy of the implemented curriculum and

the educational policies in operation and thereby, evaluate the adequacy of the educational system

(Cresswell, 2016). Due to the high influence of assessment on students’ learning patterns and their academic

focus, teaching pedagogies and educational policies, the approach followed for an assessment and its

subsequent design, therefore, must be thoroughly planned before implementation (Surgenor, 2010).

14
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